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Chapter 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830–1850) MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Industrial Revolution fueled British investments all over the world but especially in ____________. A. the Americas B. Spain and Italy C. the Netherlands and France D. Japan and China Answer: A 2. A population explosion in Europe from 1831 to 1851 saw France grow from 32.5 million to _____________ million people. A. 35.8 B. 37.1 C. 39.2 D. 40.3 Answer: A 3. In most Western European nations other than Britain, manufacturing in the 1830s took place in ____________. A. large manufacturing districts B. the countryside C. cities D. both cities and the countryside Answer: B 4. The process by which workers became a commodity in the labor marketplace is called ____________. A. mill migration B. textilization C. proletarianization D. labor industrialization Answer: C 5. By the late 1830s, many British workers hung their hopes for reform on a platform known as ____________. A. Simonianism B. Fourierism C. Hegelianism D. Chartism Answer: D 6. The most radical political element in the European working class was ____________. A. peasants B. artisans C. textile workers D. new landowners Answer: B 7. Early factory owners permitted a man to employ his ____________ as assistants. A. siblings B. wife C. children D. wife and children Answer: D 8. The English Factory Act of 1833 forbade the employment of children under the age of _____________ years. A. 7 B. 9 C. 10 D. 12 Answer: B 9. What disadvantage did many women who assisted their husbands in textile factories during the 1820s and 1830s experience? A. They were subject to their husband’s discipline in the factory. B. They often did less skilled work than they had in the family economy. C. They were responsible for supervising their children during their work shifts. D. They needed to learn new production methods and machinery. Answer: B 10. In France by about 1850, the largest group of employed women worked ____________. A. in factories B. as domestic servants C. on the land D. in shops Answer: C 11. In the domestic system of textile production, hand spinning was performed by ____________. A. women B. men C. both men and women D. unskilled workers Answer: A 12. Which of the following is a tradition that survived the shift from a family economy to an industrial era? A. Most parents still arranged marriages. B. Cohabitation before marriage was rare and considered taboo. C. Most women continued to work after marriage. D. Most women brought a dowry to their marriage. Answer: D 13. Which European city was the first to have an organized police force? A. Frankfurt B. London C. Paris D. Manchester Answer: C 14. Criminal activity in Europe steadily escalated before reaching a plateau around ____________. A. 1820 B. 1840 C. 1860 D. 1880 Answer: D 15. Who was most concerned about crime and criminals during the nineteenth century? A. political radicals B. the working class C. women D. the elite Answer: D 16. Which change in conditions describes the prisons that emerged in Europe during the mid- 1800s? A. an individual cell for each prisoner B. individual cells and long periods of separation and silence among prisoners C. work skills training D. an increase in corporal punishment Answer: B 17. Who was Elizabeth Fry? A. a reformer who exposed the horrible conditions within prisons in England B. a reformer who called for an end to capital punishment C. a reformer who advocated for a police force in England D. a criminal sent to a colony in Australia Answer: A 18. In the 1840s, the goal of prisons shifted from ____________ to ____________. A. punishment; rehabilitation B. rehabilitation; punishment C. social segregation; punishment D. social segregation; social integration Answer: A 19. Which classical economist is associated with utilitarianism? A. Thomas Malthus B. Louis Blanc C. Adam Smith D. Jeremy Bentham Answer: D 20. Who was Karl Marx’s collaborator in the writing of The Communist Manifesto? A. Louis Blanc B. David Ricardo C. Thomas Malthus D. Friedrich Engels Answer: D 21. Charles Fourier believed that workers were more productive when they ____________. A. received frequent praise B. received high wages C. performed the same tasks every day D. worked on different tasks Answer: D 22. Robert Owen advocated for ____________. A. more humane industrial environments B. a large utopian community in England C. worker-owned factories D. the dissolution of the class structure Answer: A 23. The revolutions of 1848 began in ____________. A. France B. England C. Germany D. Austria Answer: A 24. The most radical group of female revolutionary women in the country where the 1848 revolutions began called themselves the ____________. A. Scythians B. Amazons C. Vesuvians D. Insurgents Answer: C 25. During the Magyar revolt in Hungary, the Hungarians tried to annex ____________. A. Pressburg B. Transylvania C. Bavaria D. Saxony Answer: B 26. The migration from the countryside during the nineteenth century produced a situation in which ____________. A. the physical resources of cities were stretched beyond capacity B. the physical resources of cities were able to be ratcheted up to meet capacity C. crime rates were unaffected D. diseases were kept at bay Answer: A 27. Improvements in the railway system meant that ____________. A. consumer goods garnered a higher share of investment dollars over capital goods B. ships made of iron were no longer needed C. the working class had greater purchasing power D. there was a shortage of consumer goods at affordable prices Answer: D 28. The French Revolution and the wars of Napoleon influenced the development