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Chapter 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Literacy rates were lowest in ____________. A. France B. Scandinavia C. the Netherlands D. Italy Answer: D 2. The Petit Journal is an example of ____________. A. pulp fiction B. a socialist newspaper C. a right-leaning newspaper D. a mass-circulation newspaper Answer: D 3. Which of the following became a major factor in the emerging mass politics? A. political cartoons B. letters to the editor C. front-page editorials D. transcripts of political speeches Answer: C 4. By the start of World War I, most major nations of Europe ____________. A. began providing free public education for the masses B. provided free elementary and secondary education for the masses C. began providing free university education for the masses D. provided free elementary, secondary, and university education for the masses Answer: A 5. Auguste Comte developed the theory of ____________. A. positivism B. survival science C. evolutionary ethics D. relativity Answer: A 6. The man generally accepted as father of popular science fiction was ____________. A. H. G. Wells B. Jules Verne C. Jonathan Swift D. Sir Thomas More Answer: B 7. Who believed that the struggle in nature demonstrated how human beings should not behave? A. Charles Darwin B. Thomas Henry Huxley C. Herbert Spencer D. Julius Wellhausen Answer: B 8. Darwin’s Descent of Man ____________. A. contended that neither the origin of humans nor human character required the existence of a god B. was a confirmation that human origins derived from an omniscient god C. gave scientific support to the notion that biology was the basis of social success D. gave scientific support to the notion that Europeans were biologically superior to other humans Answer: A 9. Who believed that struggle against one’s fellow human beings was an ethical imperative? A. Julius Wellhausen B. Sigmund Freud C. Charles Darwin D. Herbert Spencer Answer: D 10. Who contended that the story of Jesus was a myth? A. David Friedrich Strauss B. William Robertson Smith C. Ernst Renan D. Julius Wellhausen Answer: A 11. Friedrich Nietzsche portrayed Christianity as a religion that ____________. A. glorified the strength that life required B. glorified human weaknesses C. demanded heroic living D. superseded in glory the demands of war Answer: B 12. In France, the French Catholic Church and the Third French Republic ____________. A. agreed to replace religious instruction with civic training B. were formally separated in 1905 C. worked together to improve the education system D. were essentially one institution Answer: B 13. Otto von Bismarck’s Kulturkampf ____________. A. was a success B. was a failure C. resulted in the release of many bishops from government imprisonment D. paved the path for clergy to transition into a secular life Answer: B 14. The doctrine of papal infallibility was first formally promulgated in ____________. A. 1325 B. 1489 C. 1789 D. 1869 Answer: D 15. Max Weber believed that ____________. A. the emergence of rationalism was the major development in human history B. bureaucratization led to the destruction of modern society C. only economic factors could account for major developments in human history D. human history reached a high point in the Middle Ages Answer: A 16. In his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, Count Arthur de Gobineau ____________. A. portrayed Western troubles as springing from racial mixing B. claimed Western troubles were the result of resistance to intermarriage C. railed against the racism that had long existed in European culture D. blamed the black race for what he called “contrary discrimination” Answer: A 17. Theodor Herzl ____________. A. believed that liberal politics could protect Jews in Europe B. called for a separate Jewish state in which Jewish rights and liberties would be protected C. called for reforms to benefit Jews living in ghettos D. believed that Jews did not deserve an assurance of rights and liberties without initiating a move toward a new Jewish state Answer: B 18. The first genuinely realistic novel is considered to be ____________. A. A Doll’s House B. Madame Bovary C. Mrs. Warren’s Profession D. Mrs. Dalloway Answer: B 19. What was the first important work by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche? A. The Will to Power B. Beyond Good and Evil C. The Birth of Tragedy D. The Genealogy of Morals Answer: C 20. In London, what group excluded women from its ranks, claiming that discussion of primitive people was an unfit subject for females? A. the Ethnological Society B. the Geological Society C. the Society of Ethnological Enlightenment D. the League for Social Order Answer: A 21. What type of view of women emerged in late-nineteenth-century fiction and art, inspired largely by pseudoscience? A. a worshipful view B. a misogynistic view C. a liberal view D. a scientific view Answer: B 22. T. H. Huxley claimed to have found ____________. A. scientific proof of female superiority B. scientific proof of female inferiority C. scientific proof of equality between men and women D. biological evidence of original sin Answer: B 23. Late-Victorian anthropologists drew a parallel between women and ____________. A. children B. nonwhite races C. unlearned men D. animals Answer: B 