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Chapter 25 The Age of Western Imperialism MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The period historians call the New Imperialism began in the ____________. A. 1810s B. 1840s C. 1870s D. 1910s Answer: C 2. By 1823, one of the few areas where European rule remained in the Americas was ____________. A. Haiti B. some of the Caribbean islands C. Brazil D. the Saint Lawrence and Mississippi River Valleys Answer: B 3. During the nineteenth century, the dominant religious group that set the pace for the missionary enterprises that other Western nations imitated was ____________. A. evangelical Protestants from Britain B. Roman Catholics from the Americas C. Roman Catholics from Spain, Portugal, and Italy D. Protestant settlers in British colonies Answer: A 4. India was formally ruled by which of the following until 1857? A. small local rulers of independent states B. the Mughal emperor C. the East India Company D. the British crown Answer: B 5. What was Queen Victoria’s role in India? A. She was named the Empress of India in 1877. B. She owned the East India Company. C. She sponsored expeditions of Christian missionaries to India. D. She advised India princes who swore allegiance to the British Crown. Answer: A 6. When a European power placed one of its officials in a foreign government to remotely control that government, a ____________ was created. A. sphere of influence B. protectorate C. annexed state D. territorial division Answer: B 7. Which of the following countries posed the biggest challenge to Britain’s dominance of the world stage? A. Russia and Japan B. Russia and China C. Japan and China D. Japan and the United States Answer: D 8. ____________ believed the European economies should be restructured to make imperialism unnecessary. A. J. A. Hobson B. Karl Marx C. Lenin D. Benjamin Disraeli Answer: A 9. Which country annexed Korea in 1910? A. China B. Japan C. Britain D. the United States Answer: B 10. Russia’s main rival in southern Middle Asia—the region of present-day Uzbekistan, Turkistan, and areas bordering Afghanistan—was ____________. A. Germany B. the Ottoman Empire C. Britain D. Muslim separatists Answer: C 11. Russian expansion into which region came at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and Persia? A. the Transcaucasus B. the Far East C. Central Asia D. southern Middle Asia Answer: A 12. What ended the United States’ passive role in foreign affairs? A. Russian-British rivalry in Asia B. Cuba’s revolt against Spain C. the Boxer Rebellion in China D. the sepoy mutiny in India Answer: B 13. Laos and Cambodia became protectorates of ____________ in the 1880s and 1890s. A. France B. the United States C. China D. Japan Answer: A 14. One of the reasons Napoleon III sent forces to Vietnam in 1856 was to ____________. A. protect Roman Catholic missionaries B. establish administrative control over the Vietnamese C. protect French financial interests D. expand French territory in Indochina Answer: A 15. The Boxer Rebellion ended when ____________. A. Chinese troops suppressed the Boxers B. the Boxers surrendered C. an international army occupied Beijing D. China and the Boxers signed a peace treaty Answer: C 16. The Open Door Policy ____________. A. was strongly supported by Russia B. allowed all nations to trade in China on equal terms C. divided China into sections, opening trade to the United States and U.S. allies D. allowed China to control its own trade Answer: B 17. What technological innovation helped Britain win the first Opium War against China? A. quinine B. iron steamboat C. machine gun D. gunpowder Answer: B 18. The single most important weapon in colonial warfare by 1900 was ____________. A. the machine gun B. the tank C. the bayonet D. European diseases Answer: A 19. The first transatlantic submarine cable was laid in ____________. A. 1850 B. 1866 C. 1872 D. 1900 Answer: B 20. What was “gunboat diplomacy”? A. iron warships that used force to conquer areas and allow access by European merchants B. iron warships that used their presence to ensure the cooperation of local rulers with European merchants C. negotiations between European merchants and local rulers that took place on warships D. naval fleets of European powers that engaged in warfare with other European powers Answer: B 21. Missionaries were most active in providing ____________ to non-Westerners. A. education B. economic development C. health care D. community development Answer: A 22. One of the main legacies of the missionary movements of the eighteenth century is they ____________. A. spread Western civilizations around the globe B. elevated the native peoples of non-Western regions C. made Christianity a genuinely worldwide religion D. encouraged native peoples to oppose imperialism Answer: C 23. Missionaries in India founded colleges that educated ____________. A. men and women belonging to the elite classes B. men belonging to the elite classes C. the children of colonial administrators D. women belonging to the elite classes Answer: D 24. The