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Chapter 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Between 1846 and 1932, how many citizens did Europe lose to emigration? A. about 20 million B. about 35 million C. about 50 million D. about 100 million Answer: C 2. After 1910, population growth in Europe ____________. A. declined or stayed the same B. increased slightly C. stayed the same D. increased dramatically Answer: A 3. One of the main destinations in Africa for many Europeans was ____________. A. Egypt B. Palestine C. modern-day Zimbabwe D. South Africa Answer: D 4. Popular destinations in the Americas for many Europeans were ____________. A. the United States, Canada, and Brazil B. the United States, Mexico, and Canada C. the United States, Mexico, and Brazil D. the United States, Canada, and Ecuador Answer: A 5. What labor-related term was coined in the latter half of the nineteenth century? A. service sector B. contract workers C. binding arbitration D. unemployment Answer: D 6. The first bicycles were made of ____________. A. rubber B. wood C. metal D. plastic Answer: B 7. The first major public power plant in Europe was constructed in ____________. A. Great Britain B. Belgium C. France D. Germany Answer: A 8. Which of the following countries was a leader in forging the link between scientific research and industrial development? A. Great Britain B. Italy C. France D. Germany Answer: D 9. The petite bourgeoisie was made up of ____________. A. entrepreneurs B. professional people C. large business owners D. white-collar workers Answer: D 10. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the middle class ____________. A. grew increasingly diverse B. lost political power C. made political alliances with the working classes D. grew increasingly hostile to imperialism Answer: A 11. Small shop owners considered which of the following a threat? A. unions B. banks C. department stores D. consumers Answer: C 12. Which of the following was considered a white-collar worker? A. librarian B. lower-level government bureaucrat C. schoolteacher D. shopkeeper Answer: B 13. Starting around midcentury, urban planners devised cities that were dominated by ____________. A. housing for the working class B. manufacturing centers C. commerce, government, and entertainment venues D. a concern for historical preservation Answer: C 14. Who did Napoleon III appoint to redesign Paris, with a partial goal of widening the streets to make for an easier response to insurrections? A. Baron Georges Haussmann B. Edwin Chadwick C. Louis René D. Pierre-Charles L’Enfant Answer: A 15. By 1910, which European city had the highest population? A. Berlin B. London C. Paris D. Vienna Answer: B 16. In the nineteenth century, cholera struck ____________. A. the lower class only B. the lower and middle classes C. mainly the middle and upper classes D. all classes Answer: D 17. Which of the following groups offered economic incentives to build housing for the poor? A. religious organizations B. nonprofit organizations C. businesses and philanthropists D. businesses and religious organizations Answer: C 18. Most countries prohibited women from becoming _____________ until after World War I. A. doctors B. lawyers C. schoolteachers D. nurses Answer: B 19. The name given to the practice by Russian police and right-wing groups of conducting riots against the Jews was ____________. A. diaspora B. pogrom C. ghettos D. anti-Semitism Answer: B 20. In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, many Jews in Germany began experiencing the effects of ____________. A. pogroms B. organized anti-Semitism C. ghettos D. transportation Answer: B 21. The emancipation of Jews brought ____________. A. the abolition of serfdom B. equal or nearly equal citizenship and social status C. the cessation of pogroms D. increased representation in government Answer: B 22. Anti-Semitism was strongest in what country in the late 1800s? A. France B. Russia C. Poland D. Great Britain Answer: B 23. The emancipation of the Jews began in the ____________. A. seventeenth century and was completed by the end of the nineteenth century B. eighteenth century and was completed by the end of the nineteenth century C. nineteenth century and was completed by the end of the same century D. eighteenth century and was never fully completed Answer: D 24. The Fabian Society ____________. A. took a radical approach to social reform B. took its name from American John Fabian C. was Britain’s most influential socialist group D. was France’s most influential socialist group Answer: C 25. Count Sergei Witte ____________. A. worked to industrialize Russia B. was part of the landed aristocracy of Russia that opposed industrialization C. was unpopular with the tsar D. was an early Bolshevik Answer: A 26. What was a key contributory factor to the migration of Europeans in the 1800s? A. better transportation systems outside of Europe B. the emancipation of peasants C. the increased cost of land in Europe D. lower wages in Europe than elsewhere Answer: B 27. Around 1850, emigration patterns in Europe changed in terms of the ____________. A. social status of emigrants B. economic status of emigrants C. emigrant’s country of origin D. dominant religion of emigrants Answer: C 28. European migration ____________ Europe because ____________. A. hurt; it created a labor shortage B. hurt; it created a brain drain of highly skilled workers C. shamed; it undercut its image of superiority