24. Most social scientists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century ____________. A. reinforced traditional gender roles B. supported wider sexual freedoms for women C. embraced some but not all feminist ideas about gender roles D. began to take a more liberal view of marriage, family, and child rearing Answer: A 25. The Swedish writer Ellen Key believed that ____________. A. government should financially support mothers and their children B. children should be raised in state-supported communes C. government should assume physical custody and financial support of the children of unmarried mothers D. mothers and fathers had equal financial responsibility for their children Answer: A 26. Liberals and conservatives recognized that ____________. A. minimal education was needed to help keep new voters in check B. extensive education was needed to ensure the orderly political behavior of new voters C. literacy would jeopardize the productivity of the workforce D. education leading to better jobs and political influence was within reach of the masses Answer: A 27. Mass-circulation newspapers, when first introduced, were characterized by ____________. A. a high quality level B. a focus on straight news stories C. stories about sensational crimes and political scandals D. an emphasis on weather and commodities prices Answer: C 28. Which of the following most helped the school-teaching profession grow? A. university-educated schoolteachers B. higher-paid teachers C. more male schoolteachers D. state-sponsored education Answer: D 29. Many of the books and journals of the late nineteenth century were mediocre because ____________. A. many new readers were only marginally literate B. many authors were only marginally proficient C. reading tastes changed frequently D. publishing companies lacked adequate financing Answer: A 30. Which of the following statements about evolution is True? A. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace explained how changes in organisms occur. B. Charles Darwin originated the concept of evolution. C. Alfred Russel Wallace drew on Darwin’s work. D. Charles Darwin drew on the works of Wallace. Answer: A 31. Auguste Comte’s works were influential because they ____________. A. helped convince learned Europeans that all knowledge must resemble scientific knowledge B. were the first works to provide evidence that nature evolved independently of a supernatural force C. challenged Darwin’s theory of natural selection D. provided scientific evidence disputing the biblical story of Creation Answer: A 32. Herbert Spencer and Thomas Huxley were similar in ____________. A. being related closely to Darwin’s work B. criticizing the institutions but not the teachings of the organized churches C. that both originated theories concerning the mechanism of evolution D. arguing against Social Darwinism Answer: A 33. By midcentury, science had a strong foothold in ____________. A. state-funded elementary schools B. church schools C. state-funded elementary schools and church schools D. French and German universities Answer: D 34. From midcentury on, writers used science to question ____________. A. ethics B. history C. religion D. philosophy Answer: C 35. Which of the following modern-day practices would the social Darwinists of the nineteenth century be most likely to support? A. UN peacekeeping troops in war-torn countries B. welfare states C. universal health care D. price wars between competitors Answer: D 36. The salafiyya movement believed that ____________. A. Arabs should modernize themselves on the basis of a modified version of Islam B. the Arab world should imitate the West C. there was no inherent contradiction between science and Islam D. the West and modern thought were incompatible with Islam Answer: C 37. The factor that caused the greatest loss of faith in Christianity among literate Europeans was ____________. A. doubt about the historical validity of the Bible B. doubt about the morality of Christianity C. Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection D. doubt about the scientific validity of Creationism Answer: A 38. Scholars in Germany, France, and Britain claimed that humans had written and revised the books of the Bible to ____________. A. accommodate problems in Jewish society and politics B. reflect Christian social and political mores C. incorporate scientific knowledge as it became known D. make it more credible to contemporary readers Answer: A 39. Skeptics who questioned the morality of Christianity cited ____________. A. the cruelty and unpredictability of the Old Testament God B. its intolerance against people of other faiths C. the irrationality of the New Testament God D. its lack of equality between men and women Answer: A 40. Christian missionaries in Muslim lands were most successful in ____________. A. converting Muslims to Christianity B. helping to abolish slavery C. educating young Arabs in science and medicine D. promoting more tolerant views of nonwhites Answer: C 41. The primary reason churches opposed state-financed schools was that they feared ____________. A. future generations educated in state-financed schools would lack religious training B. losing students to state-financed schools would result in their demise C. states would require them to improve their educational standards