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Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The final military action of the Crimean War was located ____________. A. in the region of Alsace and Lorraine, bordering the French and German border B. off the coast of Britain, in the English Channel C. near the Danube River in southern Germany D. along the coast of the Black Sea and at the Russian fortress of Sevastopol Answer: D 2. Why did Great Britain and France align themselves with the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War? A. They opposed Russian expansion in the eastern Mediterranean where they had naval and commercial interests. B. They feared losing control of holy places in Palestine. C. They supported the Ottoman Empire’s reasons for going to war. D. They feared that Russia’s expansion plans would eventually reach their lands. Answer: A 3. Who were the Young Turks? A. a group of reformist officers who wanted to preserve the Ottoman Empire’s traditions B. a group of reformist officers who wanted to modernize the Ottoman Empire C. young members of the Ottoman Empire’s army who were training to become military officers D. an elite group of military officers who conducted covert surveillance against radicals Answer: B 4. The Ottoman Empire’s constitution of 1876 ____________. A. called for a parliament B. limited the powers of the sultan C. was a first step toward democracy D. called for a chamber of deputies appointed by the sultan Answer: A 5. The Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane ____________. A. banned the practice of Christianity within the Ottoman Empire B. banned the practice of Judaism within the Ottoman Empire C. extended civic equality to all Ottoman subjects regardless of their religion D. required Christians and Jews to convert to Islam Answer: C 6. The Hatt-i Hümayun ____________. A. gave non-Muslims equal opportunities for state employment and state schools B. excluded non-Muslims from state employment C. excluded non-Muslims from state schools D. excluded non-Muslims from military obligations Answer: A 7. The Italian peninsula was transformed into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy by ____________. A. 1850 B. 1855 C. 1860 D. 1865 Answer: C 8. Count Camillo Cavour was a ____________. A. fanatical Catholic B. fervent democrat C. socialist D. strong monarchist Answer: D 9. Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi ____________. A. conducted guerrilla warfare in their attempts to establish an Italian republic B. used secret diplomacy to further their political ambitions C. helped to restore the kingdom of Piedmont as a buffer between France and Austria D. were the driving forces behind the Congress of Vienna Answer: A 10. The two houses of the North German Confederation were the ____________. A. Dem Deutschen Volke and Bundestag B. Reichstag and Parliament C. Parliament and Bundestag D. Bundesrat and Reichstag Answer: D 11. The Paris Commune was dominated by ____________. A. genuine proletarians B. radicals and socialists C. strict communists D. socialists and anarchists Answer: B 12. Which of these ruled the French Second Empire? A. Napoleon III B. Napoleon Bonaparte C. Louis XVIII D. Adolphe Thiers Answer: A 13. One of the objectives of the Paris Commune was to ____________. A. administer Paris separately from the rest of France B. persuade the government to move the capital back to Paris C. combat anti-Semitism in Paris D. infiltrate the government and military in order to liberate Paris from France Answer: A 14. One of the accomplishments of the Third Republic was the creation of a ____________, elected by universal male suffrage. A. king B. prime minister C. Senate D. Chamber of Deputies Answer: D 15. The Hungarians accepted which of the following? A. the Compromise of 1867 B. the February Patent C. the October Diploma D. a federation of states Answer: A 16. Which of the following instituted the most extensive restructuring of Russian society and administration since Peter the Great? A. Alexander II B. Alexander III C. Nicholas I D. Nicholas II Answer: A 17. Which of the following distinguished Russia from the rest of Europe in the 1800s, but was ended in February 1861? A. bourgeoisie B. serfdom C. conscription D. legalism Answer: B 18. Until the close of World War I, ____________ was treated as merely another Russian province. A. Finland B. Lithuania C. Poland D. Latvia Answer: C 19. In 1850, all males in Russia were subject to military service for ____________ years. A. 18 B. 19 C. 20 D. 21 Answer: C 20. One of the flaws of Russia’s new legal system, which was modeled after Western legal principles, was that ____________. A. it did not allow for trial by jury B. it did not consider all accused parties equal before the law C. the tsar could overrule the judge’s sentence D. the tsar could elect to hear a trial Answer: C 21. In 1863, ____________ nationalists unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow Russian dominance. A. German B. Czech C. Polish D. Japanese Answer: C 22. