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Chapter 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300–1453) MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Black Death refers to ____________. A. the famine that occurred from 1315 to 1317 B. a virulent plague that struck fourteenth-century Europe C. a disease transmitted through African slaves D. the collapse of the European economy in the fourteenth century Answer: B 2. The Black Death ____________. A. is thought by most scholars to have been a form of smallpox B. followed the trade routes into Europe from England C. was preceded by years of famine that weakened the populace D. was preceded by a gradual decline in population Answer: C 3. Generally speaking, the Black Death moved ____________ through Europe. A. slowly B. north and west C. from north to south D. from rural to urban areas Answer: B 4. The Black Death found its way into Europe via ____________. A. North Africa B. Italy C. Spain D. Scandinavia Answer: B 5. The plague barely touched areas away from major trade routes such as ____________. A. Constantinople B. Italy C. France D. Russia Answer: D 6. Which of the following was thought by contemporaries to have caused the Black Death? A. the pope B. the Jewish community C. bacteria D. poor hygiene Answer: B 7. The Statute of Laborers ____________. A. limited wages to pre-plague levels B. guaranteed a minimum wage for artisans C. barred laborers from moving from one city to another D. governed working conditions in early factories Answer: A 8. The French peasant uprising of 1358 is known as the ____________. A. Western rising B. Ciompi C. Jacquerie D. Taille Answer: C 9. The Hundred Years’ War took place primarily in ____________. A. France B. Britain C. Germany D. Italy Answer: A 10. The Hundred Years’ War was fought between ____________. A. France and Russia B. England and the Netherlands C. Germany and England D. England and France Answer: D 11. The use of the ____________ gave the English the tactical advantage in the war. A. trebuchet B. longbow C. catapult D. cannon Answer: B 12. The Treaty of Troyes in 1420 disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed ____________ the successor to the French king, Charles VI. A. Henry V B. Charles VII C. Henry VI D. Richard II Answer: A 13. Joan of Arc was executed on May 30, 1431 for the crime of ____________. A. treason B. heresy C. murder D. kidnapping Answer: B 14. The papacy’s law court was called the ____________. A. College of Cardinals B. Curia C. Rota Romana D. Unam Sanctam Answer: C 15. Who reestablished the papacy in Rome in 1377? A. Boniface VII B. Gregory XI C. Celestine V D. Clement V Answer: B 16. Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of papal authority with ____________. A. Richard II B. Edward III C. Philip the Fair D. Henry V Answer: C 17. John XXII tried to return the papacy from ____________ to Italy. A. Paris B. London C. Milan D. Avignon Answer: D 18. Founded in 1348, the ____________ became the center for both Czech nationalism and a religious reform movement. A. University of Kiev B. University of Ostrava C. University of Prague D. University of Bonn Answer: C 19. ____________ supported the Great Schism. A. Pope Boniface VIII B. Charles V C. Philip of France D. Martin V Answer: B 20. England was opposed in its stance on the Great Schism by ____________. A. France B. the papacy C. the Roman cardinals D. Urban VI Answer: A 21. In 1409, the Council of Pisa ____________. A. dissolved in the face of deep divisions within its delegates B. united the Catholic Church C. nullified the position of pope D. deposed both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope Answer: D 22. Under the rule of Prince Vladimir (r. 980–1015), what city was the most important in Russia? A. Minsk B. Saint Petersburg C. Kiev D. Moscow Answer: C 23. Wealthy landowners in medieval Russia were known as ____________. A. serfs B. streltsy C. boyars D. cossacks Answer: C 24. Between 1243 and 1480, Russia was ruled by ____________. A. Poland B. the princes of Kiev C. the Persians D. the Mongols Answer: D 25. Golden ____________ was the name for the segment of the Mongol Empire that included the steppe region of what is today southern Russia. A. Set B. Horde C. Faction D. Flock Answer: B 26. What happened to Europe’s population between 1000 and 1300, and why? A. It was stagnant, because warfare prevented the population from experiencing natural growth. B. It fell 20 percent because of widespread famine. C. It doubled due to increased food supply. D. It fell slightly due to outbreaks of disease. Answer: C 27. The cultural response to the Black Death was ____________. A. an obsession with fresh “wholesome” foods B. deep pessimism and a focus on death and dying C. widespread respect for doctors D. greater faith in kings Answer: B 28. Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was a ____________. A. rise in agricultural prices B. decline in the price of luxury and manufactured goods C. shrunken labor supply D. rise in value of the estates of the nobility Answer: C 29. What social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the Black Death? A. noble landowners B. urban elites C. peasants D. clergy Answer: A 30. Peasant revolts in the period of the Black Death were triggered by ____________. A. attempts to reimpose pre-1340s economic conditions B. anger at the disproportionate loss of life among the lower classes C. religious ferment D. the rapid growth of towns Answer: A 31. The plague’s impact on towns can be characterized as ____________. A. devastating B. fatal to the growth of towns C. irrelevant, since only rural populations were hit by the plague D. positive in the long run Answer: D 32. Which of