of the Industrial Revolution by ____________. A. destroying French Atlantic trade and disrupting continental economic life B. inspiring the working class to attain the material wealth and comforts of the middle class C. increasing trade and the demand for goods between Britain and other countries D. setting back the French economy and French industrialization Answer: D 29. Liberal reformers hoped that legal revolutions in land ownership would result in ____________. A. a more equitable distribution of agricultural goods B. peasants becoming more industrious and progressive farmers C. a socialistic state D. increased tax revenues for the state Answer: B 30. In the new labor marketplace, workers ____________. A. were brought into the salary system B. had no direct say about product quality C. had no say about product quality D. had considerable bargaining power Answer: C 31. Proletarianization was closely linked to ____________ and ____________. A. industrialization; urbanization B. enclosures; the rural economy C. poverty; serfdom D. the elite lifestyle; landowning Answer: A 32. In the 1830s, workers became concerned about child laborers because ____________. A. of the dangerous conditions in the family economy B. of increased competition for factory jobs C. children were willing to work for lower wages than adults D. parents no longer exercised authority over their own children in factories Answer: D 33. The shift from the family working together as a unit of production to family members working separately or individually ____________. A. led to the destruction of familial bonds B. caused the family to cease being an economic unit C. caused the family to become a male-dominated unit D. helped to decrease gender-based inequities in the workplace Answer: B 34. During the early years of the Industrial Revolution, the wages of most British women who worked in factories were ____________. A. the same as male workers B. lower than male workers C. higher than male workers D. comparable to male workers’ wages for skilled workers but lower for unskilled workers Answer: B 35. Many factories hired unmarried women and children because ____________. A. they were willing to work for less than men B. they were less likely than men to try to form unions or other work organizations C. there were more unmarried women and children in the labor pool than other workers D. they were willing to work for less than men Answer: D 36. The decade of the 1820s saw an increase in women working in textile factories. Their new jobs required ____________. A. fewer skills than those required in home-based textile work B. more skills than those required in home-based textile work C. more skills than those required for work typically done by men D. at least a grammar school education Answer: A 37. During the nineteenth century, the domestic division of labor into specific gender patterns prevailed among ____________. A. the working, middle, and upper classes B. the middle class C. the gentry D. the rural poor Answer: A 38. The industrial economy led to the development of gender-determined roles because ____________. A. it allowed women to work outside the home B. it allowed women to develop new skills C. it promoted the development of new skills for both males and females D. it allowed many families to live on the wages of the male spouse Answer: D 39. In the late eighteenth century, Britain began transporting criminals to Australia as an alternative to ____________. A. capital punishment B. life imprisonment C. public works imprisonment D. transporting them to France Answer: A 40. Classical economists advocated growth through ____________. A. expanded social programs B. government control of enterprise C. free enterprise D. high taxes Answer: C 41. The goal of the German Zollverein was to create ____________. A. better conditions for commerce B. a good climate for industrialization C. a nation-state D. an alliance with Austria Answer: A 42. The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was an example of the implementation of ____________. A. Chartism B. classical economic theory C. nationalism D. socialism Answer: B 43. A group of writers who helped to define the social question were called ____________ by their critics. A. communal economists B. utopian socialists C. radical socialists D. rational economists Answer: B 44. What was the name given to the group of activists who rejected industry and government? A. anarchists B. early socialists C. utopian socialists D. Marxists Answer: A 45. One source of inspiration for The Communist Manifesto was ____________. A. French utopian socialism B. transportationism C. confectionism D. Czech nationalism Answer: A 46. German conservatives gained power by playing on conflicts between ____________. A. conservatives and liberals B. nationalists and liberals C. conservatives and the working class D. liberals and the working class Answer: D 47. The revolutions of 1848 and 1849 ____________. A. resulted in a unified middle and working class B. were successful in establishing liberal or national states C. ended monarchy in Europe forever D. failed to establish liberal or national states Answer: D 48. A profound split between the German working class and German liberals was marked by ____________. A. the creation of the Frankfurt Parliament B. the revolution in Prussia C. the suppression of a radical revolt in Frankfurt by the German Confederation D. disagreements over the issue of unification Answer: A 49. Nationalism was a rallying cry for the revolutions of 1848 among the ____________ people. A. French B. British C. Russian D. German Answer: D 50. Which of the following events helped the political liberals in France gain