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This Document Contains Chapters 15 to 16 Chapter 15: African Americans Challenge White Supremacy Multiple Choice Questions 1) What is social Darwinism? A) the idea that man evolved from monkeys B) a theory that applied Darwin's theory of “survival of the fittest” to human society C) the idea that blacks, not whites, evolved from monkeys D) the theory that all human males were less social animals than human females, and were therefore superior Answer: B 2) What difficulty did black children face in trying to get an education in the late nineteenth century? A) In rural areas, schools were open year round for black pupils. B) Children were often required to assist parents with agricultural work. C) Black high schools existed everywhere in the South, and education was not limited to primary levels only. D) The South gave funding to black schools, but since they wanted black children to be taught to be submissive, black communities refused the money. Answer: B 3) What skills were stressed for blacks and Native Americans at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute? A) critical, analytical thinking in traditional liberal arts areas B) legal training to become future lawyers C) learning hard work in a trade, Christian morality, and middle-class values D) how to live life in African colonies for eventual migration Answer: C 4) What black college did Booker T. Washington found in 1872? A) Hampton Institute B) Tuskegee Institute in Alabama C) University of Alabama D) Washington State University Answer: B 5) What was a belief of Booker T. Washington about opportunities for blacks? A) Washington believed blacks should learn cleanliness and better manners. B) Washington believed that blacks should educate themselves for professional work. C) Washington believed that blacks should learn skills and do manual labor. D) Washington believed that blacks should work for the right to vote while they worked for economic success. Answer: C 6) What did many people think was an appropriate education for black students? A) vocational training B) liberal arts education C) professional training to be a doctor or lawyer D) professional training in the sciences. Answer: A 7) How was Booker T. Washington's message received by whites? A) Whites arrested Washington often for his messages to blacks about social equality. B) Whites embraced his nonthreatening acceptance of white superiority. C) Whites generally ignored Washington. D) Whites elected Washington political office for his message to blacks. Answer: B 8) Who were the "talented tenth"? A) They were the most wealthy and influential group of whites; Washington felt all blacks should try to aspire to be like them. B) They were the top ten percent of black society; leaders like Du Bois felt that this group should lead blacks to greater social and political equality. C) They were the best group of working class students each year from Tuskegee; Washington generally rewarded them with land of their own to begin their own farms. D) They were the top ten percent of young female black students who were rewarded by Du Bois with jobs in the North. Answer: B 9) Examine Figure 15-1. What general factors explain the comparative racial trend in illiteracy rates for southern blacks and whites between 1870 and 1900? A) car or truck ownership, hobbies, length of residency D) gender, eye color, hair color C) height, weight, and age D) poverty, segregation, and racism Answer: D 10) According to Table 15-1, the average number of weeks of school for black schools compared that for to white schools in 1900-1909 was at a ratio of nearly ______________. A) five to one D) four to one C) three to one D) two to one Answer: D 11) What aspects of the photograph of Booker T. Washington reveal his ideology and educational values? A) The photograph is in black and white. D) He is black and male C) He sits on a chair and stares away from the viewer. D) He is well-dressed and holds two books. Answer: D 12) How does the Voices document by Thomas Miller reflect the ideology of the Tuskegee model of education? A) It mentions that only women will comprise the Tuskegee student body. D) It mentions that the higher intellectual subjects will be taught at Tuskegee. C) It mentions that only elite and wealthy blacks should receive education. D) It mentions that the work of Tuskegee is along the industrial line. Answer: D 13) Which church was the only significant one in early twentieth century America that was truly interracial? A) the Baptist Church B) the Pentecostal Church C) the Methodist Church D) the African Episcopalian Methodist Church Answer: B 14) Which Protestant denomination had the most black members in the South in 1890? A) African Episcopalian Methodist B) Methodist C) Baptist D) Nation of Islam Answer: C 15) Which of the following is true about black ministers? A) They often presented thoughtful, deliberate sermons in a calm manner. B) They were very rarely female. C) They usually had at least a high-school education. D) They were generally not very influential in their communities. Answer: B 16) How did black church services compare to white church services in the South? A) They were actually very similar because blacks had been members of white churches before forming their own churches. B) Black members were verbally involved in the sermon and music to a greater degree. C) Black churches were often more serious and quiet. D) Black churches included more participation from children, while whites generally excluded them. Answer: B 17) Why did Holiness churches appeal to some blacks? A) Holiness churches were less formal and ritualistic than other black churches. B) Holiness churches generally rewarded their members with a limited source of income. C) Music, including ragtime, blues, and jazz, were banned from their services. D) Holiness churches preached the democracy of heaven and equality of all in the eyes of God. Answer: A 18) After the Civil War, where did most black men in the army spend their time? A) in the South, fighting the Ku Klux Klan B) in the West, fighting Native Americans C) stationed in Europe D) in the North at training stations, performing menial tasks