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Chapter 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815–1832) MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The single most powerful European political ideology proved to be ____________. A. nationalism B. communism C. republicanism D. liberalism Answer: A 2. Nineteenth-century liberals derived their political ideas from the ____________. A. ancient writings of the Romans B. philosophers of the American Revolution C. biblical passages within the doctrine of the Holy Roman Church D. writers of the Enlightenment Answer: D 3. Although their provisions were limited in scope, which three German states granted constitutions after 1815? A. Württemberg, Hessen, and Bremen B. Hessen, Bavaria, and Baden C. Baden, Bavaria, and Württemberg D. Hamburg, Bremen, and Brandenburg Answer: C 4. Louis XVIII agreed to become a(n) ____________. A. parliamentary monarch B. socialist monarch C. constitutional monarch D. absolute monarch Answer: C 5. The Charter provided for a(n) ____________. A. appointed legislature and hereditary monarchy B. elected monarchy and appointed legislature C. bicameral legislature and elected monarchy D. hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature Answer: D 6. The major powers at the Congress of Vienna included ____________. A. Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain B. Russia, France, Italy, and Great Britain C. Prussia, Austria, France, and Italy D. Prussia, France, Austria, and Great Britain Answer: A 7. Who was placed on the Spanish throne after Napoleon’s downfall and, although he promised to govern according to a written constitution, ignored his pledge? A. Louis XVIII B. Alexander I C. Ferdinand VII D. Charles X Answer: C 8. The Treaty of London, signed in 1827, demanded ____________. A. that Russia recognize Romania as an independent state B. Turkish recognition of Greek independence C. that the Turks allow Britain, France, and Russia to decide the future of Greece D. the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Answer: D 9. In 1804, the French colony of ____________ achieved independence. A. Cuba B. Haiti C. Guiana D. the Dominican Republic Answer: B 10. By 1830, ____________ had achieved independence. A. Uruguay B. most of Latin America C. Colombia and Bolivia D. Mexico Answer: B 11. Who is most associated with Venezuelan independence? A. José de San Martín B. Simón Bolívar C. Toussaint L’Ouverture D. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Answer: B 12. The ____________ Society was moderate and favored constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom, but wanted to protect the interests of the aristocracy. A. Northern B. Southern C. Eastern D. Western Answer: A 13. Who succeeded Tsar Alexander I, who died in November 1825? A. Constantine B. Paul C. Nicholas D. Alexander II Answer: C 14. The Russian tsar was king of ____________ and frequently infringed on the constitution and quarreled with its diet. A. Serbia B. Prussia C. Finland D. Poland Answer: D 15. ____________ lowered interest rates on government bonds to indemnify aristocrats who had lost lands in the French Revolution. A. Louis XVIII B. Charles X C. Alexander I D. Louis Philippe Answer: B 16. Britain saw a(n) ____________ opportunity in the weakness of Spain after the Spanish Revolution. A. economic B. religious C. military D. cultural Answer: A 17. In 1821, the Ottomans faced a revolt of the ____________. A. Turks B. Italians C. Greeks D. Serbians Answer: C 18. José de San Martín led the independence movement in what is today ____________. A. Peru B. New Spain C. Hispaniola D. Argentina Answer: D 19. Most of the revolutionary movements were led by ____________. A. Creole elites B. peninsulares C. ex-slaves D. merchants and tradesmen Answer: A 20. A peaceful rebellion against colonial powers occurred in ____________. A. Haiti B. Argentina C. New Spain D. Brazil Answer: D 21. The Decembrist Revolt began with a revolt among ____________. A. officers B. peasants C. slaves D. landowners Answer: A 22. Primogeniture in France was restored by ____________. A. liberals in government B. conservatives in government C. Charles X D. Louis XVIII Answer: A 23. The first congress under the Congress System met in ____________. A. Aix-la-Chapelle B. Paris C. Versailles D. Brussels Answer: A 24. The Corn Law maintained high prices on grain by levying import duties on foreign grain in ____________. A. France B. Germany C. Belgium D. Britain Answer: D 25. What type of person joined the Burschenschaften? A. professionals B. students C. merchants D. government officials Answer: B 26. As a political outlook, nationalism was and is based on the relatively modern concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by ____________. A. common language, culture, and history B. loyalty to a ruler C. a common legal system D. participation in a single economic system Answer: A 27. Early nineteenth-century nationalism directly opposed the principle upheld at the Congress of Vienna that ____________. A. ethnicity, rather than