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This Document Contains Chapters 9 to 10 Chapter 09: Let Your Motto Be Resistance Multiple Choice Questions 1) Who did the native born Protestants in the U.S. view as culturally subversive? A) Protestant white elites B) Roman Catholics immigrants C) the Protestant white working class D) the British Answer: B 2) Which of the following statements is true about the riots during the 1830s and the 1840s? A) They rarely did physical damage to cities but murdered large numbers of blacks. B) They were instigated by angry blacks protesting the conditions of their lives. C) They grew in number as the abolitionist movement grew. D) They were located mainly in the South. Answer: C 3) Which of the following were the frequent targets of antiblack mobs? A) black newspapers and neighborhoods B) black politicians and athletes C) black women and children D) black policeman and fireman Answer: A 4) Examine Map 9-1. Where were the worst and most frequent race riots? A) New Orleans B) Philadelphia C) Charleston D) New York City Answer: B 5) According to Map 9-1, most antiblack and ant abolitionist riots took place in what region of the nation? A) the South B) the Northeast C) the Far West D) the Southwest Answer: B 6) How did whites address racism in the 1830s and 1840s? A) Many whites began to denounce racism in this time period. B) Scientists argued that white people white Americans were a superior race culturally, physically, and intellectually; they were, therefore, entitled to rule over other races. C) Scientists argued that race was the product of environment and could be altered through education. D) Scientists argued that nonwhites began the human race but did not benefit it technologically. Answer: B 7) Study Figure 9-1. What is the connection between abolition, racism towards blacks, and incidents of mob violence in the North between 1812 and 1849? A) As abolitionism increased, mob violence decreased. B) As abolitionism decreased, mob violence decreased. C) As abolitionism decreased, mob violence increased. D) As abolitionism increased, mob violence increased. Answer: A 8) What were some of the problems the antislavery movement encountered in its early efforts? A) Whites refused to allow blacks to have equal status in the organizations. B) Antislavery organizations in Canada tried to discredit American organizations. C) The antislavery movement was listed for eradication by the federal government. D) Whites in California refused to accept changes made by northern whites. Answer: A 9) What was the most significant abolitionist society? A) American Colonization Society B) Americans for a Democratic Society C) Christian Freedom Organization of Philadelphia D) American Anti-Slavery Society Answer: D 10) What were the goals of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS)? A) the restriction of slavery to the South where it already existed B) the immediate end to slavery, with no compensation for owners C) the gradual end to slavery, with some compensation to owners for their losses D) the immediate end to slavery, with some compensation for owners Answer: B 11) How were blacks treated in the American Anti-Slavery Society? A) They were often refused leadership roles or significant influence in decision- making. B) They were considered, and treated as, the complete equals to whites. C) They were never allowed to be members of the American Anti-Slavery Society. D) The only black member was Frederick Douglass. Answer: A 12) How did the Gag Rule controversy end in Congress? A) It continued in place until the Civil War made the Gag Rule unnecessary in 1861. B) It was repealed in 1844 through the efforts of John Quincy Adams. C) It was vetoed by the President immediately after it was passed in 1836. D) It was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and repealed in 1840. Answer: B 13) How did southern postmasters frequently respond to the delivery of antislavery literature to their communities? A) They enthusiastically disseminated the literature. B) They reluctantly disseminated the literature. C) They burned the literature. D) They sent it back to the abolitionist societies. Answer: C 14) What were the activities undertaken by the Free Produce Association in the early 1830s? A) It bought produce produced by African American slaves to benefit free blacks. B) It pressured slaveholders by lobbying against buying produce grown by slaves. C) It lobbied Congress to expand slavery into the American Southwest. D) It worked with the American Colonization Society to colonize free blacks in Africa. Answer: B 15) How did northern white mobs impact the antislavery movement? A) White mobs made no discernible impact on the antislavery movement. B) White mobs made a minor impact by criticizing the antislavery movement in the press. C) White mobs made a significant impact by attacking abolitionists and newspapers. D) White mobs assisted the antislavery movement by attacking southern whites. Answer: C 16) What types of arguments did the American Anti-Slavery Society use to convince people that slavery should be abolished? A) They tried to convince people that slavery was a moral value praised by God. B) They tried to convince people that slavery led to brutality and violence. C) They tried to convince people that slavery was an efficient economic system. D) They noted that slavery should only be allowed by inferior countries like France. Answer: B 17) Examine the broadside announcing an abolitionist meeting in New York that appears in Chapter 9. What message does the broadside proclaim to American readers? A) Abolitionism is fine for America but not for Europe. B) Abolitionism is southern policy but not northern policy. C) Abolitionism is an outrage against American rights and values. D) Abolitionism is God’s law and should be embraced. Answer: C 18) If names were removed from the photograph of the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society that appears in Chapter 9, how would historians know that this was a group of American abolitionists? A) Men and women sit and stand in a room with curtains hanging in the back. B) Men and women stare away from the camera as they fold their arms and hold books. C) The membership of the group is racially diverse, well dressed, and includes women. D) The group includes married couples. Answer: C 19) What aspects of the 1845 cover illustration for sheet music indicates the stereotype that Douglass found himself trapped within as he continued to lecture for the American Anti-Slavery Society? A) Douglass is shown in romanticized escape gear and clothing as the fugitive slave. B) Douglass is shown in a uniform given to obedient slaves by their masters. C) Douglass is shown in a jester costume befitting the comedian image of slavery. D) Douglass is shown in a children’s outfit indicating the paternal and dependent slave. Answer: A 20) What role did the Black Convention Movement play in the abolitionist movement? A) It had no role at all, since whites cracked down on the organization and refused to allow it to meet. B) It was a very conservative force, arguing that white supremacy should be acceptable if whites were kind to blacks. C) It called for violent uprisings to slaughter slaveholders in the South. D) It provided a forum for antislavery ideas and the development of black leadership. Answer: D 21) What was the most important black institution during the antislavery movement? A) newspapers B) mutual aid societies C) labor organizations D) churches Answer: D 22) How were black churches important to the abolitionist movement? A) Clergy attacked slavery and discrimination. B) Black churches were generally not very important, because they refused to get involved in any political issues within the community. C) Churches provided 75 percent of all funds to the antislavery organizations. D) Because black churches were still controlled by whites, they made few contributions. Answer: A 23) What were the most important results of the black convention movement? A) They provided a venue for black leaders to isolate themselves from mainstream American society. B) They provided a venue for abolitionists to discuss issues and adapt to American sectionalism. C) They provided a venue for southern whites to vent their concerns to free blacks. D) They provided a venue for white politicians to secure black votes. Answer: B 24) What influence did black newspapers exert on the antislavery movement? A) Black newspapers played no role in the movement. B) Black newspapers played a minor role by announcing abolitionist meetings. C) Black newspapers played a major role in denouncing slavery and slaveholders. D) Black newspapers dominated the antislavery press over white publications. Answer: C 25) How did the black community interact with the abolitionist movement? A) The black community largely ignored the abolitionist movement. B) The black community worked against and suppressed the abolitionist movement in the media. C) The black community physically attacked antislavery lectures and organizations. D) The black community supported and protected the abolitionist movement. Answer: D 26) How does the humorous story related in the Voices excerpt titled “Frederick Douglass Describes an Awkward Situation” reveal the central problems confronting abolitionist lecturers in the 1830s and 1840s? A) Lecturers confronted racist assumptions about segregation and black people. B) Lecturers dealt with angry free black populations who wanted them to leave. C) Lecturers adjusted to the abundance of followers who swarmed them everywhere. D) Lecturers endured state militia attacks on their hotels and meeting houses. Answer: A 27) What was the relationship between free black population numbers and free black community institutions in northern cities during the antebellum era? A) As free black population numbers declined, community institutions declined. B) As free black population numbers declined, community institutions increased. C) As free black population numbers increased, community institutions increased. D) As free black population numbers increased, community institutions decreased. Answer: C 28) What political party became the first antislavery political party? A) Democratic Party