the support of the working class? A. Minister Guizot’s resignation B. Louis Philippe’s abdication C. the poor harvests of 1846 and 1847 D. the government’s ban on banquets Answer: C 51. Chartism focused on reforms concerning ____________. A. free trade B. suffrage C. trade unions D. social welfare Answer: B 52. Which of the following statements about gender roles during the early Industrial Revolution is True? A. Married males were associated with supporting the family. B. Married females were expected to contribute wages to the family economy. C. Unmarried females were rarely factory workers. D. Married men were associated with family discipline. Answer: A 53. What do hulks and the Auburn system have in common? A. both were outgrowths of socialism B. both were utopian socialist movements C. both were penal methods D. both applied classical economics to agrarian reform Answer: C 54. Henri de Saint-Simon was typical of the utopian socialists in ____________. A. engaging in both social and economic experimentation B. advocating open marriages C. tying change to industrialization D. attempting change in the rural economy Answer: A 55. Which of the following best explains why a worker in Great Britain might have rejected Marx’s ideas by the last half of the nineteenth century? A. The rationale behind the ideas expressed in The Communist Manifesto had been disproven. B. The state suppressed political dissent and threatened individuals who espoused Marxism. C. Workers had benefited from the existing industrial system. D. As science became more influential, it helped to show the flaws in Marx’s ideology. Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. By the mid-nineteenth century, the nation with the most extensive rail network was ____________. Answer: Britain 57. Workers who held jobs but made little more than subsistence wages were called ____________. Answer: the laboring poor 58. The practice of making goods, such as shoes, in standard sizes and styles rather than by special order was known in France as ____________. Answer: confection 59. The labor movement in the nineteenth century abandoned the ____________ system, which had allowed workers to gain control over a number of factors surrounding their employment. Answer: guild 60. The English Factory Act of 1833 made the factory owner responsible for providing ____________ hours of education for children age nine to thirteen. Answer: two 61. A major shift in the family and factory structure, characterized by an increase in the size of machinery and factories, began in the mid-____________. Answer: 1820s 62. The wage economy led to higher birthrates, most likely because children were considered a(n) ____________. Answer: economic asset 63. In the nineteenth century, as a result of the vulnerability caused by the economic transformation taking place, the low wages of female workers sometimes led them to become _____________ to supplement their income. Answer: prostitutes 64. Legislation that established the London police force was sponsored by ____________. Answer: Sir Robert Peel 65. The practice of sending prisoners overseas was called ____________. Answer: transportation 66. The theory of ____________ was based on the principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Answer: utilitarianism 67. In 1834, most German states formed a trading union called the ____________. Answer: Zollverein 68. Ships used as prisons were called ____________. Answer: hulks 69. Saint-Simonianism is a type of ____________. Answer: utopian socialism 70. The community of ____________, Indiana, in the United States was created as an ideal industrial community. Answer: New Harmony ESSAY 71. Why was the failure of the Irish potato crops of the 1840s so devastating? Answer: The failure of the Irish potato crops in the 1840s, commonly known as the Irish Potato Famine or the Great Famine, was devastating for several reasons. First and foremost, potatoes were the primary staple food for the majority of the Irish population, especially the rural poor. When the potato crops failed due to a fungal disease known as potato blight, it led to widespread famine and starvation. Additionally, Ireland was heavily dependent on agriculture, particularly potato farming, as a source of income and sustenance. The failure of the potato crops resulted in economic hardship, widespread poverty, and mass emigration as people sought relief from the famine conditions. 72. How did railways affect industrial expansion? Were early railways used to transport people, products, or both? How did railways affect the steel and iron industries? Answer: Railways played a crucial role in facilitating industrial expansion by providing efficient transportation for both goods and people. In the early stages of railway development, railways were primarily used to transport raw materials such as coal, iron ore, and agricultural products to industrial centers, as well as finished goods from factories to markets. However, as railway networks expanded and technology improved, railways became increasingly important for passenger transportation, enabling rapid urbanization and the movement of labor between rural areas and industrial cities. The construction of railways also had significant implications for the steel and iron industries. Railways required large quantities of iron and steel for tracks, locomotives, and rolling stock, leading to increased demand for these materials. As a result, the steel and iron industries experienced substantial growth and innovation to meet the demands of railway construction. The development of new manufacturing techniques, such as the Bessemer process for steel production, further fueled the expansion of these industries and contributed to the overall growth of the economy. 