Preview (8 of 25 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 27 The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A mixed economy is ____________. A. based on a mixture of light industry, heavy industry, and agriculture B. one in which economic decisions are made by the government, business, and labor C. a combination of government-controlled businesses and free enterprises D. one with no dominant industry Answer: B 2. In the two decades following the end of World War I, what belief did the governments and societies of Eastern and Western Europe share? A. Germany posed the biggest threat to world peace. B. The Treaty of Versailles was unjust. C. The United States should not have received the biggest reparations from Germany. D. The Soviet Union posed the greatest threat to Europe’s security. Answer: D 3. How did Marxists view the economic downturn that became known as the Great Depression? A. They welcomed it because they believed it signaled the imminent downfall of capitalism. B. They resented it because they believed it would thwart their plans to spread socialism throughout the world. C. They feared it because they believed it would make the masses reject their labor initiatives. D. They used it to manipulate public opinion and accelerate the spread of socialism around the world. Answer: A 4. The discontent and resentment that resulted from the Paris settlements ____________. A. were largely restricted to Germany and France B. were largely restricted to the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire C. were largely restricted to national minorities D. contributed to domestic political turmoil throughout Europe Answer: D 5. Most of the money the Allies collected in war reparations went to ____________. A. France B. Great Britain C. the United States D. the Soviet Union Answer: C 6. When was the Irish Free State established? A. 1916 B. 1919 C. 1921 D. 1929 Answer: C 7. The era of reparations was effectively ended by ____________. A. the Kreditanstalt in Vienna B. the Young Plan C. the Lausanne Conference D. Hoover’s moratorium Answer: C 8. The 1936 Popular Front government of France consisted of an alliance between which of the following political parties? A. Socialists, Radicals, and Communists B. Radicals, Communists, and Fascists C. Liberals, Anarchists, and Communists D. Socialists, Nazis, and Communists Answer: A 9. Between 1928 and 1940, Soviet industrial production ____________. A. rose dramatically B. declined slightly C. rose gradually D. remained stagnant Answer: A 10. Under the New Economic Policy, ____________. A. the Soviets did not have to pay taxes B. the government restricted free trade C. private economic enterprise was permitted D. peasants hoarded grain Answer: C 11. Fascists won a majority in the Italian Chamber of Deputies in ____________. A. 1922 B. 1918 C. 1934 D. 1924 Answer: D 12. The majority of the founding members of the Fasci di Combattimento were ____________. A. war veterans B. government workers C. members of the Socialist Party D. members of the Communist Party Answer: A 13. The Lateran Accord of 1929 established that ____________. A. the pope was ruler of the independent Vatican City B. the government would be forgiven its confiscation of papal lands C. Catholicism was one of multiple recognized religions in Italy D. the church laws on marriage would be eclipsed by government law Answer: A 14. The Lateran Accord of 1929 ended approximately ____________ years of hostility between the Vatican and the state of Italy. A. 20 B. 40 C. 50 D. 70 Answer: D 15. In 1924, the ____________ reorganized the administration and the transfer of reparations, which, in turn, smoothed the debt repayments to the United States. A. Adams Plan B. Dawes Plan C. Monroe Plan D. Young Plan Answer: B 16. German unemployment from March 1930 to March 1932 ____________. A. rose slightly B. rose by 30 percent C. more than doubled D. quadrupled Answer: C 17. By 1933, the Nazi storm troopers had ____________. A. one million members B. ceased to be an important political force C. been absorbed by the Gestapo D. lost favor with most Nazi officials Answer: A 18. Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany ____________. A. after a brief but bloody revolution B. by legal means C. after a campaign of selective assassination D. after a heated lawsuit Answer: B 19. Support for Hitler was particularly strong among groups such as ____________. A. farmers, war veterans, and the young B. merchants, politicians, and the elderly C. the aristocracy, Calvinists, and the military D. conservatives, the Roman Catholic Church, and the middle class Answer: A 20. The 1935 Nuremberg laws ____________. A. stripped German Jews of their citizenship B. established a police state in Germany C. were modeled after the Soviet New Economic Policy D. nationalized all banks and factories Answer: A 21. Which successor state avoided a self-imposed authoritarian government? A. Czechoslovakia B. Poland C. Austria D. Germany Answer: A 22. Royal dictatorships were imposed in ____________. A. Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Greece B. Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Greece C. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, and Czechoslovakia D. Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Austria, and Greece Answer: A 23. What country was once known as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes? A. Czechoslovakia B. Yugoslavia C. Poland D. Hungary Answer: B 24. Other than the Communist Party, the political parties in Yugoslavia each represented ____________. A. a particular region of the country B. a particular ethnic group C. the nation D. a particular ideology Answer: B 25. What minority looked to Hitler to resolve their nationalist ambitions? A. the Germans of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia B. the Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia C. the Poles in Czechoslovakia D. the Ukrainians in Poland Answer: A 26. Germany’s struggle for economic security resulted in the ____________. A. Great Depression B. establishment of the Nazi dictatorship C. establishment of the Weimar regime D. rise of socialism in Germany Answer: B 27. Which of these describes attitudes toward the Versailles settlement in the 1920s and 1930s? A. near-unanimous opposition B. general satisfaction C. discontent among the defeated parties D. widespread optimism Answer: A 28. Which of these increased the impact of the Great Depression in Europe? A. the Russian Revolution B. war reparations C. the failure of Germany to make reparations D. close financial ties between the U.S. and Europe Answer: D 29. The Wall Street crash of October 1929 was the result of ____________. A. virtually unregulated financial speculation B. many incidents of insider trading C. U.S. government corruption in the stock market D. a technical error in the transmission of stock prices Answer: A 30. Following the end of World War I, the U.S. economy ____________. A. was restored in a relatively quick fashion B. was restored, though it took a number of years C. could not be restored D. remained in fragments for two decades Answer: C 31. The Popular Front Ministry enacted major social and economic reforms in France despite fierce resistance from ____________. A. business and conservative groups B. liberal groups C. Socialists, Radicals, and Communists D. the public Answer: A 32. American investment capital that had been pouring into Europe began to decline by 1928 as a result of ____________. A. the Wall Street crash in October 1929 B. money being diverted into the booming New York stock market C. public outrage in America over France’s occupation of the Ruhr mining and manufacturing district D. a loss of faith in Europe’s economy by American investors Answer: B 33. France’s occupation of the Ruhr mining and manufacturing district was ____________. A. unsuccessful because, although France was successful in getting Germany’s debt to it paid, the occupation was costly B. successful because France collected the remainder of the reparation payments Germany owed it and obtained ownership of industries in the Ruhr mining and manufacturing district C. unsuccessful because Germany refused to negotiate with France while it occupied the mining and manufacturing district D. unsuccessful because Germany failed to pay the reparation payments in full Answer: A 34. What was Britain’s reaction to the occupation of the Ruhr mining and manufacturing district by French and Belgian troops? A. It deplored France’s heavy-handed tactics. B. It admired France’s show of strength. C. It respected France’s resolve to take matters into its own hands. D. It questioned why France had not obtained approval for the occupation from the League of Nations. Answer: A 35. While the capitalist economies of Western Europe floundered in the Great Depression, the Soviet Union undertook ____________. A. a large-scale cultural revolution B. a large step in scientific research and innovation C. rapid industrialization D. the “Great Leap Forward” Answer: C 36. The pretext for the onset of the ____________ was the assassination of Sergei Kirov on December 1, 1934. A. Twenty-One Conditions B. Great Purges C. Period of Rapid Industrialization D. Great Leap Forward Answer: B 37. Which of these best explains the Great Purges? A. They were a natural outgrowth of the Bolshevik takeover. B. They were the kind of revolution foreseen by Marx. C. They were a reaction to the Versailles settlement. D. They were largely the product of Stalin’s own fears and goals. Answer: D 38. Why did Stalin reverse the New Economic Policy? A. It was crafted by his archrival, Lenin. B. It had failed to increase industrial production. C. He decided collectivization would allow Russia to produce enough grain for domestic food and foreign export. D. He wanted to separate his economic plans from those of his predecessor and the stagnant economy associated with him. Answer: C 39. Which of the following best characterizes Communist Party members who joined following the Great Purges? A. idealistic