Answer: B 19) What was the “Brownsville affair”? A) an incident where black troops were accused of raping two white women B) a shooting match in a Texas border town, for which blacks were blamed C) an effort by white troops to murder an entire black battalion. D) an incident where black troops were prosecuted for stealing cattle. Answer: B 20) What was the result of the “Brownsville affair”? A) President Roosevelt dismissed three companies of black soldiers. B) Black troops were given medals for their valor and heroism. C) The black man responsible for the rape was quickly lynched. D) The entire town of Brownsville was burned to the ground by angry blacks. Answer: A 21) Where did the term “buffalo soldiers” originate? A) Blacks would use their free time to herd buffalo. B) Native Americans admired blacks' fighting abilities and thought their hair similar to that of the buffalo. C) Blacks would frequently desert and run away during combat, a trait the Indians thought was like the buffalo. D) Whites thought that blacks were so lazy and cowardly that they were going to be slaughtered like the buffalo. Answer: B 22) What issues did some blacks and whites use to criticize the Spanish-American War? A) It was merely a way for Americans to kill off black Americans. B) The war would worsen America's relations with western Native American tribes. C) Some saw it merely as an attempt to extend subjugation of darker races abroad. D) Some feared that the war would drag on far too long. Answer: C 23) What new development occurred for blacks because of the Spanish-American War? A) Blacks were involved in combat. B) Black soldiers reached ranks above private. C) A few all-black units were commanded by black men. D) Black women served with the men. Answer: C 24) How is the Voices document about black soldiers fighting in Cuba reflective of the black military experience in general at that time? A) Black men received half the pay of white troops. D) Black men were allowed to be officers in integrated units. C) Black military exploits were ignored. D) Black training opportunities exceeded those of whites. Answer: C 25) How is the film advertisement for “The Bull-Dogger” Bill Picket symbolic of black life in the West? A) Pickett portrays a slave. D) Pickett portrays a slave owner. C) Pickett portrays a cowboy. D) Pickett portrays a lawman. Answer: C 26) Why were many black troops assigned to Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas? A) Those states had significant uprisings of black citizens at the time. B) Those states had the lowest population numbers, and many whites thought the states would be a good place for blacks. C) They were needed to fight the frequent forest fires that broke out. D) Whites thought that blacks could tolerate the heat better. Answer: D 27) What were some of the differences between life for a black soldier and life for a white soldier? A) Black soldiers faced long hours of boredom and inactivity. B) Black soldiers deserted more frequently because of poor treatment. C) Blacks received far worse food rations, equipment, and horses. D) Black soldiers always went to fight on the front to safeguard whites. Answer: C 28) Why was the Spanish-American War fought? A) America wanted to liberate Cuba from Spanish control. B) America wanted to capture the Philippines. C) America wanted portions of Canada, occupied at that time by the Spanish. D) America was attempting to gain control of portions of Spanish Africa. Answer: A 29) Why did blacks serve in the Spanish-American War? A) They were enthusiastic about fighting against whites. B) They hoped to demonstrate their bravery and thereby eliminate racism. C) They were forced into service through the draft. D) Blacks were not allowed to serve in the military during the Spanish American War. Answer: B 30) Which national labor union included blacks and whites as its members? A) Knights of Labor B) American Federation of Labor C) National Labor Union D) Equality United Labor Union. Answer: A 31) What did the National Colored Labor Union emphasize for its members? A) It was in existence for only a short time because it emphasized pushing for the right to vote. B) The NCLU organized many strikes which, although unsuccessful, succeeded in bringing attention to black issues and discrimination. C) The only solution to the black labor problem was a move to Africa to start anew. D) They should not go on strike and should work hard and be thrifty. Answer: D 32) How did black workers attempt to change their working conditions? A) Some organized into unions. B) Black workers were forced into accepting their conditions. C) Some black workers became violent and worked to overthrow capitalism. D) Some black workers moved to Europe to escape racism in the United States. Answer: A 33) What did the American Federation of Labor think about black involvement in unions? A) It had a very open membership and allowed any worker into its ranks. B) It refused entry to blacks or women. C) It allowed black men into the union, but not black women. D) It allowed only rural agricultural workers. Answer: B 34) At the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition ______________. A) African-American colleges displayed exhibits with academic work. B) African nations were portrayed as more advanced than typically thought. C) African Americans were allowed into the fair only on certain days. D) The fair was welcomed and promoted by all African Americans. Answer: A 35) Which of the following is true about blacks in business in the late nineteenth century? A) Some blacks had the opportunity to rise within white-owned corporations. B) In order to succeed in business, blacks generally had to cater to other blacks. C) Many blacks were able to succeed with whites by being totally subservient. D) Blacks actually had no businesses of their own during the late nineteenth century. Answer: B 36) Why is Madam C. J. Walker significant? A) She was a wealthy aristocrat from France who financially supported black protest against segregation. B) She was an influential author and poet. C) She became a very wealthy businesswoman. D) She was the first African-American woman to vote. Answer: C 37) Why did most strikes fail during the