largest missionary society in ____________ had over a million members. A. the United States B. France C. Germany D. Britain Answer: B 25. Which French physician measured the skulls of human beings from different races and assigned them intellectual capacity on the basis of brain size? A. Walter Reed B. Carlos Finley C. Paul Broca D. James Cook Answer: C 26. One of the ways nineteenth-century imperialism differed from early modern colonization was ____________. A. it placed a higher focus on gaining control of territory B. the United States’ power rivaled that of Great Britain C. European nations increased their interest in the non-Western world D. Britain became interested in the non-Western world Answer: C 27. The close of European colonization in the Americas resulted in ____________. A. Great Britain’s loss of all of its territory in the Americas B. the collapse of Spain and Portugal as significant colonial powers C. increased European competition for new colonial settlements D. the abolition of the slave trade Answer: B 28. Which of the following statements about British involvement in slavery and the slave trade is True? A. Britain banned the slave trade in 1807 and abolished it in its own colonies in 1833–1834. B. Britain banned the slave trade and abolished it in its own colonies in 1833–1834. C. Britain banned the slave trade in 1807 but never abolished it in its own colonies. D. Britain did not participate in the slave trade but it allowed slavery in its own colonies until 1834. Answer: A 29. The British Empire in the early nineteenth century sought to extend its power and influence primarily through which means? A. conquering additional territory B. building railroads and canals C. defeating small Asian and African states D. promoting imperialism through free trade Answer: D 30. Which of the following was an outcome of British imperial policies in the first half of the nineteenth century? A. war with China over forced importation of opium B. war against France over keeping China open for free trade C. establishment of a trade embargo against European goods D. restrictions on trade with the United States Answer: A 31. Why did British economic thinkers advocate abandoning closed imperial systems in favor of free trade? A. Britain’s manufacturing capacity exceeded the demands of the population. B. Britain’s manufacturing economy was dependent on foreign raw materials. C. Britain wanted more favorable trade agreements for its import of raw materials. D. Britain wanted to decrease its manufacturing costs. Answer: A 32. The Opium Wars were a conflict between Britain’s desire to sell a product in China and China’s opposition to ____________. A. British trade policies B. Indian goods being sold in China C. Britain’s dominance in foreign markets D. the import of an addictive product, opium Answer: D 33. Prior to 1870, which of the following was the greatest threat to British domination of foreign markets? A. increased competition by major European nations B. resistance to British goods by native populations in foreign markets C. opposition to British imperialism in Africa, Asia, and the Americas D. government interference in the form of tariffs, subsidies, and price controls Answer: D 34. The Government of India Act in 1858 ____________. A. increased the authority of native rulers B. improved the sepoys’ wages and working conditions C. transferred political authority from the East India Company to the British Crown D. transferred political authority from the East India Company to India Answer: C 35. Which of the following statements about Indians’ views of British rule during the 1880s is True? A. Most Indians welcomed and supported British rule. B. Most Indians resisted British rule and considered it oppressive C. Increasing discontent led to calls for liberalizing British policies. D. Hindu and Muslim groups called for the formation of independent Hindu and Muslim states. Answer: C 36. Most of the empires of the New Imperialism ____________. A. were less enduring than those of the earlier European empires B. lasted less than a decade C. were located along the Atlantic Ocean D. involved a significant number of immigrants as settlers Answer: A 37. One of the primary motives for the New Imperialism was the ____________. A. need for new sources of raw materials B. belief that an empire was necessary for a great power C. desire to bring Western values to non-Western areas D. desire to promote Christianity among non-Westerners Answer: B 38. Britain ____________ from its rule of India. A. benefited economically B. never benefited economically C. suffered great losses D. failed to recoup its investments Answer: A 39. By 1914, which of the following was True? A. British colonization touched North, South, East, and West Africa. B. The Portuguese dominated Madagascar. C. American colonization was dominant in southern Africa. D. No foreign powers had direct access to the Nile River. Answer: A 40. Which of the following territories remained an independent nation in 1914? A. Algeria B. Libya C. Ethiopia D. Tunisia Answer: C 41. Historians have traditionally explained the New Imperialism as driven by the need for markets and raw materials. Which of the following weakens this explanation? A. colonies’ weakness as markets for the great imperial nations B. Lenin’s argument that competition eventually eliminates inefficient capitalists C. Hobson’s argument that European economies be restructured to make imperialism unnecessary D. Marx’s views on capitalism Answer: A 42. In 1898, British- and French-led forces encountered each other at the outpost of ____________, but did not decisively engage each other. A. Omdurman B. Lagos C. Aduwa D. Fashoda Answer: D 43. The Europeans’ power attempt to maximize their strategic control of African territory, markets, and raw materials was known as ____________. A. the Scramble for Africa B. the Amazing Race C. Realpolitik D. Machiavellianism Answer: A 44. How were the goals of the Russian expansion across mainland Asia similar to those of the early Victorian British administration of India? A. Both sought to elevate the native people on the ladder of civilization. B. Both used diplomacy to gain the elites’ loyalty to the tsar or British Crown. C. Both sought to convert indigenous groups to Christianity. D. Both sought to gain economic and political domination without actual direct rule or government administration. Answer: A 45. Which of these was used by Russia to justify its expansion in the Transcaucasus? A. protection of fellow Christians B. protection of Jews in the region C. protection of oppressed minorities suffering under Turkish rule D. the weak state of the Ottoman Empire Answer: A 46. Which of the following statements is True concerning colonization in Asia from 1880–1914? A. French influence in Vietnam declined by 1914. B. Japanese influence in Asia declined by 1914. C. British dominance in Asia declined by 1914. D. American influence in southern Asia increased by 1914. Answer: D 47. Until the mid-nineteenth century, European colonists were largely confined to coastal outposts in Asia and Africa for which of the following reasons? A. Local groups violently resisted European colonizing power. B. Europeans were highly vulnerable to tropical diseases in these regions. C. Fighting among states in Europe drew attention away from colonizing enterprises. D. Steamboats and warships could not penetrate shallow riverbeds in Asia and Africa. Answer: B 48. Reasons for increased missionary activity in Asia and Africa in the 1800s included which of the following? A. Missionaries were interested in bringing the wisdom of other civilizations back to Europe. B. African and Asian rulers accepted a missionary presence in exchange for greater trade. C. New evangelical currents were developing among European Protestants. D. The Catholic Church in France was experiencing a decline after the fall of Napoleon. Answer: C 49. Botanists played a profound role in which of the following imperial ventures? A. They transformed local crop production to serve the needs of the empires’ home countries. B. They served as spokesmen for the idea that empires helped bring progress. C. They introduced Asian crops into Europe, replacing the crops of the 1700s. D. They collected exotic species of the non-Western world and exhibited them to domestic audiences. Answer: A 50. Anthropologists in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries did which of the following? A. They viewed non-Western peoples as roughly the same as Westerners in intelligence. B. They sought to create new universities in non-Western societies to support research. C. They pointed out similar folkways between Western and non-Western societies. D. They created zoo-like “native villages” for people in Europe and America. Answer: D 51. Britain retained control of which of these settler colonies in the nineteenth century? A. Canada B. New Zealand C. Australia D. all of the above Answer: D 52. Which of the following best expresses the British rationale for ruling India in the nineteenth century? A. The rationale for rule shifted among all of these ideas over time. B. Britain could bring orderly administration to a chaotic land. C. Missionaries could spread Christianity among Hindus and Muslims. D. British enlightenment values would bring civilization to India. Answer: A 53. The Imperialism of Free Trade saw European powers dominate colonial nations through ____________. A. military power B. economic influence C. missionary activity D. lending practices Answer: B 54. Which best describes the ultimate outcome of the Russian wars of conquest in Central Asia? A. They brought about a vast expansion of Russian wealth and influence in Europe. B. They ended with the defeat of Chinese and British client states. C. They resulted in formal Russian control but much hostility and resistance to Russian rule. D. They ended with Persia and the Ottoman Empire in strong positions on Russia’s flanks. Answer: C 55. The church founded by David Brown Vincent exemplifies which of these? A. African rejection of Christian churches. B. Devolution of church leadership to homegrown