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Chapter 30 Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. City dwellers make up about what percentage of Western Europe’s population? A. 50 B. 95 C. 75 D. 60 Answer: C 2. Between 1945 and 1960, approximately ____________ Europeans left Europe each year. A. 250,000 B. 500,000 C. 750,000 D. 1,000,000 Answer: B 3. About ____________ Germans were expelled by Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary following World War II. A. 12 million B. 20,000 C. 23 million D. 230,000 Answer: A 4. Before World War II, the two basic models for social legislation were the German and the ____________. A. British B. Dutch C. Italian D. French Answer: A 5. Christian democratic parties were generally led by ____________. A. communists B. women C. Protestants D. Catholics Answer: D 6. The first major European nation to begin to create a welfare state was ____________. A. Spain B. France C. Germany D. Great Britain Answer: D 7. A shopkeeper’s daughter, ____________ became the first female prime minister of Great Britain from May 1979 through November 1990. A. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary B. Rachel Whiteread C. Margaret Thatcher D. Mary Chestnut Answer: C 8. Margaret Thatcher supported ____________. A. higher taxes B. more government intervention in the economy C. expanding the social-welfare state D. privatizing industries that had been nationalized Answer: D 9. All surveys indicate that ____________ is the most important difficulty women face in the workplace. A. sexual harassment B. equality in the hiring process C. the need to provide care for their children D. better opportunities for educational advancement Answer: C 10. As rapid changes in communications technology vastly expanded access to information, more Europeans received some form of ____________. A. university education B. religious indoctrination C. intercultural awareness D. political indoctrination Answer: A 11. Which of the following political parties was formed in 1979 and immediately became an electoral force for environmental issues such as global warming, pollution of water, and the atmosphere? A. Green Berets B. German Greens C. Earth Party D. Citizens for Environmental Awareness and Pollution Prevention (CEAPP) Answer: B 12. Measuring over six feet high and twelve feet wide, the monumental piece Bread is an example of ____________. A. socialist realism B. abstract art C. impressionism D. cubism Answer: A 13. Who designed the Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial in Vienna, Nameless Library, which commemorates the deaths of 65,000 Austrian Jews under the Nazis? A. Pablo Picasso B. Tatjiana Yablonskaya C. Jackson Pollock D. Rachel Whiteread Answer: D 14. The most important Christian response to World War I appeared in the theology of ____________. A. Karl Barth B. Al Sharpton C. Paul Tillich D. Rudolf Bultmann Answer: A 15. The Roman Catholic Church’s Twenty-First Ecumenical Council is also known as ____________. A. Vatican I B. Vatican II C. Council 21 D. EC XX1 Answer: B 16. Which of these men was a German-American liberal theologian? A. Paul Tillich B. Karl Barth C. Søren Kierkegaard D. C. S. Lewis Answer: A 17. The first modern digital computer was built and designed ____________. A. by the U.S. Army B. in a joint venture of the U.S. Army and IBM C. at Moore Laboratories at the University of Pennsylvania D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Answer: C 18. When did modestly-priced computers become available for personal use in individuals’ offices and homes? A. late 1960s B. mid-1970s C. mid-1980s D. early 1990s Answer: C 19. In the late 1960s, which of the following inventions transformed computer technology? A. invention of the microchip B. invention of vacuum tubes C. invention of the transistor D. invention of the internet Answer: A 20. The administration and organization of which of the following gave the countries of Europe new experience in working with each other and demonstrated the productivity and efficiency that mutual cooperation could achieve? A. NATO and the Marshall Plan B. the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan C. the United Nations and the Truman Doctrine D. NATO and the United Nations Answer: A 21. By 1968, well ahead of schedule, the six members of the EEC had abolished all ____________. A. tariffs among themselves B. debt among themselves C. military hostilities or armies within each other’s borders D. national currencies in exchange for a common European monetary system Answer: A 22. A key provision of the 1991 Maastricht Treaty called for ____________. A. the creation of a special police force to fight the drug trade B. the establishment of uniform wages and prices in all the signatory countries C. the creation of a unified currency D. new laws to enforce gender equality in the workplace Answer: C 23. The new constitutional treaty for the European Union was defeated with referendums in ____________. A. Sweden, Finland, and Italy B. Hungary, Belgium, and Denmark C. Ireland, Austria, and Germany D. France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands Answer: D 24. For much of the first decade of the twenty-first century, relations between the United States and post-Soviet Union Europe were ____________. A. harmonious B. considerably strained C. becoming less tense D. volatile Answer: B 25. Stock markets around the world lost ____________ of their value as a result of the 2008 international financial crisis. A. around 10 percent B. over 33 percent C. around 50 percent D. over 75 percent Answer: B 26. Decolonization in the postwar period ____________. A. forced many European colonials to seek refuge from persecution B. led many European colonials to return to Europe from overseas C. resulted in many Europeans residing in their former European colony D. was pushed as much by European public opinion as anything else Answer: B 27. The growing ____________ presence in Europe has produced some of the most serious ethnic and political tensions in recent history. A. Muslim B. Slavic C. Jewish D. Asian Answer: A 28. Germany’s reliance on “guest workers” is an example of the impact of Europe’s ____________. A. booming economy B. decolonization C. falling birthrate D. late industrialization Answer: C 29. Welfare legislation spread throughout Western Europe in response to ____________. A. promises of full employment and social security by communist states of Eastern Europe B. protests and demonstrations throughout Western Europe C. the rise of democratic socialist parties following World War II D. the election of Margaret Thatcher Answer: A 30. Women in Eastern Europe today ____________ than they did under communism. A. face more risk of job discrimination B. enjoy more government-financed health and welfare programs that benefit women C. have greater opportunities for employment D. have fewer opportunities for employment Answer: A 31. Modern European feminism tends to emphasize ____________. A. achieving legal goals B. women’s place in society C. wage parity D. broader economic opportunity Answer: B 32. Which of the following statements is True regarding work patterns for today’s women? A. Most women either stay at home to raise their children or enter the workforce. B. Most women enter the workforce after leaving school. C. Women are working in declining numbers. D. The labor supply has forced women out of the workforce. Answer: B 33. Women are more likely than men to work part-time, because of ____________. A. low salaries B. labor gluts C. the needs of their children D. lack of job opportunities Answer: C 34. Compared to 1950, women’s working patterns in Europe have changed ____________. A. little B. substantially C. radically D. not at all Answer: A 35. The “god” referred to in The God That Failed was ____________. A. socialism B. Marxist socialism C. Soviet communism D. democracy Answer: C 36. The Arab oil embargo of 1973–1974 pressed home the message to the industrialized West that ____________. A. natural resources are limited B. oil production was not meeting consumer demands C. dependence on oil must end D. coal mining would have to be expanded Answer: A 37. Which word or phrase best characterizes Jackson Pollock’s works? A. optimistic B. cultural freedom C. existential D. consumerism Answer: B 38. Which word or phrase best characterizes socialist realism? A. optimistic B. realistic C. existential D. consumerism Answer: A 39. Which of the following would be an example of socialist realism? A. a photo documentary of writers B. a poster depicting factory workers C. a collage of headlines about socialism D. a painting of university professors Answer: B 40. The papacies of John XXIII and John Paul II followed policies that were ____________. A. roughly similar B. strongly opposed C. identical D. both radical departures Answer: B 41. Which of the following statements about Christianity in Western Europe after World War II is True? A. Despite the secular nature of most Western European countries, Christian churches continued to influence state and society. B. Most Western Europeans resist any attempts by Christian churches to influence state or society. C. Most Western Europeans resist all religious influences in politics and government. D. Western Europeans are increasingly embracing a less secular way of life, with Christianity being the dominant religious influence. Answer: A 42. The papacy of John Paul II can be said to be ____________ yet ____________. A. reactionary; charismatic B. inspirational; oppressive C. dynamic; innovative D. dogmatic; inspired Answer: C 43. It seems certain that no single American technological achievement of the twentieth century will so influence Western life on both sides of the Atlantic, as well as throughout the rest of the world, as the ____________. A. automobile B. airplane C. computer D. nuclear reactor Answer: C 44. Warfare was the chief catalyst for the invention of the computer because ____________. A. the splitting of the atom led to the knowledge necessary to develop complex electronic circuitry B. major powers developed new weapons that required exact mathematical ballistic calculations to effectively strike targets with bombs C. governments required the organization of large databases of information D. major powers funded massive research and development labs that had a free rein to experiment and develop new products Answer: B 45. A factor that appears to have brought the European Union to an impasse includes concerns over ____________. A. smaller members of the European Union feeling that Great Britain and Italy have either ignored them or taken them for granted B. some nations feeling that the euro has placed them at a disadvantage C. the admission of Yugoslavia to the European Union due to its poor economic base and its religious differences with