these was True of the impact of the Schism and the Black Death? A. They occurred a century apart and were unrelated. B. Both had the effect of undermining the church. C. Both fatally weakened monasticism. D. They both tended to strengthen the peasantry. Answer: B 33. What two traditional “containers” of monarchy were put on the defensive after the Black Death? A. landed nobility and the church B. the church and the townspeople C. universities and landed nobility D. the peasantry and rural priests Answer: A 34. Which of these statements best summarizes trends in England and France in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? A. Royal power centralized and national consciousness was extinguished by warfare and the plague. B. Royal power centralized and national consciousness grew. C. Royal power waned as townspeople asserted their new identity. D. Royal power and national consciousness both suffered a steep decline. Answer: B 35. Which of these provoked the Hundred Years’ War? A. a French claim to the English throne B. an English claim to the French throne C. disputes over Flanders D. English possession of French land Answer: B 36. Ultimately, the Hundred Years’ War was about ____________. A. the instability of the English throne B. social upheaval C. new military technology D. French sovereignty Answer: D 37. The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years’ War was ____________. A. poor military strategy B. internal disunity C. smaller armies D. superior English financial resources Answer: B 38. What was the impact of the Treaty of Troyes on the French? A. It shifted French loyalties from Charles VII to Henry VI. B. It was largely ignored, and was therefore insignificant. C. It led to the Second Crusade. D. It sparked the Burgundians to ally themselves with Charles VII. Answer: B 39. The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on the ____________. A. clergy B. nobility C. military D. peasants Answer: D 40. The price of the papacy’s greater centralization of authority was ____________. A. declining popular support B. the emergence of the College of Cardinals C. diminished secular authority D. the end of the Crusades Answer: A 41. Which of the following statements most aptly applies to the bull Ausculta fili? A. The church and state are one. B. The church has authority over the state. C. The church and state are separate but equal entities. D. The state is set above the church. Answer: B 42. The papal bull Unam Sanctam declared that ____________. A. only strong monarchies could fulfill the Christian gospel B. the Holy Roman emperor could establish national churches in his realm C. a new crusade was necessary in order to unify European spiritually D. temporal authority was subject to the spiritual power of the church Answer: D 43. Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as ____________. A. subordinate to secular rulers B. a Christ-like figure who was elected to save the world from its wickedness C. the supreme ruler D. the anti-Christ Answer: A 44. Which of the following was recognized by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges? A. the right of the French to regulate ecclesiastical appointments and taxation in their country B. the idea that religious rights and principles take precedent over national rights C. the right of all French clergy to develop their own doctrines D. the obligation of the state to pay the annates to Rome Answer: A 45. Which of the following religious movements was most successful at assailing the late medieval church in England? A. Hussites B. Waldensians C. Lollards D. Franciscans Answer: C 46. The work of John Wycliffe most resembled that of ____________. A. Thomas Aquinas B. John Huss C. John of Arc D. Marsilius of Pauda Answer: B 47. The phrase “Babylonian Captivity” refers to ____________. A. the period of papal residence in Avignon B. the persecution of the Lollards and Hussites by the church C. the precarious position of the church in France during the Hundred Years’ War D. the state of the church in Czechoslovakia after religious reformers took control of it Answer: A 48. What finally resolved the Great Schism? A. the resignation of Clement VII B. the abdication of Urban VI C. the simultaneous imprisonment of both current popes D. the Council of Constance Answer: D 49. The broadest social division in eleventh-century Russia was between ____________. A. freemen and slaves B. clergy and principality C. peasants and townspeople D. army officers and freemen Answer: A 50. Which of the following statements best characterizes the Mongol treatment of Russian political and religious institutions? A. They totally dismantled them. B. They left them largely intact. C. They incorporated some facets of Russian ideology and institutions but disregarded the rest. D. They adopted Russian institutions as if they were of their own creation. Answer: B 51. Which of the following exacerbated the initial effects of the Black Death? A. the Crusades B. the Jacquerie C. the famine of 1315 to 1317 D. the response of the clergy to it Answer: C 52. The nobles lost power relative to other groups in the wake of the plague because they were the ____________. A. largest landowners B. most devout Christians C. most malnourished D. most influenced by the famines of the early 1300s Answer: A 53. The French monarchs were particularly outraged by English control of any traditional French land because it ____________. A. made Edward III a vassal of the King of France B. contributed to deaths from the plague C. threatened the French royal policy of centralization D. sparked the Great Schism Answer: C 54. What was the central theme of the three papal bulls Boniface VIII issued between 1296 and 1302? A. Kings and popes must work together as friends and equals. B. God has placed popes above monarchs. C. Kings have a right to expect service from everyone, even popes. D. Popes are leaders only in spiritual matters. Answer: B 55. Why might the Moscow nobility not have minded Mongol rule? A. They were treated as equals. B. They were united in a determination to increase agrarian production. C. Moscow became preeminent in Russia. D. Their subjects were spared the duty of military service. Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. One of the most extreme reactions to the spreading plague were processions of ____________, religious fanatics who beat themselves in ritual penance. Answer: flagellants 57. Centuries of Christian propaganda had bred hatred toward ____________, and they were therefore cast as scapegoats for the spreading plague. Answer: Jews 58. The Black Death is estimated to have killed at least ____________ million people in Europe. Answer: 25 59. In addition to limiting wages to pre-plague levels, the Statute of Laborers passed by the _____________ in 1351 restricted the ability of peasants to leave their masters’ land. Answer: English Parliament 60. In 1355, in a bid to secure funds for the war, the French king turned to the ____________, a representative council of townspeople, clergy, and nobles. Answer: Estates General 61. The first great battle of the Hundred Years’ War took place in the ____________ on June 23, 1340. Answer: Bay of Sluys 62. The ____________ was a French tax, levied directly on the peasantry. Answer: taille 63. In March 1429, ____________ presented herself to Charles VII, declaring that the King of Heaven had called her to deliver besieged Orleans from the English. Answer: Joan of Arc 64. In 1296, the papal bull titled ____________ prohibited taxation of the clergy by secular rulers without papal approval. Answer: Clericis laicos 65. The year 1300 was deemed a ____________ year by Pope Boniface VIII, which meant that all Catholics who visited Rome and fulfilled certain conditions had the penalties for their unrepented sins remitted. Answer: Jubilee 66. In 1309, Clement V moved the papal court to ____________, an imperial city on the southeastern border of France. Answer: Avignon 67. ____________ was the teaching that the efficacy of the church’s sacraments did not only lie in their True performance, but also depended on the moral character of the clergy who administered them. Answer: Donatism 68. Advocates of the ____________ sought to fashion a church in which a representative council could effectively regulate the actions of the pope. Answer: conciliar theory 69. ____________, the religion of Russia, added strong cultural bonds to the close commercial ties that had long linked Russia to the Byzantine Empire. Answer: Greek Orthodoxy 70. After ____________ fell to the Turks in 1453, Moscow became, in Russian eyes, the “third Rome.” Answer: Constantinople ESSAY 71. What caused the Black Death (bubonic plague), and why did it spread so quickly throughout Western Europe? Where was it most virulent? What does the case of the Black Death suggest about the role disease may play in shaping history? Answer: The Black Death, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, was transmitted primarily through fleas infesting black rats. It spread rapidly throughout Western Europe in the 14th century due to several factors. Firstly, the interconnectedness of trade routes facilitated the movement of infected rodents and their fleas, allowing the disease to travel quickly. Additionally, densely populated urban areas provided ideal conditions for the spread of the plague, as poor sanitation and overcrowding increased human-flea-rat interactions. The Black Death was most virulent in urban centers and areas with high population densities, such as cities and ports. It particularly devastated regions like Italy, France, and England, where urbanization was more advanced. The case of the Black Death underscores the significant role disease can play in shaping history. The pandemic had profound demographic, social, economic, and cultural impacts, leading to population decline, labor shortages, social upheaval, and changes in religious beliefs and practices. It also prompted advancements in public health measures and medical knowledge, influencing future responses to disease outbreaks. 72. Describe the psychological impact of the Black Death. How did Europeans respond to the devastation caused by the epidemic? Answer: The psychological impact of the Black Death was immense, as the sudden and widespread nature of the epidemic instilled fear, panic, and uncertainty among Europeans. Witnessing the rapid spread of the disease and the high mortality rates caused widespread terror and despair. Many people experienced profound grief and loss as friends, family members, and entire communities succumbed to the plague. In response to the devastation caused by the epidemic, Europeans employed various coping mechanisms. Some turned to religion, seeking solace and divine intervention through prayer, penance, and religious rituals. Others resorted to superstition and scapegoating, blaming marginalized groups such as Jews, foreigners, and minorities for spreading the disease. Additionally, there were attempts to implement public health measures, such as quarantine and isolation of the sick, although these were often ineffective due to limited understanding of the disease's transmission. Overall, the psychological impact of the Black Death was profound, shaping individual and collective responses to the epidemic and leaving a lasting imprint on medieval European society and culture. 