late nineteenth century? A) Government and the police helped businessmen instead of the workers. B) Unions were very new and had no real organization. C) Unions had many black members but very few white members until the twentieth century. D) Government forbade all unions until 1934. Answer: A 38) Because the American Bar Association would not include them, what legal organization did blacks form? A) the Negro Lawyers Protection Association B) the Black Bar C) the National Bar Association D) the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Answer: C 39) How were black nurses exploited during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century? A) Generally, whites did not allow black women to become nurses. B) Black physicians would often hire them out to individuals but refuse to allow them to keep their pay. C) Black nurses were never paid for their services. D) Black nurses were allowed to work only on the front lines during wartime, and only under the most dangerous conditions. Answer: B 40) Why did five of the seven existing black medical schools close down around 1910? A) They could not attract students. B) Whites began eliminating black medical schools. C) White mobs attacked and burned them down. D) White politicians decided to restrict funding to blacks in the medical profession. Answer: B 41) Why did many black lawyers have a hard time making a living? A) Blacks often hired white lawyers, whom they believed would improve their chances of winning their cases. B) Judges refused to allow blacks to practice in white courts. C) Black lawyers were not allowed to work for money because they could not be licensed by any state in the nation. D) Occupational taxes for black lawyers were higher than for whites. Answer: A 42) What were “minstrel shows”? A) puppet shows created by black puppeteers B) black artists who would exhibit their paintings in public areas C) groups of white and black actors who performed mime and circus-related acts for free in the southern states D) traveling groups of white actors and musicians, some portraying blacks in stereotypical, racist caricatures Answer: D 43) What is the distinctive characteristic of ragtime music? A) It has very complex rhythms, emphasized by drums and clapping. B) It is actually an African type of music, imported to America during slavery. C) It is instrumental only, performed on the piano; lyrics are not used. D) Ragtime performers never use written music or lyrics of any kind. Answer: C 44) Who was the first prominent jazz musician? A) Jelly Roll Morton B) Louis Armstrong C) Miles Davis D) Scott Joplin Answer: A 45) What art form gradually replaced ragtime in popularity in the early twentieth century? A) a more sophisticated ragtime, with drums and the banjo B) jazz C) soul music D) gospel recordings Answer: B 46) Which is a difference between jazz and ragtime? A) Jazz is meticulously planned music and never improvised. B) Jazz uses many different instruments. C) Jazz originated in New York. D) Jazz originated among white musicians, but black artists quickly took it over. Answer: B 47) How did white authorities harass heavyweight champion Jack Johnson? A) They had him arrested for violating the Mann Act when he married a white woman. B) White police in New York shot at him frequently when he was out in public. C) Johnson had to pay much higher entry fees than white boxers. D) They took away his title when he knocked out a white man. Answer: A 48) Which of the following is true about college athletics in the late nineteenth century? A) Blacks were generally allowed to play sports at northern schools. B) Black institutions occasionally played white institutions in athletic events. C) Black teams never encountered abuse from white opposing teams and fans. D) Black colleges lacked the funding to play sports. Answer: B 49) Examine the image of heavyweight champion Jack Johnson that appears in Chapter 15. What aspect of the image indicates the integrated nature of the sport of boxing? A) A boxing ring is shown in the image. B) Men are depicted in the image standing inside and outside of the ring. C) Both black and white men are shown in the image as fighters and workers. D) A woman wearing a large hat is shown in the background of the image. Answer: C 50) Through the end of the nineteenth century, many white people were offended by the fact that black and whites regularly contested one another in what sport? A) baseball B) football C) basketball D) boxing Answer: D True/False Questions 51) Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was founded in 1868 in Virginia and was dominated for decades by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, a white missionary with paternalistic inclinations. Answer: True 52) The black church is an example of self-help efforts of blacks to create all-black institutions for spiritual solace and community uplift. Answer: True 53) In 1899 W.E.B. Du Bois composed his best-known tune, the “Maple Leaf Rag,” which sold one million copies. Answer: False 54) Ferdinand J. La Menthe, regarded as the first prominent jazz musician, was born in 1890 and grew up in a French-speaking family in New Orleans. Answer: True 55) By 1920 two forms of American music were developing—jazz and the blues. Both drew on African, American, and European musical elements and styles. Answer: True 56) In 1892 George Dixon, a black boxer, won the world featherweight title. Answer: True 57) Willie Simms, a white jockey, won the Kentucky Derby in 1894, 1895, 1896, and 1898. Answer: False 58) The connection of African Americans to early basketball included leagues organized and games played at the YMCA and between all-black colleges. Answer: True 59) Blacks reacted to being banned from baseball by quitting baseball entirely as a professional sport until baseball became integrated after World War II. Answer: False 60) The results of Jim Jeffries’s marriage to a white woman led to his prosecution under the Mann Act by the federal government. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The ideology of ______________ ______________ led most Protestant white Americans to believe that people could be ranked from superior to inferior based on their race, nationality, and ethnicity. Answer: social Darwinism 62) Booker T. Washington was ______________ Institute's most famous and prized student. Answer: Hampton 63) The concept of ______________ education lay at the core of the Tuskegee school experiment in education for African American youth. Answer: industrial 64) The long-term results of ______________ schools in the South included lower educational achievement by African American youth. Answer: segregated 65) In 1893 the navy and American businessmen toppled the monarchy in ______________. Answer: Hawaii 66) The concept of the “______________ ______________” was coined by the Comanche and Cheyenne in the 1870s. Answer: buffalo soldier 67) The relationship of ______________ ______________ with the local white community often included hostility, racial discrimination, and physical abuse. Answer: black cowboys 68) The ______________ insurrection is an example of guerilla resistance by colonized people to the U.S. government and its expansion into Asia in the twentieth century. Answer: Philippine 69) The musician W.C. ______________ is regarded as the “father of the blues.” Answer: Handy 70) The white manager A.C. “Cap” is regarded as the "father of the blues.” began the push to eliminate black ______________ men from major league baseball in the late 1800s. Answer: Anson Short Answer Questions 71) How was science bolstering theories of racism at the end of the nineteenth century? Answer: At the end of the nineteenth century, science bolstered theories of racism through the misuse of Darwinian evolution and the rise of eugenics. Scientific racism classified humans into hierarchical races, falsely asserting the superiority of white Europeans over other groups based on physical and mental traits. These pseudoscientific claims provided justification for colonialism, segregation, and discriminatory practices. 72) Why were some people critical of Booker T. Washington's ideas and leadership? Answer: Some people were critical of Booker T. Washington's ideas and leadership because they believed his approach of accommodation and vocational training for African Americans was too conservative and compromised civil rights. Critics like W.E.B. Du Bois argued that Washington's stance perpetuated racial subordination and neglected the importance of higher education and political activism for achieving true equality. 73) How were churches a method of black self-help efforts in the struggle against white supremacy? Answer: Churches were a key method of black self-help efforts in the struggle against white supremacy by serving as community centers that provided spiritual support, education, and social services. They also acted as organizing hubs for civil rights activism, fostering leadership and solidarity among African Americans in their fight for equality and justice. 74) How did life in the navy compare to life in the army for African Americans? Answer: Life in the navy for African Americans was often more restrictive and discriminatory compared to life in the army. African Americans in the navy were typically relegated to menial jobs, such as cooks and stewards, and faced strict segregation. In contrast, the army, while still segregated, offered more varied roles and opportunities for advancement, particularly during times of war. 75) How are labor unions and strikes connected to African-American workers and racism during the early twentieth century? Answer: During the early twentieth century, labor unions and strikes were often fraught with racial tensions. Many unions excluded African-American workers or relegated them to the lowest-paying jobs. Strikes sometimes exacerbated racism, as white workers resisted the inclusion of black workers, fearing they would undermine wage standards and job security. Despite this, some African-American workers used unions and strikes as platforms to fight for better wages and working conditions, challenging both economic and racial injustices. Essay Questions 76) What were W. E. B. Du Bois's ideas about education for blacks compared to Booker T. Washington’s ideas? Why did they disagree so often about strategy and tactics? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the ideology of Du Bois as the “talented tenth,” higher educational subjects, civil rights, and social integration. 2. Define Washington as focusing on industrial education, social segregation, and economic uplift in partnership with whites. 3. Explain that Du Bois was a student of Washington but they broke on the issue of how blacks should attain equality based on the differences outlined above. 4. Conclude that the two men represent a transition in black history from accommodation to a more direct call for integration. Sample Answer: W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington were both prominent African American leaders who had differing views on education and strategies for black advancement in the United States. Booker T. Washington believed in the importance of vocational and industrial education for African Americans. He emphasized the need for practical skills that could lead to immediate employment and economic self-sufficiency. Washington's philosophy, often referred to as the "Atlanta Compromise," encouraged African Americans to accept segregation and focus on economic progress rather than directly challenging the Jim Crow laws and social inequalities of the time. On the other hand, W. E. B. Du Bois advocated for a more comprehensive education that included liberal arts and intellectual pursuits. He believed that African Americans should have access to the same educational opportunities as whites, including higher education. Du Bois criticized Washington's approach, arguing that it perpetuated a system of inequality and limited the potential for true social and political advancement for African Americans. The disagreement between Du Bois and Washington stemmed from their differing views on how best to achieve racial equality in a deeply segregated society. Washington believed in gradualism and economic empowerment as a means to gain respect and acceptance from white society. In contrast, Du Bois advocated for immediate civil rights and equality, believing that African Americans should actively challenge discrimination and fight for their rights. The two leaders also disagreed on the role of the black elite in advancing the African American community. Washington believed that the black elite should lead by example and focus on uplifting the masses through economic progress. Du Bois, on the other hand, argued that the black elite should use their education and resources to fight for civil rights and social equality for all African Americans. Overall, Du Bois and Washington's disagreements can be attributed to their differing approaches to achieving racial equality, with Du Bois advocating for a more radical and immediate approach, while Washington favored a gradual and pragmatic strategy. 