leaders. C. The failure of European Christian churches in Africa. D. The ascendancy of Islam in northern Africa. Answer: B SHORT ANSWER 56. The ____________ closed the Americas to European colonization. Answer: Monroe Doctrine 57. Following the first Opium War, Britain gained control of ____________. Answer: Hong Kong 58. The most extensive resistance to European imperial power in the nineteenth century, the _____________ , broke out against British rule in India in 1857. Answer: sepoy mutiny 59. Indian Hindus organized the ____________ in 1885 with the goals of modernizing Indian life and liberalizing British policy. Answer: Indian National Congress 60. An arrangement in which a Western nation received special commercial and legal privileges in a non-Western region, city, or territory without direct political involvement is known as a ____________. Answer: sphere of influence 61. An arrangement in which a Western nation placed officials in a foreign state to oversee its government without formally assuming responsibility for its administration is known as ____________. Answer: protectorate 62. Power vacuums created by the decay of the ____________ led to many of the territorial acquisitions associated with the New Imperialism. Answer: Ottoman Empire 63. Japan became a major imperial power in Asia in 1895 after defeating ____________. Answer: China 64. At the battle of ____________, 11,000 Sudanese troops were killed and 16,000 were wounded, compared to only 48 British troops lost. Answer: Omdurman 65. To preserve their political power and economic privileges, the white elite of South Africa eventually enforced a policy of racial ____________, or “separateness.” Answer: apartheid 66. British and Russian rivalry over Central Asia ended with ____________. Answer: the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 67. U.S. support for Cuba’s revolt led to the ____________. Answer: Spanish-American War of 1898 68. The single greatest obstacle to European penetration of inland sub-Saharan Africa was ____________. Answer: malaria 69. In ____________, Europeans could experience different parts of their nation’s empires in a pleasant setting of flowerbeds, trees, and greenhouses. Answer: botanical gardens 70. The theory of the multiple origins of the races of humankind was known as ____________. Answer: polygenesis ESSAY 71. Compare and contrast the features that distinguished the “new” from the “old” imperialism. How much of a departure was the “new” imperialism from previous attempts at imperial dominance? Answer: The "old" imperialism, primarily practiced by European powers during the 16th to 18th centuries, was characterized by territorial expansion for the purpose of acquiring resources, establishing colonies, and spreading Christianity. It was largely driven by exploratory voyages, trade routes, and religious missions. In contrast, the "new" imperialism emerged in the late 19th century and was marked by more aggressive and systematic colonial conquests. Unlike the old imperialism, which focused on trading posts and limited territorial control, the new imperialism aimed for direct political control and domination over vast territories. One of the key features that distinguished the new imperialism was the intense competition among European powers to acquire colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. This scramble for colonies was driven by economic interests, such as the desire for raw materials, markets, and strategic military bases. Additionally, the new imperialism was characterized by the use of modern military technology, including machine guns and steamships, which gave European powers a significant advantage over indigenous peoples. Moreover, the new imperialism was justified by ideologies such as Social Darwinism and the "White Man's Burden," which portrayed colonialism as a civilizing mission to bring progress and enlightenment to so-called "backward" societies. This ideological justification served to mask the exploitative nature of colonial rule and legitimize the subjugation of indigenous peoples. In terms of departure from previous attempts at imperial dominance, the new imperialism represented a significant shift in scale, scope, and intensity. While the old imperialism focused on establishing trading outposts and exploiting existing trade networks, the new imperialism sought to establish direct political control over vast territories and extract resources on a much larger scale. Additionally, the new imperialism was driven by a combination of economic, strategic, and ideological motives, which were not as prominent in earlier imperial ventures. Overall, the new imperialism represented a more aggressive and systematic approach to colonial expansion, with far-reaching consequences for both the colonizers and the colonized. 