B) Republican Party C) Liberty Party D) Whig Party Answer: C 29) The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was formed by which of the following men? A) William Lloyd Garrison B) Frederick Douglass C) Lewis Tappan D) Martin Delany Answer: C 30) Why did free blacks in the northern states embrace the New York wing of the Liberty Party? A) It advocated working closely with southern slave masters to legally free slaves. B) It advocated the most aggressive action against slavery and helped slaves escape. C) It advocated for a peaceful political solution to the slavery question. D) It advocated sending all free blacks back to Africa to rid the nation of the race issue. Answer: B 31) What was the extent of black participation in the new AFASS versus the AASS? A) The AFASS forbid any black involvement. B) The AFASS allowed blacks a more prominent leadership role. C) The AFASS had more black members, but refused to allow blacks to be leaders. D) The AASS allowed blacks a more prominent leadership role. Answer: B 32) What was the main difference between the Liberty Party and the "Old Organization" of the AASS? A) The "Old Organization" stopped participating in politics, and the Liberty Party was an official third party in the American political system. B) The Liberty Party stopped participating in politics, and the "Old Organization" was an official third party in the American political system. C) The "Old Organization" became far more prominent in politics than the Liberty Party. D) The Liberty Party wanted to destroy the Constitution, since it promoted and defended slavery while the “Old Organization” condoned the Constitution. Answer: A 33) Where did Madison Washington take the Creole to gain his and his shipmates' freedom? A) Canada B) British Bahamas C) Haiti D) Key West Answer: B 34) Who were the main leaders of the underground railroad in the early 1840s? A) Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass B) Charles T. Torrey and Thomas Smallwood C) Harriet Beecher Stowe and Maria Stewart D) Madison Washington and Cinque Answer: B 35) Where did most slaves on the underground railroad originate? A) the Deep South B) the northern states C) the western states D) the border states Answer: D 36) How did the New York Liberty Party interpret the Constitution? A) They felt that it supported slavery and should be replaced or amended. B) They felt that it outlawed slavery throughout the entire country. C) They thought that it provided a justification for outlawing slavery in the territories. D) They felt it should be abolished and replaced with a semi-communistic system. Answer: B 37) How are the Amistad and Creole slave revolts linked to the final end of slavery in 1865? A) Both reduced the hopes of blacks for the eventual end of slavery. B) Both inspired northern and southern blacks but not whites to end slavery. C) Both inspired northern whites but not blacks to end slavery. D) Both inspired both northern whites and blacks to end slavery. Answer: D 38) How did the underground railroad help to end slavery? A) It assisted southern whites in recapturing escaped slaves, hastening the end of slavery. B) It funded many African Americans’ return to Africa and reduced the number of slaves in the U.S. C) It helped slaves escape and undermined slavery in the South. D) It lobbied Congress to end slavery through slave rebellions. Answer: C 39) What did Joseph Cinque and Madison Washington have in common? A) They both led successful revolts aboard ships to gain their freedom. B) They both led unsuccessful revolts and were killed by the American government. C) They were both successful black lawyers who defended slavery. D) They were both white men who fought for greater restrictions on slaves. Answer: A 40) The 1840 engraving of a slave uprising on board the Amistad provides insights into what aspects of the Amistad slave revolt? A) the joy and happiness of the slaves in the slave revolt B) the violence and chaos of the slave revolt C) the obedience of the slaves and crew to maritime law during the revolt D) the evil and sinful nature of the revolt Answer: B 41) Why are black people attacking white people on a ship in the 1840 engraving of the Amistad? A) White prison inmates are attempting to escape a prison ship as black sailors subdue them. B) Black sailors attempt to keep white indentured servants under control end route to the U.S. C) Black slaves are killing white captors as they take over a slave ship. D) Free blacks are attempting to migrate to Africa for the first time. Answer: C 42) Examine the only surviving photograph of Mary Ann Shadd Cary. What aspect of the photograph would suggest that she was a supporter of racial integration? A) It shows a Native American woman. B) It shows a Chinese American woman. C) It shows a mixed race woman. D) It shows a white woman. Answer: C 43) Why do we know very little about the underground railroad? A) The records of the organization were burned in a fire set by white mobs. B) It was a myth told by antislavery advocates to keep black slaves hopeful. C) It was a secret and unofficial organization with no centralized command. D) It existed for only two years, and had only one leader, Harriet Tubman. Answer: C 44) Which of the following statements is true of the underground railroad? A) Escapees never returned to help others escape because it was too dangerous. B) The conductors of the railroad avoided the state of Ohio. C) Blacks were the only ones on the railroad while whites took part as slave catchers. D) Technology such as railroads and steamboats often helped slaves to escape. Answer: D 45) How did Frederick Douglass address issues of integration and black nationalism? A) He supported migration to Africa. B) He approved of a separate black nation, but within America. C) He was an ardent integrationist. D) He argued that blacks should start a race war. Answer: C 46) In the except from Martin Delany in the Voices section, how does Delany connect black nationalism to the problems of the black community? A) He says blacks need to work against the abolitionist movement because it harms free blacks. B) He says blacks need to engage in integration efforts to win the hearts of white America. C) He says blacks need to resort to slave rebellions and arson to force whites to give up slavery. D) He says blacks need to band together, form their own organizations, and go back to Africa. Answer: D 47) What was the general impact of the black nationalistic efforts on the antislavery movement? A) They had little effect. B) They were very influential. C) They had no impact. D) No data exists by which to make an accurate assessment. Answer: A 48) Why did some black abolitionists become increasingly militant during the 1840s? A) They were inspired by several slave rebellions and mutinies on ships. B) They were frustrated about the decrease of Irish immigration to the U.S. C) They were angry about whites continuing to subordinate women. D) They were heartened by the end of slavery officially in Texas and Mississippi. Answer: A 49) Why did black militancy rise in the 1840s? A) Black abolitionists came to believe that white abolitionists enjoyed debate more than action against slavery. B) Less numbers of African Americans were escaping from slavery and arriving in the northern states seeking jobs and education. C) The U.S. Congress began to pass laws curtailing slavery in the South. D) The nation of Mexico joined the U.S. in expanding slavery into Central America. Answer: A 50) Why did Frederick Douglass become disillusioned with the AASS? A) The AASS refused to turn toward violence, which he began to advocate as a fugitive slave. B) His white colleagues seemed to value him more for being a fugitive slave than for his oratory and intelligence. C) He was upset because the AASS refused to press for the abolition of slavery in foreign countries as well as the United States. D) He felt that the organization should turn toward the example of France and Spain in abolishing slavery. Answer: B True/False Questions 51) Under President James K. Polk, the United States adopted a peaceful foreign policy, especially toward the Republic of Mexico, located on its southwestern border. Answer: False 52) Antiblack riots coincided with the start of immediate abolitionism during the late 1820s. Answer: True 53) Black newspapers faced difficulties finding readers because most African Americans were poor, and many were illiterate. Answer: True 54) Mary Ann Shadd Cary became the chief advocate of black migration to Canada West. Answer: True 55) The best-documented underground railroad organizations centered in Ripley, Ohio, and Washington, D.C. Answer: True 56) As railroad mileage expanded in the eastern United States, railroad power, speed, and organization served as a metaphor for escape networks on the underground railroad. Answer: True 57) The underground railroad must be understood within the context of increasing southern white violence against black families, slave resistance, and aggressive northern abolitionism. Answer: True 58) By 1841 Frederick Douglass was working as an antislavery lecturer. Answer: True 59) In 1847 Frederick Douglass lost his independence and his newspaper, The North Star. Answer: False 60) Abolitionist aid to escaping slaves and their defense of fugitive slaves from recapture pushed southern leaders to adopt policies that led to secession and the Civil War. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The Compromise of ______________ subjected African Americans to additional violence because part of the Compromise met slaveholders’ demands for a stronger fugitive slave law. Answer: 1850 62) In 1836 ______________ won independence and, as a slaveholding republic, applied for annexation to the United States as a slave state. Answer: Texas 63) The American School of ______________ justified white Americans in their continued enslavement of African Americans and extermination of American Indians. Answer: Ethnology 64) In early 1846 President James Polk, fearing a war, backed away from confronting Britain over ______________, agreeing to split its territory along the 49th degree of latitude. Answer: Oregon 65) The strategy of ______________ was adopted by the American Antislavery Society in the 1830s as a tactic to persuade whites to act against slavery. Answer: moral suasion 66) Abolitionists criticized northern ______________ who thrived by manufacturing cloth from cotton produced by slave labor. Answer: industrialists 67) Frederick Douglass was born a slave in ______________ in 1818. Answer: Maryland 68) Frederick Douglass escaped to ______________ in 1838. Answer: New England 69) The black ______________ movement revived during the 1840s as the antislavery movement became more militant. Answer: convention 70) A colleague of Frederick Douglass who sometimes collaborated with him in writing articles for The North Star was ______________. Answer: Martin Delany Short Answer Questions 71) Why was the issue of Texas important to African Americans? Answer: The issue of Texas was important to African Americans because it symbolized the expansion of slavery and its potential impact on the balance of power between free and slave states in the United States. The annexation of Texas as a slave state threatened to further entrench slavery and limit opportunities for African Americans in the expanding nation. 72) Why were black newspapers not as influential as black churches? Answer: Black newspapers were not as influential as black churches because churches provided a physical gathering place for the community, fostering solidarity and social cohesion. Additionally, churches often served as centers for activism and organizing, whereas newspapers faced limitations in reach and resources, limiting their impact on grassroots mobilization and community empowerment. 73) What was the significance of the underground railroad? What risks were involved? Answer: The Underground Railroad was significant as a network of secret routes and safe houses used by enslaved African Americans to escape to free states and Canada. It played a crucial role in the abolition of slavery. Risks involved included capture and re-enslavement, as well as dangers from slave catchers and hostile individuals along the route. 74) What aspects of the personality of Frederick Douglass influenced his public antislavery work during his lifetime? Answer: Frederick Douglass's public antislavery work was influenced by several aspects of his personality, including his courage, eloquence, and strong sense of justice. His experiences as a formerly enslaved person gave him a powerful and authentic voice in advocating for the abolition of slavery. 75) What is the relationship of black nationalism and militancy to the formation and focus of the vigilance societies formed by northern black abolitionists in the 1840s? Answer: Black nationalism and militancy influenced the formation and focus of vigilance societies by emphasizing self-reliance, self-defense, and community empowerment. These ideologies encouraged vigilance societies to take proactive measures to protect fugitive slaves and advocate for abolition, often using militant tactics to resist slave catchers and enforce antislavery principles. Essay Questions 76) What were some of the characteristics of the American Anti-Slavery Society? Why was it significant? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society as arising from a turning point in the abolitionist cause. 2. Note that the development of the AASS grew from William Lloyd Garrison’s decision in 1831 to create a movement dedicated to immediate, uncompensated emancipation and to equal rights for African Americans in the United States. 3. Explain that to reach these goals, abolitionists organized the AASS in December 1833 at Philadelphia’s Adelphi Hall. 4. Outline some of the characteristics of the AASS, including the fact that the it included blacks and women in its organizing efforts but treated both groups paternally and did not accord blacks leadership positions. Sample Answer: The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) was a prominent abolitionist organization founded in 1833 by prominent abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison, Arthur Tappan, and Frederick Douglass. The society played a crucial role in the fight against slavery in the United States. Some of the key characteristics of the American Anti-Slavery Society include: 1. Radical Abolitionism: The AASS advocated for the immediate and unconditional abolition of slavery, rather than gradual emancipation. This stance was considered radical at the time, as it challenged the economic and social structures of the antebellum South. 2. Nonviolence: The society adhered to the principle of nonviolence in its abolitionist activities, emphasizing moral persuasion and civil disobedience as means of effecting change. 3. Multiracial Membership: Unlike many other abolitionist organizations of the time, the AASS welcomed both white and African American members, reflecting its commitment to racial equality. 4. Women's Participation: The AASS allowed women to play active roles in the organization, providing them with leadership positions and a platform to voice their views on abolition. 5. Publication and Education: The society published newspapers, pamphlets, and other materials to educate the public about the evils of slavery and promote abolitionist ideas. 6. Political Activism: While the AASS initially eschewed political action, it later became involved in the formation of the Liberty Party, which aimed to advance abolitionist goals through the political process. The American Anti-Slavery Society was significant for several reasons: 1. Catalyst for Change: The AASS helped to galvanize the abolitionist movement in the United States, inspiring a new generation of activists and organizations dedicated to ending slavery. 2. Shift in Public Opinion: Through its publications and public lectures, the AASS helped to change public attitudes towards slavery, making it a more widely condemned institution. 3. Impact on Politics: The AASS's involvement in the formation of the Liberty Party and other political activities helped to bring the issue of slavery to the forefront of American politics, paving the way for the eventual abolition of slavery. 4. Promotion of Equality: By advocating for the rights of African Americans and women, the AASS helped to advance the cause of equality in American society. Overall, the American Anti-Slavery Society was a pivotal organization in the history of the abolitionist movement, helping to lay the groundwork for the eventual abolition of slavery in the United States. 77) What was moral suasion? Why was it an effective argument at the time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define moral suasion: During the 1830s the AASS adopted a reform strategy based on moral suasion—also called moral persuasion. This was an appeal to Americans North and South to support abolition and racial justice on the basis of their Christian consciences. 2. Explain that slaveholding, as the AASS argued, was a sin and a crime that deprived African Americans of the freedom of conscience they needed to save their souls. 3. Conclude that it was an effective argument because of the increased religiosity of Americans in the early 1800s. 4. Conclude that abolitionists also argued that slavery was an inefficient labor system that enriched a few masters while impoverishing black and white southerners and hurting the American economy. Sample Answer: Moral suasion was a key strategy employed by abolitionists in the 19th century, particularly by the American Anti-Slavery Society, to convince people of the immorality of slavery and persuade them to support its abolition. The concept was based on the belief that if enough people were convinced of the moral wrongness of slavery, they would pressure lawmakers to enact laws to abolish it. Moral suasion was effective at the time for several reasons: 1. Moral and Religious Appeal: The argument against slavery was often framed in moral and religious terms, appealing to the Christian values of compassion, justice, and equality. This resonated with many people, especially in a society deeply influenced by religious beliefs. 2. Appeal to Conscience: Moral suasion appealed to people's conscience, asking them to reflect on the inherent cruelty and injustice of slavery. This approach aimed to evoke empathy and a sense of moral duty to end such practices. 3. Non-confrontational Approach: Unlike more confrontational or violent methods, moral suasion was seen as a peaceful and civilized way to bring about change. This made it more acceptable to a wider audience, including those who might have been wary of more radical tactics. 4. Educational Component: Moral suasion often involved educational efforts, such as public lectures, pamphlets, and newspapers, which helped to inform people about the realities of slavery and counter pro-slavery arguments. This increased awareness and understanding contributed to changing attitudes. 5. Long-term Strategy: While moral suasion did not bring immediate results, it was seen as a long-term strategy to gradually change public opinion and pave the way for legislative action. This patient approach was crucial in a society where change was often slow and incremental. Overall, moral suasion was an effective argument at the time because it appealed to people's sense of morality, conscience, and reason, and it contributed significantly to the eventual abolition of slavery in the United States. 78) Discuss the origins, development, and aftermath of the antiblack riots that took place during the 1830s and the 1840s. Why were they worst in Philadelphia? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define anti-black riots of the era and provide some specific examples of riots in cities like Philadelphia. 2. Explain that antislavery efforts and black resistance to white racism in various forms and contexts caused the riots. 3. Outline how riots developed in terms of destruction to black institutions and neighborhoods. 