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Chapter 29 The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The American policy to resist the extension of Soviet expansion, in the expectation that the Soviets would eventually collapse from internal pressure, is called ____________. A. commandment B. constraint C. containment D. constriction Answer: C 2. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy ____________. A. rejected support offered by noncommunist groups B. asked the Soviets for help in increasing a communist military presence in Hungary C. sought to make Hungary independent from the Soviet Union D. succeeded Janos Kadar as premier Answer: C 3. During the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, what evidence was used by the United States to convince the world of the threat posed by Cuba? A. photographs of missile equipment B. an audio recording that discussed Cuba’s plans C. munitions equipment that the United States confiscated from a boat near the coast of Florida D. written documents intercepted by U.S. intelligence forces Answer: A 4. In the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet Union ____________. A. was focused on reforming the internal workings of the Soviet government B. set a policy of Soviet self-containment C. increased freedom of discussion and other rights in the Soviet Union D. gave itself the right to interfere in the affairs of other communist countries Answer: D 5. The Helsinki Accords ____________. A. represented a step forward in recognizing human rights in Eastern Europe B. sought to limit the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe C. were opposed by the United States D. were initiated by U.S. President Jimmy Carter Answer: A 6. Who called the Soviet Union an “evil empire”? A. Pope John Paul II B. U.S. President Ronald Reagan C. U.S. President Jimmy Carter D. Mohandas Gandhi Answer: B 7. Generally speaking, Britain ____________. A. accepted the loss of empire as inevitable B. offered armed resistance to calls for decolonization C. sought to sever ties with its former colonies D. was taken by surprise by calls for decolonization Answer: A 8. Gandhi was successful in ____________. A. forcing the British to withdraw from India B. creating a single nation for all the people of India C. creating a single nation characterized by religious toleration D. creating a distinctly Muslim state Answer: A 9. What event marked the beginning of Algerian nationalism? A. the granting of full citizenship by France to a select group of Algerian Muslims B. the immigration of Europeans into Algiers C. the suppression of Muslims following a conflict at Sétif D. the founding of the National Liberation Front Answer: C 10. What event caused the United States to dramatically change its outlook on the situation in Indochina? A. the establishment of the People’s Republic of China B. the defeat of the French military at Dien Bien Phu C. the appearance of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam D. the start of the Vietnamese civil war Answer: A 11. What was one of the main aims of the National Liberation Front in Vietnam? A. oust the French from Vietnam B. divide Vietnam into separate military-run territories C. overthrow Ho Chi Minh D. overthrow Diem Answer: D 12. Vietnamization involved the ____________. A. immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops from Vietnam B. gradual replacement of U.S. with Vietnamese troops C. spread of the conflict in Vietnam to other countries D. emergence of Vietnam-like conflicts in other parts of the world Answer: B 13. Which of these countries was the first to officially reject communism? A. Hungary B. East Germany C. Czechoslovakia D. Romania Answer: A 14. Revolution in Czechoslovakia was led by ____________. A. Nicolae Ceausescu B. Václav Havel C. Gustav Husak D. Janos Kadar Answer: B 15. The revolutions of 1989 ____________. A. were mostly nonviolent B. involved intervention by the Soviet military C. were undertaken by a relatively small number of people D. resulted in high civilian casualties Answer: A 16. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States formed to loosely join how many of the resulting republics? A. 6 B. 11 C. 17 D. 3 Answer: B 17. The “ethnic cleansing” that took place in Bosnia primarily targeted ____________. A. Serbians B. Croatians C. Muslims D. Albanians Answer: C 18. Which of the following groups wanted to maintain a unitary Yugoslav state that it would dominate? A. Serbians B. Croatians C. Muslims D. Albanians Answer: A 19. The Russian Federation, unlike most of the European Union, condemned the independence of ____________. A. Serbia B. Bosnia C. Croatia D. Kosovo Answer: D 20. Putin’s foreign policy goals include ____________. A. asserting dominance over nations once part of the Soviet Union B. greater NATO involvement in former Soviet blocs C. supporting the American-led war in Iraq D. helping Chechnya become politically and economically independent Answer: A 21. What is the most accurate term for the belief that a pure Islam must be established in the contemporary world? A. fundamentalism B. reformism C. renovationism D. initialism Answer: B 22. Madrasas are ____________. A. holy cities B. Islamic religious schools C. secular Muslims D. Islamic political parties Answer: B 23. The Persian Gulf War of 1991 started when ____________. A. Iraq invaded Kuwait B. Kuwait invaded Iraq C. Islamic extremists bombed U.S. bases in Saudi Arabia D. the United States invaded Kuwait Answer: A 24. Which of the