monarchies or dynasties, provides the basis for political unity B. legitimate monarchies or dynasties, rather than ethnicity, provide the basis for political unity C. military strength, rather than ethnicity, provides the basis for political unity D. common language should provide the basis for political unity Answer: B 28. A significant difficulty for nationalism was, and is, ____________. A. transitioning from monarchies to republicanism and peaceful elections B. determining which ethnic groups could be considered nations C. deciding which religion should be accepted as the formal religion of the state D. settling on which national customs should be formally adopted by the state and schools Answer: B 29. Which of the following correctly identifies the major pillars of nineteenth-century conservatism? A. solid military, established churches, and legitimate monarchies B. established churches, burgeoning merchant class, and legitimate monarchies C. landed aristocracies, established churches, and solid military D. legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches Answer: D 30. What reaction did the German government have to the Burschenschaften? A. The Burschenschaften was sponsored by the government. B. The Burschenschaften made the government proud. C. The government boasted about the works of the Burschenschaften. D. The Burschenschaften made the government uneasy. Answer: D 31. What did the Carlsbad Decree do? A. It dissolved the Burschenschaften. B. It established freedom of the press. C. It opened universities to all students. D. It imposed liberal ideas on government agencies. Answer: A 32. The Six Acts attempted to ____________. A. curb political dissesnt B. give the monarchy new powers and begin military expansion C. raise public revenue through taxes and prohibit illegal search and seizures D. prevent Catholics from exercising their civil rights Answer: A 33. The Concert of Europe refers to the ____________. A. new informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues B. new Russian, Austrian, Prussian, and British quadruple alliance C. January 1820 outbreak of the Spanish revolution D. 1814 restoration of the French monarchy Answer: A 34. Under the Congress System, France was ____________. A. excluded from governing Europe B. left out of important decisions about maintaining order in Europe C. readmitted to the Congress in good standing D. given a leadership role in the Congress Answer: C 35. What did the Protocol of Troppau require of European governments? A. They agreed to intervene to restore order in countries threatened by revolution. B. They agreed to prop up monarchies that were in danger of being overthrown. C. They agreed to support liberal revolutionary movements in their own countries. D. They agreed to install liberal reforms, such as a free press and religious tolerance. Answer: A 36. What event sparked movements for independence from European domination throughout Latin America? A. the wars of the French Revolution, particularly those of Napoleon B. the French and Indian War C. the American Revolution D. the Crimean War Answer: A 37. Tsar Alexander I turned away from reform, and both at home and abroad took the lead in suppressing ____________. A. nationalism and communism B. liberalism and nationalism C. communism and socialism D. socialism and liberalism Answer: B 38. The Four Ordinances were an example of ____________. A. conservative reaction B. liberal reform C. radical reform D. the work of the Concert of Europe Answer: A 39. Haiti’s revolution was ____________ the general course of independence movements in Latin America. A. unusual in B. a moderate example of C. an extreme example of D. the last in Answer: A 40. The faith in free and unregulated trade between European nations was most closely aligned with ____________. A. constitutional monarchists B. ultraroyalists C. nineteenth-century liberals D. Latin American revolutionaries Answer: C 41. What was the outcome of the Mexican independence movement for the royalist Augustín de Iturbide? A. He was executed for treason by Spain. B. He was declared emperor by conservative Mexicans. C. He was relieved of his duties by Ferdinand VII and sent back to Spain. D. He was elected president of New Spain by the revolutionaries. Answer: B 42. The first call for rebellion in New Spain came from a(n) ____________. A. priest and his Indian followers B. soldier and his troops C. ex-slave and his enslaved brethren D. merchant and his trading partners Answer: A 43. What event led to the exile of Charles X in France? A. the July Revolution B. the Great Reform Bill C. the storming of the Bastille D. the Decembrist Revolution Answer: A 44. The slogan “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism” was associated with ____________. A. the Russian Orthodox Church B. Official Nationality C. the Russian military D. the Congress of Vienna Answer: B 45. Prince Klemens von Metternich is remembered as a(n) ____________. A. Enlightenment thinker B. revolutionary leader C. Latin American colonialist D. conservative statesman Answer: