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Chapter 28 World War II MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The League of Nations condemned the Japanese use of force against Manchuria and ____________. A. did nothing else of substance B. forced Japan to withdraw from the League C. forced Japan to relinquish control of Manchuria D. assembled an expeditionary force to confront the Japanese Answer: A 2. The term Anschluss refers to the ____________. A. German invasion of Poland B. alliance of Germany, Japan, and Italy C. union of Germany with Austria following the 1938 German invasion D. shared tradition of anti-Semitism in Austria and Germany Answer: C 3. In a secret agreement, signed in August 1939, the nations of ____________ agreed to divide Poland amongst themselves. A. Germany and France B. the Soviet Union and Germany C. France and Italy D. Hungary and the Soviet Union Answer: B 4. Blitzkrieg means ____________. A. war propaganda, which is how Hitler hoped to win B. air war, which is how the Allies hoped to win C. lightening warfare, which is how Hitler hoped to win D. trench warfare, which is how the Allies hoped to win Answer: C 5. By July 1940, the countries of ____________ had become puppet republics within the Soviet Union. A. Estonia, Poland, and Hungary B. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania C. Lithuania, Finland, and Poland D. Finland, Romania, and Hungary Answer: B 6. Military deaths in World War II numbered approximately ____________ million. A. 5 B. 30 C. 15 D. 50 Answer: C 7. The French believed that ____________. A. France could do worse than be ruled by Hitler B. the Maginot Line would protect them from a German assault C. World War I had no relevance to contemporary military planning D. they were ready for blitzkrieg Answer: B 8. The Battle of the Bulge ____________. A. was Germany’s last major offensive on the western front B. marked the Allied invasion of Europe C. was a victory for the Soviet Union D. was the Allies’ greatest victory of the war Answer: A 9. Hitler referred to the ____________ as Untermenschen. A. Slavs B. French C. English D. Italians Answer: A 10. The Holocaust claimed the greatest number of victims from ____________. A. Hungary B. Yugoslavia C. Poland D. Lithuania Answer: C 11. Concerning Jews in Poland, Marshal Pilsudski advocated ____________. A. inclusion B. toleration C. exile D. extermination Answer: A 12. By the time the war ended, how many European Jews remained alive in Europe? A. approximately 6 million B. between 6 and 10 million C. about 1 million D. between 100,000 and 500,000 Answer: C 13. The majority of the Polish population before the war was ____________. A. Jewish B. Roman Catholic C. Muslim D. Protestant Answer: B 14. Which of the following countries had the highest number of concentration camps? A. Austria B. Czechoslovakia C. Germany D. Romania Answer: C 15. By 1943, the German economy ____________. A. produced enough goods to supply occupied Europe B. met the everyday needs of the people while managing to produce war goods C. faced serious labor shortages D. thrived with the increase in military production Answer: C 16. By the end of 1941, ____________. A. the British experienced heavy inflation B. the British experienced heavy deflation C. British unemployment disappeared D. British banks collapsed Answer: C 17. What nation suffered the most during World War II? A. the Soviet Union B. Germany C. Poland D. Great Britain Answer: A 18. Who wrote the Leningrad Symphony? A. Sergei Eisenstein B. Sergei Prokoviev C. Leo Tolstoy D. Dimitri Shostakovich Answer: D 19. What country confiscated radios as a way of limiting access to other countries’ propaganda? A. Great Britain B. Germany C. the Soviet Union D. France Answer: C 20. What was the Atlantic Charter? A. a broad set of principles modeled after the Fourteen Points that established the framework for the United Nations B. a broad set of principles modeled after the Fourteen Points that specified the type of peace Great Britain and the United States sought C. an agreement between Great Britain and the United States that the United States would enter the war D. an agreement between Great Britain and the United States that they would ask the Soviet Union to form a military alliance with them Answer: B 21. Residents of ____________ paid with their lives for counting on Russia to liberate their city before turning south to the Balkans. A. Warsaw B. Dresden C. Hamburg D. Danzig Answer: A 22. The Declaration on Liberated Europe promised ____________. A. a free Germany to be ruled by the Germans B. freedom for the Soviet Union to dictate to governments in Eastern Europe C. self-determination and free democratic elections in Eastern Europe D. a sizable social safety net Answer: C 23. At the time of the Yalta Conference, Eastern Europe was occupied by ____________. A. Nazi Germany B. Great Britain C. the United States D. the Soviet Union Answer: D 24. At Potsdam, the Allies agreed to ____________. A. ban the use of atomic weapons B. organize elections in Germany once the war ended C. divide Germany into occupation zones D. withdraw from Germany by the end of 1946 Answer: C 25. ____________ did not sign peace treaties until 1947. A. The Soviet Union and Germany B. The Soviet Union, Romania, and Bulgaria C. Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria D. Italy, Finland, Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria Answer: D 26. The Anschluss was carried out by Germany because ____________. A. the people of Poland were going to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to unite with Germany B. Hitler hoped to unite all ethnic Germans C. the people of Czechoslovakia were going to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to unite with Germany D. it had no other choice Answer: B 27. The German invasion of ____________ was the immediate cause of World War II. A. the Soviet Union B. France C. Poland D. Czechoslovakia Answer: C 28. The Western powers responded to Hitler’s invasion of Austria in 1938 by ____________. A. appealing to the League of Nations B. demanding Germany immediately withdraw from Austria C. stationing troops in Czechoslovakia along its border with Austria D. taking no action Answer: D 29. What proved that the appeasement of Hitler during the Munich Settlement was a failure? A. Hitler occupied Prague, putting an end to the Czech state. B. Riots broke out between the Germans of Sudetenland and the Czechoslovakians. C. The Germans of Sudetenland rebelled against annexation by Czechoslovakia and demanded independence. D. The economic sanctions imposed by the League of Nations weakened Hitler’s military strength. Answer: A 30. The key reason why the Western powers adopted a policy of appeasement was their ____________. A. fear of Germany’s growing military power B. regret over the harsh terms of the peace settlement C. fear of another general war D. concern that Germany’s goals were unreasonable Answer: C 31. The League of Nations’ first vote for economic sanctions, in the case of Ethiopia, resulted in ____________. A. Britain and France’s refusal to embargo oil B. Italy’s retreat from Ethiopia C. Mussolini’s agreement to help Hitler annex Austria D. Germany’s announcement that it was renouncing the disarmament provisions of the Versailles treaty Answer: A 32. Germany’s plan to expand met its first significant success with the ____________. A. Anschluss B. invasion of Ethiopia C. occupation of Poland D. remilitarization of the Rhineland Answer: A 33. How did the Spanish Civil War affect world politics? A. It brought Germany and Italy closer together. B. It ended the policy of appeasement. C. It brought France and Spain closer together. D. It resulted in an international ban on the sale of weapons to fascist regimes. Answer: A 34. When the Germans moved west in 1940, ____________. A. the French initially had little trouble neutralizing the German attack B. the Soviet Union declared war on Germany C. Belgium rallied to the French cause D. Britain and France’s forces were quickly overcome Answer: D 35. The Battle of Britain resulted in ____________. A. a victory for the Germans B. a standoff C. the abandonment of Hitler’s plans to invade England D. very few British causalities Answer: C 36. During the ____________, the Russians lost more men than the Americans lost in combat during the entire war. A. Battle of the Bulge B. Battle of Moscow C. Battle of Normandy D. Battle of Stalingrad Answer: D 37. Hitler decided on ____________ as the “final solution of the Jewish problem.” A. enslavement B. extermination C. excommunication D. banishment Answer: B 38. How did Heinrich Himmler plan to get rid of the Slavs in the Soviet Union? A. deport them B. force them to work in labor camps C. transport them to concentration camps D. kill them by extermination squads Answer: D 39. The Holocaust was driven by ____________. A. Polish anti-Semitism B. Nazi policy C. public opinion D. the policies of Eastern European governments Answer: B 40. Compared to Jews in Western Europe, nineteenth-century Jews in Poland experienced ____________. A. similar forms of discrimination and emancipation B. more discrimination and greater emancipation C. no discrimination and none of the same forms of Jewish emancipation D. more discrimination and none of the same forms of Jewish emancipation Answer: D 41. Which of the following statements about French resistance during World War II is correct? A. Only after an Allied victory seemed possible did a large-scale, active resistance movement emerge in France. B. The Nazis crushed a movement to resist the German occupation of France in 1940. C. The Roman Catholic Church encouraged the development of a French resistance movement. D. In France, General Charles de Gaulle helped form the largest resistance group. Answer: A 42. The British experience of war differed from that of France and the Soviet Union, because both of these nations suffered ____________. A. food shortages B. great loss of life C. Nazi occupation D. damage to infrastructure Answer: C 43. The Soviet Union’s response to Germany’s attack against it led to ____________. A. the collapse of communism B. the destruction of the Soviet military C. the Soviet Union’s establishment as a world power second to the United States D. the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union Answer: C 44. What concession did the Western powers make to the Soviet Union in order to gain its participation in the war against Japan? A. They ceded Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union. B. They ceded the Soviets Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. C. They agreed to Stalin’s demand for $20 billion in reparations from Germany. D. They agreed to Stalin’s demand for forced German labor. Answer: B 45. During Churchill’s 1944 meeting with Stalin in Moscow, it was agreed that the West would have predominance in ____________ and the Soviet Union would have predominance in ____________. A. Greece; Yugoslavia B. Greece; Romania