4. Conclude that Philadelphia experienced the greatest number of riots for two reasons: the city contained the largest free black population of any city in the U.S., and was the location of the early abolitionist movement. Sample Answer: The anti-black riots that occurred during the 1830s and 1840s in the United States were a series of violent outbursts fueled by racial tension and prejudice against African Americans. These riots, often instigated by white mobs, targeted African American communities, homes, and businesses, resulting in loss of life and property. Origins: • Racial Prejudice: The riots were rooted in deep-seated racial prejudice and fear of African Americans, who were seen as a threat to white dominance and societal norms. • Abolitionist Movement: The growing abolitionist movement, which advocated for the end of slavery, also contributed to heightened tensions, as it challenged the institution of slavery and questioned the status quo. Development: • 1830s Riots: The 1830s saw several anti-black riots, including the Cincinnati riots of 1829 and 1836, and the New York City Draft Riots of 1863, which targeted African Americans and abolitionists. • 1840s Riots: The 1840s witnessed further violence, such as the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of 1844, which targeted Irish Catholic immigrants as well as African Americans. Aftermath: • Loss of Life and Property: The riots resulted in significant loss of life and property, as African American communities were often the primary targets of mob violence. • Impact on Communities: The riots had a lasting impact on African American communities, instilling fear and distrust of white society, and leading to increased segregation and discrimination. • Political and Social Repercussions: The riots highlighted the deep divisions within American society over issues of race and slavery, fueling debates and political tensions. Philadelphia: • Unique Factors: Philadelphia was particularly affected by anti-black riots due to several unique factors, including its status as a major urban center with a large African American population and a history of racial tension. • Political Climate: The political climate in Philadelphia, characterized by nativist and anti-immigrant sentiment, contributed to the violence against African Americans and other minority groups. • Economic Competition: Economic competition between African Americans and white workers also played a role, as white workers viewed African Americans as competitors for jobs and resources. In conclusion, the anti-black riots of the 1830s and 1840s were a dark chapter in American history, highlighting the deep-rooted racial prejudice and social divisions of the time. The riots had a profound impact on African American communities and underscored the challenges faced in the struggle for racial equality and civil rights. 79) Why did the AASS break up? What issues were involved? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the AASS broke up in 1840 over the issue of allowing women to be leaders and preside over meetings. 2. Explain that most of its members left to establish the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (AFASS) and the Liberty Party, the first antislavery political party. 3. Outline that the split in part resulted from long-standing disagreements about the role of women in abolitionism and William Lloyd Garrison’s broadening radicalism. By declaring that slavery had irrevocably corrupted the existing American society, by denouncing organized religion as irrevocably proslavery, by becoming a feminist, and by embracing a form of Christian anarchy that precluded formal involvement in politics, Garrison seemed to have lost sight of abolitionism’s main concern. 4. Conclude that the failure of moral suasion to make progress against slavery— particularly in the South—and the question of how abolitionists should respond to slave unrest also helped fracture the AASS. Sample Answer: The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) broke up in 1870 primarily due to internal divisions and disagreements over various issues within the abolitionist movement. Several key factors contributed to the dissolution of the AASS: 1. Tactics and Strategy: Over time, the AASS became divided over the most effective tactics and strategies to achieve abolition. Some members advocated for more radical and immediate action, while others preferred a more gradual approach. 2. Political Differences: The AASS faced internal conflicts over political alliances and involvement. Some members believed in working within the existing political system to achieve their goals, while others rejected political involvement altogether. 3. Leadership and Personalities: The society was also affected by conflicts among its leaders and prominent members. Personal rivalries and disagreements over leadership styles contributed to the breakdown of the organization. 4. Post-Civil War Context: The end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery changed the political landscape, leading to shifts in priorities and goals within the abolitionist movement. Some members of the AASS felt that the society had fulfilled its purpose and that it was time to disband. 5. Focus on Other Issues: As the abolitionist movement evolved, there was a growing focus on other social justice issues, such as women's rights and temperance. This shift in focus led to a decline in support for the AASS and contributed to its eventual dissolution. In conclusion, the breakup of the American Anti-Slavery Society was a result of internal divisions and disagreements over tactics, strategy, political alliances, leadership, and the changing social and political context. These issues ultimately led to the dissolution of the organization, but the legacy of the AASS and the abolitionist movement continued to influence the fight for civil rights in the United States. 80) What aspects of Canadian history made Canada West safe for fugitive slaves? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define Canada West as a location. The ultimate destination for many African Americans on the underground railroad was Canada West (present-day Ontario) between Buffalo and Detroit on the northern shore of Lake Erie. 2. Explain that Black Americans began to settle in Canada West as early as the 1820s, and, because the British Empire after 1833 prohibited slavery, fugitive slaves were safe there. 3. Note that the stronger fugitive slave law that Congress passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 made Canada an even more important refuge for African Americans. 4. Outline that between 1850 and 1860, the number of black people in Canada West rose from approximately 8,000 to at least 20,000. Sample Answer: Canada West (now Ontario) was considered a safe haven for fugitive slaves escaping from the United States due to several key aspects of Canadian history and society: 1. Abolition of Slavery: Canada West had abolished slavery in 1834, more than 30 years before the Emancipation Proclamation in the United States. This meant that fugitive slaves who reached Canada West would be free and could not be legally returned to slavery. 2. British Influence: Canada West was a British colony, and British law and influence played a significant role in shaping its attitudes towards slavery. The British Empire had abolished the slave trade in 1807 and slavery in its colonies in 1833, setting a precedent for anti-slavery policies in Canada West. 3. Underground Railroad: Canada West was a key destination on the Underground Railroad, a network of secret routes and safe houses used by fugitive slaves to escape to free states and Canada. Abolitionists and sympathetic individuals in Canada West helped fugitive slaves navigate the Underground Railroad and find safety. 4. Anti-Slavery Sentiment: Canada West had a strong anti-slavery sentiment, with many residents opposed to the institution of slavery and supportive of efforts to assist fugitive slaves. This attitude made Canada West a welcoming destination for escaped slaves. 5. Legal Protections: Canada West had laws in place to protect the rights of fugitive slaves and prevent their return to the United States. These legal protections, combined with the abolition of slavery, made Canada West a relatively safe haven for fugitive slaves. 6. Diverse Population: Canada West had a diverse population, including many immigrants from the United States and other countries. This diversity contributed to a more tolerant and inclusive society, making it easier for fugitive slaves to integrate and find support. Overall, the combination of abolitionist laws, British influence, anti-slavery sentiment, the presence of the Underground Railroad, legal protections, and a diverse population made Canada West a safe and welcoming destination for fugitive slaves escaping from the United States. Chapter 10: “And Black People Were at the Heart of It” Multiple Choice Questions 1) The Wilmot Proviso, if it had passed, would have ______________. A) allowed slavery in any area of the United States B) gained Canada from the British C) prohibited slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico D) made Mexicans and American Indian slaves alongside blacks, in the territory acquired from Mexico Answer: C 2) Which party formed in 1848 to prevent the expansion of slavery into the territories? A) Liberty Party B) Free-Soil Party C) Republican Party D) Democratic Party Answer: B 3) What was discovered in California in 1848 that caused settlers to pour in from all over the country? A) cotton B) gold C) oil D) buffalo Answer: B 4) Most of the Forty-Niners in California were ______________. A) African American B) male C) immigrants from Asia D) former prisoners hoping for a chance to redeem their lives Answer: B 5) What was the idea of free labor? A) an idea accepted by most northern whites that emphasized the importance of free men and women working for a living B) the idea that all people should be free C) the idea of the South that all slaves were free because their labor was free D) a racist doctrine adopted by whites that stated blacks' labor should not be paid because they were inferior to whites Answer: A 6) How did some northern communities react to fugitive slave laws prior to 1850? A) They tried to comply with the laws entirely to avoid southern state prosecution. B) They passed personal liberty laws making it illegal for police to capture runaways. C) They declared the laws null and void under the Constitution. D) They decided to fire on Fort Sumter, starting the Civil War. Answer: B 7) How did African-American antislavery advocates respond