following countries supported the United States during the Persian Gulf War? A. Iran B. Syria C. Libya D. Saudi Arabia Answer: D 25. The first meaningful elections since the 1950s were held in Iraq in ____________. A. 1985 B. 1995 C. 2005 D. 1975 Answer: C 26. The Truman Doctrine was initiated in response to Soviet pressure on what countries? A. Romania and Bulgaria B. Greece and Turkey C. Albania and Yugoslavia D. Hungary and Romania Answer: B 27. The purpose of Stalin’s Cominform group was to ____________. A. improve communications among communist nation-states B. increase communications with noncommunist governments C. devise a master plan for the generation of Soviet propaganda D. spread communism throughout the world Answer: D 28. The United States wanted German industry in the western zone to be left intact because ____________. A. it hoped to use Germany’s economic might for its own military purposes B. that would allow Germany to again become economically independent C. that was what the Soviets had done in the eastern zone D. Truman feared the consequences of high unemployment in Germany Answer: B 29. The creation of a Jewish state ____________. A. intensified Cold War conflicts B. took place in the course of World War II C. was delayed by Britain’s harsh judgments of the Zionist movement D. engendered a surprisingly positive reaction from Egypt Answer: A 30. Which of the following can be said about Nikita Khrushchev’s leadership of the Soviet Union? A. The central theme was one of bolstering policies set up under Stalin. B. The government became more authoritarian. C. Agricultural regulations became harsher than under Stalin. D. Intellectuals had more freedom of expression. Answer: D 31. What did the Suez intervention of 1956 prove? A. The United States had little power to stop a determined Britain. B. Western Europe could not impose its will on the world without U.S. support. C. The United States had little power to stop a determined France. D. The new states in Africa and the Middle East were still, essentially, European colonies. Answer: B 32. What caused Khrushchev’s absence at the Paris Summit Conference? A. the shooting of a reconnaissance aircraft B. condemnation of the shooting from European nations C. Eisenhower’s refusal to apologize for the United States’ surveillance of the Soviet Union D. the United States’ competition with Soviet space missions Answer: C 33. Why did the Soviet Union invade Czechoslovakia? A. Czechoslovakian leader Alexander Dubcek was assassinated. B. Czechoslovakian leader Alexander Dubcek began liberalizing communism. C. Protest strikes resulted in a shutdown of the economy. D. Nationalist uprisings threatened to shut down the government. Answer: B 34. Mohandas Gandhi adopted the model of passive resistance after exposure to the writings of what American writer? A. Ralph Waldo Emerson B. Margaret Fuller C. Henry David Thoreau D. Nathaniel Hawthorne Answer: C 35. Why did France resist decolonization in Algeria? A. the country’s key mineral resources B. Algeria’s position next to other French colonies C. defeat in Indochina D. pieds noirs protests Answer: C 36. World War II made decolonization ____________. A. immediate B. inevitable C. impossible D. unlikely Answer: B 37. Algeria gained its independence as a result of ____________. A. a peace treaty between France and the National Liberation Front following the civil war B. a coup overthrowing the colonial government C. a referendum in Algeria D. desertion by the colonial government during the civil war Answer: C 38. What event led to the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam? A. an attack on a U.S. ship in the Gulf of Tonkin B. infighting among Vietnamese politicians following the withdrawal of French troops from Vietnam C. an attempted coup in which Ngo Dinh Diem was assassinated D. Ngo Dinh Diem’s announcement that Vietnam would not hold free elections Answer: A 39. Mikhail Gorbachev’s economic policies could be characterized as ____________. A. hugely successful B. moderately successful C. having no impact D. a failure Answer: D 40. The event preceding Gorbachev’s exit from Soviet political life was the ____________. A. attempted coup in 1991 B. attack on the Russian Parliament building in 1993 C. massacre of civilians in Romania in 1989 D. opening of the Berlin Wall in 1989 Answer: A 41. Which of the following came first in the breakup of Yugoslavia? A. NATO bombing of Serbia B. war in Kosovo C. war in Bosnia D. Kosovo declares its independence Answer: C 42. Why did Russia object to Kosovo’s independence? A. It might lead other republics to leave the federation. B. It feared Kosovo was providing arms and other assistance to Chechen rebels. C. It feared Kosovo would align with Poland. D. It feared China would profit from the weakness in the Russian Federation. Answer: A 43. The primary reason Putin supported the American assault on Afghanistan was ____________. A. to bring the Cold War to an end B. to limit the spread of Islamic extremism to countries that bordered Russia C. to reestablish political dominance in Afghanistan D. because it was an obvious quagmire that would drain American resources Answer: B 44. The greatest contribution to the improved economic situation under Putin was ____________. A. increased trade with the West B. oil resources and the rising price of oil C. government and administrative centralization D. higher taxes imposed on the oligarchs Answer: B 45. What was Putin’s relationship with NATO during his presidency? A. Putin