D. benefited; it relieved social and population pressures Answer: D 29. The Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by ____________. A. the expansion of railway systems in Europe B. the development of new industries on the Continent C. the spread of industries similar to those in Great Britain D. massive unemployment Answer: B 30. The Second Industrial Revolution was associated with ____________. A. textiles, plastics, and railroads B. steel, chemicals, and electricity C. steam, iron, and electricity D. iron, chemicals, and railroads Answer: B 31. Which of the following lagged behind other European countries economically in the late 1800s? A. Germany B. Austria-Hungary C. the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire D. Norway and Sweden Answer: C 32. The economic crisis of 1873 and after was essentially one of ____________. A. transition to industrialization B. supply exceeding demand C. wartime shortages D. expanding markets Answer: B 33. The petite bourgeoisie were squeezed between the ____________ and the ____________. A. working class; poor B. elite; middle class C. elite; working class D. middle class; working class Answer: D 34. After 1850, middle class interest in revolutions ____________. A. declined in favor of protecting their status B. declined as governments became more liberal C. increased as a way to effect social change D. increased as a way to improve one’s own economic and social opportunities Answer: A 35. Working-class workers ____________ middle class. A. aspired to become B. considered themselves C. resented the D. often sabotaged the Answer: A 36. Middle-class reformers targeted which of the following issues as an impediment to a healthy and politically stable population? A. working conditions B. housing conditions C. the large lower class D. political rights Answer: B 37. One of the ways that urban reconstruction in France was political is it ____________. A. was dominated by politically-connected contractors B. primarily benefited the government and upper classes C. divided liberals and conservatives D. created thousands of government and private sector jobs Answer: D 38. Napoleon III’s primary goal in redesigning Paris was to ____________. A. make it less protester-friendly B. attract new residents C. deflect attention away from his social policies D. pacify reformers Answer: A 39. Progress in Europe that enabled married women to own property came first in ____________. A. France B. Great Britain C. Germany D. Switzerland Answer: B 40. Which of these tended to provide some options for women after around 1900? A. control over their children and wage-earning B. university education C. wage-earning and divorce D. professional degrees Answer: C 41. One of the two major developments affecting the economic lives of women during the Second Industrial Revolution was ____________. A. the influx of many women to the workforce B. a large expansion in the variety of available jobs C. a glut of women who were qualified to be schoolteachers D. a reduction in wages paid to men Answer: B 42. Which of the following was True about family law in most European countries? A. Women always retained custody of their children. B. Men had few rights concerning custody and visitation of children. C. The father had the right to take his children from their mother. D. Women needed the permission of both their mother and father to marry. Answer: C 43. Following the revolutions of 1848, the experience of and opportunities for Jews in Europe ____________. A. generally improved B. worsened slightly C. worsened significantly D. underwent no change Answer: A 44. By the end of the nineteenth century, most Jews in Western Europe ____________. A. considered anti-Semitism a minor and temporary problem B. seldom experienced any form of anti-Semitism C. believed anti-Semitism was increasing and becoming a serious problem D. believed liberal reforms were encouraging anti-Semitism Answer: A 45. During the late nineteenth century, the primary issue that confronted socialist parties throughout Europe was ____________. A. whether desired goals required revolution or could be achieved through democratic reform B. whether nationalism was superior to socialism C. what to do in the face of newfound mainstream acceptance D. how to manage the flood of new members Answer: A 46. The International Working Men’s Association, known as the First International, ____________. A. was short-lived but had a profound impact on socialist efforts in Europe B. was short-lived and had no impact on socialist efforts in Europe C. remained a powerful entity through much of the twentieth century D. cast an unfavorable light on Marxism Answer: A 47. The socialist movement in France was characterized by ____________. A. a united effort espoused by labor groups to end worker exploitation B. a united effort that had influence at the cabinet level C. a divided effort with two main opposing factions D. lack of interest that led to the near-demise of the movement Answer: C 48. During the last half of the nineteenth century, workers felt less need to protest in the streets and riot because ____________. A. the government had capitulated to most of their demands B. they used new institutions to express their demands C. they considered street protests and riots ineffectual D. they feared suppression by government forces Answer: B 49. Which of the following is considered a strong trigger for the Russian revolution of 1905? A. the creation of the Duma