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced ____________. A. universal male suffrage B. suffrage to Caucasian males without Anglican religious requirements C. a literacy poll for voting requirements D. voting by secret ballot Answer: D 23. The leader of Ireland’s movement for home rule was ____________. A. Gladstone B. Parnell C. Disraeli D. O’Malley Answer: B 24. Who shepherded the Second Reform Act of 1867? A. Benjamin Disraeli B. William Gladstone C. Lord Derby D. Lord Russell Answer: A 25. Home rule passed the House of Lords in ____________. A. 1914 B. 1886 C. 1892 D. 1912 Answer: A 26. The Crimean War was rooted in the ____________. A. desire for unification of all German-speaking people B. hopes of the Italian people for unification on the peninsula C. long-standing desire of Russia to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire D. British desire to dominate all eastern trade Answer: C 27. The Crimean War was the first to ____________. A. utilize modern trench warfare B. engineer and use early airplanes C. be covered by war correspondents and photographers D. issue modern mess kits, including penicillin Answer: C 28. For the first twenty-five years after the Crimean War, European affairs were ____________. A. relatively stable, as countries respected the Vienna settlement B. tumultuous, as countries adapted to shifts in power C. unstable, as fears of revolutions declined and the great powers had less reverence for the Vienna settlement D. stable, as countries joined forces to prevent another war Answer: C 29. Which of these describes the military operations of the Crimean War? A. The British and French troops were superior to those of the Ottomans and Russians. B. The Russian troops were superior to all other forces. C. The Ottoman troops were superior to all other forces. D. All of the troops were inept, ill-equipped, and poorly commanded. Answer: D 30. Which element of the nineteenth-century European order was destroyed by the Crimean War? A. the split between Orthodox Christians and Roman Catholics B. the Concert of Europe C. multinational empires D. the myth of Prussian invincibility Answer: B 31. Issued as a decree from the sultan, the Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane attempted to ____________. A. formally annex Serbia and all Slavic peoples to the Ottoman Empire B. reorganize the empire’s administration and military along European lines C. pressure bureaucrats to recognize only Christianity as a legitimate religion D. democratize the Ottoman Empire Answer: B 32. What event(s) demonstrated the Ottoman Empire’s inability to regain its former power? A. the Balkan wars of the late 1870s B. the Crimean War C. the Treaty of Paris D. the issuing of the Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane Answer: A 33. The most important nationalist leader in Europe, who brought new fervor to the hopes of Italian nationalism and unification in the 1830s and 1840s, was ____________. A. Giuseppe Mazzini B. Francisco Franco C. Giuseppe Garibaldi D. Camillo Cavour Answer: A 34. Count Camillo Cavour’s methods to achieve Italian unification would best coincide with which philosopher’s ideology? A. Locke B. Machiavelli C. Robespierre D. Descartes Answer: B 35. A formal treaty in December 1858 confirmed an agreement between Count Camillo Cavour and Napoleon III that would ____________. A. provoke a war in Italy, which would in turn permit Italy and France to defeat Austria B. overthrow Mazzini and allow direct Italian unification, with French assistance C. defeat the Russians at Sevastopol with Italian and French forces D. spark revolution in Austria Answer: A 36. In 1866, Venetia was added to Italy in exchange for ____________. A. Italy’s formal recognition of Prussia as an independent nation-state B. Italy’s alliance with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War C. Italy’s military aid to the Prussians in the Crimean War D. recognition of papal authority in central Italy Answer: B 37. Bismarck embraced the cause of German nationalism ____________. A. as a strategy to enable Prussian conservatives to outflank Prussian liberals B. as a means of deterring a French invasion with a growing military force C. in hopes of supporting a larger population to undergo European dominance D. as a political move to solicit an Italian ally in a forthcoming war against Austria Answer: A 38. Prussia excluded Austria from German affairs by ____________. A. denying Austrian claims at the Convention of Gastein B. defeating Austria in the Seven Weeks’ War C. encouraging and succeeding in an Italian defeat of Austria D. gaining European-wide support for its policies Answer: B 39. In the 1860s, Napoleon III made concessions to the liberals ____________. A. to compensate for his failures in foreign policy B. to stifle growing calls for a revolution C. to deflect attention away from his failures in domestic reforms D. in an attempt to suppress a military coup Answer: A 40. Emperor Francis Joseph’s scheme for centralized administration of the Habsburg Empire meant that the government was dominated by ____________. A. Russians B. liberals C. Hungarians D. German-speaking Austrians Answer: D 41. Austria-Hungary’s formation of a dual monarchy in 1867 ____________. A. meant greater Austrian control of Hungary B. meant that a Magyar occupied the Hungarian throne C. meant that Austria and Hungary became virtually separate states D. enabled Austria-Hungary to become a major imperial power in Africa Answer: C 42. Which of the following groups would have supported the Compromise of 1867? A. Czechs B. Hungarians C. Romanians D. Croatians Answer: B 43. Czech “trialism” was vetoed and argued against because ____________. A. Francis Joseph was not willing to accept the concept B. the Magyars believed they might be forced to make similar concessions to their own subject nationalities C. the Germans in the empire would lose standing D. there was little public support for it in Bohemia Answer: B 44. The Balkan tensions of the late 1800s ____________. A. helped to spark the First World War B. decreased as national groups linked themselves to established states C. were a major source of political instability in Western Europe D. were a result