the rest of Europe D. the admission of Turkey to the European Union in 2004 Answer: B 46. The financial crisis of 2008 demonstrated ____________. A. the interconnectedness of world markets B. the United States’ dominance in the world market C. Western Europe’s dominance in the world market D. the significance of burgeoning economies in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa Answer: A 47. The financial crisis of 2008 originated as a result of ____________. A. the collapse of financial institutions in Western Europe B. banks holding bad mortgages in the United States’ mortgage market C. Eastern Europe’s foreign debt to the United States and Western Europe D. the United States’ high defense spending Answer: B 48. How did the U.S. government respond to the financial crisis of 2008? A. It decided to let the market regulate itself. B. It passed social welfare legislation that provides universal health coverage to all citizens. C. It intervened in the economy to an unprecedented extent. D. It demanded other nations pay their debts to the United States. Answer: C 49. Which of the following events helped to reduce tensions between the United States and western Europe in the first decade of the twenty-first century? A. the U.S. invasion of Iraq B. the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan C. the Russian invasion of Georgia D. the terrorist attack on the subway system and a bus in London Answer: C 50. Which word or phrase characterizes how many Europeans viewed the election of Barack Obama to the U.S. presidency? A. angry B. anxious C. optimistic D. discouraged Answer: C 51. Following World War II, social welfare was seen in Europe as ____________. A. the equivalent of the right to vote B. an expensive luxury C. an obsolete idea D. a way to undermine socialist governments Answer: A 52. It can be argued that Bismarck extended social welfare in order to ____________. A. oppose Soviet communism B. bring about German unification C. defuse calls for political participation D. achieve economic stability Answer: C 53. “Americanization” in Europe refers to American influence most visible in ____________. A. cultural life B. social life C. economic life D. military planning Answer: A 54. The toy company LEGO can be seen as running ____________ the trend of Americanization. A. parallel to B. ahead of C. counter to D. behind Answer: C 55. Compared to abstract art—illustrated by Jackson Pollock—socialist realism was much more ____________. A. innovative B. amateurish C. gloomy D. tied to political ideology Answer: D SHORT ANSWER 56. By the end of World War II, cities in Eastern Europe had lost any ____________ presence. Answer: Jewish 57. Today, except for one country, at least ____________ of the population of every European nation lives in large cities. Answer: one-third 58. Since World War II, governments have begun to spend more money on ____________ than they do on the military. Answer: social welfare 59. The number of ____________ women in the workforce has risen sharply. Answer: married 60. Until the ____________, Western Europe had large, organized communist parties, as well as groups of intellectuals sympathetic to communism. Answer: 1990s 61. During the late 1920s and the 1930s, ____________ became a substitute religion for some Europeans. Answer: communism 62. Albert Camus was a French ____________ writer. Answer: existentialist 63. The 1986 disaster at the ____________ nuclear reactor in the Soviet Union heightened concern about environmental issues and raised questions that no European government could ignore. Answer: Chernobyl 64. British sculptor Rachel Whiteread’s work is associated with ____________ in contemporary art. Answer: minimalism 65. The ____________ in the sculpture Nameless Library represent the loss of Jewish contributions and Jewish lives as a result of the Holocaust. Answer: unopened books 66. Neo-Orthodoxy did not sweep away liberal theology, which had a strong advocate in German-American theologian ____________. Answer: Paul Tillich 67. The first machine genuinely recognizable as a modern digital computer was the ____________. Answer: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) 68. The European Economic Community (EEC) was also called the ____________. Answer: Common Market 69. The European Community’s common currency is called the ____________. Answer: euro 70. The controversy over the admission of ____________ to the European Union is partially over the “Islamic factor.” Answer: Turkey ESSAY 71. What recent trends of immigration are appearing in European countries? What brought these immigrants to Europe? How are these new immigrants changing European society? What response have European nations taken to this large-scale immigration? Explain. Answer: In recent years, European countries have experienced significant immigration trends, characterized by the arrival of migrants and refugees from various regions, including the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia. These immigrants are often fleeing conflict, persecution, poverty, and political instability in their home countries, seeking safety, economic opportunities, and better living conditions in Europe. The influx of new immigrants is bringing about demographic, cultural, and social changes in European societies. Immigrants contribute to cultural diversity, enriching European societies with their languages, traditions, and customs. They also