to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850? A) They demanded that their supporters disobey the law or resort to violence. B) They realized they had to accept the law or face additional violence. C) They immediately began a mass migration to Canada. D) They disbanded their antislavery organizations. Answer: A 8) How did the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 strengthen previous laws? A) The law required only lawmakers to help capture suspected runaways. B) The law would punish citizens who failed to help capture runaways. C) Southerners were personally responsible for recapturing their slaves. D) It actually weakened previous laws, due to abolitionist outcry. Answer: B 9) Why did most northern whites oppose the expansion of slavery into the territories? A) They felt that it would hurt them economically. B) They thought that all blacks should be socially superior to whites. C) They all objected to slavery as a moral evil. D) They felt that it was important for America to spread ideals of equality for all. Answer: A 10) One of the more important components of the Compromise of 1850 was ______________. A) admitting Utah as a free state B) a tougher fugitive slave act C) the continuation of the slave trade only in Washington, D.C. D) the admission of Oregon as a free state Answer: B 11) What eventually happened to the Crafts? A) Like all other slaves found under the Fugitive Slave Act, they were returned to their former owner and severely punished. B) They were killed as they tried to return to the South to retrieve their children. C) They escaped to England with the help of abolitionists in Boston. D) They fled to Cuba. Answer: C 12) What was the result of fugitive slave Anthony Burns's case? A) Burns was recaptured by his master and returned to slavery. B) Many southern whites were disturbed by Burns being taken back into slavery. C) President Lincoln called upon state troops to ensure that Burns was returned to slavery. D) Burns was murdered by his southern master shortly after capture. Answer: A 13) What effect did the new fugitive slave laws have on many whites in the North? A) Whites were overjoyed to have the blacks removed from their territory. B) Whites generally paid little attention to any issue involving blacks. C) Whites were horrified as they personally witnessed scenes of slaves being recaptured. D) Whites in the North renounced racism and began to immediately work for black voting rights. Answer: C 14) How did William and Ellen Craft escape from slavery? A) Ellen passed for a sickly white man, accompanied by "his" slave, William. B) They killed their master and several people along the way. C) They escaped with the assistance of Harriet Tubman and the underground railroad. D) They took a boat from Charleston to Haiti. Answer: A 15) What does the story of Shadrach Minkins tell us about the Fugitive Slave Act? A) Abolitionists were prepared to break the laws to help slaves. B) Whites in the North were just as racist as whites in the South. C) Black churches were very important in helping slaves escape to freedom. D) Abolitionists sometimes let slaves be returned to slavery. Answer: A 16) How did the federal government react over the fugitive slave incident in Christiana, Pennsylvania in 1851? A) The president sent federal troops in to help free the slaves. B) The president attempted to prosecute those who had helped the slaves escape. C) The president ordered the arsenal destroyed, with the slaves inside it. D) The president ignored the incident since the state militia had the matter under control. Answer: B 17) What does the story of Margaret Garner reveal about fugitive slaves? A) The underground railroad worked very well. B) Some slaves were very brave and would return to the South to help others escape. C) Some slaves were willing to kill their children rather than have them grow up as slaves. D) Black men continued to face sexual exploitation even outside of slavery. Answer: C 18) Examine the leaflet titled “Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law” that appears in Chapter 10. What elements of the image indicate the viewpoint of the image- maker? A) Four black men are shown, indicating black support for fugitive laws. B) A group of slave-catchers are shown in the background, indicating support for fugitive laws. C) The wooded terrain and agricultural fields of the setting indicate disagreement with fugitive laws. D) A group of black men flees slave-catchers, indicating disagreement with fugitive laws. Answer: D 19) Examine the pamphlet that depicts the “trial” and return of Anthony Burns to slavery. Why is Burns shown in professional clothing in the center image? A) to emphasize his support of slavery B) to reveal his presidential aspirations C) to call attention to the superiority of blacks over whites D) to emphasize his dignity and success as a free man Answer: D 20) Examine the pamphlet that depicts the “trial” and return of Anthony Burns to slavery. Why are the images surrounding Burns’s portrait included in the visual presentation? A) to call attention to the importance of re-enslaving Burns B) to emphasize the positive qualities of fugitive slave laws C) to reveal the thinking of European elites D) to focus on the injustices of fugitive slave laws Answer: D 21) Examine the image of the Rochester convention that appears in Chapter 10. Why does the artist depict a black man standing with his arm in the air? A) to underscore the inferiority of blacks compared to whites in the northern states B) to emphasize the southern white desire to expand slavery C) to call attention to the need for the federal government to invade Europe D) to demonstrate that black leaders at the convention argued passionately that slavery should be abolished and blacks were entitled to all the rights of U.S. citizenship Answer: D 22) What was the outcome of the African-American Rochester Convention in 1853? A) African Americans were splintered over the fugitive slave acts, with the great majority simply wanting to remain silent until the matter blew over. B) African Americans showed courage in refusing to submit to the laws and in looking for improvements for the future. C) The convention, dominated by whites, pushed blacks into more menial jobs in New York. D) The convention pushed for immediate migration to Africa for all who were able to make the journey. Answer: B 23) Around what main principle did the Know-Nothing Party organize? A) to eliminate schools for blacks B) to protect "American" values from immigrants C) to upgrade white schools D) to eliminate slavery from America Answer: B 24) Who wrote the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin? A) Frederick Douglass B) William Lloyd Garrison C) Harriet Beecher Stowe D) David Walker Answer: C 25) How did the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin influence white Americans? A) The book forced many northerners to understand the horrors of slavery. B) The book inspired little reaction in the South because no one heard about it there. C) Northern whites mounted military assaults against the Supreme Court after reading the book. D) Southern whites abolished slavery in several states after reading the book. Answer: A 26) What is meant by "nativist"? A) “abolitionist” B) “racism” C) “opposed to immigration” D) “patriotic” Answer: C 27) How did "popular sovereignty" work in Kansas? A) Popular sovereignty enabled Kansas to enter the Union as a free state. B) Kansas became "Bleeding Kansas," where both pro- and antislavery forces engaged in acts of violence and terrorism. C) Popular sovereignty worked well, although it took 50 years for Kansas to finally become a state. D) Popular sovereignty was not accepted by the people of Kansas. Answer: B 28) What was the significance of the Kansas-Nebraska Act regarding slavery? A) The Kansas-Nebraska Act did not address the slavery issue. B) The Kansas-Nebraska Act outlawed slavery in all remaining American territory. C) The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise line, with the possibility that slavery would be allowed in areas it never had before. D) The Kansas-Nebraska Act abolished slavery in the border states. Answer: C 29) What does the Sumner-Brooks incident tell us about the United States in 1856? A) Violence would not go unpunished in Congress. B) The South was beginning to turn against slavery. C) The North valued the idea of free labor over the Fugitive Slave Act. D) Slavery was becoming such a divisive issue that members of Congress, where all issues should be debated peacefully, were engaging in physical violence. Answer: D 30) Why did Preston Brooks attack Charles Sumner? A) Sumner had accused Brooks's uncle of keeping a slave as his mistress and lover. B) Sumner had had an affair with one of Brooks's slaves. C) Sumner had physically attacked Brooks earlier that year. D) The two men had been fighting since they were children about white men's access to slave women. Answer: A 31) What was the main issue in the Dred Scott case? A) whether all slaves should be free or not B) whether a slave taken into free territory was free C) whether a slave woman could be legally raped by a white man D) whether the abolitionists could continue to use mass mailings as a major strategy Answer: B 32) What did the Supreme Court decide in the Dred Scott v. Sanford case regarding Scott's rights? A) Slaves taken into free territory automatically became free. B) Although blacks had some rights in America, slaves did not have the right to begin a suit against a white man. C) Black people (not just slaves) had no rights in America and therefore could not bring lawsuits before the courts. D) Freeing slaves by any method was completely unconstitutional. Answer: C 33) Which of the following groups was pleased by the Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case? A) abolitionists B) most whites in the North, especially in Massachusetts C) white southerners D) most settlers in the far West, since it had nothing to do with them Answer: C 34) How is the Dred Scott decision an example of the Supreme Court’s viewpoint towards slavery in the 1850s? A) The court ruled that Scott was free, indicating the antislavery sentiment of the court. B) The court ruled that Scott’s