and Bulgaria C. Yugoslavia; Romania and Bulgaria D. Romania and Bulgaria; Hungary Answer: B 46. The Council of Foreign Ministers was established to ____________. A. administer the occupied zones of Germany B. draft peace treaties for Germany’s allies C. set borders for Poland and Germany D. determine the partition of the Balkans Answer: B 47. Why did Roosevelt oppose the plans of Churchill and Stalin for the Balkans? A. He believed they were against the spirit of Wilson’s Fourteen Points. B. He wanted to set up American spheres of influence in the same areas of Europe as Britain. C. He feared British spheres of influence would hurt American trade and financial interests in Europe. D. He had promised the Soviet Union that no nation would set up spheres of influence. Answer: A 48. In 1943, the foreign ministers of Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union reaffirmed the commitment to fight until ____________. A. the enemy stopped fighting B. defeat was inevitable C. the enemy surrendered D. the enemy surrendered unconditionally Answer: D 49. What did Poland receive as compensation for losing part of its territory? A. $5 billion in reparations B. administration over part of East Prussia and part of Germany C. administration over one of the partitioned zones of Germany D. Allied forces stationed in a demilitarization zone between Poland and the Soviet Union Answer: B 50. What decision allowed the Soviet Union to eventually gain control of Eastern Europe? A. opening up a second front in France B. dividing Germany into occupation zones C. agreeing to the disarmament of Germany D. using atomic weapons on Japan Answer: A 51. Poland was a natural target for Hitler’s aggression because it contained a combination of ____________. A. Jews, Slavs, and land B. mineral resources and good agricultural land C. Jews and other skilled laborers D. industrial infrastructure and agricultural land Answer: A 52. The disappearance of unemployment in Britain was a natural result of ____________. A. class distinctions B. total war C. the defeat of France D. German victories Answer: B 53. The victory of Hitler over all of northwestern Europe can be attributed primarily to ____________. A. inferior British and French troops B. superior German numbers C. French lack of resolve D. blitzkrieg Answer: D 54. The Atlantic Charter can be seen as a continuation of the spirit of ____________. A. Potsdam B. Munich C. Versailles D. Locarno Answer: C 55. Which of these meetings differed most from the others, and was most important for the future of Europe? A. Potsdam B. Yalta C. Tehran D. Moscow Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. Hitler planned to bring the entire German ____________, understood as a racial group, together in a single nation. Answer: Volk 57. Hitler’s vision for a new Germany included more living space, known as ____________, which would be taken from the Slavs. Answer: Lebensraum 58. The League of Nations demonstrated weakness in its response to Japan’s occupation of ____________. Answer: Manchuria 59. The code name for Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union is known as Operation ____________. Answer: Barbarossa 60. Hitler often spoke of the “new order” that he meant to impose after he had established his _____________ throughout Europe. Answer: Third Reich 61. The Japanese launched an air attack on the United States on December 7, 1941 at the U.S. naval base of ____________. Answer: Pearl Harbor 62. In 1942, President Roosevelt stated, “In some communities employers dislike to hire women. In others they are reluctant to hire Negroes. We can no longer afford to indulge such ____________.” Answer: prejudice 63. Even after the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and ____________, the Japanese would have continued fighting if Emperor Hirohito had not intervened. Answer: Nagasaki 64. Before the war was over, perhaps six million Jews had died in what has come to be called the ____________. Answer: Holocaust 65. Before the war was over, the Nazis killed perhaps ____________ prisoners of war and civilians in the Soviet Union. Answer: six million 66. The ____________ French government collaborated with the Nazis. Answer: Vichy 67. In 1945, the French formed the ____________ Republic. Answer: Fourth 68. The British established their own ____________ machine by using the British Broadcasting Company to send programs to every country in Europe in the local language to encourage resistance against the Nazis. Answer: propaganda 69. Defense against Germany during World War II was known as “The ____________” in the Soviet Union. Answer: Great Patriotic War 70. The Big Three for most of the war were ____________. Answer: Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin ESSAY 71. How did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to the start of World War II? Why was Hitler allowed to break the treaty? Answer: The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, imposed harsh penalties on Germany following World War I. It forced Germany to accept sole responsibility for the war, pay massive reparations, reduce its military, and cede territory to neighboring countries. These punitive terms humiliated Germany and fueled resentment and nationalism, providing fertile ground for the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Hitler capitalized on popular discontent with the treaty, promising to overturn its provisions and restore Germany's greatness. Hitler was allowed to break the treaty largely due