sought to expand NATO’s involvement in Eastern Europe. B. Putin opposed the expansion of NATO in Eastern Europe. C. Putin condemned NATO after it sanctioned Russia for its interference with the governments of former Soviet republics. D. Putin criticized NATO after it refused to accept Russia as a member. Answer: B 46. Economically, Russia is vulnerable because of its ____________. A. relatively small size B. failure to industrialize C. lack of natural resources D. reliance on a single commodity, oil Answer: D 47. Unlike European nationalism, Arab nationalism is based largely on ____________. A. language B. shared customs C. a shared past D. religion Answer: D 48. The train bombings in Madrid, Spain, contributed to ____________. A. the retention of power by the Spanish government B. the removal of Spanish troops from Iraq C. greater solidarity between Spain and the United States D. the complete breakdown of relations between Spain and the United States Answer: B 49. Which of these post-war trends was stalled or reversed by the invasion of Iraq? A. U.S.-European cooperation B. the spread of Muslim reformism C. the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire D. unilateralism Answer: A 50. Which of these most notably changed the course of developments in the Middle East in the 1900s? A. the invasion of Kuwait B. the end of World War II C. the Russian invasion of Afghanistan D. the Iranian Revolution Answer: D 51. The Marshall Plan attempted to ____________. A. stop the spread of communism B. help Turkey against the Soviet Union C. help Europe rebuild D. bring World War II to an end Answer: C 52. The Reagan era saw both ____________ of the Cold War. A. hardening and softening B. the beginning and the end C. the height and the end D. escalation and intensification Answer: A 53. Afghanistan was like Greece, Turkey, and Vietnam, in being a ____________. A. communist nation B. Muslim nation C. member of NATO D. scene of Cold War confrontations Answer: D 54. The U.S. and the Soviet Union came closest to outright war during ____________. A. the Berlin blockade B. the Cuban missile crisis C. Tehran conference D. the invasion of Iraq Answer: B 55. The Truman doctrine was most directly paralleled by the Soviet Union’s ____________. A. détente B. Cominform C. Brezhnev Doctrine D. worldwide attention on the Yugoslav civil war Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. Stalin enacted a policy of intense tightening of control over subject governments in Eastern Europe following the success of ____________ in freeing his country from Soviet domination. Answer: Marshal Josip Tito 57. In 1957, Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, removing the dictator ____________. Answer: Fulgencio Batista 58. The appointment of ____________ was a key factor in Poland’s resistance to communist control. Answer: Pope John Paul II 59. The founding of ____________ resulted from the British withdrawal from India in 1947. Answer: Pakistan 60. The French leader who orchestrated that country’s retreat from Algiers was ____________. Answer: Charles de Gaulle 61. Brezhnev’s two immediate successors were Yuri Andropov and ____________. Answer: Konstantin Chernenko 62. In Poland, _____________ took on the role of mediator between the government and the trade union movement he had founded. Answer: Lech Walesa 63. West German leader _____________ was the leading force for German reunification. Answer: Helmut Kohl 64. The first two countries to declare their independence from the central Yugoslav government were ____________. Answer: Slovenia and Croatia 65. Serbian leader _____________ was finally removed from power in 2000. Answer: Slobodan Milosevic 66. During his presidency, Vladimir Putin renewed the war against rebels in ____________. Answer: Chechnya 67. Under President Putin, Russians had ____________ political freedom and ____________ prosperity. Answer: less; more 68. The literal meaning of the Muslim term ____________ is “a struggle.” Answer: jihad 69. The term “war on terrorism” was coined by ____________. Answer: President George W. Bush 70. Vladimir Putin has been sharply critical of the ongoing expansion of ____________, which has embraced nations directly bordering the Russian Federation. Answer: NATO 71. In 2002 and 2003, the United States and Great Britain tried to gain support from ____________ to force Iraq to disarm. Answer: the United Nations Security Council ESSAY 72. Do you think the Cold War could have been avoided? Why or why not? Answer: Avoiding the Cold War entirely would have been challenging given the ideological, geopolitical, and power dynamics of the post-World War II world. The tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union were deeply rooted in ideological differences, geopolitical competition, and mutual distrust. The division of Europe into spheres of influence, the emergence of nuclear weapons, and the desire for global influence all contributed to the onset of the Cold War. However, it's possible that the Cold War could have been mitigated or managed differently through more effective diplomacy, communication, and conflict resolution. Both sides could have pursued policies aimed at reducing tensions, promoting mutual understanding, and fostering cooperation, rather than escalating confrontations and proxy conflicts. Additionally, alternative decisions and actions by key leaders could have altered the course of history and potentially prevented or minimized the Cold War's impact. 