case should return to the lower courts, indicating indecisiveness regarding slavery by the court. C) The court ruled that Scott was to remain a slave, indicating the proslavery leanings of the court. D) The court ruled that Scott’s case should be decided by European courts, indicating an unwillingness of the court to deal with the slavery issue. Answer: C 35) Examine the images of Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet, that were published in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1857. Why did the artist depict the Scotts as middle class? A) to underscore the importance of keeping the Scotts enslaved in the South B) to enable southern whites to expand slavery outside of the South C) to assist the election of Steven Douglas for the presidency of the U.S. D) to elicit sympathy from white audiences regarding the Scotts and the anti-slavery movement Answer: D 36) What were the main issues in the Lincoln-Douglas debates in 1858? A) the discovery of gold in California B) slavery and race C) secession of the South D) the expansion of the powers of the federal government Answer: B 37) Where did Stephen Douglas stand on the issue of slavery? A) He was for popular sovereignty, and he thought masters should be able to bring their slaves anywhere. B) He thought that slavery should be abolished immediately. C) He thought that blacks and white should have equal political and social rights. D) He thought that all blacks should be shipped back to Africa as quickly as possible. Answer: A 38) What did Douglas try to accuse the Republicans of during the Lincoln-Douglas debates? A) of favoring black people over whites and of favoring racial equality B) of being racist C) of favoring the South over their home state of Illinois D) of not wanting to accept new territory into the United States Answer: A 39) Which of the following best characterizes Lincoln's ideas about race and slavery during the 1858 elections? A) He was for the immediate abolition of slavery everywhere. B) He thought that blacks and whites should have equal social and political rights. C) He was a racist but opposed slavery outside of the South. D) He was a racist and supported the institution of slavery in the northern states. Answer: C 40) What is the relationship between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln regarding the slavery issue? A) They disagreed over whether or not slavery should be abolished in the U.S. B) They agreed that slavery should expand to the northern states. C) They agreed that slavery was a minor issue in the U.S. D) They disagreed over the expansion of slavery. Answer: D 41) What did John Brown want to accomplish with his army during 1859? A) to keep the United States together during the Civil War B) to establish a separate, independent black nation within the United States C) to bring Texas into the union D) to invade the South and end slavery Answer: D 42) Who supported John Brown's efforts financially? A) Most white northerners donated some money. B) A few wealthy abolitionist and black leaders gave financial support. C) A few southerners who were sick of the troubles over slavery donated money. D) A large number of the African-American Forty-Niners donated a great deal of money and time. Answer: B 43) What was a result of John Brown's raid? A) Many of the participants in the raid escaped to the North. B) The raid pushed the country toward civil war by intensifying feelings on both sides. C) John Brown, because he was killed before the fighting began, was largely forgotten. D) Southerners began to accept the limitations of slavery. Answer: B 44) How did whites in the North and the South react to John Brown's raid? A) Neither side paid much attention to the attempt, since it was unsuccessful. B) The North saw Brown as a hero and mourned his death, while the South was swept up in paranoia and rage against what they saw as an act of terrorism. C) The South thought that the raid was a good test of their militia because they put it down so quickly. D) The North thought that it was a good test of their militia because Brown had been the commander and had made some gains into southern territory. Answer: B 45) Examine the image of the 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry that appears in Chapter 10. Why is John Brown shown in the center of the image? A) He was a villain to northern whites. B) He was a hero to southern whites. C) He was killed in the raid. D) He was the leader of the raid. Answer: D 46) What was the Republicans' position on slavery during the 1860 election? A) The Republicans opposed slavery everywhere. B) The Republicans were opposed to any expansion of slavery in the territories. C) The Republicans ignored the issue of slavery because it was so troublesome. D) The Republicans supported the expansion of slavery everywhere. Answer: B 47) What was Lincoln's reaction to the secession of the Confederate States of America? A) He warned them that he would not permit them to leave. B) He accepted their leaving, but immediately decided to free the slaves in the remaining states. C) At first, startled by their suddenness, Lincoln did nothing. D) Lincoln immediately invaded the South when the southern states left. Answer: A 48) How did black people react to Abraham Lincoln as a presidential candidate? A) They reacted with nearly universal support, as they knew he was going to abolish slavery across the entire country in the future. B) Black people could not vote and therefore had no opinion about his candidacy. C) Elite blacks favored him, since he seemed very intellectual, while poor blacks opposed him. D) They reacted with either opposition or very reluctant support and were dismayed by his racism and apparent support for slavery where it already existed. Answer: D 49) What is the relationship between the secession of South Carolina in late 1860 and the development of the Civil War? A) South Carolina decided to come back into the Union, delaying the state of the war. B) South Carolina was the last southern state to secede, leaving open the possibility for a quick end to the war. C) South Carolina left the Union reluctantly, indicating southern divisions regarding leaving the nation. D) South Carolina left the Union first, beginning a procession of southern states out of the nation and causing the war. Answer: D 50) How is Abraham Lincoln connected to the secession of the southern states? A) He was president and tried to stop the southern states from leaving the U.S. B) He was Secretary of Defense and encouraged Europe to intervene to help the U.S. C) He was campaigning for office and told the South to “go.” D) He was a Senator and worked with southern states to help them leave the nation. Answer: A True/False Questions 51) By 1850 nearly 9,000 black men (and fewer than 100 black women) were living in California. Answer: False 52) The Rochester Convention warned that black Americans were not prepared to submit quietly to a government more concerned about the interests of slave owners than people seeking to free themselves from bondage. Answer: True 53) The mass starvation that accompanied the potato famine of the 1840s in Ireland drove thousands of Irish people to the United States. Answer: True 54) Anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-alcohol sentiments helped foster in 1854 the rise of a nativist third political party, called the Whig Party, but better known as the “Know-Nothing Party.” Answer: False 55) Uncle Tom’s Cabin moved northerners to tears and made slavery more emotional to readers who had previously considered it only a distant system of labor that exploited black people. Answer: True 56) Uncle Tom’s Cabin depicted slavery’s cruelty, inhumanity, and destructive impact on families through characters and a plot that appealed to the sentimentality of nineteenth-century readers. Answer: True 57) The concept of “popular sovereignty” pleased many northerners because it created the possibility that slavery might expand to areas where it had been prohibited. Answer: False 58) Preston Brooks’s interactions with Charles Sumner in the U.S. Congress illustrate the decreasing violence associated with the slavery issue in the 1850s. Answer: False 59) In the early 1850s, “border ruffians” from Missouri invaded Kansas to attack antislavery settlers and to vote illegally in Kansas elections. Answer: True 60) The Lincoln-Douglas debates are connected to the issue of race in that both candidates expressed a strong feeling that blacks were equal if not superior to whites. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The concept of ______________ was rejected by the South prior to the Civil War. Answer: free labor 62) The ______________ failed to become law but enraged southerners nevertheless for its attempt to curtail the expansion of slavery to the western territories. Answer: Wilmot Proviso 63) The ______________ as migrants to California were called in 1849, were almost exclusively male, and most were white Americans. Answer: Forty-Niners 64) The escaped slave had no rights and no guarantee of ______________ (the legal requirement that a person be brought before a court and not imprisoned illegally). Answer: habeas corpus 65) In the 1856 presidential election, the Democrats nominated James ______________ of Pennsylvania, a northern Democrat. Answer: Buchanan 66) The description of Kansas Territory as “ ______________ Kansas” is an example of an early outbreak of violence resembling the future U.S. Civil War. Answer: Bleeding 67) In 1858 Senator Stephen Douglas of ______________ ran for reelection to the Senate against Republican Abraham Lincoln. Answer: Illinois 68) John Brown is an example of a northern ______________ who wanted to end slavery by invading the South and starting a slave insurrection. Answer: abolitionist 69) Lincoln claimed that the “only” dispute between the North and South was over the expansion of ______________. Answer: slavery 70) Barely a month after Lincoln’s inauguration, Confederate leaders demanded that the U.S. surrender ______________ in Charleston, South Carolina. Answer: Fort Sumter Short Answer Questions 71) Discuss the elements of the Compromise of 1850. Why were southerners unhappy with it? Answer: The Compromise of 1850 consisted of several key elements, including the admission of California as a free state, the organization of the territories of New Mexico and Utah without mention of slavery (allowing popular sovereignty to decide the issue), the abolition of the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in Washington, D.C., and the passage of a stricter Fugitive Slave Law. Southerners were unhappy with the Compromise of 1850 because they felt it favored the North. They were particularly displeased with the Fugitive Slave Law, which they saw as inadequate and not effectively enforced. Additionally, the admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power between free and slave states in Congress. 