72. How did British trade and imperial policies seek to benefit the home country? Compare and contrast several policies for ruling and controlling the empire, and explain how they furthered the empire’s underlying goals. Answer: British trade and imperial policies were designed to maximize economic benefits for the home country while maintaining political control over its colonies. One key aspect of British imperial policy was mercantilism, which aimed to ensure a favorable balance of trade by exporting more than importing and acquiring colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. One policy for ruling and controlling the empire was the establishment of chartered companies, such as the British East India Company, which were granted monopolies on trade and governance in specific regions. These companies played a central role in expanding British influence and extracting wealth from colonies through trade and taxation. However, they also operated with considerable autonomy, often at the expense of local populations. Another policy was indirect rule, which involved governing colonies through local elites or traditional authorities, as seen in British colonial administrations in India and parts of Africa. This approach allowed the British to maintain control with minimal direct intervention and reduced administrative costs. However, it also perpetuated existing power structures and inequalities, leading to resentment and resistance among colonized peoples. In contrast, direct rule, as practiced in other parts of Africa, involved the imposition of British laws, institutions, and officials, often accompanied by the displacement of indigenous rulers. This approach facilitated more direct control and exploitation of colonial resources but also led to greater resistance and conflicts with local populations. Overall, these policies furthered the empire's underlying goals of economic exploitation, political control, and cultural dominance. Whether through monopolistic trading companies, indirect rule through local intermediaries, or direct imposition of British authority, the primary aim was to maximize British power and prosperity at the expense of colonized peoples. 73. What explains the similarities and differences between the ways various European states acquired and ruled empires in Africa during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? Answer: The acquisition and rule of empires in Africa by various European states during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were influenced by a combination of economic, political, and strategic factors. Similarities between European colonial powers in Africa included the use of military force and technological superiority to establish control over indigenous populations and territories. European states also justified their imperial ventures through ideologies of racial superiority and the civilizing mission, portraying colonialism as a benevolent endeavor to bring progress and enlightenment to "backward" societies. However, there were also significant differences in the ways different European powers acquired and ruled their African empires. For example, while Britain and France were the dominant colonial powers in Africa, other European states such as Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal also had colonial possessions on the continent. The methods of acquisition varied, with some colonies acquired through treaties and negotiations, while others were obtained through military conquest or diplomatic maneuvering. In terms of rule, European powers adopted different approaches ranging from indirect rule, where local institutions and authorities were maintained, to direct rule, where colonial administrations were established to govern territories directly. For instance, British colonial rule in Africa often involved a combination of indirect and direct rule, with local chiefs retaining authority in some areas, while British officials governed others directly. In contrast, Belgian colonial rule in the Congo was characterized by brutal exploitation and forced labor under King Leopold II's personal control. Furthermore, the economic exploitation of African colonies differed among European powers, with some focusing on cash crop agriculture, others on mineral extraction, and still others on labor exploitation. These differences often reflected the specific economic interests and priorities of each colonial power. Overall, while European colonial powers in Africa shared certain similarities in their methods and justifications for imperialism, there were also significant differences in their approaches to acquisition, rule, and economic exploitation, shaped by their respective histories, interests, and capacities. 