B. dedicated Bolsheviks C. intellectuals D. Stalin loyalists Answer: D 40. The Fascists’ seizure of the Italian government can be primarily attributed to the ____________. A. resignation of the cabinet B. majority controlled by Mussolini in the Chamber of Deputies C. failure of the king to authorize the army to block the Black Shirt March D. split between Mussolini and his former political allies before the march on Rome Answer: C 41. The Fascists used their victory in the Italian Chamber of Deputies to ____________. A. gain popular support for the Fascist Party B. pass laws that allowed Mussolini to rule by decree C. abolish the monarchy D. intimidate the minority party of the parliament Answer: B 42. Mussolini’s brokering of the Lateran Accord resulted in ____________. A. disdain among Italians, the majority of whom opposed a separate state for the Vatican B. fear among Italians, the majority of whom opposed Catholicism as a national religion C. anger among Italians, with many feeling that Italy’s concessions had been too costly D. approval among Italians, bringing increased respectability to Mussolini’s regime Answer: D 43. Which of the following contributed to the establishment of authoritarian regimes across Western Europe? A. the spread of Bolshevism beyond the Soviet Union B. fractures between different socialist groups C. growing sympathy for Communism in Italy D. the fear of Bolshevism spreading beyond the Soviet Union Answer: D 44. The Italian cabinet’s resignation en masse in 1922 resulted in ____________. A. the monarch asking Mussolini to become prime minister B. Mussolini’s election to the cabinet C. the abolition of all political parties other than the Fascists in Italy D. the creation of a single-party dictatorial state Answer: A 45. Mussolini’s main political goal was ____________. A. implementing fascist ideology B. survival C. Bolshevist principles D. the desire for peace Answer: B 46. The outflow of foreign capital from Germany beginning in 1928 undermined a brief prosperity and resulted in an economic crisis ending ____________. A. parliamentary government B. authoritarian rule C. free elections D. the rule of the Social Democrats Answer: A 47. The 1932 German presidential elections resulted in ____________. A. a Nazi victory in the runoff election B. Hindenburg’s dismissal of Brüning C. Hindenburg’s failure to win reelection D. Hitler’s election as president Answer: B 48. The suspending of civil liberties and arrests of communists or alleged communists was a direct result of ____________. A. Hitler’s appointment as chancellor B. the Reichstag fire C. the film Triumph of the Will D. the Olympic games held in Berlin in 1936 Answer: B 49. Which of these had a destabilizing effect on the successor states in the 1920s and 1930s? A. rampant nationalism B. reimposition of the pre-war empires C. liberal democratic reforms D. coalition governments Answer: A 50. The new Poland was constructed from the countries of ____________. A. Russia, Lithuania, and Germany B. Russia, Germany, and Austria C. Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia D. Austria, Italy, and Russia Answer: B 51. Which of these nations provided an exception to the authoritarian regimes that were common in eastern Europe between the wars? A. Hungary B. Romania C. Czechoslovakia D. Poland Answer: C 52. Grain shortages in the Soviet Union in 1928–1929 were the result of ____________. A. the hoarding of grain B. population increases C. crop failures D. collectivization Answer: D 53. It is easiest to define fascism in terms of ____________. A. communism B. support for Socialism C. its economic policies D. what it opposed Answer: D 54. Which of these was a powerful factor in the rise of both Mussolini and Hitler? A. crippling reparation payments B. religious reaction C. wounded national pride D. runaway inflation Answer: C 55. In the Nazi ideology, women were considered first and foremost as ____________. A. economically useless B. inferior C. morally weak D. mothers Answer: D SHORT ANSWER 56. The victorious powers demanded that the Treaty of Versailles be ____________; the other side demanded that it be ____________. Answer: enforced; revised 57. When American ____________ for Europe began to run out, a severe financial crisis struck the Continent. Answer: credit 58. The collapse in ____________ prices and the financial turmoil resulted in stagnation and depression for European industry. Answer: agricultural 59. The Great Depression began in the year ____________. Answer: 1929 60. ____________ enunciated the doctrine of “socialism in one country.” Answer: Stalin 61. The replacement of private peasant farms with huge state-run and state-owned farms was called ____________. Answer: collectivization 62. ____________ was the executor of the imprisonment and execution of millions of Soviet citizens between 1934 and 1939. Answer: Stalin 63. The ____________ set production goals for every area of economic life and attempted to organize the economy to meet them. Answer: State Planning Commission 