77) What role did race play in the lives of the "buffalo soldiers" in the West? How were they treated by Indians and whites? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define “buffalo soldiers” as a term Native Americans most likely gave to blacks serving as soldiers in the West. 2. Define black roles as fighting Native Americans and doing basic duties at western frontier army outposts. 3. Explain that black soldiers experienced racial discrimination and hatred from Native Americans, though Indian allies praised them. 4. Conclude that blacks in general faced discrimination in local western towns and cities. 5. Conclude that race played an important and complex role in the black western experience. Sample Answer: Race played a significant role in the lives of the "buffalo soldiers," who were African American soldiers serving in the Western frontier following the Civil War. These soldiers were members of the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments and the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments, and they played a crucial role in the U.S. military's campaigns against Native American tribes, as well as in other military operations in the West. The buffalo soldiers faced racial discrimination and prejudice both within and outside the military. They were often given the most difficult and dangerous assignments, such as patrolling the frontier, escorting settlers and stagecoaches, and engaging in combat with Native American tribes. Despite their service and sacrifices, they were frequently subjected to unequal treatment, including lower pay and inferior equipment compared to their white counterparts. The buffalo soldiers also faced hostility from some Native American tribes, who resented their role in the U.S. government's efforts to control and subdue them. However, not all Native American tribes viewed the buffalo soldiers negatively, and some even respected them for their bravery and skill in battle. Among white settlers and communities in the West, the buffalo soldiers were often treated with contempt and discrimination. They faced segregation and were sometimes denied access to basic services and amenities available to white soldiers. Despite these challenges, the buffalo soldiers distinguished themselves through their bravery, discipline, and professionalism, earning the respect of many of their white counterparts. Overall, race played a complex and significant role in the lives of the buffalo soldiers, shaping their experiences and influencing the way they were perceived and treated by both Native Americans and whites in the Western frontier. 78) How did the Brownsville Affair exemplify black experiences in the military at the time? How did race play a factor in the outcome of the incident? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that black troops were transferred to Brownsville, Texas in 1906 in a routine stationing of black troops in the South. 2. Point out that the troops were blamed for a shooting spree that killed one person in town. 3. Note that they were sentenced without trial to de dismissed from the military, a blatant example of racism. 4. Conclude that the black community was very angry about the punishment imposed by President Theodore Roosevelt, and viewed the issue of race as central to the outcome of the decision. Sample Answer: The Brownsville Affair of 1906 exemplified the challenges and discrimination faced by African American soldiers in the military at the time. The incident involved members of the 25th Infantry Regiment, a unit of African American soldiers known as Buffalo Soldiers, who were accused of a shooting spree in Brownsville, Texas, that resulted in the death of a white bartender and the wounding of a police officer. Despite conflicting evidence and the presumption of innocence, the soldiers were summarily discharged without honor, and the entire regiment was eventually disbanded and sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Race played a significant factor in the outcome of the Brownsville Affair. The soldiers were immediately presumed guilty by the white citizens of Brownsville, who harbored deep-seated racial prejudices and viewed African Americans with suspicion and hostility. The military investigation into the incident was biased and flawed, reflecting the pervasive racism of the time. The soldiers were denied due process and the opportunity to defend themselves against the accusations, highlighting the systemic discrimination faced by African American soldiers in the military. The Brownsville Affair also exemplified the broader challenges faced by African American soldiers in the military, including segregation, unequal treatment, and lack of opportunities for advancement. Despite their service and loyalty to their country, African American soldiers were often relegated to menial tasks and denied the same rights and privileges as their white counterparts. The Brownsville Affair underscored the deep-rooted racism within the military and society at large, highlighting the ongoing struggle for racial equality and justice faced by African Americans in the early 20th century. 79) What roles did blacks play in the Spanish-American War? How were these experiences different from the challenges and opportunities for blacks in other wars? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Note that states confined black troops to all black units; some sent these troops to Cuba. 2. Explain that some black units had black officers but no high-ranking positions. One man reached the rank of colonel and commanded the 9th Battalion. 