B. the appearance at court by the monk Grigory Efimovich Rasputin C. the Bloody Sunday shootings D. the division between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks Answer: C 50. Bismarck attempted to persuade German workers to oppose socialism by ____________. A. creating the German Social Democratic Party B. implementing programs that offered a paternalistic alternative to socialism C. allowing antisocialism laws to expire D. using scare tactics to predict abysmal conditions resulting from the end of capitalism Answer: B 51. Which of these was True about Europe between 1860 and 1914? A. socialism declined even as the welfare state emerged B. Europe’s productive capacity declined C. rural life drove the economy D. Britain continued to lead in industrialization Answer: A 52. Which of these was the major push factor driving migration from Europe in the 1800s? A. a population boom B. religious oppression C. economic opportunity D. political oppression Answer: A 53. Public health laws can be seen as supporting ____________ at the expense of ____________. A. public health; private rights B. property rights; public welfare C. the middle classes; working classes D. property owners; the proletariat Answer: A 54. Which of these best describes European women’s legal and economic status around 1900? A. declining in all respects B. rapidly improving in property but not voting rights C. improving, with some major goals achieved D. stagnant, with only a few, modest gains Answer: C 55. In What Is to Be Done? Vladimir Lenin argued for the implementation of ____________. A. a modified version of Marx’s socialist revolution B. classic Marxist policies C. a democratic approach to the socialist agenda D. violent revolution led by the proletariat Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. Around 1850, most European emigrants were from Great Britain, ____________, and Scandinavia. Answer: Germany 57. ____________ steel production eclipsed that of Britain in 1893. Answer: German 58. The British engineer ____________ discovered a process for manufacturing steel cheaply in big quantities. Answer: Henry Bessemer 59. In the nineteenth century, the ____________ set the values and goals for most of the society. Answer: middle classes 60. In the late nineteenth century, the middle and lower classes started seeking housing in ____________. Answer: the suburbs 61. In 1910, Paris had a population of nearly ____________ million. Answer: three 62. The Napoleonic Code made French women, in effect, legal ____________. Answer: minors 63. In Great Britain, ____________ led the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. Answer: Millicent Fawcett 64. In 1894, the ____________, was founded to fight for women’s rights in Germany. Answer: Union of German Women’s Organizations, or BDF 65. Legal discrimination and prejudice against Jews continued until World War I in ____________. Answer: Russia 66. ____________ is hostility toward or prejudice against Jews. Answer: Anti-Semitism 67. ____________ was a wealthy Jewish man from London who was elected to Parliament several times but who failed to be seated because he would not take the Christian oath. Answer: Lionel Rothschild 68. The British feminist ____________, along with her daughters, organized the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903. Answer: Emmeline Pankhurst 69. Socialist participation in the French cabinet was called ____________. Answer: opportunism 70. The doctrines put forth by Eduard Bernstein, known as ____________, which questioned whether Marx was right to demand revolution, were eventually rejected by German socialists. Answer: Revisionism ESSAY 71. Explain how migration patterns have affected the world’s food and resource situation. What reasons are given for a persistent crisis in certain regions of the world? Answer: Migration patterns have significantly impacted the world's food and resource situation by influencing agricultural practices, land use, and resource distribution. For example, the movement of people from rural to urban areas has led to the abandonment of agricultural land in some regions, affecting food production. Additionally, migration across borders has contributed to shifts in labor supply and demand in agriculture, affecting productivity and resource allocation. Persistent crises in certain regions of the world, particularly in terms of food and resources, can be attributed to various factors. These include environmental degradation, such as soil erosion and deforestation, which reduce agricultural productivity and limit the availability of natural resources. Political instability, conflict, and corruption also play significant roles in exacerbating food and resource crises by disrupting supply chains, hindering investment in infrastructure, and impeding economic development. 72. Describe three events that helped to shape the evolution of the Second Industrial Revolution. Answer: Three events that significantly shaped the evolution of the Second Industrial Revolution include: 1. The Bessemer Process: Invented by Henry Bessemer in the 1850s, this process revolutionized steel production by enabling the mass production of high-quality steel at a lower cost. The availability of cheap steel facilitated the construction of infrastructure such as railways, bridges, and skyscrapers, fueling industrial growth and urbanization. 