73. Describe the conditions that prevailed in the Soviet Union following World War II. To what extent did Khrushchev and his successors follow the policies of Joseph Stalin? Answer: Following World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as a superpower but faced significant challenges, including postwar reconstruction, economic recovery, and the reconstruction of war-torn territories. Stalin's policies of forced industrialization, collectivization, and centralization of power had left a deep impact on Soviet society and governance. Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin's successor, implemented several reforms aimed at de-Stalinization and modernization of the Soviet Union. He denounced Stalin's cult of personality, initiated agricultural reforms, and pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence with the West. However, Khrushchev also maintained certain aspects of Stalinist policies, such as centralized control of the Communist Party and suppression of political dissent. Khrushchev's successors, including Leonid Brezhnev, continued to uphold many of the basic tenets of Stalinist ideology, such as centralized planning, one-party rule, and suppression of dissent. While they made some modifications to economic policies and social reforms, they largely preserved the authoritarian structure established by Stalin. 74. What did the Soviets hope to show the world by refusing to take part in the Paris Summit Conference in 1960? Do you think it was successful? Answer: The Soviet Union's decision to boycott the Paris Summit Conference in 1960 was intended to demonstrate its displeasure with the United States and its dissatisfaction with the prevailing international order. By refusing to participate, the Soviets hoped to assert their independence, challenge Western dominance, and signal their willingness to pursue their own agenda on the global stage. However, the Soviet boycott of the Paris Summit Conference ultimately had mixed results. While it did draw attention to Soviet grievances and underscored the growing tensions between the superpowers, it also reinforced perceptions of Soviet intransigence and contributed to further deterioration in East-West relations. The absence of direct dialogue and diplomatic engagement between the superpowers hindered efforts to address key issues and resolve conflicts, ultimately exacerbating Cold War tensions. Therefore, while the Soviet boycott may have achieved some short-term objectives, its long-term impact was largely negative in terms of promoting stability and cooperation on the international stage. 75. Explain how the Brezhnev Doctrine of 1968 differed from the Truman Doctrine of 1947. Answer: The Brezhnev Doctrine, introduced in 1968 by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, asserted the Soviet Union's right to intervene militarily in any socialist country that was seen as deviating from the principles of communism and socialism. It justified the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 to suppress the Prague Spring reform movement, demonstrating the Soviet Union's determination to maintain control over its satellite states in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the Truman Doctrine, announced by U.S. President Harry Truman in 1947, aimed to contain the spread of communism by providing economic and military assistance to countries threatened by Soviet expansionism. It represented a commitment by the United States to support nations resisting communist influence, particularly in Europe, and played a crucial role in shaping U.S. foreign policy during the early years of the Cold War. While both doctrines were responses to perceived threats to their respective spheres of influence, the Brezhnev Doctrine emphasized Soviet control over existing communist regimes, while the Truman Doctrine focused on preventing the spread of communism to non-communist countries. 76. Discuss the causes of the shift from colonization to decolonization. What factors set the stage for decolonization? What role did the United States play in this development? Answer: The shift from colonization to decolonization was driven by several factors, including the rise of nationalism and anti-colonial movements, the decline of European imperial powers after World War II, and changing global dynamics influenced by the Cold War. Nationalist movements in colonized territories, inspired by ideals of self-determination and independence, challenged colonial rule and demanded political autonomy. The decline of European empires weakened colonial powers economically and militarily, making it increasingly difficult to maintain control over distant colonies. Additionally, the emergence of superpowers like the United States and the Soviet Union, both of which supported decolonization for strategic reasons, provided momentum for anti-colonial movements. The United States played a complex role in the process of decolonization. While officially supporting self-determination and independence for colonized peoples, the United States also sought to expand its own influence and interests in the newly independent nations. In some cases, the United States supported anti-colonial movements as a means of countering Soviet influence and gaining allies in the Cold War struggle for global dominance. 