73. What were the social and economic consequences of the Black Death? Which groups in medieval society benefited the most from the altered social and economic landscape? Answer: The Black Death had profound social and economic consequences in medieval society. The massive loss of life led to labor shortages, which in turn increased the bargaining power of laborers and peasants. This resulted in higher wages and better working conditions for many workers, as landlords and employers competed for labor. On the other hand, landowners and aristocrats faced challenges as their labor force dwindled and agricultural productivity declined. Many feudal lords struggled to maintain their estates and revenues, leading to social unrest and tensions between different social classes. In terms of groups that benefited the most from the altered landscape, it was often the emerging middle class, including merchants, artisans, and urban professionals. The labor shortages created opportunities for upward mobility, as skilled workers were in high demand and could command higher wages. Additionally, the redistribution of land and wealth resulting from the Black Death contributed to the rise of a more fluid social hierarchy, allowing ambitious individuals to improve their social and economic status. 74. What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War? Could any of these factors have been avoided or was war inevitable? Explain. Answer: The Hundred Years' War was caused by a complex combination of factors, including territorial disputes, economic rivalry, and dynastic claims to the throne of France. The conflict began in 1337 when King Edward III of England asserted his claim to the French throne, leading to a series of military campaigns and alliances between England and various French factions. While some of the factors contributing to the war, such as dynastic ambitions and territorial disputes, could potentially have been avoided through diplomacy or compromise, the underlying tensions between England and France made war almost inevitable. Both nations had long-standing rivalries and conflicting interests, and the power dynamics of medieval Europe often led to armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes. Additionally, the Hundred Years' War was fueled by economic competition and the desire for territorial expansion, factors that were difficult to reconcile without resorting to military force. Therefore, while diplomatic efforts may have temporarily delayed the outbreak of war, the underlying tensions between England and France ultimately made armed conflict unavoidable. 75. How did the Hundred Years’ War contribute to the growth of nationalism and the centralization of political power in both France and England? Answer: The Hundred Years' War played a significant role in the growth of nationalism and the centralization of political power in both France and England. The prolonged conflict fostered a sense of national identity and solidarity among the populations of both countries, as people rallied around their respective monarchs and fought to defend their homeland against foreign aggression. In France, the war contributed to the consolidation of royal authority as the French monarchy strengthened its control over regional nobles and estates. The conflict also provided opportunities for monarchs like Charles VII to assert their authority and centralize power, leading to the emergence of a more centralized and unified French state. Similarly, in England, the war helped to strengthen the authority of the monarchy and centralize political power. The English crown expanded its administrative control over territories in France and implemented measures to increase royal revenue and military strength. Additionally, the war fueled English nationalistic sentiments, leading to a greater sense of unity and identity among the English population. Overall, the Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of state-building and contributed to the growth of nationalism and centralized political power in both France and England, laying the groundwork for the emergence of modern nation-states. 76. What impact did Joan of Arc have on the French campaign? What was her primary role? What part, if any, did issues of gender play in this role? Answer: Joan of Arc had a profound impact on the French campaign during the Hundred Years' War. Her primary role was as a military leader and inspirational figure who rallied French troops and boosted morale during a critical period of the war. Joan claimed to have received visions from saints instructing her to support Charles VII and drive the English out of France. Joan's leadership and charisma were instrumental in several key French victories, including the lifting of the siege of Orléans in 1429. Her actions helped to bolster French morale and reinvigorate the war effort, ultimately contributing to the French victory in the Hundred Years' War. Issues of gender played a significant role in Joan's role and impact. As a young peasant woman leading armies in a male-dominated society, Joan challenged traditional gender norms and expectations. Her ability to command respect and inspire loyalty despite her gender was remarkable and contributed to her legendary status as a national heroine in France. 