2. The Expansion of Electricity: The widespread adoption of electricity as a source of power and lighting in the late 19th and early 20th centuries transformed industries and everyday life. Electric power allowed for the mechanization of factories, leading to increased productivity and the development of new manufacturing processes. It also enabled the growth of new industries such as telecommunications and electric appliances. 3. The Invention of the Internal Combustion Engine: The invention and refinement of the internal combustion engine in the late 19th century revolutionized transportation and manufacturing. The widespread adoption of automobiles, trucks, and airplanes transformed mobility and trade, while the use of engines in factories and machinery increased efficiency and output. 73. How did the changing composition of the middle classes affect this group’s political and social goals in the course of the nineteenth century? Answer: The changing composition of the middle classes during the nineteenth century influenced their political and social goals in several ways. As the middle class grew in size and diversity due to industrialization and urbanization, its members became increasingly aware of their social and economic status and sought to assert their interests and rights. Politically, the middle classes advocated for liberal reforms such as expanded voting rights, constitutional government, and free-market policies that would protect their property rights and promote economic opportunity. They played a crucial role in movements for political reform, such as the Chartist movement in Britain and the revolutions of 1848 in Europe, which aimed to secure greater political participation and representation. Socially, the middle classes sought to improve their social standing and living conditions through education, cultural pursuits, and philanthropy. They emphasized the values of meritocracy, individualism, and self-improvement, promoting social mobility and upward mobility. The rise of a middle-class culture characterized by consumerism, leisure activities, and civic engagement reflected the changing aspirations and lifestyles of this group. Overall, the changing composition of the middle classes during the nineteenth century led to the emergence of a politically and socially active group that sought to shape the direction of society and politics in accordance with its interests and values. 74. Describe what changes occurred in Paris as a result of the transformation ordered by Napoleon III. What types of changes were made, and what was the impact on the city? Answer: Under the direction of Napoleon III, Paris underwent significant transformation, known as the "Haussmannization" or the renovation of Paris. The changes included: - Urban Renewal: Wide boulevards were constructed, replacing narrow and winding medieval streets. This urban planning aimed to modernize the city, improve traffic flow, and prevent future uprisings by making it easier for troops to navigate. - Demolition and Reconstruction: Many old neighborhoods, particularly those deemed overcrowded and unsanitary, were demolished. In their place, new buildings, parks, and squares were constructed, giving the city a more spacious and orderly layout. - Infrastructure Development: Infrastructure improvements were made, including the installation of sewer systems, gas lighting, and public transportation networks like the metro. These developments enhanced public health and transportation efficiency. - Aesthetic Enhancements: The renovation also focused on beautifying the city, with the creation of iconic landmarks such as the Opéra Garnier, the Place de l'Opéra, and the Place de la République. The impact of these changes on the city was profound. Paris was transformed from a medieval city with cramped, unsanitary conditions into a modern metropolis characterized by wide boulevards, grand buildings, and improved living standards. However, the renovations also led to the displacement of thousands of residents, particularly from working-class neighborhoods, contributing to social tensions. 75. Describe the dynamics that influenced prostitution in late-nineteenth-century Europe. Answer: In the late nineteenth century, several dynamics influenced prostitution in Europe: - Urbanization: Rapid urbanization led to the growth of cities and the concentration of people, creating a demand for commercial sex services in urban centers. - Industrialization: Industrialization brought economic upheaval, leading many women, particularly those from rural areas or impoverished backgrounds, to turn to prostitution as a means of survival or to supplement their income. - Social Stigma: Despite the prevalence of prostitution, it remained socially stigmatized, and prostitutes faced discrimination and marginalization. However, this stigma varied across different social classes and regions. - Regulation and Legislation: Governments implemented various regulatory measures to control prostitution, including licensing, medical examinations, and the establishment of red-light districts. These measures aimed to mitigate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and maintain public order. - Gender Inequality: Prostitution was primarily a female occupation, reflecting broader gender inequalities in society. Women had limited economic opportunities and faced social and legal barriers to employment in other sectors. 