3. Explain that most black units never saw combat in Cuba because of racism. Some buffalo soldiers from western posts fought in Cuba and performed well. Four black soldiers earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. 4. Conclude that compared to previous wars, blacks were able to gain more combat experience and the opportunities for blacks to become officers increased. Overall, minor gains were made over previous conflicts like the Civil War. Sample Answer: The Brownsville Affair, which occurred in 1906, exemplified the challenges and injustices faced by African American soldiers in the military at the time. The incident involved a confrontation between white citizens and members of the 25th Infantry Regiment, a unit of Buffalo Soldiers stationed in Brownsville, Texas. Despite conflicting evidence, the soldiers were accused of a shooting spree that resulted in the death of a white bartender and the wounding of a police officer. Race played a significant factor in the outcome of the incident and the subsequent treatment of the soldiers. The white citizens of Brownsville were quick to blame the African American soldiers, fueled by racial prejudice and stereotypes. Despite the lack of concrete evidence linking the soldiers to the shootings, the soldiers were summarily discharged without honor, and the entire regiment was disbanded and sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The Brownsville Affair highlighted the racial tensions and discrimination that African American soldiers faced within the military. Despite their service and loyalty to their country, they were often viewed with suspicion and subjected to unfair treatment based on their race. The incident also underscored the challenges of being a black soldier in a segregated military, where opportunities for advancement and equal treatment were limited. The Brownsville Affair sparked outrage and condemnation from civil rights activists and leaders, who saw it as a clear example of racial injustice. Efforts were made in the following decades to clear the names of the soldiers involved, and in 1972, the Army officially reversed its decision and granted honorable discharges to the soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment. The Brownsville Affair remains a stark reminder of the struggles faced by African American soldiers in the military and the ongoing fight for racial equality and justice. 80) How did the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition reflect both racism and better attitudes toward race in the late 1800s? How did blacks react to this fair? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Note that the exposition attracted blacks as well as whites who wanted to learn more about science and the latest developments in society. 2. Explain that three all-black colleges contributed displays that showed blacks practicing trades and skills. 3. Note that the fair had a separate Negro Day for blacks, that Frederick Douglass spoke at the event, and that Ida B. Wells was critical of it. Douglass’s speech was critical of white supremacy and embraced the Constitution. Sample Answer: The Chicago World's Columbian Exposition, also known as the Chicago World's Fair, held in 1893, reflected both racism and more positive attitudes toward race that were prevalent in the late 1800s. On one hand, the fair showcased the achievements and progress of American society, but it also reinforced racist ideologies and stereotypes. The fair's organizers, influenced by the prevailing beliefs of the time, promoted ideas of white supremacy and racial hierarchy. For example, the fair featured exhibits that portrayed non-white cultures as primitive and inferior to Western civilization. However, the fair also presented opportunities for African Americans to challenge these racist notions and showcase their own achievements. The Haitian Pavilion, for instance, highlighted Haiti's successful revolution against slavery and its rich culture, countering stereotypes of African inferiority. Additionally, African American intellectuals and activists, such as Frederick Douglass and Ida B. Wells, used the fair as a platform to advocate for racial equality and criticize the ongoing injustices faced by African Americans. Blacks reacted to the fair in various ways. Some saw it as an opportunity to challenge racist ideologies and present a positive image of African Americans to the world. Others were critical of the fair's reinforcement of racial stereotypes and its failure to address the systemic racism and discrimination that African Americans faced. Overall, the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition reflected the complex attitudes toward race in the late 1800s, showcasing both the pervasive racism of the time and the efforts of African Americans to challenge and overcome racial prejudice. Chapter 16: Conciliation, Agitation, and Migration:
African Americans in the Early Twentieth Century Multiple Choice Questions 1) Why did southern whites approve of Booker T. Washington? A) He challenged the racial status quo in the South. B) He upheld the institution of segregation in the South. C) He advocated for blacks to take over white-owned businesses. D) He lobbied in public and private to end bans against interracial unions. Answer: B 2) What was Washington's nickname? A) “Book Man” B) “the Wizard of Tuskegee” C) “the first black president” D) “Godfather” Answer: B 3) Who was described by one critic as the “Benedict Arnold of the Negro Race”? A) Booker T. Washington B) Frederick Douglass C) William Trotter D) Theodore Roosevelt Answer: A 4) Which of the following was an element of Booker T. Washington's famous speech at the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition in 1895? A) He argued that blacks should work for voting rights at the same time they were trying to impress whites with their hard work, cleanliness, and good morals. B) He told blacks to deny their position in society and accept segregation. C) He told blacks to work for economic gains in low-level jobs as a way to improve their status in the eyes of whites. D) He said he felt