to the policy of appeasement pursued by Britain and France in the 1930s. Fearing another devastating war, Western powers were initially hesitant to confront Hitler's aggressive actions, such as the reoccupation of the Rhineland, annexation of Austria, and demands for territorial expansion. Instead of enforcing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Western powers sought to appease Hitler through concessions and negotiations, hoping to avoid conflict. However, this policy only emboldened Hitler and encouraged further aggression, ultimately leading to the outbreak of World War II. 72. What were Hitler’s plans for Europe? How successful was he in implementing those plans? Answer: Hitler's plans for Europe, outlined in his ideology of Nazism and articulated in his book "Mein Kampf," centered on establishing German dominance and creating a racially pure, Germanic empire. He sought to expand Germany's territory, particularly in the East, to provide Lebensraum, or living space, for the German people. Hitler also aimed to subjugate or eliminate perceived racial enemies, including Jews, Slavs, and other "undesirable" groups. Hitler was initially successful in implementing his plans through a series of military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers. He reoccupied the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and annexed the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia through the Munich Agreement. These actions culminated in the invasion of Poland in 1939, which sparked World War II. Over the course of the war, Hitler's forces conquered much of Europe, including France, the Low Countries, and large parts of Eastern Europe. However, Hitler ultimately failed to achieve his overarching goals, as Germany was defeated in 1945 and his empire collapsed. 73. Refer to the excerpt “Rosie the Riveter and the American Women in the War Effort.” How did the onset of, and American involvement in, World War II change the place of women and minorities in American society? What prejudice did they need to overcome? In what ways did women contribute to the war effort? Answer: The onset of World War II and American involvement in the conflict brought about significant changes in the place of women and minorities in American society. With millions of men serving in the military, women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers, taking on jobs traditionally held by men. This shift challenged traditional gender roles and led to greater acceptance of women in the workforce. Minorities also played a crucial role in the war effort, despite facing discrimination and prejudice. African Americans, for example, served in segregated units in the military and faced discrimination in civilian life. However, their contributions to the war effort, both on the battlefield and on the home front, helped pave the way for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Women made significant contributions to the war effort, working in factories, shipyards, and other industries to produce weapons, equipment, and supplies for the military. The iconic image of "Rosie the Riveter" symbolized the millions of women who took on industrial jobs previously reserved for men. Women also served in the military in non-combat roles, such as nurses and clerks, freeing up men for frontline duty. Despite facing discrimination and unequal pay, women's contributions during World War II were essential to the war effort and helped reshape societal attitudes towards women in the workforce. 74. Consider the strategic bombing of German cities by American and British aircraft. Did this policy shorten the war in Europe? Was it morally justified? Which was more effective, American daylight bombing or British nighttime area bombing? Answer: The strategic bombing of German cities by American and British aircraft, while causing significant destruction and loss of life, did not decisively shorten the war in Europe. While it inflicted damage on Germany's industrial and infrastructure targets, it also diverted resources from other fronts and did not incapacitate Germany's war-making capabilities entirely. Moreover, the bombing campaign had a high civilian casualty rate, leading to questions about its moral justification. The moral justification of the bombing campaign is a matter of considerable debate. Proponents argue that it was necessary to undermine Germany's ability to wage war and hasten the collapse of the Nazi regime, ultimately saving lives by shortening the conflict. However, critics argue that targeting civilian populations and cultural heritage sites constitutes a violation of ethical principles and international law, as it caused widespread suffering and destruction. In terms of effectiveness, both American daylight bombing and British nighttime area bombing had their advantages and drawbacks. American daylight bombing, despite facing greater risks from German defenses, allowed for more accurate targeting of specific industrial and military sites. British nighttime area bombing, while less precise, inflicted greater psychological terror and disruption on German cities, contributing to civilian morale and industrial production decline. Ultimately, the combination of both bombing strategies contributed to Germany's weakening but did not single-handedly shorten the war. 75. What combination of factors resulted in the military defeat of Nazi Germany? In your opinion, what could Germany have done to win the war? Explain. Answer: The military defeat of Nazi