D 46. What was the relationship between Russia and Serbia after the mid-1820s? A. Serbia was colonized by Russia. B. Serbia was overtaken by political forces in Russia. C. Russia became the protector of Serbia. D. Serbia revolted against Russian control. Answer: C 47. What did Louis XVIII hope to achieve in his constitution called the Charter? A. He hoped to suppress the Roman Catholic Church. B. He hoped to improve trade. C. He hoped to bring about the policies of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. D. He hoped to reconcile with the aristocracy and the church. Answer: D 48. Why did the Habsburg Empire resist nationalism? A. The Habsburg Empire was at war with the other nations of Europe. B. The Habsburg Empire and Austria ruled lands in Italy. C. Nationalism would seriously weaken the ethnically diverse Habsburg Empire. D. Nationalism would bring all the people of the Habsburg Empire together and perhaps rally against the emperor. Answer: C 49. What treaty temporarily solved the “Eastern Question” for European nations? A. the Treaty of Adrianople B. the Treaty of London C. the Greek Treaty D. the Protocol of Troppau Answer: B 50. Creole leadership in Latin American revolutions was prompted primarily by their desire to ____________. A. compete with peninsulares B. implement democracies C. perpetuate slavery D. oppose the oppression of the peninsulares Answer: A 51. Which of these best parallels the relationship between England and Ireland in the 1800s? A. Austria and Hungary B. Prussia and Germany C. Russia and Poland D. France and Belgium Answer: C 52. Nineteenth-century liberals would most likely be associated with which of these? A. written constitutions B. democracy C. trade regulation D. restriction of the suffrage Answer: A 53. A major impediment to an alliance between liberals and workers was the liberal policy of ____________. A. opposition to labor unions B. population control C. a free market D. supporting imperialism Answer: C 54. Which generalization is most accurate regarding the progress of reform in Prussia under Frederick William III? A. Reform movements progressed quickly with a supportive government. B. Government policies granted freedom to make liberal reforms. C. The reform movement was defeated completely under the conservative policies of Frederick William III. D. Violent revolutionaries took control of the government pushing their powerful agendas. Answer: C 55. Which of the following events illustrated to Russian soldiers how backward and politically stifled their own nation remained? A. the Russian and Austrian commercial exchange B. Russia’s battles with the Prussians C. the Russian occupation of France D. visits by foreign army officers Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. The occupation of ____________ gave French merchants in Marseilles new economic ties to North America. Answer: Algeria 57. On August 25, 1830, disturbances broke out in ____________ after the performance of an opera about a rebellion in Naples against Spanish rule. Answer: Brussels 58. In December 1830, Lord Palmerston, the British foreign minister, persuaded representatives of the powers in London to recognize ____________ as an independent and neutral state. Answer: Belgium 59. The ____________ revolution was unusual among the Latin American revolutions in being initiated by slaves. Answer: Haitian 60. The Latin American colonial revolutions generally led to socially ____________ results. Answer: conservative 61. While European powers were plotting conservative interventions in Italy and Spain, a third Mediterranean revolt erupted in ____________. Answer: Greece 62. The son of a king of Bavaria, ____________ was chosen to be the first king of the new Greek kingdom. Answer: Otto I 63. In 1830, the Ottoman sultan formally granted independence to ____________, and by the late 1830s, the major powers granted it diplomatic recognition. Answer: Serbia 64. In the mid-1820s, ____________, which was also a Slav state and Eastern Orthodox in religion, became Serbia’s formal protector. Answer: Russia 65. The early nineteenth-century statesman who, more than any other, epitomized conservatism was the Austrian prince ____________. Answer: Metternich 66. University students who dreamed of a united Germany formed ____________, or student associations. Answer: Burschenschaften 67. Behind the concept of nationalism usually lay the idea of popular ____________. Answer: sovereignty 68. Political liberals found inspiration in the 1789 French Declaration of the ____________. Answer: Rights of Man and Citizen 69. In general, the drive for independence in Latin America came from the ____________, who worked as merchants and professional people of Spanish descent. Answer: Creoles 70. The first region of Latin America to assert itself toward independence was ____________ or modern Argentina. Answer: Río de la Plata ESSAY 71. What were the political characteristics of the July Monarchy? What role was Catholicism given under Louis Philippe? Was the new government clerical, anticlerical, or both? Do you think