76. Explain the transition in the role of middle-class women from early in the nineteenth century to late in the nineteenth century. Answer: In the early nineteenth century, middle-class women were primarily confined to domestic roles, expected to manage households and care for children while their husbands worked outside the home. However, as the century progressed, there was a gradual transition in the role of middle-class women, influenced by various factors: - Education: Increasing access to education for women allowed them to pursue intellectual and professional interests beyond traditional domestic duties. The establishment of women's colleges and the expansion of educational opportunities contributed to their empowerment. - Social Reform Movements: Women became increasingly involved in social reform movements, such as abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage. These movements provided platforms for women to advocate for social and political change, challenging traditional gender roles and advocating for women's rights. - Employment Opportunities: Economic changes and the growth of the service sector created new employment opportunities for middle-class women outside the home. Women entered professions such as teaching, nursing, and clerical work, expanding their roles beyond the domestic sphere. - Feminist Ideology: The emergence of feminist ideology challenged patriarchal norms and advocated for gender equality. Feminist writers and activists promoted women's rights, autonomy, and participation in public life, inspiring women to assert themselves and demand greater freedoms. By the late nineteenth century, middle-class women had begun to assert themselves as independent individuals with agency and autonomy, actively participating in social, political, and cultural spheres previously dominated by men. 77. What beliefs did the Jewish community have about anti-Semitic movements that started at the end of the nineteenth century? What effect did those beliefs have on later generations of Jews? Answer: The Jewish community held various beliefs about anti-Semitic movements that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century: - Persecution and Discrimination: Jews recognized anti-Semitic movements as manifestations of deep-seated prejudice and discrimination against their community. They understood these movements as attempts to scapegoat Jews for societal problems and to marginalize them politically, socially, and economically. - Threat to Jewish Identity: Anti-Semitic rhetoric often targeted Jewish identity and culture, portraying Jews as outsiders and undermining their sense of belonging in their respective societies. Jews viewed these attacks as existential threats to their religious and cultural heritage, prompting efforts to preserve Jewish identity and solidarity. - Fear of Violence: Anti-Semitic movements frequently incited violence and pogroms against Jewish communities, leading to widespread fear and insecurity among Jews. Many believed that anti-Semitism posed a physical threat to their lives and livelihoods, prompting measures to protect themselves and their families. The beliefs and experiences of Jews during this period had a lasting impact on later generations. The trauma of persecution and discrimination fueled a sense of collective memory and solidarity within the Jewish community, shaping attitudes toward assimilation, identity, and activism. These experiences also contributed to the Zionist movement and efforts to establish a Jewish homeland as a means of ensuring safety and self-determination in the face of anti-Semitism. 78. Discuss legal discrimination against Jews before 1848, and describe how their situation changed between 1859 and 1880. Explain what rights they gained and how this progress affected their social and economic opportunities. Answer: Before 1848, Jews in many European countries faced legal discrimination and social marginalization. They were often subjected to restrictive laws and policies that limited their rights and opportunities. Some common forms of discrimination included: - Residence Restrictions: Jews were confined to designated areas or ghettos within cities and were often prohibited from residing or owning property in certain areas. - Occupational Restrictions: Many professions and guilds barred Jews from membership, limiting their economic opportunities and forcing them into marginalized trades such as money lending and peddling. - Educational Restrictions: Jewish access to education was often restricted, with limited opportunities for higher education or professional training. Between 1859 and 1880, the situation for Jews began to change due to various factors, including political reforms and social movements advocating for equal rights. In many European countries, Jews gained legal rights and opportunities previously denied to them: - Emancipation: Emancipation movements and political reforms in countries such as France, Britain, and parts of Germany led to the abolition of legal restrictions against Jews. They were granted citizenship rights, allowing them to participate fully in civic and political life. - Access to Education: Jews gained increased access to education and professional opportunities. They were admitted to universities and allowed to pursue careers in law, medicine, academia, and other fields previously closed to them. - Social Integration: With legal barriers removed, Jews began to integrate more fully into society, participating in cultural, intellectual, and social activities alongside their non-Jewish counterparts. - Economic Opportunities: Greater legal equality enabled Jews to pursue diverse economic opportunities and achieve success in various industries. They established businesses, entered professions, and contributed to economic development. While progress was made in improving the legal and social status of Jews during this period, anti-Semitic sentiment and discrimination persisted in some regions, posing ongoing challenges to their full integration and acceptance in society. 