fill labor market gaps, particularly in sectors such as healthcare, construction, and hospitality. However, immigration also poses challenges, such as strains on public services, social integration issues, and debates over cultural identity and national values. European nations have responded to large-scale immigration in various ways, ranging from humanitarian aid and integration programs to stricter border controls and anti-immigrant policies. Some countries have implemented measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants, such as language classes, job training programs, and social support services. Others have adopted restrictive immigration policies, including border fences, deportation measures, and limits on asylum applications, reflecting growing anti-immigrant sentiments and populist political movements. 72. What was the influence of Margaret Thatcher’s term in office as British Prime Minister? Was she more important for her politics or as the first female prime minister? Answer: Margaret Thatcher's term in office as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 had a profound influence on British politics, society, and the global economy. Thatcher, known as the "Iron Lady," pursued a conservative agenda characterized by free-market capitalism, privatization, deregulation, and anti-union policies. Her economic reforms, commonly referred to as Thatcherism, reshaped Britain's economy, leading to privatization of state-owned industries, reduction of government intervention, and promotion of individual responsibility and entrepreneurship. Thatcher's political legacy also extends beyond her economic policies. She was a transformative figure in British politics, challenging the post-war consensus and shifting the political landscape to the right. Thatcher's assertive leadership style, ideological convictions, and confrontational approach to governance left a lasting impact on British politics, shaping the direction of the Conservative Party and influencing subsequent governments, both in the UK and abroad. While Thatcher's gender undoubtedly played a significant role in her political career and public perception, her importance as the first female Prime Minister should not overshadow her political achievements and policy legacy. Thatcher's leadership transcended gender boundaries, and her impact on British politics and society was defined more by her political ideology and policy agenda than by her gender. 73. Explain the title of Simone de Beauvoir’s landmark work, The Second Sex. Do you think the issues discussed in this work have any relevance to the lives of contemporary American women? Why or why not? Answer: The title of Simone de Beauvoir's landmark work, "The Second Sex," refers to the subordinate position of women in society, characterized by their perceived secondary status relative to men. Beauvoir argues that throughout history, women have been relegated to a secondary or "other" status, defined in relation to men and constrained by societal expectations, norms, and institutions. The issues discussed in "The Second Sex" remain relevant to the lives of contemporary American women, as they continue to grapple with gender inequality, discrimination, and the struggle for equality in various spheres of life. Despite advancements in women's rights and gender equality, women still face systemic barriers and societal prejudices that limit their opportunities and constrain their autonomy. Issues such as the gender pay gap, underrepresentation in leadership positions, sexual harassment and violence, and reproductive rights remain pressing concerns for contemporary American women. Beauvoir's analysis of the social construction of gender roles, the intersections of sexism and other forms of oppression, and the need for collective action and solidarity among women resonate with ongoing struggles for gender justice and equality in the United States and beyond. Overall, "The Second Sex" continues to serve as a foundational text in feminist theory and activism, providing insights into the social, political, and cultural forces that shape women's lives and experiences. Its relevance to contemporary American women lies in its exploration of the dynamics of power, privilege, and oppression that continue to inform gender relations and women's struggles for liberation and empowerment. 74. Refer to the excerpt “Toys from Europe Conquer the United States.” How has LEGO been an example of the European penetration of popular culture around the world? Why has the influence of LEGO on children’s toys been less controversial than the emergence of American fast-food chains in Europe? Answer: LEGO has been a prime example of European penetration into global popular culture due to its widespread popularity and influence on children's toys worldwide. The brand's iconic plastic building blocks have become a staple in children's playrooms across continents, fostering creativity, imagination, and fine motor skills in generations of children. The influence of LEGO on children's toys has been less controversial than the emergence of American fast-food chains in Europe due to several reasons. Firstly, LEGO's emphasis on creativity and education aligns more closely with societal values and parental preferences, making it less contentious than the perceived negative health effects and cultural homogenization associated with fast-food consumption. Additionally, LEGO's products are often seen as wholesome and non-controversial, whereas fast-food chains have faced criticism for their contribution to obesity, environmental degradation, and the erosion of traditional culinary practices. 