77. Why did France follow a path different from Britain with regard to its colonies? What effect did that policy have on Cold War tensions? Answer: France followed a different path from Britain with regard to its colonies due to several factors, including historical legacies, strategic considerations, and domestic politics. France's colonial empire was deeply integrated into its national identity and economy, and French leaders were reluctant to relinquish control over their colonies. Additionally, France faced significant challenges, particularly in Algeria, where nationalist movements sought independence through armed struggle. This divergent colonial policy had implications for Cold War tensions, as France's refusal to grant independence to its colonies and its involvement in conflicts like the Algerian War contributed to friction with the United States and other Western allies. France's efforts to maintain its colonial empire conflicted with broader Western strategies aimed at promoting decolonization and containing communism, leading to disagreements and tensions within NATO and other Western institutions. 78. How was the collapse of the Soviet Union different from that experienced by Austria after World War I or by Germany after World War II? Answer: The collapse of the Soviet Union differed from the experiences of Austria after World War I and Germany after World War II in several significant ways. Firstly, the collapse of the Soviet Union was a result of internal factors such as economic stagnation, political instability, and ethnic tensions, whereas Austria's dissolution after World War I was largely due to external factors, including the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the imposition of punitive treaties. Secondly, the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the emergence of multiple independent states, each with its own government and political trajectory, whereas Austria's dissolution resulted in the establishment of a much smaller, unified Austrian state. Similarly, Germany's defeat in World War II resulted in the division of the country into two separate states, East and West Germany, each aligned with different ideological and geopolitical blocs, whereas the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of several former Soviet republics and the end of the Cold War division of Europe. 79. What were the causes of the breakup of Yugoslavia? Give at least two events leading to the breakup, and explain the underlying tensions that made the country vulnerable to fragmentation. Answer: The breakup of Yugoslavia was caused by a combination of historical, ethnic, and political factors, including unresolved tensions between different ethnic groups, economic disparities, and the resurgence of nationalism and separatism. One key event leading to the breakup was the death of Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia's long-time leader, in 1980. Tito had managed to maintain a delicate balance between the country's diverse ethnic groups through his policy of "Brotherhood and Unity." However, after his death, ethnic tensions resurfaced, and political leaders exploited nationalist sentiments to gain power and support. Another significant event was the rise of Slobodan Milošević in Serbia, who pursued a nationalist agenda and advocated for the dominance of Serbs within Yugoslavia. Milošević's actions, including the revocation of autonomy for Kosovo and Vojvodina and support for Serb separatist movements in Croatia and Bosnia, exacerbated ethnic tensions and contributed to the outbreak of conflict. Underlying tensions that made Yugoslavia vulnerable to fragmentation included historical animosities between different ethnic groups, economic disparities between regions, and the legacy of past conflicts and grievances. These tensions were further exacerbated by external factors, such as the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which created opportunities for nationalist movements to assert themselves. 80. Trace the changing world dynamics in the last half of the twentieth century that led to the development of radical Islamism. Answer: The development of radical Islamism in the last half of the twentieth century was influenced by a combination of factors, including historical legacies, geopolitical dynamics, and social and economic changes. One key factor was the decline of colonial empires and the subsequent rise of nationalist movements in Muslim-majority countries. These movements often sought to establish Islamic states and reject Western influence, drawing on religious rhetoric and symbols to mobilize support. Another factor was the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, which led to the instrumentalization of Islamist groups as proxies in regional conflicts. During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s, for example, the United States provided support to Islamist mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan, contributing to the radicalization and militarization of elements within the Islamic world. Social and economic changes, such as rapid urbanization, globalization, and the spread of mass communication technologies, also played a role in the rise of radical Islamism. These changes disrupted traditional social structures and identities, leading to a search for alternative sources of meaning and belonging, including radical interpretations of Islam. Overall, the development of radical Islamism was a complex and multifaceted process, influenced by a combination of historical, political, and socio-economic factors, as well as the interactions between different actors and ideologies on the global stage. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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