D. states would limit the churches’ power to control all aspects of the schools’ operation Answer: A 42. The Manet painting A Bar at the Folies-Bergère suggests ____________. A. different social classes did not mix socially in modern urban life B. the middle classes enjoyed a life of leisure C. the working class was excluded from most urban leisure activities D. leisure activities in modern urban life allowed people from different classes to mix Answer: D 43. What field of science most influenced racial thinking at the end of the nineteenth century? A. physics B. biology C. evolution D. medicine Answer: B 44. Modernists were driven by ____________. A. admiration for middle-class society and morality B. a concern for the aesthetic C. a deep concern for social issues D. a respect for the values of their predecessors Answer: B 45. The Contagious Diseases Acts in England were designed to ____________. A. reduce disease in British slums B. wipe out diseases such as cholera, which affected all of society C. protect men from contracting diseases from prostitutes D. impose harsh penalties on military men who spread venereal disease Answer: C 46. Which of the following groups or institutions acted as the primary forum for feminist writers to advance their ideas at the turn of the century? A. churches B. socialist groups C. literary networks D. universities Answer: C 47. What did Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Karl Vogt, and T. H. Huxley have in common? A. They claimed that science showed women were inferior to men. B. They used science to examine the role of humans as a part of nature. C. They used science to explore the inner worlds of humans. D. They claimed that science proved some races were superior to others. Answer: A 48. Which of these women’s domestic roles was emphasized by most male intellectuals of the late 1800s? A. educational B. housekeeping C. reproductive D. service Answer: C 49. What argument did critics of the Contagious Diseases Acts use to justify their demands for their repeal? A. If it weren’t for male customers, there’d be no prostitutes. B. Since it’s legal for men to engage in prostitution, it should be legal for women. C. Prostitution provides a benefit to society. D. Both men and women should be subject to random medical examinations. Answer: B 50. In A Room of One’s Own, Virginia Woolf concluded that ____________. A. both male and female writers should be able to think as both men and women B. female writers should imitate male writers C. male writers were superior to female writers D. female writers should bring feminine traits to their writing Answer: A 51. Which of these regions of Europe had lower literacy rates in the late 1800s? A. western and northern B. southern and eastern C. northern and eastern D. southern and western Answer: B 52. Uniformitarianism, developed by Charles Lyell, is based on the idea that natural laws ____________. A. are immutable B. change over time C. cannot be determined D. change too rapidly to be formulated Answer: A 53. Max Weber and Ernest Renan approached Islam as a(n) ____________. A. historical phenomenon B. spiritual development C. religion equal to Christianity D. phenomenon caused by Christian crusaders Answer: A 54. Sigmund Freud was unusual in paying close attention to ____________. A. dreams B. religion C. mental states D. psychoses Answer: A 55. In A Room of One’s Own, the “room” of the title symbolized ____________. A. a place for creative expression B. financial independence C. a university education D. the life of single women Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. Literacy paved the way for women to greatly expand their employment in the arena of ____________. Answer: teaching 57. Charles Darwin applied the principle of evolution by natural selection to humans in his book ____________. Answer: The Descent of Man 58. The philosophy of ____________ promulgated the theory that human intellectual development progressed through theology and metaphysics and finally culminated in the stage of scientific understanding. Answer: positivism 59. ____________, written by H. G. Wells, was about a mad surgeon’s inhuman experiments on animals. Answer: The Island of Dr. Moreau 60. ____________ suggested that the earth is much older than the Bible indicates and implied that God was not involved in the effort required to create the earth. Answer: Charles Lyell 61. In the late nineteenth century, the conflict between church and state centered on ____________. Answer: education systems 62. The most important proclamation of Pope Leo XIII was the encyclical ____________, which, in part, urged employers to seek just and peaceful relations with workers. Answer: Rerum Novarum 63. The first person to use race to explain history was ____________. Answer: Count Arthur de Gobineau 64. Theodor Herzl advocated ____________. Answer: Zionism 65. By World War I, few scientists believed they could portray the ____________ about physical reality. Answer: truth 66. The Irish writer ____________ argued against romanticism and false respectability. Answer: George Bernard Shaw 67. In his novel In Search of Time Past, Marcel Proust adopted a ____________ format that helped him to explore his memories. Answer: stream-of-consciousness 68. Cubist painters such as Georges Braque and ____________ saw painting as