the July Monarchy represented a solid break with the past? Why or why not? Answer: The July Monarchy, established after the July Revolution of 1830 in France, was characterized by its constitutional monarchy under King Louis Philippe. It marked a transition from the Bourbon Restoration to a more liberal and bourgeois form of government. The July Monarchy was characterized by limited suffrage, a parliamentary system with a Chamber of Deputies, and a strong executive power held by the king. Under Louis Philippe, Catholicism was given a prominent role in French society. The king pursued a policy of reconciliation with the Catholic Church, known as the "Gallican Liberties," which aimed to restore the influence of the Church while maintaining state control. This policy was a departure from the anticlericalism of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. The new government of the July Monarchy can be seen as both clerical and anticlerical, depending on the perspective. On one hand, the government sought to restore Catholicism to its former position of influence in society, granting privileges to the Church and allowing religious education. On the other hand, the July Monarchy also upheld the principles of religious tolerance and secular governance, maintaining a separation between church and state and protecting the rights of religious minorities. Whether the July Monarchy represented a solid break with the past is debatable. While it did mark a departure from the absolutism of the Bourbon Restoration and sought to establish a more liberal and constitutional form of government, it also retained many elements of the old regime, including limited suffrage and the dominance of the bourgeoisie. Additionally, the July Monarchy failed to address the social and economic grievances of the working class, leading to continued unrest and eventual downfall. Overall, while the July Monarchy represented some progress towards modernization and liberalization, it fell short of being a definitive break with the past. 72. Compare and contrast the political reforms in Great Britain, Belgium, France, and Russia. What political strategies were successful? Which approaches failed? Was there one universal formula for success? Why or why not? Explain. Answer: The political reforms in Great Britain, Belgium, France, and Russia during the 19th century varied significantly in terms of their nature and success. In Great Britain, gradual and incremental reforms led to the expansion of suffrage and the development of a more representative parliamentary system, culminating in the Reform Acts of 1832 and 1867. In Belgium, the adoption of a liberal constitution in 1831 established a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system, reflecting the principles of nationalism and liberalism that characterized the Belgian Revolution. This was a successful approach that provided stability and political representation to the Belgian people. In France, political reforms under the July Monarchy and the Second Republic attempted to establish a constitutional monarchy and later a democratic republic. However, these reforms were marred by instability and conflict, ultimately leading to the rise of Napoleon III and the Second Empire. In Russia, attempts at political reform under Tsar Alexander II, such as the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, aimed to modernize and liberalize the autocratic regime. However, these reforms were met with resistance from conservative forces and failed to address the underlying social and political tensions, ultimately culminating in the Russian Revolution of 1917. There was no one universal formula for success in political reform, as each country faced unique challenges and contexts. Success depended on a combination of factors, including the willingness of rulers to enact reforms, the strength of opposition forces, and the presence of a conducive political and social environment. While gradual and incremental reforms were successful in some cases, others required more radical and transformative changes to address deep-seated grievances and inequalities. Ultimately, successful political reform required a delicate balance between stability and change, compromise and confrontation, and responsiveness to popular demands. 73. “The independence of Latin America was a direct consequence of European events.” Do you agree or disagree? Explain your answer, using specific information from the text. Answer: I agree with the statement that the independence of Latin America was a direct consequence of European events. The colonial empires of Spain and Portugal in Latin America were deeply intertwined with European politics and economics, and the independence movements in Latin America were influenced by events and ideas originating in Europe. One key factor contributing to Latin American independence was the spread of Enlightenment ideals and liberal revolutions in Europe, particularly the American and French Revolutions. These revolutions inspired Latin American intellectuals and elites to question