of conflicts between the Habsburg and Ottoman empires Answer: A 45. The Russian government responded to radical revolutionary groups that emerged in the late 1800s by ____________. A. meeting with them to hear their concerns B. making limited concessions C. increasing repression D. introducing liberal reforms Answer: C 46. What motivated Alexander II to abolish serfdom? A. socialist ideas about oppression B. socialist ideas about land ownership C. classical economist ideas about labor D. a belief that serfdom would hold Russia back Answer: D 47. Russian peasants responded to young revolutionaries who tried to win their support for social reforms based on the communal life of peasants by ____________. A. embracing their cause and joining the revolution B. accepting their ideas but expressing skepticism for their methods C. engaging in violent conflicts with the revolutionaries D. turning the revolutionaries over to the police Answer: D 48. Refer to the essay “The Arrival of Penny Postage.” How did the changes in the British postal service affect the quantity of mail and the size of the government workforce? A. Both the quantity of mail and the size of the government workforce rose. B. The size of the government workforce rose to prevent mail fraud, and the mail quantity decreased. C. The new changes did not affect the size of the government, but the quantity of mail rose significantly. D. The new changes did not affect the quantity of mail, but the size of government increased significantly. Answer: A 49. Gladstone’s ministry of 1868 to 1874 witnessed the culmination of ____________. A. staunch conservatism B. classical British liberalism C. radical socialism D. renowned republicanism Answer: B 50. Ireland played the same role in British politics that ____________ did in Habsburg politics. A. Hungary B. Austria C. Prussia D. Poland Answer: A 51. Reforms in the Ottoman Empire were, in general, ____________. A. implementations of Sharia law B. unsuccessful C. intended to align the empire with Russia D. westernizing Answer: D 52. The most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914 was ____________. A. the leadership of Bismarck B. German unification C. Russian defeat in the Crimean War D. Italy’s alliance with Prussia against Austria Answer: B 53. Which of the following statements about Napoleon III is True? A. Napoleon III was killed in the Battle of Sedan. B. Napoleon III was captured in the Battle of Sedan. C. Napoleon III died in exile in 1873. D. Napoleon III was considered the greatest of all European leaders of the nineteenth century. Answer: C 54. Why was 1860 considered a turning point during the reign of Napoleon III? A. It marked the shift from a liberal empire to an authoritative empire. B. It marked the shift from an authoritative empire to a liberal empire. C. It was the year Napoleon III gained control of the legislature. D. It was the year Napoleon III permitted labor unions. Answer: B 55. William Gladstone disestablished the Church of Ireland for what reason? A. to eliminate the church’s competition with the Church of England B. as a blow to Irish nationalists C. as a concession to Irish nationalism D. to begin the process of Irish home rule Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. On March 28, 1854, France and Britain declared war on ____________ in alliance with the Ottomans. Answer: Russia 57. At the close of the Crimean War, the image of an invincible Russia that had prevailed across Europe since the close of the ____________ Wars was shattered. Answer: Napoleonic 58. During the age of Tanzimat, the Ottoman Empire actually sought to copy ____________ legal and military institutions and the secular values flowing from liberalism. Answer: European 59. Putting reforms into practice was difficult, especially in Egypt and Tunis, where local rulers were virtually independent of ____________. Answer: Istanbul 60. The state of ____________, the most independent state on the Italian peninsula, led the country’s unification effort. Answer: Piedmont 61. Cavour believed that only ____________ intervention could defeat Austria and unite Italy. Answer: French 62. Bismarck’s values were stereotypically ____________ later in his political career. Answer: conservative 63. In 1866, Prussia went to war with ____________, after siding with it against Denmark in 1864. Answer: Austria 64. The German Empire was proclaimed in 1871 at the Palace of ____________. Answer: Versailles 65. The unification of Germany was a blow to European ____________. Answer: liberalism 66. The war of 1870 against ____________ had been the French government’s last and most disastrous attempt to shore up its foreign policy and secure domestic popularity. Answer: Germany 67. The French National Assembly backed into a ____________ form of government against its will. Answer: republican 68. By the late nineteenth century, the single most important factor in defining a nation was ____________. Answer: language 69. Austrian refusal to support Russia during the ____________ War meant the new tsar, Alexander II, would no longer help preserve Habsburg rule in Hungary. Answer: Crimean 70. The ____________ of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy. Answer: Ausgleich ESSAY 71. What were the causes of the Crimean War? Which nations were involved? What was the outcome of the war? What did the peace settlements state? What long-term results emerged? Answer: The Crimean War, which occurred from 1853 to 1856, was primarily caused by a combination of political, territorial, and religious tensions in the Balkans and the Middle East. The key causes included: - Dispute over