73. How was the labor movement affected, negatively or positively, by the Industrial Revolution? Answer: The Industrial Revolution had both positive and negative effects on the labor movement. On one hand, the Industrial Revolution led to the growth of factory-based industries, which concentrated workers in urban areas and created opportunities for collective action and organization. This facilitated the emergence of labor unions and other forms of collective bargaining, as workers sought to improve their working conditions, wages, and rights. However, the Industrial Revolution also brought about significant challenges for workers, including long hours, low wages, unsafe working conditions, and limited legal protections. Many workers faced exploitation and abuse by employers, leading to widespread discontent and unrest. Additionally, the rapid pace of industrialization and technological change often made it difficult for workers to adapt and secure stable employment, further exacerbating social and economic inequalities. Overall, the Industrial Revolution had a transformative impact on the labor movement, shaping its goals, strategies, and achievements in the fight for workers' rights and social justice. 74. Discuss the positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution on families. Answer: The Industrial Revolution had profound effects on families, both positive and negative. On the positive side, industrialization brought about improvements in living standards for some families, particularly those employed in factory-based industries. Increased wages and access to consumer goods allowed families to enjoy a higher standard of living, with improved housing, clothing, and access to education and leisure activities. However, the Industrial Revolution also brought about significant challenges and hardships for many families. The shift from agrarian to urban-based economies led to the breakdown of traditional family structures and social networks, as rural families migrated to industrial cities in search of employment. This often resulted in overcrowded and unsanitary living conditions, with families living in cramped tenements and slums. Furthermore, the demands of industrial labor often led to the separation of families, as men, women, and children were forced to work long hours in factories and mills. Child labor, in particular, was widespread during this period, as families relied on the income of children to supplement household earnings. Overall, while the Industrial Revolution brought about economic opportunities and improvements in living standards for some families, it also exacerbated social inequalities, disrupted traditional family life, and imposed significant hardships on many working-class families. 75. Explain how the dynamics of marriage changed for the working class as more families moved to the city and took on factory work. What traditional practices remained throughout the Industrial Revolution? Answer: The dynamics of marriage underwent significant changes for the working class during the Industrial Revolution, particularly as more families migrated to urban areas and became involved in factory work. In rural agricultural societies, marriage often served as an economic partnership, with families working together to sustain their livelihoods. However, the shift to industrialization disrupted traditional family structures, as men, women, and children were drawn into the workforce, often in separate capacities. In urban industrial centers, marriage continued to be important for economic stability, as families relied on combined incomes to support themselves. However, the nature of work in factories often led to greater separation between spouses, as men and women worked long hours in harsh conditions, leaving little time for family life. Additionally, the rise of urbanization and industrialization weakened traditional community ties and social networks, which had previously played a role in matchmaking and marriage arrangements. Despite these changes, some traditional practices persisted throughout the Industrial Revolution. For example, marriage remained a socially recognized institution, providing legitimacy to relationships and offspring. Additionally, notions of gender roles and family responsibilities persisted, with women often expected to prioritize domestic duties and child-rearing, even as they entered the workforce in increasing numbers. 76. How did changing attitudes about crime influence prison reform? Include a discussion of why the public was initially reluctant to reform prisons. Answer: Changing attitudes about crime during the Industrial Revolution led to increased focus on prison reform, driven by shifts in societal perceptions of punishment, rehabilitation, and social order. Traditional methods of punishment, such as corporal punishment and public executions, were increasingly viewed as ineffective and inhumane, failing to address the root causes of crime or deter criminal behavior. Advocates for prison reform argued for the adoption of more humane and rehabilitative approaches to criminal justice, emphasizing the importance of education, vocational training, and moral reform in the rehabilitation of offenders. Influential figures such as John Howard and Elizabeth Fry played key roles in raising awareness of the deplorable conditions in prisons and advocating for reforms to improve the treatment of prisoners. However, public attitudes toward prison reform were initially resistant, reflecting deep-seated beliefs in punitive justice and moral condemnation of criminals. Many members of the public viewed prisoners as morally corrupt and undeserving of sympathy or rehabilitation, leading to opposition to efforts to improve prison conditions or introduce reforms aimed at rehabilitation. Over time, changing societal attitudes, coupled with growing awareness of the failings of the existing prison system, gradually shifted public opinion in favor of prison reform. The realization that harsh and inhumane treatment in prisons often exacerbated rather than deterred criminal behavior ultimately paved the way for significant reforms in the treatment of prisoners and the administration of justice. 