colonial rule and advocate for independence based on principles of democracy, equality, and self-determination. Moreover, European events such as the Napoleonic Wars and the Peninsular War weakened Spain and Portugal's control over their colonies in Latin America. The disruption caused by these conflicts provided an opportunity for independence movements to gain momentum, as colonial authorities were preoccupied with internal strife and unable to effectively govern their overseas territories. Additionally, European powers played a role in supporting or opposing Latin American independence. For example, Britain and the United States supported the independence movements in order to weaken their European rivals and gain access to Latin American markets. Meanwhile, Spain and Portugal sought to suppress the independence movements and maintain control over their colonies. Overall, the independence of Latin America was intricately linked to European events, ideologies, and interests, making it a direct consequence of the broader dynamics shaping the Atlantic world during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. 74. How was the recognition of Greek independence an international affair? What nations were involved? How? What did the Treaty of London demand? Answer: The recognition of Greek independence was indeed an international affair involving multiple European powers. The Greek War of Independence, which began in 1821, attracted attention and support from various European nations due to its significance for regional stability, geopolitics, and ideological considerations. Several nations, including Britain, France, and Russia, played significant roles in supporting the Greek cause. These powers intervened in the conflict to varying degrees, providing diplomatic support, financial aid, and military assistance to the Greek insurgents fighting against Ottoman rule. The Treaty of London, signed in 1830, was a culmination of international efforts to recognize Greek independence and establish a sovereign Greek state. The treaty demanded the withdrawal of Ottoman forces from Greece and the recognition of Greek autonomy under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Additionally, the treaty stipulated the borders of the new Greek state and established a monarchy with a European prince as king. Overall, the recognition of Greek independence reflected broader geopolitical rivalries and humanitarian concerns in Europe during the early 19th century, underscoring the international dimension of the Greek War of Independence and its implications for European politics and diplomacy. 75. How were European aristocrats affected by conservative governments? What traits or privileges did conservative aristocrats retain, gain, and lose? How did aristocrats see themselves during this era? Explain. Answer: European aristocrats during the era of conservative governments experienced a mixture of continuity and change in their social and political status. Conservative governments often sought to uphold traditional social hierarchies and preserve the privileges of the aristocracy, leading to the retention of many aristocratic traits and privileges. Aristocrats continued to hold significant influence in political affairs, with conservative governments often dominated by aristocratic elites who sought to maintain their power and privilege. The conservative order emphasized the importance of hierarchy, stability, and deference to traditional authority, reinforcing the social status of the aristocracy as the guardians of order and tradition. At the same time, conservative governments implemented reforms and policies aimed at strengthening the position of the aristocracy and safeguarding their interests. These included measures such as the preservation of aristocratic landownership, the maintenance of aristocratic titles and privileges, and the suppression of revolutionary movements that threatened aristocratic authority. However, conservative governments also faced challenges and pressures that affected the aristocracy. The rise of liberal and nationalist movements posed a threat to aristocratic privilege and traditional social order, leading to tensions between conservatives and reformers. Additionally, economic and social changes, such as the rise of industrial capitalism and the emergence of a middle class, challenged the economic basis of aristocratic power and privilege. In terms of self-perception, aristocrats often saw themselves as the natural rulers and custodians of society, possessing inherent qualities of leadership, nobility, and refinement. They viewed their social status as a product of birthright and tradition, and saw their role as preserving the cultural heritage and social order of Europe. Despite facing challenges and changes during the era of conservative governments, aristocrats maintained a sense of pride and identity rooted in their aristocratic lineage and heritage. 