64. Italy became a single-party, dictatorial state in ____________. Answer: 1926 65. Hitler was named ____________ in 1933. Answer: chancellor 66. On March 23, 1933, the Reichstag passed an ____________ that permitted Hitler to rule by decree. Answer: Enabling Act 67. ____________, meaning “Night of Smashed Glass,” refers to the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany on the orders of the Nazi Party in November 1938. Answer: Kristallnacht 68. In Poland in 1926, ____________ launched a military coup. Answer: Marshal Josef Pilsudski 69. Thousands of Hungarians were executed or imprisoned following the collapse of the _____________ government. Answer: Kun 70. The ____________ dominated the government of Yugoslavia. Answer: Serbs ESSAY 71. Set the stage for the political dynamics in play in Europe following the conclusion of World War I. How were governments changing, and what major trends were forming? Answer: Following the conclusion of World War I, Europe experienced a period of profound political upheaval and transformation, characterized by the collapse of empires, the emergence of new nation-states, and the rise of ideological extremism. 1. Collapse of Empires: - The war led to the collapse of several multi-ethnic empires, including the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian, and German Empires, which were replaced by new nation-states based on the principle of national self-determination. This process of decolonization and state-building reshaped the political map of Europe and created new geopolitical tensions and rivalries. 2. Emergence of New Nation-States: - The Treaty of Versailles and other peace settlements redrew borders and created new nation-states in Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the Middle East, often without regard for local demographics or historical grievances. This led to the emergence of ethnic and territorial disputes that fueled nationalist tensions and conflicts. 3. Rise of Ideological Extremism: - The war and its aftermath also witnessed the rise of ideological extremism, including communism, fascism, and totalitarianism, which challenged liberal democratic norms and institutions. The Russian Revolution of 1917 inspired socialist movements across Europe, while the economic and social upheaval caused by the war created fertile ground for extremist ideologies such as fascism and Nazism. 4. Political Instability and Unrest: - The war and its aftermath contributed to political instability and unrest across Europe, as governments struggled to address economic hardships, social dislocation, and disillusionment with the pre-war order. Strikes, protests, and revolutions erupted in many countries, including Germany, Italy, and Russia, leading to the overthrow of monarchies and the establishment of new political regimes. 5. Shift towards Authoritarianism: - In response to social and political upheaval, many countries in Europe experienced a shift towards authoritarianism and dictatorship, as leaders sought to restore order and stability through repressive measures and centralized control. This trend towards authoritarian rule laid the groundwork for the rise of totalitarian regimes in the interwar period. Overall, the political dynamics in Europe following World War I were characterized by instability, change, and the emergence of new political ideologies and movements. The collapse of empires, the redrawing of borders, and the rise of extremism reshaped the political landscape and set the stage for future conflicts and tensions. 72. What were the causes of the Great Depression of the 1930s? What aspects and people within society were most affected? Why was it more severe and longer lasting than previous depressions? Answer: The Great Depression of the 1930s was caused by a combination of factors, including economic imbalances, financial speculation, international trade disruptions, and policy failures. 1. Economic Imbalances: - The 1920s saw a period of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and consumerism, fueled by technological advancements and increased productivity. However, this economic growth was unevenly distributed, leading to income inequality, overproduction, and underconsumption. 2. Financial Speculation: - The stock market boom of the 1920s was fueled by speculation and easy credit, leading to inflated asset prices and unsustainable levels of debt. When the stock market crashed in 1929, it triggered a chain reaction of bank failures, credit contraction, and economic downturn. 3. International Trade Disruptions: - The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 and other protectionist measures disrupted international trade and exacerbated global economic downturn. Retaliatory tariffs and trade barriers worsened the economic crisis and deepened the depression. 