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Chapter 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Treaty of Campo Formio took which country out of war with France? A. Italy B. Belgium C. Austria D. Spain Answer: C 2. Who was the commander who destroyed the French fleet at Abukir in 1798? A. William Pitt the Younger B. Nicholas Appert C. Sir Arthur Wellesley D. Horatio Nelson Answer: D 3. The Second Coalition against France was made up of ____________. A. Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain B. Russia, Austria, Italy, and Britain C. Russia, Belgium, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain D. Egypt, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain Answer: A 4. What Is the Third Estate? was written by ____________. A. Sir Walter Scott B. Abbé Siéyès C. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord D. Edward FitzGerald Answer: B 5. Revolutionary policies regarding what organization garnered the most domestic opposition? A. the secret police B. the Napoleonic Code C. the French Catholic Church D. the Jacobins Answer: C 6. François-Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture led an uprising in ____________. A. Canada B. Haiti C. southern France D. Cuba Answer: B 7. The declaration of Napoleon as emperor of France was ratified by ____________. A. a plebiscite B. a voice vote in the Assembly C. a consul of the republic D. the Second Coalition Answer: A 8. Who established the Third Coalition for the British? A. William Pitt the Younger B. Nicholas Appert C. Sir Arthur Wellesley D. Horatio Nelson Answer: A 9. What was the name of the 1802 accord between France and Britain? A. The Treaty of Campo Formio B. The Peace of Amiens C. The Treaty of Pressburg D. The Treaty of Chaumont Answer: B 10. In 1805, which two countries joined the British against France? A. Spain and Germany B. Spain and Belgium C. Russia and Austria D. Russia and Germany Answer: C 11. By the end of 1810, what country had withdrawn from the Continental System? A. Spain B. Russia C. Denmark D. Italy Answer: B 12. Food canning was invented by ____________. A. Mikhail Kutuzov B. Nicholas Appert C. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord D. Abbé Siéyès Answer: B 13. In what country was canning invented? A. Britain B. Russia C. France D. Belgium Answer: C 14. The Continental System initially extended as far east as ____________. A. Denmark B. Sweden C. Austria D. Russia Answer: D 15. One of the central features of the Romantic movement in Germany was the emergence of ____________. A. nationalism B. rebellion C. chauvinism D. partisanship Answer: A 16. The Treaty of Chaumont restored this group to the French throne: the ____________. A. Toulonese B. Directorates C. Lunevillians D. Bourbons Answer: D 17. Following the Congress of Vienna, which country gained control of northern Italy? A. Germany B. Austria C. Prussia D. Spain Answer: B 18. Romantics were drawn to the art, literature, and architecture of ____________. A. ancient Rome B. ancient Greece C. medieval Europe D. the New World Answer: C 19. The English Romantics generally opposed the ideas of ____________. A. the scientific revolution B. the Enlightenment C. the Reformation D. the Renaissance Answer: B 20. Who wrote The Critique of Pure Reason? A. Immanuel Kant B. John Locke C. Thomas Hobbes D. Émile Zola Answer: A 21. What group had a key influence on the development of Methodism, following an encounter with its founder? A. the Moravians B. the Reformers C. the Roman Catholics D. the Spanish Answer: A 22. The Quadruple Alliance was an agreement between ____________. A. Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia B. France, Austria, Russia and Prussia C. the Netherlands, Prussia, Italy, and Sardinia D. France, Belgium, Britain, and Spain Answer: A 23. The Hundred Days refers to the ____________. A. amount of time it took to complete the Vienna Conference B. time that Napoleon spent invading Russia C. time between the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont and the convening of the Congress of Vienna D. period of Napoleon’s return from Elba before his exile to Saint Helena Answer: D 24. The novel of the Romantic Era that influenced ideas about society was ____________. A. Émile by Lord Byron B. The Critique of Pure Reason by Kant C. Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth D. Émile by Rousseau Answer: D 25. What treaty gave France control of the areas in Italy north of Rome? A. the Treaty of Campo Formio B. the Treaty of Pressburg C. the Treaty of Tilsit D. the Treaty of Chaumont Answer: B 26. What was Napoleon’s objective in capturing Egypt from the Ottoman Empire? A. He hoped to drive the British fleet from the Mediterranean. B. He hoped to make a foothold of Christianity in Egypt. C. He hoped to establish a port for France in Africa. D. He hoped to capture treasures from wealthy Egyptian rulers. Answer: A 27. For his service in recovering the port of Toulon from the British, Napoleon was ____________. A. appointed a brigadier general B. given command in Italy C. asked to serve as First Consul D. asked to serve as head of the Directory Answer: A 28. Napoleon worked to restore order in France, in part by ____________. A. decentralizing the administration B. banishing from the country those who had opposed him C. doing away with the secret police D. employing men from various political groups Answer: D 29. What event gave Napoleon the excuse he needed to crown himself