79. Trace the path of Vladimir Lenin’s involvement in Russian socialism. Did Lenin support the views held by Karl Marx? Explain in what ways he agreed or disagreed with Marx. Answer: Vladimir Lenin played a central role in the development of Russian socialism and the establishment of the Soviet Union. His involvement in Russian socialism can be traced through several key stages: - Formation of Socialist Beliefs: Lenin was influenced by Marxist ideology from a young age and became actively involved in revolutionary politics during his university years. He embraced Marxist principles of class struggle, proletarian revolution, and the creation of a socialist state. - Leadership of the Bolshevik Party: Lenin emerged as a leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP). He advocated for a radical approach to socialist revolution, emphasizing the need for a disciplined, vanguard party to lead the proletariat in overthrowing the capitalist system. - October Revolution: Lenin played a central role in orchestrating the October Revolution of 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of Bolshevik rule in Russia. He implemented Marxist-inspired policies, including the nationalization of industry, land redistribution, and the creation of a socialist state. While Lenin shared many core principles with Karl Marx, including the goal of establishing a classless, communist society, he also diverged from Marx on certain key points: - Vanguard Party: Lenin emphasized the need for a highly organized, centralized vanguard party to lead the proletariat in revolutionary action, whereas Marx envisioned a more spontaneous uprising of the working class. - Role of the State: Lenin advocated for the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat as a transitional stage toward communism, whereas Marx envisioned the eventual withering away of the state under communism. - Imperialism: Lenin developed Marxist theory to account for the rise of imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism, emphasizing the role of imperialism in exacerbating class contradictions and leading to global conflict. Overall, while Lenin drew inspiration from Marx’s ideas, he adapted and expanded Marxist theory to suit the specific conditions of Russia and the challenges of the early twentieth century. 80. Describe the conditions that set the stage for the Russian revolution of 1905. Why did the war with Japan play a significant role in leading to the revolution? Answer: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a result of various social, economic, and political factors that had been brewing in Russia for decades: - Social Inequality: Russia was characterized by extreme social inequality, with a vast majority of the population living in poverty while a small elite controlled much of the wealth and power. - Repressive Political System: Tsar Nicholas II ruled as an autocrat, maintaining strict censorship, political repression, and limited civil liberties. The lack of political freedoms and representation fueled discontent among the population. - Industrialization and Urbanization: Rapid industrialization and urbanization in Russia led to harsh working conditions, labor exploitation, and urban overcrowding. Workers began to organize and demand better wages, hours, and working conditions. - Rising Nationalism: Nationalist movements and ethnic tensions were on the rise, particularly in non-Russian regions of the empire. Minority groups, such as Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews, faced discrimination and persecution. The war with Japan, known as the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), played a significant role in exacerbating these tensions and precipitating the revolution: - Military Defeats: Russia suffered humiliating defeats against Japan, highlighting the weaknesses of the tsarist regime and undermining its legitimacy in the eyes of the population. The loss of the war fueled anti-government sentiment and eroded confidence in the tsar’s leadership. - Economic Hardship: The war imposed heavy financial burdens on Russia, exacerbating economic hardship and fueling discontent among the peasantry, workers, and urban middle class. Food shortages, inflation, and economic instability further fueled revolutionary fervor. - Bloody Sunday: The spark that ignited the revolution came on January 9, 1905, when peaceful protesters, led by Father Georgy Gapon, marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. Tsarist troops opened fire on the unarmed demonstrators, killing and injuring hundreds in what became known as Bloody Sunday. This massacre galvanized public outrage and sparked widespread strikes, protests, and uprisings across Russia, eventually leading to the downfall of the tsarist regime. Overall, the Russo-Japanese War exposed the vulnerabilities of the tsarist regime and contributed to the social, economic, and political unrest that culminated in the Russian Revolution of 1905. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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