4. Policy Failures: - Government policy failures, including monetary contraction, fiscal austerity, and adherence to the gold standard, exacerbated the severity and duration of the Great Depression. The failure of governments to intervene effectively to stimulate demand and provide relief to the unemployed prolonged the economic downturn. The Great Depression affected all aspects of society, but certain groups were disproportionately impacted, including: - Workers: Mass unemployment, wage cuts, and labor unrest characterized the Great Depression, leading to widespread suffering and hardship among working-class families. - Farmers: Agricultural prices collapsed during the depression, leading to farm foreclosures, rural poverty, and mass migration to urban areas. - Businesses: Bankruptcies, business failures, and factory closures decimated the business community, leading to widespread economic dislocation and uncertainty. - Families: The depression led to increased rates of homelessness, hunger, and family breakdown, as families struggled to make ends meet and provide for their basic needs. The Great Depression was more severe and longer-lasting than previous depressions due to the global nature of the crisis, the interconnectedness of the international economy, and the failure of governments to coordinate an effective response. Additionally, the absence of social safety nets and economic stabilization mechanisms exacerbated the impact of the depression on vulnerable populations, prolonging the economic downturn and deepening social inequalities 73. What were the major developments in the economy of the Soviet Union during the 1920s and 1930s? In your opinion, which (if any) Soviet economic policies truly embodied socialist principles? Answer: The economy of the Soviet Union underwent significant transformations during the 1920s and 1930s, marked by the implementation of various economic policies and industrialization campaigns under the leadership of the Communist Party. 1. New Economic Policy (NEP): - In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Lenin introduced the NEP in 1921, which allowed for limited market reforms, private enterprise, and foreign investment. The NEP aimed to stabilize the economy, rebuild infrastructure, and promote agricultural and industrial development. 2. Five-Year Plans: - In the late 1920s and 1930s, Stalin launched a series of Five-Year Plans to rapidly industrialize the Soviet economy and achieve self-sufficiency. These plans focused on prioritizing heavy industry, collectivizing agriculture, and modernizing infrastructure through centralized planning and state control. 3. Collectivization: - Collectivization involved the consolidation of small individual farms into large collective farms, with the aim of increasing agricultural productivity, promoting mechanization, and eliminating capitalist elements in the countryside. However, collectivization led to resistance, famine, and social upheaval, particularly in Ukraine and other regions. 4. Command Economy: - The Soviet Union adopted a command economy model, characterized by centralized planning, state ownership of the means of production, and strict government control over economic activities. This allowed the state to allocate resources, set production targets, and prioritize strategic sectors of the economy. In my opinion, none of the Soviet economic policies fully embodied socialist principles in their ideal form. While the NEP allowed for limited market reforms and private enterprise, it was a temporary measure aimed at stabilizing the economy rather than a permanent commitment to socialism. The Five-Year Plans and collectivization, while aimed at promoting industrialization and egalitarianism, were characterized by coercion, inefficiency, and human suffering, contradicting the principles of democratic participation and workers' control advocated by socialism. Overall, the Soviet Union's economic policies during the 1920s and 1930s were characterized by a mix of socialist rhetoric and authoritarian practices, with varying degrees of success in achieving their stated goals. While the Soviet economy made significant strides in industrialization and modernization during this period, it also faced numerous challenges and contradictions that undermined its long-term sustainability and legitimacy as a socialist system. 74. Describe how the Soviets successfully collectivized the agricultural economy. Include an explanation of the Soviet people’s response to collectivization and an analysis of the results. Answer: The Soviet Union embarked on agricultural collectivization in the late 1920s as part of its broader effort to modernize the economy and consolidate power under the Communist Party. Collectivization involved the forced pooling of peasant lands, livestock, and labor into collective farms, known as kolkhozes, and state farms, known as sovkhozes. To enforce collectivization, the Soviet government employed a combination of propaganda, coercion, and outright force. Party officials and activists were sent to rural areas to persuade or pressure peasants to join collective farms. Those who resisted faced severe consequences, including imprisonment, deportation, or execution. Initially, the response from many