75. What types of artwork have evolved in post-war society? Compare and contrast the artistic developments of Soviet and American artists. What trends in art have emerged? Where? Answer: In post-war society, various types of artwork have evolved, reflecting the social, political, and cultural dynamics of the time. In both the Soviet Union and the United States, artists explored new forms of expression and experimented with avant-garde techniques, while also grappling with the legacy of war and the challenges of the Cold War era. Soviet artists often adhered to socialist realism, producing propaganda art that glorified the achievements of the state and celebrated communist ideology. However, some Soviet artists also engaged in underground movements and dissident art, challenging the official narrative and expressing dissent through abstract and non-conformist styles. In contrast, American artists embraced diverse artistic movements, including abstract expressionism, pop art, and minimalism. Abstract expressionists like Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko explored themes of individuality and emotional expression, while pop artists like Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein appropriated popular culture imagery to critique consumerism and mass media. Overall, post-war art saw a diversification of styles and techniques, with artists around the world experimenting with new forms of expression and challenging traditional artistic conventions. Major art centers such as New York City and Paris emerged as hubs of artistic innovation and cultural exchange, attracting artists from diverse backgrounds and fostering creative communities. 76. What was the three-pronged policy of Pope John Paul II? What stance did Pope John Paul II take against communism? How did Pope John Paul II’s homeland in Poland play an integral part in his role as pope after the fall of communism? Answer: Pope John Paul II's three-pronged policy, often referred to as "Ostpolitik," aimed to foster dialogue and reconciliation between the Catholic Church and communist regimes in Eastern Europe. This policy involved diplomatic engagement, promotion of human rights and religious freedom, and support for non-violent resistance to communist oppression. Pope John Paul II took a firm stance against communism, denouncing its atheistic ideology, suppression of religious freedom, and human rights abuses. His opposition to communism was shaped by his personal experiences growing up in communist-controlled Poland and witnessing firsthand the hardships faced by the Polish people under Soviet rule. John Paul II's homeland in Poland played an integral part in his role as pope after the fall of communism. His visits to Poland, including his historic pilgrimage in 1979, galvanized opposition to communist rule and inspired the Solidarity movement, leading to the eventual collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. John Paul II's moral authority and unwavering support for the Polish people's struggle for freedom earned him widespread admiration and played a significant role in shaping the course of history in his homeland and beyond. 77. What were the main steps in the emergence of the computer? What source of demand initiated the innovation and creative methodology for computer research? What changes will computers bring in the next decade? Answer: The emergence of the computer involved several key steps, including the development of electronic computing devices, the invention of programmable computers, and the evolution of software and hardware technologies. Early computers, such as the ENIAC and UNIVAC, were large, room-sized machines used for specific tasks such as military calculations and data processing. The demand for more powerful and versatile computing devices drove innovation and creative methodology in computer research. The need for faster computation, greater storage capacity, and user-friendly interfaces spurred advances in computer architecture, programming languages, and networking technologies. The emergence of personal computers in the 1970s and 1980s democratized access to computing power, leading to widespread adoption in homes, schools, and businesses. In the next decade, computers are poised to bring about further transformative changes in various fields, including artificial intelligence, robotics, healthcare, and transportation. Advancements in machine learning, data analytics, and automation technologies will revolutionize industries and professions, creating new opportunities for innovation and economic growth. However, these changes also raise ethical, social, and economic challenges, including concerns about job displacement, privacy, and inequality, which will require careful consideration and policy responses. 