76. Consider Metternich as a source of European reaction. Why did Metternich oppose the recognition of political rights of national groups? Did Metternich view liberalism and nationalism in a positive or a negative light? What were the goals of Metternich and other Austrian officials regarding Austria’s role in the newly-formed German Confederation? Answer: Metternich opposed the recognition of political rights of national groups because he believed that such recognition would threaten the stability and unity of the multinational Austrian Empire. Metternich's conservative ideology emphasized the importance of maintaining traditional social hierarchies and centralized authority to prevent political upheaval and maintain order. He viewed nationalism as a disruptive force that challenged the legitimacy of established monarchies and threatened to unravel the existing political order by promoting the interests of specific ethnic or cultural groups over the overarching authority of the state. Metternich viewed liberalism and nationalism in a negative light, seeing them as dangerous ideologies that undermined the principles of autocracy, stability, and social cohesion. Liberalism, with its emphasis on individual rights, constitutional government, and limited monarchy, posed a threat to the absolute authority of monarchs and the traditional social hierarchy. Similarly, nationalism, with its focus on national identity and self-determination, threatened the multinational empires of Europe, including Austria, by promoting the interests of specific ethnic or cultural groups at the expense of centralized authority. Regarding Austria's role in the newly-formed German Confederation, Metternich and other Austrian officials aimed to assert Austrian leadership and influence within the confederation to safeguard their interests and maintain stability in Central Europe. Austria sought to balance the power dynamics within the German Confederation to prevent the emergence of any single dominant state that could threaten Austrian hegemony. Additionally, Austria aimed to suppress nationalist movements and maintain control over its diverse ethnic territories, including those within the German Confederation, to preserve the integrity of the Habsburg Empire. 77. Refer to the excerpt “Mazzini Defines Nationality.” What characteristics of a people does Mazzini relate to nationalism? How and why does Mazzini tie nationalism to divine purposes? How does this view of nationality relate to the goals of liberal freedoms? How might these ideals of nationalism lead to international or domestic conflict? Answer: Mazzini relates several characteristics to nationalism, including language, culture, history, and a sense of shared destiny or purpose. He emphasizes the idea of a nation as a unified community bound by common ties of identity, heritage, and aspiration. Mazzini sees nationalism as a deeply spiritual and moral force that transcends mere political or territorial boundaries, reflecting the divine will and providence of God. Mazzini ties nationalism to divine purposes by framing the nation as an organic entity ordained by God, with a sacred mission to fulfill its destiny and realize its potential. He views the nation as a moral and spiritual entity imbued with a sense of purpose and mission, guided by divine principles of justice, freedom, and righteousness. By linking nationalism to divine purposes, Mazzini seeks to elevate the concept beyond mere political or pragmatic considerations, emphasizing its inherent moral and spiritual significance. This view of nationality relates to the goals of liberal freedoms by emphasizing the importance of self-determination, popular sovereignty, and individual rights within the context of a nation. Mazzini's nationalism aligns with liberal ideals of freedom, equality, and democracy, advocating for the empowerment of individuals and communities to govern themselves and pursue their collective interests. However, these ideals of nationalism can also lead to international or domestic conflict, particularly when different nationalist movements come into conflict over competing claims to territory, identity, or sovereignty. Nationalism can exacerbate existing tensions between ethnic or cultural groups, leading to conflicts over issues such as borders, language, or political representation. Moreover, the pursuit of nationalist goals may clash with the principles of liberal democracy, as nationalist movements may prioritize the interests of the nation over individual rights or minority rights, potentially leading to the suppression of dissent or the marginalization of minority groups. 