peasants was one of resistance and outright rebellion. Peasants viewed their land and livestock as their livelihood and were deeply distrustful of the government's promises of increased productivity and prosperity through collectivization. Resistance took various forms, including sabotage, hiding or killing livestock, and attacks on government officials and collectivization activists. Despite widespread opposition, the Soviet government ultimately succeeded in collectivizing the majority of agricultural land by the early 1930s. However, the process came at a tremendous human cost. The forced collectivization, combined with a series of disastrous policies such as grain requisitioning and the suppression of dissent, led to widespread famine and the deaths of millions of people, particularly in Ukraine and other parts of the Soviet Union. In terms of results, collectivization drastically transformed the Soviet agricultural landscape. It facilitated the mechanization of agriculture, increased grain production in some areas, and provided a stable labor force for large-scale farming operations. However, the social and human toll was enormous, and the scars of collectivization lingered for generations. 75. Discuss the basic tenets of Italian fascism. What were the main aims of fascist groups in terms of the relationship between the government and various social classes? What political ideas did they reject and why? Answer: Italian fascism, led by Benito Mussolini, emerged in the early 20th century as a reactionary movement against liberal democracy, socialism, and communism. Its basic tenets included authoritarianism, nationalism, corporatism, and the cult of the leader. Fascist groups aimed to create a totalitarian state where the government held absolute power and controlled all aspects of society. They sought to forge a strong national identity based on loyalty to the state and the suppression of individualism and dissent. Fascism promoted militarism, expansionism, and the glorification of war as a means of achieving national greatness. In terms of the relationship between the government and social classes, fascists sought to create a hierarchical society where each class had its place and function within the state. They aimed to co-opt or suppress labor unions and leftist movements while maintaining the support of the middle and upper classes through promises of order, stability, and national rejuvenation. Fascist groups rejected liberal democracy, viewing it as weak, corrupt, and incapable of addressing the perceived crises facing the nation. They also rejected socialism and communism, viewing them as threats to national unity and individual freedom. Instead, fascism advocated for a strong, centralized state led by a charismatic leader who embodied the will of the nation. 76. Refer to the excerpt “Cinema of the Political Left and Right.” What aspects of the cinema made the Nazi and Soviet regimes so interested in film? How did the films of such artists as Leni Riefenstahl affect the regimes? Based on this excerpt, do you believe the films were art, propaganda, or both? Explain. Answer: Both the Nazi and Soviet regimes recognized the power of cinema as a tool for propaganda and mass mobilization. Film had the ability to reach wide audiences and evoke powerful emotions, making it an effective means of shaping public opinion and reinforcing ideological messages. Nazi Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, utilized film to promote the ideals of Aryan supremacy, militarism, and anti-Semitism. Filmmakers like Leni Riefenstahl produced visually stunning propaganda films such as "Triumph of the Will," which glorified Nazi rallies and presented Hitler as a messianic figure. These films were meticulously crafted to evoke a sense of awe and devotion among viewers, effectively bolstering support for the regime and its policies. Similarly, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin saw cinema as a means of promoting socialist realism and instilling loyalty to the Communist Party. Soviet filmmakers produced propaganda films that celebrated the achievements of the regime, depicted class struggle, and demonized enemies of the state. These films served to rally support for the government, glorify the Soviet system, and demonize perceived enemies of the state. While films like those of Riefenstahl were undoubtedly powerful pieces of propaganda, they also possessed artistic merit. Riefenstahl's innovative techniques in cinematography and editing helped elevate her films beyond mere propaganda to works of cinematic art. However, the primary purpose of these films was to serve the interests of the regime and manipulate public opinion. Therefore, they can be considered both art and propaganda, as they effectively blurred the lines between aesthetic expression and political indoctrination. 