emperor? A. the challenge to his authority by the pope B. the publication of the Civil Code of 1804 C. an assassination attempt D. the defeat of his military advances at Trafalgar Answer: C 30. What was the effect of the Treaty of Amiens? A. It brought temporary peace to Europe. B. It took Austria out of the war. C. It made peace with Russia. D. It increased public confidence in Napoleon. Answer: A 31. What had Pope Pius VII hoped to see in the Concordat issued by Napoleon? A. the statement that most French citizens were Catholic B. the restoration of all confiscated church property C. the control over who appointed clergy and bishops D. religious dominance for the Roman Catholic Church in France Answer: D 32. Which of these resulted from the Haitian uprising? A. Napoleon suppressed all dissent in France. B. The uprising was suppressed and Haiti was made a French province again. C. The U.S. made the Louisiana Purchase. D. Slavery disappeared in Latin America. Answer: C 33. The Battle of Trafalgar ____________. A. ended any possibility of France invading England B. took Prussia out of the war C. took Russia out of the war D. led to a short-lived peace Answer: A 34. After the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon aimed to cripple the British by ____________. A. cutting off all trade between Britain and the rest of Europe B. taking on the British navy one fleet at a time C. attacking nations that Britain traded with D. turning France into a free-trade empire Answer: A 35. What motivated the French government to pursue the invention of canned food? A. They wanted to strengthen their navy. B. They wanted to preserve wasted food from farms. C. They wanted to bring better nutrition to French citizens. D. The cost of bread was high and put pressure on the navy to find other sources of nutrition for its sailors. Answer: A 36. What caused the end of the Holy Roman Empire? A. Napoleon’s success against Francis II B. the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine C. the death of Francis II D. the alliance between Prussia and France Answer: B 37. Who were the members of the Confederation of the Rhine? A. western German princes B. French aristocrats C. former Jacobins D. Russian and Prussian nobles Answer: A 38. Jean-Jacques Rousseau laid out how to live a good life without being adversely influenced by society in ____________. A. Constitutional Project for Corsica B. The Social Contract C. Letters Written from the Mountain D. Émile Answer: D 39. Immanuel Kant argued that human perception is as much a product of the mind’s activity as of ____________. A. sensory perception B. human mortality C. the influence of a free society D. the existence of God Answer: A 40. The most important Romantic German philosopher concerned with history was ____________. A. Hegel B. Herder C. Fichte D. Goethe Answer: A 41. In Spain, Napoleon faced ____________. A. well-organized military forces B. a powerful navy C. harsh winter conditions D. guerrilla warfare Answer: D 42. The long peninsular campaign in Spain ____________. A. led to religious tolerance for Spaniards B. drained French strength and hastened Napoleon’s eventual defeat C. repaired tensions between France and the pope D. established new alliances with Egypt and the Ottoman Empire Answer: B 43. When Napoleon invaded Russia, ____________. A. the Russian forces stood their ground and fought bravely B. the Russian forces retreated, destroying food and supplies as they went C. guerrilla warriors sniped at the forces and cut supply lines D. he successfully defeated the Russian army Answer: B 44. The Organic Articles of 1802 established ____________. A. the church’s rights to confiscated property B. that the church would pay the salaries of the clergy C. the supremacy of state over church D. the supremacy of church over state Answer: C 45. August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s Lucinde was typical of German Romantic writings in what way? A. It subjected emotion to reason. B. It celebrated the Enlightenment. C. It was a novel. D. It appealed primarily to intellectuals. Answer: C 46. The thing that made Lyrical Ballads unique is that it ____________. A. was written by two friends B. was written by Coleridge and Wordsworth C. embodied Romantic poetry D. rejected the rules of eighteenth-century criticism Answer: D 47. The characters in Romantic novels were ____________. A. treated as symbols of the larger truth of life B. treated as simple, carefree lovers C. depicted in the everyday world of the eighteenth century D. depicted as carrying the heavy burdens of a difficult life Answer: A 48. The Sorrows of Young Werther is quintessentially Romantic in being ____________. A. highly emotional B. focused on women’s issues C. dark D. written in the vernacular Answer: A 49. Complete the analogy: Rococo artists are to Renaissance models as Romantic artists are to the ____________. A. ancient world B. early modern world C. Middle Ages D. Revolutionary period Answer: C 50. What did John Wesley learn from the German Moravians in his transatlantic crossing? A. their unswerving faith B. the power of music in worship C. practical piety D. the purity of repentance Answer: A 51. Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt was part of the same development as ____________. A. the creation of the Third Coalition B. the Battle of Trafalgar C. the Hundred Days D. Catherine the Great’s seizure of Crimea Answer: D 52. The Confederation of the Rhine is just one example of ____________. A. nationalistic responses to Napoleon’s conquests B. Napoleon’s interference in political affairs across Europe C. the devastation of the Napoleonic wars D. coalitions that sprang up in defense against Napoleon’s invasions Answer: B 53. The divorce of Napoleon and Josephine de Beauharnais was part of the same ambitious design as Napoleon’s ____________. A. coronation B. invasion of Egypt C. continental system D. return from Elba Answer: A 54. Which of the following statements best articulates the success of the Congress of Vienna? A. The congress failed to prevent the destructive forces of nationalism in Europe. B. The congress can be credited with preventing general war for a hundred years. C. The congress addressed the major problems that would face Europe in the decades to follow. D. The congress effectively dealt with Napoleon’s aggression. Answer: B 55. Which statement would most likely be embraced by the English Romantic writers? A. The mind is a passive receptor. B. Poetry is an exercise that follows prescribed rules. C. The artist’s imagination is God at work in the mind. D. Poetry is idle play. Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. The ____________ established the rule of a single person in France, despite the appearance of democratic principles and a system of checks and balances. Answer: Constitution of the Year VIII 57. Napoleon invited Pope ____________ to take part in his coronation. Answer: Pius VII 58. The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Empress Josephine is by ____________. Answer: Jacques-Louis David 59. After divorcing Josephine, Napoleon married ____________. Answer: archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of Emperor Francis I 60. Napoleon signed the Treaty of Tilsit with ____________. Answer: the Russian tsar, Alexander I 61. The Haitian uprising was begun by ____________. Answer: slaves 62. ____________ of Russia wanted all of Poland under his control. Answer: Alexander I 63. ____________ and ____________ believed that adults should allow childlike sentiments to flourish. Answer: Rousseau; Wordsworth 64. Kant’s ____________ refers to an innate sense of moral duty. Answer: categorical imperative 65. Lucinde was written by ____________. Answer: Frederich Schlegel 66. Together with his good friend Samuel Coleridge, ____________ wrote Lyrical Ballads. Answer: William Wordsworth 67. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows was painted by ____________. Answer: John Constable 68. The founder of Methodism was ____________. Answer: John Wesley 69. The imaginations of the Romantics were fired by the medieval ____________ against Islam. Answer: Crusades 70. In his book, On Heroes and Hero-Worship, Thomas Carlyle presented ____________ as the embodiment of the hero as prophet. Answer: Muhammad ESSAY 71. Explain why the establishment of Consulate effectively ended the revolution in France. Answer: The establishment of the Consulate effectively ended the revolution in France because it marked the consolidation of power under Napoleon Bonaparte, who emerged as the First Consul and de facto ruler of France. By overthrowing the Directory in the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), Napoleon brought an end to the political instability and factionalism that had plagued the revolutionary government. The Consulate replaced the chaotic and ineffective governance of the Directory with a more stable and centralized regime, allowing Napoleon to implement reforms and restore order to France. Furthermore, Napoleon's authoritarian rule and charismatic leadership provided a sense of stability and security that appealed to many French citizens exhausted by years of revolutionary turmoil. Thus, the establishment of the Consulate effectively ended the revolutionary period in France by ushering in a new era of authoritarian rule under Napoleon. 72. What political advantage did Napoleon gain by making peace with Pope Pius VII? Answer: Napoleon gained several political advantages by making peace with Pope Pius VII through the Concordat of 1801. Firstly, by reconciling with the Catholic Church, Napoleon sought to gain legitimacy and support from France's predominantly Catholic population. The Concordat ended the hostility between the French government and the papacy, thereby stabilizing internal religious relations and reducing opposition to Napoleon's regime. Additionally, the Concordat granted Napoleon the power to nominate bishops and clergy, effectively making the Catholic Church subservient to the state and consolidating Napoleon's control over religious affairs. Furthermore, by securing the support of the Catholic Church, Napoleon aimed to bolster his authority and enhance his image as a peacemaker and reformer. Overall, the Concordat with Pope Pius VII provided Napoleon with significant political advantages, including religious legitimacy, internal stability, and increased control over the Catholic Church in France. 