control of the holy sites in Jerusalem, which escalated into conflict between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. - Russian expansionist ambitions in the Balkans and the Black Sea region, threatening the balance of power in Europe. - Concerns among European powers, particularly Britain and France, about Russian dominance in the region and the potential disruption of trade routes to Asia. - Ottoman decline and internal instability, leading to fears of the empire's collapse and the potential for Russian territorial expansion. The main nations involved in the Crimean War were Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, France, and Sardinia (later known as the Kingdom of Italy). The war saw a series of military campaigns and battles, including the famous Siege of Sevastopol. The outcome of the war was a victory for the allied forces of Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire, who successfully repelled Russian advances in the Black Sea region. The peace settlements, outlined in the Treaty of Paris (1856), aimed to restore the balance of power in Europe and protect the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Key provisions included the demilitarization of the Black Sea and the recognition of the Ottoman Empire's sovereignty over its territories. Long-term results of the Crimean War included: - Weakening of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of its decline as a major power in Europe and the Middle East. - Rise of nationalism and calls for reform within the Ottoman Empire, particularly among ethnic minorities seeking greater autonomy. - Expansion of British and French influence in the region, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean. - Recognition of the importance of diplomacy and international cooperation in resolving conflicts between major powers. 72. What led to reforms within the Ottoman Empire? What reorganization occurred? What problems resulted from these changes? In your opinion, was change inevitable or would the Ottoman Empire have collapsed regardless of reorganization? Explain. Answer: Reforms within the Ottoman Empire were prompted by a combination of internal challenges, external pressures, and the need to modernize and centralize the state. Key factors that led to reforms included: - Internal unrest and rebellion among ethnic minorities, particularly in the Balkans and Anatolia, which highlighted the empire's inability to govern effectively. - Military defeats and territorial losses to European powers, particularly in the wake of the Crimean War, which exposed the empire's weakness and vulnerability. - Influence of Western ideas of liberalism, nationalism, and constitutionalism, which inspired calls for reform and modernization among Ottoman intellectuals and elites. Under the leadership of reform-minded sultans such as Mahmud II and Abdulmejid I, the Ottoman Empire embarked on a series of modernization efforts known as the Tanzimat reforms. These reforms aimed to centralize authority, strengthen the economy, improve administration, and promote equality and justice for all subjects of the empire. Key reorganizations that occurred as part of the Tanzimat reforms included the establishment of: - New administrative structures and legal frameworks, including the implementation of a modern civil code (the Ottoman Civil Code of 1858) and the creation of provincial councils. - Efforts to modernize the military, education system, and infrastructure, including the construction of railways and telegraph networks. - Attempts to promote religious tolerance and equality, including the Edict of Gülhane (1839) and the Hatt-i Humayun (1856), which guaranteed the rights of non-Muslim subjects. However, despite these reforms, the Ottoman Empire continued to face significant challenges and problems, including: - Resistance from conservative and reactionary elements within Ottoman society, including religious leaders, landlords, and traditional elites, who opposed secularization and centralization efforts. - Ethnic and nationalist tensions, particularly in the Balkans, where demands for autonomy and independence grew stronger in the face of Ottoman repression and discrimination. - Economic difficulties and fiscal crises, exacerbated by corruption, mismanagement, and foreign debt, which hindered the empire's ability to implement reforms effectively. In my opinion, while the Tanzimat reforms represented a genuine attempt to modernize and stabilize the Ottoman Empire, the underlying structural weaknesses and divisions within the empire made collapse almost inevitable. The empire's multi-ethnic and multi-religious composition, coupled with external pressures from European powers and nationalist movements, created conditions that were conducive to fragmentation and disintegration. While reform efforts may have delayed the empire's collapse and mitigated some of its worst effects, they ultimately proved insufficient to address the underlying problems and challenges facing the Ottoman state. 