72) If most northern whites were racist, why did many oppose slavery? Answer: Many northern whites opposed slavery for a variety of reasons, including moral, religious, and economic beliefs. Some believed slavery was morally wrong and incompatible with American ideals of freedom and equality. Others opposed it because they feared it would harm their own economic opportunities or believed that free labor was more efficient. 73) Why was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 thought necessary by the South? Answer: The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was thought necessary by the South to protect their economic interests and preserve the institution of slavery. With the growing abolitionist movement in the North and the Underground Railroad aiding escaped slaves, the South sought a stronger law to ensure the return of escaped slaves and deter further attempts to assist them. 74) What do the stories of the Crafts and Shadrach tell us about abolitionism and the Fugitive Slave Act? Answer: The stories of the Crafts and Shadrach highlight the challenges faced by abolitionists and escaped slaves under the Fugitive Slave Act. The Crafts' escape demonstrates the lengths to which slaves would go to gain freedom, while Shadrach's case illustrates the harsh enforcement of the law and the risks abolitionists took to resist it. Both stories underscore the deep divide over slavery in the United States. 75) What was the effect of Uncle Tom's Cabin in the South? In the North? What resources did Harriet Beecher Stowe use to write the book? Answer: In the South, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was met with outrage and condemnation for its portrayal of slavery. It was seen as a threat to the institution and was banned in many southern states. In the North, the book had a profound impact, fueling anti-slavery sentiment and strengthening the abolitionist movement. Harriet Beecher Stowe used various resources to write the book, including personal accounts of slavery, abolitionist literature, and her own beliefs and experiences. Essay Questions 76) Discuss each of the fugitive slave cases. What are their main similarities or differences? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the details of each fugitive slave case: William and Ellen Craft, Shadrach Minkins, and Anthony Burns. 2. Explain the similarities: each person was black and resisting being physically taken into slavery in the northern states. Their cases were well-publicized and politicized the abolitionist movement and helped to bring on the Civil War. 3. The differences lay in the details of each case, particularly regarding Burns, who escaped from slavery but was recaptured and went on trial. He was later purchased and freed by sympathetic whites. 4. Explain that Minkins was freed by violent force of arms while on trial to be enslaved. 5. Note that the Crafts escaped from slavery by passing as a white master and his slave and eluded slave catchers by sailing to Europe with the help of abolitionists. Sample Answer: The fugitive slave cases refer to a series of legal disputes and incidents in the United States before the Civil War involving escaped slaves seeking freedom and the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. These cases are significant for understanding the tensions surrounding slavery, states' rights, and the enforcement of federal law. Here, we'll discuss some of the most notable cases, highlighting their main similarities and differences: 1. Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842): • Background: Edward Prigg, a slave catcher, was convicted under Pennsylvania state law for capturing a fugitive slave. Prigg argued that the state law was unconstitutional because it conflicted with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. • Decision: The Supreme Court ruled that state laws could not interfere with the return of fugitive slaves and that enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act was solely a federal responsibility. • Similarities: Both cases involved conflicts between state and federal laws regarding the return of fugitive slaves. • Differences: Prigg v. Pennsylvania dealt with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, while later cases involved the more stringent Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. 2. Shadrach Minkins Case (1851): • Background: Shadrach Minkins, a fugitive slave from Virginia, was arrested in Boston under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. • Incident: Abolitionists stormed the courthouse where Minkins was held, rescued him, and helped him escape to Canada. • Similarities: Both cases involved the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. • Differences: The Minkins case resulted in the successful escape of the fugitive, highlighting the resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act in some Northern states. 3. Anthony Burns Case (1854): • Background: Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, was arrested in Boston under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. • Incident: Burns' case attracted national attention and sparked protests and riots in Boston. Despite efforts to secure his freedom, Burns was ultimately returned to slavery. • Similarities: Like the Minkins case, the Burns case involved the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. • Differences: Unlike Minkins, Burns was not able to escape to freedom, highlighting the effectiveness of the federal government's enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. In summary, the fugitive slave cases all revolved around the enforcement of laws regarding the return of escaped slaves, but they differed in their outcomes and the level of resistance they faced. While some cases resulted in the successful escape of the fugitive, others demonstrated the federal government's ability to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act and return slaves to their owners, despite widespread opposition in Northern states. 77) What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Why was it so politically important? What does the conflict in Kansas tell us about the issue of slavery at the time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Kansas-Nebraska Act as a compromise measure to satisfy northern and southern state issues over the expansion of slavery. 2. Explain that in 1854 Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to organize the Kansas and Nebraska Territories that soon provoked white settlers in Kansas to kill each other over slavery. 3. Explain that Douglas’s proposal—known as “popular sovereignty”—angered many northerners because it created the possibility that slavery might expand to areas where it had been prohibited. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 banned slavery north of 36° 30' line of latitude. Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act would repeal that limitation and allow settlers in Kansas, which was north of that line, to vote on slavery there. 4. Conclude that Douglas managed to muster enough votes in Congress to pass the bill, but its enactment destroyed an already divided Whig Party and drove a wedge between the North and South over the issue of the expansion of slavery outside of the southern states. Sample Answer: The Kansas-Nebraska Act, passed in 1854, was a significant piece of legislation that repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed for the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery (popular sovereignty). This act was politically important for several reasons: 1. Repeal of the Missouri Compromise: The Kansas-Nebraska Act overturned the Missouri Compromise, which had prohibited slavery in the northern territories. This repeal reopened the issue of slavery expansion into the territories and reignited tensions between the North and South over the issue. 2. Popular Sovereignty: By allowing the residents of Kansas and Nebraska to decide the slavery question for themselves, the act reflected the concept of popular sovereignty. This approach was seen as a way to diffuse tensions over slavery by letting the people directly affected by it make the decision. 3. Impact on Political Parties: The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the dissolution of the Whig Party and the formation of the Republican Party, which opposed the spread of slavery into the territories. This realignment of parties further polarized the nation along sectional lines. The conflict in Kansas, often referred to as "Bleeding Kansas," provides insights into the issue of slavery at the time: 1. Violence and Tensions: The conflict in Kansas was marked by violence and bloodshed between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers, as each side sought to gain control of the territory and influence its decision on slavery. This violence demonstrated the deep divisions and strong passions surrounding the issue of slavery. 2. Question of Legitimacy: The conflict raised questions about the legitimacy of popular sovereignty as a solution to the issue of slavery expansion. Critics argued that the violence in Kansas showed the failure of popular sovereignty to effectively resolve the issue and protect the rights of all residents. 3. National Attention: The conflict in Kansas captured national attention and highlighted the growing divide between the North and South over the issue of slavery. It foreshadowed the even greater conflicts that would erupt in the years leading up to the Civil War. Overall, the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the conflict in Kansas were pivotal moments in the lead-up to the Civil War, exposing the deep-rooted divisions over slavery that ultimately led to the nation's deadliest conflict. 