73. Explain why German intellectuals urged resistance to Napoleon. Answer: German intellectuals urged resistance to Napoleon for several reasons. Firstly, Napoleon's conquests and expansionist policies threatened the sovereignty and independence of German states, leading to fears of French domination and annexation. German intellectuals viewed Napoleon as a tyrant and oppressor who sought to impose French hegemony over the German-speaking territories. Additionally, Napoleon's military campaigns and occupation of German lands resulted in widespread devastation, economic hardship, and loss of life, further fueling resentment and opposition among the German population. Furthermore, Napoleon's imposition of the Continental System, which aimed to blockade British trade and weaken the British economy, had adverse effects on German commerce and industry, exacerbating anti-French sentiment. Consequently, German intellectuals advocated for resistance to Napoleon's rule as a means of preserving German autonomy, national identity, and cultural heritage. 74. Characterize Napoleon’s relationship with Russia following the Treaty of Tilsit. What drew the Russians into the alliance? Answer: Following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, Napoleon's relationship with Russia initially appeared to be amicable, as the treaty established a short-lived alliance between France and Russia. The treaty divided Europe into spheres of influence, with Russia agreeing to support Napoleon's Continental System against British trade and to join France in the ongoing conflict against Britain. However, tensions soon arose between Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I over the implementation of the Continental System and Napoleon's expansionist ambitions in Eastern Europe. Despite their initial cooperation, the alliance between France and Russia began to unravel as Napoleon's demands and encroachments on Russian territory provoked resentment and mistrust. Ultimately, Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and the disastrous retreat from Moscow marked the breakdown of the Franco-Russian alliance and the beginning of hostilities between the two powers. What drew the Russians into the alliance initially was a combination of diplomatic pragmatism and strategic calculation. Tsar Alexander I sought to balance Russia's interests and maintain stability in Europe by forming an alliance with Napoleon, thereby securing French support against their common enemy, Britain. Additionally, the Treaty of Tilsit offered Russia territorial gains and concessions, such as the acquisition of Finland and the recognition of Russian influence in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, Tsar Alexander I may have hoped to use the alliance with Napoleon as a means of modernizing and reforming Russia's economy and military, while also expanding Russia's power and influence on the European continent. 75. Explain the reasons that the Hundred Days period had an adverse affect on the peace settlement for France? Answer: The Hundred Days period had an adverse effect on the peace settlement for France primarily because it reignited hostilities and renewed fears of French aggression among the European powers. Following Napoleon's return from exile in Elba and his subsequent reestablishment of power during the Hundred Days, European leaders viewed France as a destabilizing force and a threat to the post-Napoleonic order established at the Congress of Vienna. The return of Napoleon to power undermined the legitimacy of the Bourbon monarchy and nullified the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which had exiled Napoleon to Elba and recognized Louis XVIII as the legitimate ruler of France. Consequently, the European powers, led by Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, formed the Seventh Coalition and mobilized their armies to defeat Napoleon and restore the Bourbon monarchy. The resumption of hostilities during the Hundred Days period not only prolonged the period of instability and uncertainty in Europe but also weakened France's bargaining position and diplomatic standing at the Congress of Vienna. Ultimately, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of Louis XVIII to the French throne marked the end of the Hundred Days period and the final defeat of Napoleon, leading to the imposition of harsher terms and conditions on France in the subsequent peace settlement. 76. In what ways did the viewpoint of Romantic writers differ from the rational viewpoint of Enlightenment intellectuals? Answer: The viewpoint of Romantic writers differed from the rational viewpoint of Enlightenment intellectuals in several key ways. While Enlightenment thinkers emphasized reason, science, and rationality as the primary means of understanding the world and improving society, Romantic writers rejected the mechanistic view of the universe and sought to emphasize the importance of emotion, imagination, and intuition in human experience. Whereas Enlightenment intellectuals often prioritized progress, order, and social reform, Romantic writers celebrated the beauty of nature, the power of individual emotion, and the sublime aspects of human existence. Additionally, while Enlightenment thought tended to be universalistic and focused on the pursuit of universal truths and principles, Romanticism emphasized the uniqueness and subjectivity of individual experience, highlighting the importance of personal expression and creativity. 77. Explain why Romantic artists idealized rural life. What forces were they reacting to? Answer: Romantic artists idealized rural life as a reaction against the industrialization, urbanization, and social upheaval of the early modern period. The rapid changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, including the growth of cities, the decline of traditional agrarian lifestyles, and the alienation of individuals from nature, prompted Romantic artists to seek refuge in the simplicity, beauty, and tranquility of rural landscapes. By idealizing rural life, Romantic artists sought to evoke a sense of nostalgia for a simpler, more harmonious past and to celebrate the purity and authenticity of rural existence in contrast to the artificiality and corruption of urban society. Additionally, Romantic artists were inspired by the sublime power and grandeur of nature, finding solace and inspiration in the untamed wilderness and the unspoiled beauty of the natural world. 