74. How did European control of Africa affect the lives of people in Africa? Discuss the specific social, political, economic, and demographic effects of European control and colonization in at least two different colonies. Answer: European control of Africa had profound and multifaceted effects on the lives of people across the continent, leading to significant changes in social, political, economic, and demographic aspects. In the Belgian Congo, European colonization under King Leopold II led to extreme exploitation and brutality. The local population faced forced labor, violence, and atrocities such as mutilations under the ruthless extraction of rubber and ivory. This exploitation devastated communities, leading to widespread suffering, depopulation, and social disintegration. Moreover, the imposition of European administrative structures disrupted traditional social and political systems, undermining indigenous authority and creating social tensions. In British-controlled Kenya, European colonization had different but still impactful effects. The imposition of colonial rule led to the dispossession of land from indigenous peoples through mechanisms such as the creation of reserves and the introduction of cash crops like tea and coffee. This resulted in the marginalization of African farmers and the concentration of economic power in the hands of European settlers. Additionally, colonial policies such as the hut tax and forced labor further exacerbated social inequalities and discontent among the local population. Overall, European control and colonization of Africa resulted in the exploitation, marginalization, and disempowerment of indigenous peoples, with long-lasting social, political, economic, and demographic consequences that continue to shape the continent's realities today. 75. Why did the tsars extend Russia’s power and influence over central and eastern Asia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? How successful were they in doing so, and why? Answer: The extension of Russia's power and influence over central and eastern Asia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was driven by various strategic, economic, and geopolitical factors. One key motivation was the desire to secure access to warm-water ports and expand trade routes to the East, facilitating commerce and strengthening Russia's position as a regional power. Additionally, Russian expansion into central and eastern Asia was fueled by ambitions for territorial aggrandizement and the projection of imperial authority. Tsarist Russia sought to assert control over vast territories, including Siberia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus, to consolidate its imperial holdings and enhance its geopolitical influence. The success of Russian expansion varied across different regions. In Siberia, Russian colonization and conquest were relatively successful, leading to the establishment of Russian settlements and the incorporation of vast territories into the Russian Empire. However, in Central Asia, Russian advances faced stiff resistance from indigenous peoples, as well as competing imperial powers such as the British Empire in the Great Game rivalry. Despite facing significant challenges, Russia was ultimately able to expand its control over much of Central Asia through military conquest, diplomatic maneuvering, and the establishment of protectorates and client states. Overall, Russia's expansion into central and eastern Asia during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was driven by a combination of strategic, economic, and imperial ambitions, resulting in varying degrees of success in consolidating its influence over the region. 76. How did major technological changes in the West help drive imperialism during the nineteenth century? Answer: Major technological changes in the West played a crucial role in driving imperialism during the nineteenth century by providing European powers with significant military, transportation, and communication advantages over their imperial rivals and indigenous peoples. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late eighteenth century, led to the development of advanced military technologies such as rifled firearms, artillery, and steam-powered warships. These innovations gave European powers a significant military superiority over traditional societies, allowing them to conquer and control vast territories with relative ease. Moreover, technological advancements in transportation, particularly the invention of steamships and railways, facilitated the rapid movement of troops, supplies, and administrators across colonial empires. Steamships, in particular, enabled European powers to overcome geographical barriers and penetrate inland regions previously inaccessible by sea, thereby extending their imperial reach and influence. Furthermore, improvements in communication technologies, such as the telegraph, facilitated the coordination of colonial administration and military operations over vast distances. This enhanced communication network enabled European powers to exert centralized control over their colonies and respond more effectively to challenges and threats to their imperial interests. Overall, major technological changes in the West during the nineteenth century provided European powers with the means to project their military power, extend their territorial control, and enforce their dominance over colonized peoples, thus driving the age of imperialism. 