73. To what extent does it seem that Cavour determined the course of Italian unification, and to what extent does it seem that he was forced by circumstances to take particular actions? Do you think that Italy would have united in more or less the same way and at more or less the same time with or without Cavour? Explain your answer using specific information from the text. Answer: Cavour, as the Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, played a crucial role in the process of Italian unification. He pursued a policy of realpolitik, skillfully maneuvering diplomatic alliances and military actions to achieve his goal of Italian unity under Piedmontese leadership. Cavour's initiatives, such as the alliance with France and the role he played in the Crimean War, were instrumental in weakening Austrian dominance in Italy and paving the way for unification. However, it would be an oversimplification to attribute the entire Italian unification solely to Cavour's actions. The unification process was shaped by a complex interplay of factors, including nationalist movements, revolutionary uprisings, and the actions of other key figures such as Giuseppe Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel II. Cavour's efforts were also influenced by external circumstances, such as the changing balance of power in Europe and the support he received from French Emperor Napoleon III. While Cavour was undoubtedly a skilled strategist and statesman, he was also constrained by the limitations of his position and the political realities of the time. Italy likely would have united in some form even without Cavour, as the forces of nationalism and regionalism were strong throughout the Italian peninsula. However, the timing and manner of unification may have been different without his leadership and diplomatic maneuvering. Cavour's role in securing French support, weakening Austrian influence, and orchestrating the diplomatic agreements that led to the annexation of central and southern Italy were critical in shaping the course of Italian unification. 74. Refer to the excerpt “Heinrich von Treitschke Demands the Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine.” On what grounds does Treitschke base the German claim to Alsace and Lorraine? Why does he contend it is proper to ignore the wishes of the people involved? What, if any, political morality informs his views? Answer: Heinrich von Treitschke bases the German claim to Alsace and Lorraine on historical and ethnic grounds, arguing that these territories rightfully belong to Germany due to their Germanic population and historical ties to the Holy Roman Empire. He contends that it is proper to ignore the wishes of the people involved because he views the annexation as a matter of national interest and security for Germany. Treitschke's views reflect a sense of nationalistic fervor and a belief in the superiority of the German nation, which he sees as justifying the annexation of territories inhabited by ethnic Germans. His argument is driven by a form of political morality grounded in the primacy of national interests and the assertion of German identity and power in Europe. 75. In what ways did the unification of Germany differ from the unification of Italy? In what ways was it similar? Answer: The unification of Germany and Italy differed in several key aspects. Firstly, the processes of unification were led by different states: Germany was unified under the leadership of Prussia, while Italy was unified under the leadership of Piedmont-Sardinia. Additionally, the geographical and political fragmentation of the Italian peninsula was more pronounced compared to the German states, which were already organized into a loose confederation under the leadership of Austria. Another difference is the role of external powers: Italy received crucial support from France, particularly during the Franco-Austrian War, while Prussia's unification of Germany involved conflicts with Austria and France, notably the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War. However, both unifications shared similarities. Nationalism was a driving force behind both movements, fueled by a desire for political and cultural unity among the respective populations. Additionally, both unifications involved the use of diplomacy, military force, and alliances to overcome internal and external obstacles to unity. 76. Was Bismarck a nationalist? Compare development driven by nationalism in Prussia and the Habsburg empire in the later 1800s. Answer: Bismarck can be considered a nationalist in the sense that he pursued policies aimed at strengthening and unifying Germany under Prussian leadership. However, his nationalism was pragmatic rather than ideological, as he used nationalist sentiment to achieve his political goals rather than out of a deep-seated belief in German nationalism. In Prussia, nationalism served as a unifying force that helped consolidate power and centralize authority under the Prussian monarchy. Bismarck's policies, such as the promotion of German culture and the use of military force to defeat rival states, were driven by a desire to assert Prussian dominance and achieve German unification. In contrast, nationalism in the Habsburg empire posed significant challenges to the stability and cohesion of the multinational state. The empire was composed of various ethnic groups with their own national aspirations, which often clashed with the centralizing efforts of the Habsburg rulers. Despite attempts to promote a sense of imperial identity, nationalist movements within the empire, such as those among the Hungarians and Czechs, posed persistent challenges to Habsburg authority. 