78. Explain the Romantics’ reasons for the departure from religious views that held sway during the Enlightenment. Answer: The Romantics departed from the religious views that held sway during the Enlightenment for several reasons. While Enlightenment thinkers tended to emphasize rationalism, skepticism, and secularism, Romantic writers rejected the Enlightenment's emphasis on reason and sought to explore the mysteries of existence through subjective experience and emotion. As a result, many Romantics turned away from organized religion and traditional religious doctrines in favor of more individualistic and spiritual forms of belief. Additionally, the Romantic movement was characterized by a deep fascination with the natural world and a sense of awe and wonder at the sublime aspects of existence, leading many Romantics to develop a pantheistic or transcendentalist worldview that saw divinity in nature rather than in organized religion. Furthermore, the disillusionment and skepticism brought about by the social and political upheavals of the early modern period led many Romantics to question traditional religious institutions and doctrines, seeking instead to find meaning and purpose in the depths of their own souls and in the beauty and mystery of the natural world. 79. Describe the German philosophy of idealism. How did this approach fit into the larger context of its time? Answer: German idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, primarily associated with thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. German idealism sought to reconcile the rationalism of the Enlightenment with the subjective idealism of Romanticism, seeking to develop a comprehensive philosophical system that would account for both the objective reality of the external world and the subjective experience of the individual mind. German idealism emphasized the importance of human consciousness and reason in shaping the world, positing that reality is ultimately a product of the mind's activity rather than something external to it. This approach fit into the larger context of its time by responding to the intellectual and cultural currents of the Enlightenment and Romanticism. German idealism sought to address the limitations of Enlightenment rationalism by emphasizing the importance of subjective experience, emotion, and intuition in human understanding. At the same time, German idealism sought to transcend the subjectivism of Romanticism by developing a systematic and rigorous philosophical framework that could account for both the objective and subjective dimensions of reality. In this way, German idealism sought to bridge the gap between reason and emotion, objectivity and subjectivity, providing a comprehensive philosophical synthesis that would shape the course of Western thought in the 19th century. 80. How did ideas about Islam change for Europeans during the Romantic Era? Explain the reasons for these changes. Answer: During the Romantic Era, ideas about Islam underwent significant changes in Europe, influenced by a combination of factors including Orientalist scholarship, colonial encounters, and literary representations. Romantic writers and intellectuals often portrayed Islam in a more favorable light than had been common during the Enlightenment, emphasizing its exoticism, mysticism, and cultural richness. This shift in perception can be attributed to several reasons: Firstly, the Romantic movement was characterized by a fascination with the exotic and the unfamiliar, leading many Europeans to develop a romanticized and idealized view of the Islamic world as a land of mystery and adventure. Romantic writers such as Lord Byron and Samuel Taylor Coleridge drew inspiration from Orientalist themes and imagery in their works, contributing to the popularization of romanticized depictions of the Orient. Secondly, the rise of Orientalist scholarship during the Romantic Era led to a greater appreciation for Islamic culture, art, and literature among European intellectuals. Orientalist scholars such as Edward William Lane and Antoine Galland translated and studied Arabic texts, contributing to a deeper understanding of Islamic civilization and its contributions to world culture. Additionally, the Romantic movement was characterized by a rejection of Enlightenment rationalism and a renewed interest in spirituality and mysticism, leading some Europeans to view Islam as a more authentic and spiritually fulfilling alternative to Christianity. Romantic writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Rückert explored Islamic themes and motifs in their poetry and literature, portraying Islam as a source of wisdom and enlightenment. Overall, the Romantic Era saw a shift in European perceptions of Islam from a source of fear and hostility to one of fascination and admiration, reflecting the broader cultural and intellectual currents of the time. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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