Germany resulted from a combination of factors, including strategic errors, logistical challenges, and the overwhelming military might of the Allied powers. Germany's decision to invade the Soviet Union, engage in a two-front war, and underestimate the resolve and industrial capacity of the Allies weakened its position over time. Additionally, Allied air superiority, naval blockade, and successful amphibious operations further eroded Germany's ability to sustain its war effort. In my opinion, Germany could have potentially won the war by avoiding a two-front conflict, focusing on consolidating its gains in Europe rather than overextending itself, and pursuing a more realistic and sustainable strategy. This might have involved prioritizing diplomatic solutions, such as a negotiated peace with the Soviet Union or a more cautious approach to provoking the United States. Additionally, investing more resources in strategic defense, such as anti-aircraft defenses and submarine warfare, could have mitigated Allied advantages and prolonged the conflict. 76. Why did Hitler want to make Europe Judenrein? In your opinion, was the Holocaust a unique event of unprecedented and unparalleled evil or was it one specific instance of a more general human wickedness that has found expression throughout history? Explain. Answer: Hitler wanted to make Europe Judenrein, or "free of Jews," as part of his virulent anti-Semitic ideology and his vision of creating a racially pure, Germanic empire. He believed that Jews were an existential threat to the German nation and scapegoated them for various perceived societal ills, such as economic instability and cultural degeneracy. The Holocaust, the systematic genocide of six million Jews during World War II, was a central component of Hitler's genocidal policies and represents one of the darkest chapters in human history. In my opinion, while the Holocaust was a unique event in terms of its scale, organization, and industrialized brutality, it is not entirely without historical precedent. Throughout history, various societies and regimes have perpetrated acts of genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass violence against perceived enemies or marginalized groups. The Holocaust serves as a stark reminder of the dangers of unchecked prejudice, hatred, and authoritarianism, but it also underscores the broader human capacity for cruelty and injustice. Therefore, while the Holocaust is undoubtedly a singularly horrific event, it should be understood within the broader context of human wickedness and the potential for evil in any society. 77. According to your text, one of the factors that made possible the murder of six million Jews was the parochial nationalism that arose during and after the French Revolution. It states, “For many people, nationalism divided the world into one’s fellow nationals and all others. It encouraged, excused, and even justified terrible and violent acts performed on behalf of one’s homeland.” In your opinion, does this type of nationalism exist today, and is it being used to justify terrible and violent acts performed on behalf of one’s homeland? If so, give examples and explain what rationale is being used to justify such violence. Answer: Yes, this type of nationalism does exist today and is sometimes used to justify terrible and violent acts performed on behalf of one's homeland. One example is the rise of ethnonationalism in various parts of the world, where a particular ethnic or national group asserts its superiority over others and seeks to exclude or oppress minority groups. This form of nationalism often leads to discrimination, persecution, and even violence against marginalized communities. One example of this can be seen in the case of the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. The Burmese government, fueled by Buddhist nationalist sentiments, has pursued policies that discriminate against and persecute the Rohingya minority, including denying them citizenship rights, restricting their movement, and condoning violence against them. This violence has resulted in mass displacement, killings, and other human rights abuses, all justified under the guise of protecting the nation's Buddhist identity and security. Another example is the rise of far-right nationalism in Europe and the United States, where populist leaders and movements often scapegoat immigrants, refugees, and other minority groups for various societal problems. This rhetoric has fueled xenophobia, hate crimes, and even acts of terrorism against those perceived as threats to the nation's cultural or ethnic purity. In both cases, the rationale used to justify such violence often revolves around the idea of protecting national identity, security, and sovereignty. Nationalist leaders exploit fears and insecurities within the population, portraying minority groups as outsiders or enemies who threaten the nation's values, heritage, or way of life. By framing violence and discrimination as necessary for the preservation of the homeland, these leaders seek to garner support and consolidate power, often at the expense of human rights and social cohesion. 