an autonomous realm of art with no purpose beyond itself. Answer: Pablo Picasso 69. Prominent women psychoanalysts such as Karen Horney and ____________ challenged Freud’s views on women. Answer: Melanie Klein 70. The Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts was led by ____________. Answer: Josephine Butler ESSAY 71. Describe the major characteristics of the Enlightenment and Romantic movement and explain how these concepts influenced the intellectual orientation of the late nineteenth century. Answer: Enlightenment and Romanticism: Enlightenment: - Rationalism: Emphasis on reason, logic, and scientific inquiry as the primary sources of knowledge and progress. - Skepticism: Questioning of traditional authority, including religious and political institutions. - Individualism: Focus on the rights and freedoms of individuals, advocating for liberty, equality, and secularism. - Optimism: Belief in human potential for improvement through education, reform, and the spread of knowledge. Romanticism: - Emotion and Imagination: Emphasis on feelings, intuition, and subjective experience as sources of inspiration and creativity. - Nature: Reverence for the natural world, viewing it as a source of beauty, truth, and spiritual renewal. - Individuality: Celebration of the unique self and personal expression, often in rebellion against societal norms and conventions. - Idealism: Pursuit of transcendent truths and higher realities beyond the material world. These concepts influenced the intellectual orientation of the late nineteenth century by: - Enlightenment: Contributed to the rise of scientific advancements, secularism, and political revolutions, laying the groundwork for modernity. - Romanticism: Inspired a renewed interest in emotion, nature, and individualism, influencing artistic, literary, and philosophical movements such as Symbolism and Existentialism. 72. Explain how higher literacy rates worked to provide consumers for the Second Industrial Revolution. Answer: Higher Literacy Rates and the Second Industrial Revolution: Higher literacy rates provided consumers for the Second Industrial Revolution by: - Expanded Markets: Literacy enabled more people to access advertising, product information, and consumer culture, increasing demand for goods and services. - Workforce Development: Literate workers were better equipped to operate machinery, follow instructions, and adapt to new technologies, driving industrial productivity. - Financial Literacy: Understanding of finance and economics facilitated participation in banking, investment, and consumer credit, stimulating economic growth and consumer spending. 73. How did science fiction find immediate acceptance by the popular culture? Answer: Science fiction found immediate acceptance by popular culture due to: - Escapism: Offered imaginative worlds and futuristic scenarios that allowed audiences to escape from the constraints of reality and explore new possibilities. - Reflection of Contemporary Concerns: Addressed contemporary social, political, and technological issues in allegorical or speculative ways, resonating with audiences' anxieties and aspirations. - Entertainment Value: Provided thrilling narratives, exotic settings, and mind-bending concepts that captivated readers and viewers, making it a lucrative genre for publishers and producers. 74. Explain the juxtaposing views held by Herbert Spencer and T. H. Huxley regarding evolutionary ethics. Answer: Juxtaposing Views of Herbert Spencer and T. H. Huxley Regarding Evolutionary Ethics: - Herbert Spencer: Advocated for Social Darwinism, applying Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society. He believed in "survival of the fittest," arguing that competition and individualism would lead to social progress and prosperity. - T. H. Huxley: Known as "Darwin's Bulldog," Huxley supported Darwin's theory of evolution but rejected Spencer's application of it to social policy. Instead, he emphasized cooperation, altruism, and social responsibility, arguing for ethical principles based on empathy and solidarity rather than ruthless competition. 75. Explain the dynamics that existed in Germany in the church-state conflict. What views were expressed by the primary players in the conflict? Answer: Dynamics in the Church-State Conflict in Germany: The church-state conflict in Germany was characterized by: - Kulturkampf: Bismarck's campaign against the Catholic Church to assert state control over education and civil affairs. - Opposing Views: The state sought to diminish the influence of the Catholic Church, while the Church resisted state interference, defending its autonomy and religious authority. - Political Realignment: The conflict led to shifts in political alliances, with Catholics aligning against Bismarck's government and forming the Center Party to protect their interests. 76. Why was the nineteenth century such a difficult period for Christian churches? What challenges did they face as Europe made advances in other areas? Answer: Challenges Faced by Christian Churches in the Nineteenth Century: The nineteenth century posed challenges for Christian churches due to: - Secularization: Growing secularism and scientific advancements undermined religious authority and belief in traditional Christian doctrines. - Political Changes: Shifts in power and ideology, including revolutions and nationalism, challenged the influence of established churches and their alignment with state authority. - Social Reforms: Movements for social justice, equality, and human rights often clashed with conservative religious values, leading to tensions and conflicts within Christian communities. 