that blacks should move to Africa to escape racism. Answer: C 5) How did white people react to Washington's speech? A) Many whites attacked and burned Washington's school for his threatening remarks. B) Washington was generally ignored by most important whites. C) White people regarded Washington’s speech as moderate, sensible, and praiseworthy. D) Whites petitioned the federal government to block his message from blacks. Answer: C 6) How did William Monroe Trotter feel about Booker T. Washington's efforts and views? A) Trotter supported him wholeheartedly and accepted political appointments as a loyal aid to Washington. B) He thought Washington did not go far enough in championing accommodation with whites. C) He became a vocal, intense critic of Washington; he felt that Washington was yielding too much power to whites. D) Trotter, as an influential white man, appreciated Washington's efforts. Answer: C 7) What did the Niagara Movement demand in 1905? A) It demanded that blacks accept segregation for the time being in order to stop the enormous number of lynchings against them. B) It demanded that all black leaders stand with Booker T. Washington. C) It was never able to unify on any one goal or idea and broke up soon after its formation. D) It argued that blacks should protest vigorously for their rights, better schools, housing, and an end to racial prejudice. Answer: D 8) How did W.E.B. Du Bois's background shape his views? A) Du Bois was born in the South, but he moved North and did not sympathize with southern blacks. B) Du Bois was born free in the North, felt little racism during his early years, and became fascinated by the role of race in America. C) Du Bois immigrated from Africa, married a white woman, and avoided black issues during his lifetime. D) Du Bois was born in the South; he came from a slave family with a history of provoking uprisings and advocated the use of violence. Answer: B 9) What was the role of the "Talented Tenth," according to Du Bois? A) to serve as artists and writers for blacks to emulate B) to go into the South and teach blacks about Liberia C) to work to achieve the civil and political rights of African Americans D) to demonstrate the usefulness of agricultural and vocational skills to blacks. Answer: C 10) How did Booker T. Washington react to the new Niagara Movement? A) He attended meetings of and openly supported the group. B) He paid newspaper editors to criticize Du Bois. C) He secretly paid money to support the group. D) Although he did not support the group, he did little to harm it. Answer: B 11) Consider the excerpt from The Souls of Black Folk that appears in Chapter 16. What is the relationship between race and African-American people, according to Du Bois? A) Race is a minor part of the identity of black people. B) Race allows whites to see blacks accurately. C) Race plays no part in the identity of black people. D) Race provides a double identity for blacks. Answer: D 12) The Niagara Movement leaders stated, “We repudiate the monstrous doctrine that the oppressor should be the sole authority as to the rights of the oppressed.” What does this statement mean? A) Movement leaders thought that blacks should have an active role in determining what they wanted. B) Movement leaders thought violence was the only solution to blacks’ problems. C) Movement leaders thought whites had no role in American politics. D) Movement leaders thought that blacks should become the oppressors of whites to solve the problem of American racism. Answer: A 13) How did Du Bois's and Washington's approaches to improving the condition of black men differ? A) Du Bois, unlike Washington, did not think blacks should be submissive to whites and wait for change. B) Du Bois, like Washington, was tolerant of white supremacy and with whites who accepted it. C) Du Bois, unlike Washington, felt that agitation for colonies in Africa made the most sense for blacks. D) Du Bois and Washington actually did not differ greatly regarding tactics for racial improvement. Answer: A 14) What methods did the NAACP use to try to gain black civil and political rights? A) They worked within the court and legislative system. B) They attempted to use violence against white supremacists. C) They would hold huge rallies, with jazz and blues music to attract followers. D) They worked actively to discredit Washington and to limit funding to Tuskegee. Answer: A 15) Who was the most prominent black person associated with the NAACP in the early twentieth century? A) Booker T. Washington B) Harriet Tubman C) Frederick Douglass D) W.E.B. Du Bois Answer: D 16) What was the goal of the Urban League? A) to help urban blacks with housing, discrimination, and medical care B) to prevent urban southern blacks from moving into northern cities C) to assist blacks moving from the city to the country with agricultural skills D) to lobby for political gains for blacks in the northern states Answer: A 17) What was the general nature of the NAACP publication, The Crisis? A) It was a conservative publication, stressing acceptance of current racial conditions. B) It denounced racism and demanded that blacks stand up for their rights. C) It stressed blacks’ need to obtain education in farming techniques. D) It called for violence against the federal government. Answer: B 18) What is true about the early NAACP? A) It was a racially conservative organization. B) White leaders dominated and financed it. C) Because of Washington's opposition, it rarely took stands against the Jim Crow system. D) Washington's spies established the organization in order to crush the Niagara Movement. Answer: B 19) How did Booker T. Washington feel about the NAACP? A) He liked the focus of the new organization and worked to support it behind the scenes. B) Washington completely ignored the NAACP. C) Washington sent in his aides and supporters to disrupt meetings and attack Du Bois publicly. D) Washington paid judges and juries to reject NAACP arguments in court. Answer: C 20) What was the result of Washington's interactions with the NAACP? A) He destroyed and closed down the NAACP. B) He severely damaged the NAACP, and it would not gain in members until the 1950s. C) The NAACP eventually triumphed