77. What challenges did the late medieval church face? How did the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism affect the place of the church in European culture and society? Answer: The late medieval church faced numerous challenges, including corruption, internal division, and external criticism. The Avignon papacy, during which the papal court was relocated to Avignon, France, from 1309 to 1377, undermined the authority and prestige of the papacy. This period of "Babylonian Captivity" led to accusations of papal corruption and worldliness, as well as concerns about the independence of the church from secular influence. The Great Schism, which occurred from 1378 to 1417, further divided the church as rival claimants vied for the papacy, leading to a period of confusion and instability known as the Western Schism. The existence of multiple popes undermined the unity and credibility of the church, fueling criticisms of ecclesiastical corruption and mismanagement. These events significantly affected the place of the church in European culture and society by eroding confidence in its moral authority and institutional integrity. The Avignon papacy and the Great Schism contributed to the rise of religious dissent and skepticism, paving the way for the Protestant Reformation and broader challenges to ecclesiastical power in the early modern period. 78. How did the church become divided, and how was it reunited? Why was the conciliar movement a setback for the papacy? Answer: The division of the church during the late medieval period was primarily caused by power struggles within the papacy and disagreements over papal authority and legitimacy. The Avignon papacy and the Great Schism exacerbated these tensions, leading to rival claimants to the papal throne and a period of institutional instability. The church was eventually reunited through the Council of Constance (1414-1418), which deposed the rival popes and elected Martin V as the legitimate pope. The council also enacted reforms to address the root causes of the schism and restore unity to the church. However, the conciliar movement, which advocated for the supremacy of ecumenical councils over the papacy, was ultimately a setback for the papacy. While the Council of Constance succeeded in ending the Great Schism, it undermined the authority of the papacy and established a precedent for collective decision-making within the church. This shift in power dynamics weakened the papacy's ability to assert its authority and maintain control over the church, contributing to ongoing tensions between the papacy and secular rulers. 79. Discuss the roles of John Huss and John Wycliffe in the lay religious movements that were disavowed by the late medieval church. Why might the church feel threatened by these movements? What explains their response? Answer: John Huss and John Wycliffe were prominent figures in the lay religious movements of the late medieval period. Both Huss and Wycliffe challenged the authority and doctrines of the Catholic Church, advocating for reforms based on their interpretations of scripture and criticizing ecclesiastical corruption and wealth. John Wycliffe, an English theologian and reformer, is known for his translation of the Bible into English and his advocacy for church reform. He criticized the wealth and worldliness of the clergy, rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, and argued for the supremacy of scripture over papal authority. John Huss, a Bohemian priest and theologian, was influenced by Wycliffe's ideas and became a leading figure in the Bohemian Reformation. He preached against the sale of indulgences, questioned the authority of the papacy, and called for greater autonomy for the Bohemian church. The church felt threatened by these lay religious movements because they challenged its authority and undermined its control over religious doctrine and practice. The ideas of Wycliffe and Huss posed a direct challenge to the hierarchical structure of the church and the authority of the papacy, which relied on the obedience and loyalty of the clergy and laity. In response, the church condemned Wycliffe's teachings as heretical and posthumously declared him a heretic. Similarly, Huss was excommunicated and ultimately executed for heresy at the Council of Constance in 1415. The church used its institutional power and authority to suppress dissent and maintain orthodoxy, viewing movements like those led by Wycliffe and Huss as threats to its legitimacy and unity. 80. Discuss the impact of Mongol rule on Russian social and political institutions. Do you believe the system of administration established by the Mongols contributed to their eventual collapse in the region? Explain. Answer: Mongol rule, also known as the Mongol or Tatar Yoke, had a significant impact on Russian social and political institutions. The Mongols conquered and ruled over Russia for over two centuries, imposing their political authority and extracting tribute from the Russian principalities. Under Mongol rule, Russian society experienced economic and cultural stagnation as the Mongols focused primarily on taxation and military control. Russian princes were allowed to retain some autonomy in exchange for tribute and military service to the Mongol khans, but they were also subject to harsh rule and frequent interference in their internal affairs. The system of administration established by the Mongols, known as the "Tatar Yoke," contributed to their eventual collapse in the region. While the Mongols maintained control through a system of appointed governors and tax collectors, their rule was resented by the Russian population, who chafed under foreign domination and exploitation. Additionally, the Mongols' decentralized approach to governance and their reliance on local elites to administer their rule weakened their control over the region and made it difficult to maintain stability and order. As a result, the Mongols faced frequent rebellions and uprisings from the Russian princes and population, ultimately contributing to their gradual decline and withdrawal from the region. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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