78. Why did the French people, at first, accept the Vichy government? Describe the initial resistance to the Vichy government. What event(s) changed their support? Who were the key political leaders involved? In your opinion, were the French truly on the side of the Allies? Explain. Answer: The French people initially accepted the Vichy government due to a combination of factors, including the shock and disorientation following the rapid defeat by Germany in 1940, as well as the desire for stability and order amidst the chaos of occupation. Additionally, Marshal Philippe Pétain, the leader of Vichy France, initially enjoyed a reputation as a national hero and savior figure due to his role in World War I. However, resistance to the Vichy government began to emerge almost immediately, particularly among certain segments of the population, including communists, socialists, and members of the French Resistance. These groups rejected the collaborationist policies of Vichy and instead sought to resist German occupation through acts of sabotage, espionage, and underground propaganda. The turning point in French support for the Vichy regime came with the implementation of increasingly oppressive and collaborationist measures, such as the Vichy government's complicity in the deportation of Jews and the imposition of authoritarian rule. Additionally, as the war progressed and the Allied liberation of France seemed increasingly likely, support for the Vichy government waned further. Key political leaders involved in the resistance to Vichy included figures such as Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces, and Jean Moulin, a prominent Resistance leader who played a key role in unifying various resistance movements. Whether the French were truly on the side of the Allies is a complex question. While some segments of French society actively resisted German occupation and collaborated with the Allies, others were complicit or indifferent to Vichy's collaborationist policies. Ultimately, the Liberation of France and the subsequent establishment of the Provisional Government of the French Republic under de Gaulle signaled a return to Allied alignment, but the extent of popular support for the Allies varied among the French population. 79. Despite their open hostility to communism, the United States and Great Britain felt the Soviet Union’s cooperation in the war effort was essential to ending the war. Explain why the West wanted an alliance with the Soviet Union and how this single-minded desire eventually allowed the Soviet Union to dominate Eastern Europe. Answer: The West wanted an alliance with the Soviet Union primarily because they recognized the Soviet Union's significant military capabilities and manpower, which were essential for defeating Nazi Germany on the Eastern Front. Despite ideological differences and mutual distrust, the Allies prioritized the defeat of Hitler and saw cooperation with the Soviet Union as strategically necessary. This single-minded desire for alliance with the Soviet Union led to concessions and compromises, such as the recognition of Soviet territorial claims in Eastern Europe, as outlined in agreements like the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Additionally, the Western Allies provided significant material and logistical support to the Soviet war effort, further cementing the alliance. However, this strategic alliance also allowed the Soviet Union to dominate Eastern Europe in the postwar period. As the Red Army advanced westward and liberated Eastern European countries from Nazi occupation, Soviet influence and control over these territories increased. The agreements reached at Yalta and Potsdam effectively granted the Soviet Union a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, paving the way for the establishment of communist governments loyal to Moscow. 80. Who were the “Big Three”? What meetings and discussions occurred between the “Big Three?” What important decisions did they make together? What ideological and political differences occurred among them? In your opinion, which peace conference, agreed to by the “Big Three,” had the most pronounced effect on postwar Europe? Answer: The "Big Three" refers to the leaders of the Allied powers during World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt (United States), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), and Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union). The three leaders met at several conferences during the war, including the Tehran Conference in 1943, the Yalta Conference in 1945, and the Potsdam Conference later that same year. At these conferences, the Big Three made several important decisions regarding the conduct of the war and the postwar world. They discussed military strategy, the division of Germany and Europe after the war, the establishment of the United Nations, and plans for postwar reconstruction and governance. Despite their shared goal of defeating Nazi Germany, the Big Three had significant ideological and political differences. Roosevelt and Churchill represented liberal democracies and espoused democratic values, while Stalin led a totalitarian regime based on communism. These differences led to tensions and disagreements over issues such as the future of Eastern Europe, the treatment of defeated Axis powers, and the nature of postwar international institutions. In my opinion, the Yalta Conference had the most pronounced effect on postwar Europe. At Yalta, the leaders agreed on the division of Germany and Europe into occupation zones, as well as the principles for postwar reconstruction and governance. The decisions made at Yalta laid the groundwork for the Cold War division of Europe and shaped the geopolitical landscape of the postwar world. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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