77. Compare and contrast the origins, meaning, and effects of missionary activity sent by Protestant nations with those sent by Catholic ones. Which groups had a greater impact on life in Africa and Asia, and why? Answer: Missionary activity sent by Protestant nations and Catholic ones had similar origins in the desire to spread their respective religious beliefs and convert indigenous peoples to Christianity. However, there were significant differences in their approaches, meanings, and effects. Protestant missionary activity often originated from non-state actors such as religious organizations, churches, and missionary societies, seeking to evangelize and establish Protestant communities in distant lands. Protestant missionaries emphasized the importance of individual conversion and personal salvation, focusing on preaching the Bible and educating indigenous populations in Western values and literacy. This approach often led to the establishment of schools, hospitals, and other social services, contributing to the spread of Western education and modernization in Africa and Asia. In contrast, Catholic missionary activity was often closely linked to the expansion of colonial empires and state-sponsored efforts to Christianize indigenous populations. Catholic missionaries, often supported by colonial authorities, played a significant role in establishing churches, converting indigenous peoples, and integrating them into colonial societies. Catholic missions also emphasized rituals, sacraments, and the authority of the Church hierarchy, reflecting the hierarchical nature of Catholicism. In terms of impact, both Protestant and Catholic missionaries had a significant influence on life in Africa and Asia, albeit in different ways. Protestant missionaries, with their focus on education and individual conversion, had a greater impact on promoting literacy, Western values, and social change, particularly in areas where Protestantism gained a strong foothold, such as Southern Africa and parts of India. On the other hand, Catholic missionaries, often operating within the framework of colonial administrations, had a profound impact on religious and cultural practices, as well as social and political structures, particularly in regions where Catholicism became dominant, such as Latin America and parts of Africa. However, Catholic missions also faced criticism for their collaboration with colonial authorities and imposition of Western values on indigenous cultures. Overall, while both Protestant and Catholic missionary activities had significant impacts on life in Africa and Asia, their approaches, meanings, and effects varied depending on historical contexts, regional dynamics, and interactions with colonial powers. 78. Analyze the relationship between the effort to spread Christianity through missionary activity and the rise of European imperial ambitions during the nineteenth century. When did missionary goals complement imperial goals, and when did the two sets of goals diverge? Which project had a more enduring impact on the peoples of Asia and Africa? Answer: The effort to spread Christianity through missionary activity was closely intertwined with the rise of European imperial ambitions during the nineteenth century. Missionary endeavors often served as a tool for advancing imperial interests, while also reflecting broader religious, cultural, and political motivations. In many cases, missionary goals complemented imperial goals, as both aimed to extend European influence and control over non-European territories. Missionaries frequently worked hand in hand with colonial authorities, receiving support and protection in exchange for promoting European values and facilitating the assimilation of indigenous populations into colonial societies. For example, missionaries played a crucial role in justifying colonial expansion by portraying imperialism as a civilizing mission to bring Christianity, civilization, and progress to "heathen" societies in Asia and Africa. However, there were also instances where missionary goals diverged from imperial goals, particularly when missionaries challenged colonial policies or advocated for indigenous rights and autonomy. Missionaries sometimes clashed with colonial authorities over issues such as land rights, cultural practices, and the treatment of indigenous peoples, leading to tensions and conflicts within colonial societies. In terms of enduring impact, while both missionary activity and European imperialism left lasting legacies on the peoples of Asia and Africa, the effects of colonialism were arguably more profound and far-reaching. European imperialism reshaped political boundaries, economic structures, social hierarchies, and cultural identities across vast regions, often with devastating consequences for indigenous peoples. Missionary activity, while influential in spreading Christianity and Western values, did not fundamentally alter the power dynamics or economic exploitation inherent in colonial rule. Overall, while missionary efforts and European imperialism were closely intertwined during the nineteenth century, the project of colonial domination had a more enduring and transformative impact on the peoples of Asia and Africa, shaping