78. The colonies of Latin America each took a separate path toward independence. Compare and contrast the revolutions in New Spain, Peru, Haiti, and Brazil. Explain how slavery played a role in the independence movement, and discuss how the outcome of the movement was shaped by its leaders. Answer: - New Spain (Mexico): The Mexican War of Independence was led by figures such as Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos. It was a multifaceted struggle involving various social groups, including indigenous peoples, mestizos, and creoles. Slavery was a significant issue, as it was abolished during the independence movement. The movement culminated in the establishment of the Mexican Empire under Agustín de Iturbide. - Peru: The Peruvian War of Independence was led by figures like José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. It involved a combination of military campaigns and political maneuvering. Slavery also played a role, with indigenous and Afro-Peruvian populations seeking freedom. The outcome was the establishment of the Republic of Peru. - Haiti: The Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, was unique in that it resulted in the abolition of slavery and the establishment of the first independent black republic. Slavery was a central issue, as the revolt was fueled by the desire for freedom among enslaved Africans. The outcome was the establishment of Haiti as an independent nation. - Brazil: The Brazilian independence movement, led by figures like Dom Pedro I, differed from the others in that it was relatively peaceful and involved minimal violence. Slavery played a significant role, as it was deeply entrenched in Brazilian society. The outcome was the establishment of the Empire of Brazil under Dom Pedro I. The outcomes of these revolutions were shaped by the leadership of key figures such as Bolívar, Hidalgo, and Louverture, who mobilized various social groups and articulated visions of freedom and sovereignty. The leaders' strategic decisions, military prowess, and ability to negotiate alliances also played crucial roles in determining the outcomes of the independence movements. 79. How did the international community deal with the Spanish revolution of 1820? How did this reaction differ from previous decades or centuries? Discuss the winners and losers in the revolutionary movement. Answer: The Spanish revolution of 1820, also known as the Trienio Liberal, saw the rise of liberal forces against the absolutist monarchy of Ferdinand VII. The international community, particularly other European monarchies, viewed the revolution with apprehension due to its potential to spread liberal ideas and destabilize existing power structures. However, the reaction to the revolution differed from previous centuries in that it occurred amidst a broader context of Enlightenment ideals and the spread of liberal and nationalist movements across Europe. The winners of the Spanish revolution were the liberal forces, who temporarily succeeded in implementing liberal reforms and limiting the power of the monarchy. The losers were the absolutist factions, including Ferdinand VII and conservative elements within Spanish society, who sought to maintain the status quo and resist liberal reforms. Internationally, the revolution had mixed outcomes, as it inspired liberal and nationalist movements in other European countries while also facing opposition from conservative monarchies seeking to suppress revolutionary fervor. 80. What was a “liberal” in the nineteenth century? Explain the political and economic viewpoint of liberals and discuss how they differed from nationalists. Finally, make a comparison to the term liberal as it is used in present-day politics. Answer: In the nineteenth century, a liberal was someone who advocated for political and economic freedoms, including individual rights, representative government, free markets, and limited government intervention in the economy. Liberals believed in the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, seeking to dismantle traditional hierarchies and empower individuals to pursue their own interests and aspirations. Economically, liberals supported laissez-faire capitalism and free trade, viewing government intervention as detrimental to economic progress and individual freedom. Liberals differed from nationalists in their focus and goals. While both groups sought political change, liberals prioritized individual rights and freedoms, emphasizing the importance of constitutional government and the rule of law. Nationalists, on the other hand, prioritized the interests of the nation or ethnic group, advocating for national sovereignty, cultural identity, and territorial integrity. While liberals sought to create inclusive societies based on principles of citizenship and equality, nationalists often promoted exclusionary ideologies based on ethnic or cultural identity. In present-day politics, the term liberal has evolved to encompass a broader range of ideologies and policy positions. In many Western democracies, liberalism is associated with social liberalism, which emphasizes individual rights, social justice, and government intervention to address social and economic inequalities. However, the term can also be used to describe classical liberalism, which maintains a focus on limited government and free markets. Additionally, liberalism may be contrasted with conservatism, socialism, or other political ideologies, depending on the context and the specific beliefs of individuals or political parties. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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