77. How did the unrest of nationalities affect the Austrian-Hungarian Empire? How did the government react to this unrest? What role did nationalism play during this period? Why do you think some nationalities gained autonomy while others did not? Explain. Answer: The unrest of nationalities in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire had a profound impact on its stability and governance. The empire was characterized by ethnic diversity, with numerous nationalities and ethnic groups seeking autonomy or independence. Nationalism played a significant role during this period, as various ethnic groups, including the Hungarians, Czechs, Poles, and Serbs, sought to assert their cultural and political identities. The government's reaction to this unrest varied, ranging from attempts at repression to concessions aimed at appeasing nationalist sentiments. For example, the Ausgleich of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, granting the Hungarians significant autonomy within the empire. However, other nationalities, such as the Czechs and the Slavic minorities, faced continued marginalization and suppression of their cultural and political aspirations. Some nationalities gained autonomy due to a combination of factors, including their political influence, demographic strength, and strategic importance to the stability of the empire. The Hungarians, for example, were able to negotiate a favorable settlement with the Austrian government due to their numerical strength and historical significance within the empire. In contrast, smaller nationalities with less political leverage were often marginalized or ignored in the imperial political system. 78. What reforms were instituted in Russia from 1855–1881? Did they solve Russia’s domestic problems? Why did the abolition of serfdom not satisfy the peasants? What were the goals of The People’s Will? Answer: During the reign of Tsar Alexander II from 1855 to 1881, Russia witnessed several significant reforms aimed at modernizing and liberalizing the country. These reforms included the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, the introduction of local self-government (zemstvos), judicial reforms, military reforms, and educational reforms such as the expansion of primary education. While these reforms brought about some improvements, they did not fully solve Russia's domestic problems. The abolition of serfdom, for example, did not satisfy the peasants due to several reasons. Many peasants remained economically dependent on the landowners despite being technically freed, as they still had to pay redemption payments for the land they received. Additionally, the land distribution was often inadequate, leaving many peasants with insufficient land to support themselves. The People's Will, a revolutionary organization active in the late 19th century, emerged in response to the perceived inadequacy of the reforms and the continued autocratic rule of the tsar. Their goals included the overthrow of the autocracy, the establishment of a democratic republic, and social and economic reforms to improve the lives of the peasants and workers. 79. Discuss reforms in Britain during Benjamin Disraeli’s terms. Who benefited from them and how did they extend the rights of the government, business, and workers? Answer: During Benjamin Disraeli's terms as Prime Minister of Britain in the 1870s, several significant reforms were implemented, known as the "Tory Democracy" or "One Nation Conservatism." These reforms aimed to address social and economic issues and promote national unity. One key reform was the Public Health Act of 1875, which improved sanitation and public health standards in urban areas, benefiting both workers and the general population. The Artisans' Dwellings Act of 1875 aimed to improve housing conditions for the working class. Additionally, Disraeli's government passed the Education Act of 1870, which expanded access to education and established a system of elementary education for all children. This benefited workers by providing them with better opportunities for education and upward mobility. In terms of government, Disraeli extended the franchise through the Reform Act of 1867, which expanded voting rights to urban working-class males. This increased political participation and representation for workers in the government. Overall, Disraeli's reforms aimed to address social inequalities and improve the living standards of the working class, while also promoting social cohesion and national unity. 80. How and why did the issue of Irish home rule prove to be such a difficult political problem for Great Britain’s liberal state? Answer: The issue of Irish home rule was a contentious and divisive political problem for Great Britain's liberal state due to historical, religious, and nationalistic factors. Ireland had long sought greater autonomy and self-government, as the majority Catholic population resented British rule and Protestant dominance. The Liberal Party, which supported Irish home rule, faced opposition from Unionists in Ireland, primarily Protestants who wished to remain part of the United Kingdom. Unionists feared that home rule would lead to discrimination against Protestants and economic decline. Additionally, the issue of Irish home rule was complicated by sectarian tensions between Catholics and Protestants, as well as economic disparities between Ireland and Britain. The Irish potato famine of the 1840s exacerbated social and economic grievances in Ireland, leading to widespread support for home rule among the Irish population. The Liberal government's attempts to pass home rule legislation faced opposition in Parliament, particularly from the Conservative Party and Unionists. The issue ultimately led to political instability and the fall of Liberal governments, as successive administrations struggled to find a compromise that satisfied both Irish nationalists and Unionists. Overall, the issue of Irish home rule highlighted deep-seated divisions within British society and politics, reflecting the challenges of governing a diverse and multicultural empire. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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