78. The computer revolution has created a new social distinction based not on wealth but on access to computer technology. Define the “have” and “have-nots” of modern society—both in terms of individuals and nations or governments—and give examples of both groups and explain how they are advantaged or disadvantaged by their computer status. Answer: The "haves" in modern society are individuals, nations, or governments who have access to advanced computer technology and digital resources, while the "have-nots" are those who lack such access. For individuals, the "haves" are often those with personal computers, smartphones, and high-speed internet connections, allowing them to access information, communication networks, and digital services. They benefit from increased opportunities for education, employment, and social interaction facilitated by technology. In contrast, the "have-nots" may lack access to digital devices and internet connectivity, limiting their ability to participate in the digital economy and access essential services such as online education, telemedicine, and e-commerce. Similarly, at the national or governmental level, "haves" include countries with advanced infrastructure, digital literacy programs, and investment in technology innovation. These nations benefit from increased productivity, economic growth, and competitiveness in the global market. In contrast, "have-nots" are countries with limited technological infrastructure, digital divide, and lack of investment in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) development. They may struggle to keep pace with technological advancements, hampering their economic development and social progress. Examples of "haves" include technologically advanced countries like the United States, Japan, and South Korea, while examples of "have-nots" include developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America with limited access to technology and digital resources. 79. What were the advantages of the European Union’s adoption of a common currency? Are all member countries to benefit equally? Consider the exchange of foreign currency in your answer. Answer: The adoption of a common currency, the Euro, by the European Union (EU) offered several advantages, including: 1. Facilitation of trade and economic integration: The Euro eliminated currency exchange costs and fluctuations within the Eurozone, making it easier and cheaper for member countries to trade goods and services with each other. This increased economic integration and cooperation among EU member states. 2. Price stability and reduced transaction costs: The Euro promoted price stability and reduced transaction costs for businesses and consumers by eliminating currency conversion fees and risks associated with fluctuating exchange rates. 3. Enhanced credibility and competitiveness: The Euro enhanced the credibility and stability of the European economy, making it more attractive to investors and enhancing the competitiveness of Eurozone countries in the global market. However, not all member countries benefit equally from the adoption of the Euro. Countries with strong economies and stable fiscal policies, such as Germany and the Netherlands, may benefit more from the common currency than countries with weaker economies and higher levels of debt, such as Greece and Italy. Additionally, the Eurozone's monetary policy, set by the European Central Bank (ECB), may not always align with the economic needs of individual member states, leading to disparities in economic performance and growth rates. Furthermore, the Euro's adoption has led to concerns about loss of national sovereignty and economic flexibility for member countries, as they must adhere to common monetary policies and fiscal rules set by the EU. Exchange rate fluctuations and currency devaluations, which can be used as economic tools by individual countries to stimulate exports or control inflation, are no longer available options for Eurozone members. 80. What effect do you think U.S. President Barack Obama’s popular support across Europe has on domestic issues facing the United States? What effect does it have on foreign policy and international relations? Answer: U.S. President Barack Obama's popular support across Europe had both domestic and foreign policy implications for the United States: Domestically, Obama's popularity in Europe bolstered his political standing and credibility at home, providing him with additional legitimacy and support for his domestic agenda. Positive perceptions of Obama's leadership and policies abroad may have influenced public opinion and political discourse within the United States, enhancing bipartisan cooperation and support for his administration's initiatives. In terms of foreign policy and international relations, Obama's popularity in Europe strengthened diplomatic ties and cooperation between the United States and European allies. Shared values, common interests, and mutual respect between Obama and European leaders facilitated collaboration on various global issues, including climate change, counterterrorism, and nuclear non-proliferation. Obama's engagement with Europe helped to rebuild transatlantic relations strained by the previous administration's policies and reaffirmed the importance of multilateralism and international cooperation in addressing global challenges. Furthermore, Obama's popularity in Europe enhanced America's soft power and influence on the world stage, bolstering its credibility and moral authority as a global leader. Positive perceptions of the United States under Obama's leadership helped to improve its image abroad and strengthen alliances with key partners, contributing to a more stable and secure international order. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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