77. Explain the views of the classical economists toward the working class. Did the theories of these economists offer hope that life would improve for the working class? Explain why or why not. Answer: The classical economists, including Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Thomas Malthus, held generally optimistic views regarding the prospects for the working class within the framework of capitalism. They believed in the efficacy of free markets and the principle of self-interest, arguing that the pursuit of individual profit would lead to overall economic growth and increased prosperity for all members of society, including the working class. According to classical economic theory, wages were determined by the supply and demand for labor, with wages tending to settle at a level that provided workers with a standard of living sufficient to reproduce and maintain the labor force. While classical economists acknowledged the existence of poverty and inequality, they believed that these were temporary phenomena that would be gradually alleviated as economies grew and technology advanced. However, the theories of classical economists did not always offer hope that life would improve for the working class in the short term. Classical economic theory emphasized the importance of market forces and the limited role of government intervention in addressing social and economic problems. As a result, policies aimed at improving the living and working conditions of the working class, such as minimum wage laws or labor protections, were often viewed with skepticism or outright opposition by classical economists. In practice, the implementation of laissez-faire policies based on classical economic principles sometimes led to harsh working conditions, exploitation, and social unrest, particularly during periods of rapid industrialization and urbanization. While classical economists believed that the long-term benefits of economic growth would ultimately benefit the working class, the immediate effects of capitalist development could be harsh and unequal, leading to criticism of classical economic theory from later economists and social reformers. 78. How did the views of the early socialists differ from those held by classical economists? Answer: The views of early socialists differed significantly from those held by classical economists, particularly regarding the role of government, property rights, and the distribution of wealth in society. While classical economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo advocated for laissez-faire capitalism and limited government intervention in the economy, early socialists argued for more radical reforms aimed at addressing social inequality and improving the conditions of the working class. Early socialists rejected the idea that free markets and individual self-interest would naturally lead to equitable outcomes for all members of society. Instead, they criticized the capitalist system for perpetuating exploitation, poverty, and social injustice. Influential early socialist thinkers such as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that capitalism inherently produced class conflict and economic inequality, with the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) exploiting the proletariat (working class) for their own gain. Unlike classical economists, who viewed private property as a fundamental aspect of economic freedom and individual liberty, early socialists advocated for the abolition of private property and the collective ownership of the means of production. They argued that only through collective ownership and democratic control of industry could the working class achieve true economic and social emancipation. Furthermore, early socialists called for extensive government intervention in the economy to address social inequality and provide for the welfare of all citizens. They advocated for policies such as progressive taxation, social welfare programs, and the regulation of industry to ensure fair wages, safe working conditions, and access to essential services such as healthcare and education. Overall, the views of early socialists represented a radical departure from the laissez-faire capitalism espoused by classical economists, advocating for a more egalitarian and collectively-oriented approach to economic organization and social change. 79. Why did the French become involved in the radical political movement in Italy? Give at least two reasons why the French attacked the Roman Republic. Answer: The French became involved in the radical political movement in Italy for several reasons, reflecting both their strategic interests and ideological motivations. Two key reasons for French involvement in Italy and the subsequent attack on the Roman Republic were: 1. Geopolitical Ambitions: France, under the leadership of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III), sought to expand its influence and establish itself as a dominant power in Europe. Italy, which was fragmented into various states and under foreign control, presented an opportunity for French intervention to exert influence and assert control over the region. By supporting radical political movements and republicanism in Italy, France aimed to weaken the influence of rival powers such as Austria and promote its own geopolitical interests in the region. 