their destinies and trajectories in profound ways. 79. How did changes in the natural and social sciences serve to justify European imperialism? Explain how changes in different scientific disciplines related to each other in reinforcing European judgments of Asian and African peoples. Answer: Changes in the natural and social sciences during the nineteenth century played a crucial role in justifying European imperialism by providing pseudo-scientific theories and frameworks that reinforced prevailing racial stereotypes and hierarchical worldviews. In the natural sciences, developments such as Darwin's theory of evolution and the concept of Social Darwinism were used to rationalize European superiority and justify the subjugation of non-European peoples. Social Darwinists argued that European civilization was the most advanced and "fit" for survival, while non-European societies were portrayed as primitive, backward, and destined for extinction or assimilation. This biological determinism provided a pseudo-scientific basis for racial hierarchies and imperial domination. In the social sciences, disciplines such as anthropology and ethnography emerged to study human societies and cultures, often through a Eurocentric lens. European anthropologists and ethnographers classified and categorized non-European peoples based on racial, cultural, and evolutionary criteria, reinforcing stereotypes of racial inferiority and cultural backwardness. These scientific discourses were used to justify colonial rule and paternalistic interventions aimed at "civilizing" and "uplifting" indigenous populations. Moreover, developments in geography, cartography, and archaeology contributed to the construction of Eurocentric narratives of conquest, discovery, and progress, which depicted European expansion as natural, inevitable, and benevolent. European explorers and scientists mapped and cataloged the territories, resources, and peoples of Asia and Africa, framing colonial conquests as part of a larger project of scientific exploration and enlightenment. Overall, changes in the natural and social sciences served to legitimize European imperialism by providing pseudo-scientific justifications for racial domination, cultural assimilation, and territorial expansion. These scientific discourses reinforced existing power structures and prejudices, shaping European perceptions of Asian and African peoples and justifying their subjugation under colonial rule. 80. Analyze the scientific areas of research during the nineteenth century, and answer the question: Was scientific research controlled by imperialist motives? Draw on at least one example from botany, zoology, medicine, or anthropology to explain the relationship between science and imperialism during these years. Answer: Scientific research during the nineteenth century was heavily influenced by imperialist motives, as European powers sought to exploit scientific knowledge and expertise to further their colonial agendas and enhance their economic, military, and ideological dominance. One example of this relationship between science and imperialism can be found in the field of botany. European botanists conducted expeditions to Asia, Africa, and the Americas to study and collect plant specimens for scientific classification and cultivation. These botanical expeditions were often sponsored or supported by colonial authorities and commercial interests, with the aim of identifying valuable plant species for agricultural, medicinal, or ornamental purposes. For instance, the search for quinine, a plant-based remedy for malaria, led European botanists to explore tropical regions in Asia and Africa where the plant Cinchona grew. The cultivation of Cinchona plants in British-controlled territories such as India and Java helped to secure a cheap and reliable supply of quinine for colonial officials, soldiers, and settlers, thereby enabling the expansion and consolidation of British imperial rule in malaria-endemic regions. Furthermore, botanical research facilitated the introduction of cash crops such as rubber, tea, coffee, and cotton into colonial economies, providing lucrative sources of revenue for European colonial powers and their settler communities. The establishment of botanical gardens, experimental farms, and agronomic research stations in colonies served to exploit local plant resources, improve agricultural productivity, and promote colonial development at the expense of indigenous knowledge and land rights. Overall, scientific research during the nineteenth century was often controlled by imperialist motives, as European powers sought to harness scientific knowledge and expertise to advance their colonial interests and consolidate their global dominance. Botanical exploration and exploitation, exemplified by the quest for quinine and the cultivation of cash crops, illustrate the entanglement of science, capitalism, and imperialism in shaping the course of colonial history. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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