77. Explain how Carl Jung’s theories differed from Sigmund Freud’s. Include a discussion of both Freud’s early and later theories. How did Freud respond to Jung’s theories? Answer: Differences Between Carl Jung’s and Sigmund Freud’s Theories: Freud's Early Theories: - Psychosexual Development: Freud proposed that personality development is shaped by childhood experiences and conflicts related to sexual and aggressive instincts. - Structural Model of the Mind: He introduced the id, ego, and superego as components of the psyche, representing primal drives, rationality, and moral standards, respectively. - Theory of Dreams: Freud interpreted dreams as expressions of unconscious desires and conflicts, providing insight into the individual's psyche. Freud's Later Theories: - Psychodynamic Theory: Expanded on the role of unconscious processes in shaping behavior, emphasizing the importance of defense mechanisms and the interpretation of symptoms. - Life and Death Instincts: Introduced the concept of the death instinct (Thanatos) alongside the life instinct (Eros), proposing that human behavior is driven by the interplay of these opposing forces. Jung's Theories: - Analytical Psychology: Jung developed a more holistic approach, focusing on the integration of conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche to achieve individuation and wholeness. - Collective Unconscious: Introduced the idea of a collective unconscious, containing universal symbols and archetypes shared by all humanity, influencing behavior and culture. - Persona and Shadow: Explored the concepts of persona (social mask) and shadow (repressed or hidden aspects of the self), emphasizing the importance of embracing one's true identity. Freud's Response to Jung's Theories: - Initially, Freud viewed Jung as his heir apparent and valued his contributions to psychoanalysis. However, their relationship soured due to differences in theoretical perspectives, particularly regarding the role of sexuality and the unconscious. - Freud criticized Jung's departure from orthodox psychoanalytic theory, leading to their eventual split and the formation of separate schools of thought. 78. Explain how anti-Semitism developed, despite advancements made by Western European Jews following the French Revolution. How did politicians play a role in intensifying feelings of anti-Semitism? Answer: Development of Anti-Semitism and Political Role: Anti-Semitism developed despite advancements by Western European Jews following the French Revolution due to: - Cultural and Economic Competition: Jews faced resentment from non-Jewish populations due to their perceived economic success and cultural differences. - Nationalism and Xenophobia: Rising nationalist sentiments led to scapegoating of minority groups, including Jews, as outsiders threatening national identity and unity. - Politicians' Role: Some politicians exploited anti-Semitic sentiments for political gain, using Jews as convenient targets to rally support and deflect attention from social and economic issues. 79. Why did many late-nineteenth century writers exhibit hostility toward women? What led to such a viewpoint? Answer: Hostility Toward Women in Late-Nineteenth Century Writers: Many late-nineteenth century writers exhibited hostility toward women due to: - Social Norms: Traditional gender roles and patriarchal attitudes prevailed, reinforcing the idea of women as inferior and subordinate to men. - Threat to Masculinity: Some writers perceived the emerging women's rights movement and changing gender dynamics as a threat to male authority and dominance. - Fear of Emancipation: The prospect of women gaining social, political, and economic independence challenged traditional power structures and fueled anxieties about loss of control. 80. Describe the steps taken by feminists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What issues did they tackle, and what was the outcome? Were they successful in their causes? Answer: Steps Taken by Feminists in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: Feminists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries tackled various issues and achieved significant outcomes through: - Activism for Suffrage: Fought for women's right to vote through campaigns, protests, and lobbying efforts, leading to suffrage movements and eventual enfranchisement in many countries. - Legal Reforms: Advocated for legal reforms to secure women's rights in areas such as property ownership, divorce laws, and access to education and employment. - Social Reform: Addressed societal attitudes and cultural norms regarding gender roles, challenging stereotypes and advocating for gender equality in all aspects of life. - International Collaboration: Formed alliances and networks across borders to coordinate efforts and amplify their voices on a global scale, leading to the advancement of women's rights internationally. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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