78) Why was the Brown raid so important? What did Brown intend to do? What were the effects of his actions? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Brown raid as a long term plan to attack a gun factory carried out by John Brown and several white and black men to start a slave insurrection in Virginia. 2. Note that the outcome of the raid included most of the attackers being killed and John Brown being executed by the state of Virginia. 3. Conclude that the long term impact of the Brown raid was to anger the South and embolden northern abolitionists and southern slaves to continue resisting against slavery. The Brown raid was the spark that ignited the Civil War, as did the election of Abraham Lincoln shortly thereafter. Sample Answer: The Brown raid, led by abolitionist John Brown, was an important event in American history due to its impact on the national debate over slavery and its role in escalating tensions that led to the Civil War. Brown intended to start a slave rebellion by seizing the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in 1859. 1. Importance of the Brown Raid: The raid was significant because it demonstrated the willingness of some abolitionists to use violent means to oppose slavery. Brown's actions were seen as a direct challenge to the institution of slavery and the federal government's authority, sparking fear and outrage among slaveholders in the South. 2. Brown's Intentions: Brown believed that his raid would inspire enslaved people to rise up against their oppressors and spark a wider slave rebellion. He hoped to seize weapons from the arsenal and use them to arm slaves, leading to a widespread revolt against slavery in the South. 3. Effects of Brown's Actions: The raid on Harpers Ferry had several effects: • It heightened tensions between the North and South, with many Southerners viewing Brown as a dangerous radical and a symbol of Northern aggression against their way of life. • Brown's trial and eventual execution further polarized the nation, with abolitionists hailing him as a martyr and slaveholders condemning him as a traitor and a terrorist. • The raid helped galvanize support for the Republican Party in the North, as many Republicans condemned Brown's methods but sympathized with his anti-slavery goals. This support contributed to Abraham Lincoln's election as president in 1860. • The raid also led to increased paranoia and fear among slaveholders, who worried that similar uprisings could occur elsewhere in the South. This fear contributed to the South's secession from the Union and the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. In conclusion, the Brown raid was a pivotal event in the lead-up to the Civil War, highlighting the deep divisions over slavery in American society and the lengths to which some were willing to go to oppose it. Brown's actions and their consequences helped set the stage for the nation's deadliest conflict and ultimately played a role in bringing about the end of slavery in the United States. 79) What happened to the Democrats during the 1860 election? Why is the outcome significant? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the 1860 election as the Republicans vs. the Democrats, with several third parties contending for office. 2. Explain that the Democrats were hopelessly divided over the issue of the expansion of slavery: northern Democrats did not want slavery to expand to the west, while southern democrats did want slavery to expand. The presence of third parties further sapped votes from the Democrats. 3. Note that Lincoln won the northern states which carried the most elector and popular votes. 4. Conclude that the outcome of the election was extremely critical to the welfare of the nation. Eleven southern states ultimately left the union over the next six months and formed the Confederacy and fought against the United States and to continue slavery forever. Sample Answer: During the 1860 election, the Democratic Party split into Northern and Southern factions, which significantly impacted the outcome of the election and the course of American history. 1. Democratic Party Split: The Democratic Party, traditionally a powerful political force, fractured along regional lines over the issue of slavery. The party's Northern faction nominated Stephen Douglas, who supported popular sovereignty and the concept of allowing territories to decide the slavery question for themselves. The Southern faction, unhappy with Douglas's position, nominated John C. Breckinridge, who advocated for the extension of slavery into the territories. 2. Impact on the Election: The split in the Democratic Party had several important effects on the election: • It divided the Democratic vote, making it easier for the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, to win the presidency. With the Democrats split, Lincoln was able to win a majority of the electoral votes, even though he received less than 40% of the popular vote. • The split in the Democratic Party reflected the deep divisions over slavery in the country, with the party unable to present a united front on the issue. This division foreshadowed the coming Civil War, as it became increasingly clear that political compromise was no longer possible on the issue of slavery. 3. Significance of the Outcome: The outcome of the 1860 election was significant for several reasons: • It marked the first time a Republican candidate won the presidency, signaling the rise of the Republican Party as a major political force in American politics. • Lincoln's victory prompted Southern states to begin seceding from the Union, leading to the formation of the Confederate States of America and the outbreak of the Civil War. • The election highlighted the irreconcilable differences between the North and South over the issue of slavery, setting the stage for a conflict that would reshape American society and lead to the abolition of slavery. In conclusion, the split in the Democratic Party during the 1860 election played a crucial role in Abraham Lincoln's victory and the subsequent secession of the Southern states. The outcome of the election deepened the divide between North and South and set the stage for the Civil War, making it one of the most consequential elections in American history. 80) What was the South's collective and individual state reaction to Lincoln's election? Why did the southern states exhibit varying reactions to the event? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the “South” as seventeen southern states divided between the Upper South, Deep South, and Border States. 2. Explain that the southern reaction to Lincoln’s election was to call him a dictator and to vow to leave the Union to defend democracy in the form of owning black people. 3. Note that several southern states immediately left the Union, starting with South Carolina; some wait several months to leave; some southern states never left, such as four Border States during the war because of their close proximity to the northern states. 4. Conclude that this process of secession was seen as treasonous and a rebellion against federal authority by most northern whites but viewed as heroic and democratic by most southern whites, even those from states who did not leave the Union Sample Answer: The South's collective and individual state reaction to Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860 was one of fear, anger, and defiance, which ultimately led to the secession of Southern states from the Union. However, the reactions varied among the Southern states due to a combination of factors, including differences in economic interests, political alignments, and the perceived threats posed by Lincoln's presidency. 1. Collective Reaction: Overall, the Southern states reacted to Lincoln's election with alarm and hostility. Many Southerners viewed Lincoln as a dangerous abolitionist who would threaten their way of life and the institution of slavery. This perception was fueled by Lincoln's opposition to the spread of slavery into the Western territories and his Republican Party's platform, which called for the eventual abolition of slavery. 2. Secession: In response to Lincoln's election, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union on December 20, 1860. Other Southern states quickly followed suit, with Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceding in early 1861. These states cited Lincoln's election and the perceived threat to slavery as primary reasons for secession. 3. Varying Reactions: Despite the collective sense of alarm, the reactions of individual Southern states varied for several reasons: • Economic Interests: States with economies heavily dependent on slavery, such as South Carolina and Mississippi, were more likely to secede quickly in response to Lincoln's election. States with more diverse economies, such as Virginia and North Carolina, were more cautious and initially hesitant to secede. • Political Alignments: States with strong pro-Union sentiments or divided political loyalties, such as Tennessee and Kentucky, were slower to secede and only did so after the outbreak of hostilities at Fort Sumter in April 1861. • Perceived Threat: The perceived threat posed by Lincoln's presidency varied among the Southern states. Some states believed that secession was the only way to protect their rights and preserve the institution of slavery, while others hoped that remaining in the Union would provide a better chance of achieving their goals. In conclusion, the Southern states collectively reacted to Lincoln's election with fear and anger, leading to the secession of the Southern states and the outbreak of the Civil War. However, the varying reactions among the Southern states illustrate the complex and nuanced factors that influenced their decisions to secede. These differences in reaction ultimately shaped the course of the Civil War and the future of the United States. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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