77. Refer to the passage “Hitler Rejects the Emancipation of Women.” What social tasks did Hitler allocate to women? Why does he link the liberation of women with Jews and intellectuals? How does he try to subordinate the lives of women to the sovereignty of the state? Answer: Hitler allocated traditional roles to women, primarily emphasizing their roles as wives and mothers. He believed that women should focus on domestic duties, child-rearing, and supporting their husbands. Hitler linked the liberation of women with Jews and intellectuals because he saw feminism, along with other forms of progressive thought, as part of a larger conspiracy to undermine traditional German values and weaken the nation. By portraying feminism as a threat, Hitler aimed to justify the subordination of women's lives to the sovereignty of the state. He sought to control and regulate all aspects of society, including gender roles, to ensure the dominance of the Nazi regime. 78. What political and economic alternatives did Hitler present to the German populace that allowed him to gain support over his more conservative opponents? Once in office, how was he able to convince a nation that the persecution of Jews was justified? Do you believe this could happen again? Answer: Hitler presented a radical nationalist and populist platform that promised to restore Germany's greatness, rebuild the economy, and reverse the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles. He capitalized on widespread discontent with the Weimar Republic and offered a vision of authoritarian leadership and national unity. Once in office, Hitler and the Nazi propaganda machine systematically demonized Jews, portraying them as scapegoats for Germany's economic woes, political instability, and perceived moral decay. Through propaganda, censorship, and the manipulation of public opinion, Hitler was able to convince many Germans that the persecution of Jews was not only justified but necessary for the survival of the nation. While historical circumstances and contexts differ, the mechanisms of propaganda, fear-mongering, and manipulation employed by Hitler could potentially be used again by authoritarian leaders to justify persecution and oppression. 79. To what extent were economic factors responsible for Hitler’s rise to power? Explain. If economic factors had been different, do you think Hitler would have still come into power? Answer: Economic factors played a significant role in Hitler's rise to power. The economic hardships faced by Germany during the Great Depression, including hyperinflation, unemployment, and poverty, created fertile ground for extremist ideologies like Nazism to flourish. Hitler and the Nazi Party exploited these grievances, promising economic stability, prosperity, and national rejuvenation. However, while economic factors were important, they were not the sole determinant of Hitler's rise to power. Political instability, disillusionment with the Weimar Republic, and the failures of the Treaty of Versailles also contributed to the Nazis' appeal. If economic conditions had been different, Hitler may not have gained as much support, but other factors such as nationalism, propaganda, and anti-Semitic sentiment would still have played a role in shaping political outcomes. 80. Describe how nationalism created social and political tensions in the successor states in eastern Europe. Do you believe they were inevitable, or could they have been prevented? Explain why, and what recommendations you would have given the negotiators in Paris if you had been an advisor to the settlement talks. Answer: Nationalism in eastern Europe after World War I exacerbated existing ethnic and religious tensions, leading to conflicts over borders, territory, and minority rights. The collapse of empires such as the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires created power vacuums and opportunities for nationalist movements to assert their claims to sovereignty. These tensions were further fueled by the imposition of arbitrary borders by the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, which often ignored ethnic and cultural realities on the ground. While some degree of nationalist fervor may have been inevitable given the historical context, the severity of the tensions could have been mitigated through more inclusive and equitable settlement terms. As an advisor to the settlement talks, I would have recommended a more thorough consideration of ethnic and cultural demographics in drawing borders and allocating territory. Negotiators should have prioritized the protection of minority rights and autonomy to prevent the marginalization and persecution of minority groups. Additionally, efforts should have been made to promote reconciliation and cooperation between different ethnic and religious communities, rather than exacerbating divisions through arbitrary or exclusive policies. By addressing the root causes of nationalist tensions and promoting inclusivity and cooperation, it may have been possible to prevent or mitigate some of the social and political conflicts that plagued eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War I. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right