2. Support for Papal Authority: Despite its republican and revolutionary ideals, France also maintained close ties with the Catholic Church and sought to defend papal authority in Italy. The Roman Republic, established in 1849 after the overthrow of Pope Pius IX, posed a direct challenge to papal sovereignty and the temporal power of the Pope. France, as a Catholic nation, viewed the Roman Republic as a threat to religious stability and traditional authority in Italy. Therefore, French intervention in Italy, including the attack on the Roman Republic, was driven in part by a desire to restore papal authority and protect Catholic interests in the region. Overall, French involvement in the radical political movement in Italy and the attack on the Roman Republic reflected a combination of strategic, geopolitical, and ideological factors, as France sought to advance its own interests and assert its influence in the complex political landscape of nineteenth-century Europe. 80. Describe the dynamics that made the Habsburg Empire vulnerable to revolt. What was the progression of the uprisings, and how did each one build upon the prior one? Answer: The Habsburg Empire, a multi-ethnic and multinational state encompassing a diverse array of cultures, languages, and ethnicities, was inherently vulnerable to revolt due to its complex and decentralized governance structure. Several factors contributed to the dynamics that made the Habsburg Empire susceptible to revolt: 1. Ethnic Diversity: The Habsburg Empire was characterized by ethnic diversity, with numerous ethnic groups, including Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Romanians, Croats, Serbs, and others, coexisting within its borders. Ethnic tensions and grievances often arose due to perceived inequalities in political representation, economic opportunities, and cultural rights, leading to discontent and unrest among marginalized ethnic groups. 2. Centralization vs. Decentralization: The Habsburg Empire maintained a delicate balance between centralization and decentralization, with the imperial government in Vienna exercising authority over a vast and heterogeneous territory. However, attempts to centralize power and impose uniform policies often faced resistance from regional elites and nationalist movements seeking greater autonomy or independence for their respective ethnic communities. 3. Nationalism and Identity: The rise of nationalism and the concept of national identity posed a significant challenge to the cohesion of the Habsburg Empire. Ethnic and nationalist movements emerged across the empire, advocating for self-determination, cultural autonomy, and independence from Habsburg rule. These movements were fueled by a sense of ethnic pride, historical grievances, and aspirations for political sovereignty, leading to widespread unrest and rebellion against imperial authority. The progression of uprisings within the Habsburg Empire followed a pattern of escalating tensions and conflicts, with each uprising building upon the grievances and aspirations of previous ones: - 1848 Revolutions: The revolutionary wave of 1848, characterized by widespread unrest and demands for political reform and national autonomy, swept across Europe, including the Habsburg Empire. Ethnic and nationalist movements in Hungary, Bohemia, Italy, and other regions of the empire rose up against Habsburg rule, demanding constitutional rights, linguistic equality, and greater autonomy. Although the revolutions of 1848 ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, they laid the groundwork for future nationalist movements and rebellions within the empire. - 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise: In the aftermath of the failed revolutions of 1848, the Habsburg Empire underwent a process of reform and negotiation, culminating in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The Compromise established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, granting significant autonomy to the Kingdom of Hungary while maintaining the integrity of the empire. However, ethnic tensions persisted, and nationalist aspirations continued to simmer beneath the surface, leading to further unrest and demands for self-determination. - Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century: The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed a resurgence of nationalist movements and ethnic tensions within the Habsburg Empire. The rise of pan-Slavism, pan-Germanism, and other nationalist ideologies fueled separatist movements among ethnic minorities, leading to sporadic uprisings, protests, and acts of political violence. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, which triggered the outbreak of World War I, can be seen as the culmination of these tensions and grievances, ultimately leading to the collapse of the Habsburg Empire and the emergence of new nation-states in Central and Eastern Europe. Overall, the dynamics that made the Habsburg Empire vulnerable to revolt were rooted in its ethnic diversity, centralized governance structure, and the rise of nationalism and ethnic identity. Each uprising and rebellion within the empire reflected the complex interplay of ethnic, cultural, and political factors, contributing to the eventual dissolution of the Habsburg Empire and the redrawing of the political map of Europe. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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