in goals and tactics. D) Washington was revealed as a poor leader and lost much support among whites. Answer: C 21) What is the connection between the Niagara movement and the formation of the NAACP? A) The Niagara movement gave birth to the NAACP. B) The NAACP spawned the Niagara movement. C) There was no direct link between the two organizations. D) Both organizations were created by the Urban League. Answer: C 22) What is the connection between the NAACP and the Supreme Court during the 1910s? A) A Supreme Court justice became the editor of The Crisis. B) A lawyer for the NAACP became a Supreme Court justice. C) The court rejected all cases brought before it by the NAACP. D) The NAACP tried and won several cases before the court. Answer: D 23) What was the focus of early black women's clubs in the 1870s and 1880s? A) women's right to vote B) the abolition of slavery worldwide C) cultural, religious, and social matters D) publicizing and criticizing domestic abuse Answer: C 24) What provoked the formation of the National Federation of Afro-American Women? A) black women's boredom with simple social clubs B) black women's anger over racism by a white journalist C) the rape of a black woman by a white man in the South D) the need for middle-class black women to earn money in domestic labor Answer: B 25) What was the main role of many Phillis Wheatley homes? A) They were literature clubs, studying mainly black contributions to the arts and sciences. B) They provided housing to single black women who were refused entrance to the YWCA. C) They were educational facilities for young children. D) They were centers to promote racial equality through protest. Answer: B 26) What is true about black women's support for women's suffrage? A) Since women's clubs were very conservative, they avoided controversial political issues. B) Black women's clubs came out strongly in public against women's suffrage. C) They had long supported women’s suffrage and understood that the right to vote meant political power. D) Black women tended to be for suffrage only for very wealthy black women. Answer: C 27) What political party did blacks generally support in the early twentieth century? A) Democrat B) Populist C) Republican D) Blacks were split between the three parties. Answer: C 28) How did Woodrow Wilson act toward black people when he became president? A) Wilson was a firm believer that blacks and whites should be equal. B) Wilson held southern views about race and segregated federal offices to avoid friction between the races. C) Although Wilson did not personally like blacks, he did appoint substantial numbers of blacks to high offices in his administration. D) Wilson did everything he could to restrict black voting rights and other political opportunities. Answer: B 29) What was true about the black upper-class in the early twentieth century? A) They had wealth equal to that of the very wealthiest whites. B) They were often light skinned and possessed European ancestry. C) They were as sophisticated, refined, and status conscious as any group in American society. D) They were better educated than almost all other Americans of any race. Answer: C 30) Which of the following is true about African-American inventors in the early twentieth century? A) Black inventors occasionally won in legal patent cases against whites. B) Black inventors earned monetary fortunes from their inventions. C) Black inventors generally experienced less racism than other blacks because science was color-blind by this time. D) There were no black inventors at this time. Answer: A 31) What was the relationship between the Republican Party and the Progressive Party during the 1910s? A) The Progressive Party split, forming a splinter Republican Party. B) The Republican Party split, forming a splinter Progressive Party. C) The Democratic Party split, giving rise to the Progressive and Republican parties. D) The Whig Party split, giving rise to the Progressive and Republican parties. Answer: B 32) Granville Woods is an example of what aspect of the black experience during the era? A) He was a prominent black officer who fought in World War I. B) He was a prominent victim of a race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma. C) He was a black male leader of the women’s suffrage movement. D) He was a black inventor who invented various railroad technologies. Answer: D 33) The American Negro Academy is an example of self-help efforts among what class of blacks during the era? A) working class B) lower middle class C) middle class D) upper class Answer: D 34) What characteristics defined the American Negro Academy? A) it was a religious-based organization associated with the local Catholic Church B) it was a scholarly organization that nurtured black identity and consciousness C) it was an organization opposed to the ideology of W. E. B. Du Bois D) it was a radical Communist organization Answer: B 35) What were Du Bois's views of the postwar impact of World War I on black people? A) He thought that blacks demonstrated their valor, intelligence, and bravery during the war and that the war was a great success for blacks. B) He was demoralized and thought that he should not have supported the war wholeheartedly. C) He was glad that black soldiers were integrated with white troops during World War I. D) He thought that blacks should have deserted the army and gone to Africa during the war. Answer: B 36) How did most African Americans feel about entering World War I? A) Because of their past experiences, blacks criticized the war and knew it would bring no gains for them. B) Most supported it, and many served in the armed forces as a way to demonstrate their patriotism and loyalty. C) Some blacks openly protested the war through marches and demonstrations. D) Violence broke out in many cities across the United States as blacks protested unfair drafting and wartime hiring practices. Answer: B 37) What was the relationship between African-American soldiers and Pancho Villa in 1916 and 1917? A) Black troops joined Villa’s forces. B) Black troops captured Villa but then allowed him to go free. C) Black troops helped to hide Villa. D) Black troops were dispatched to find Villa. Answer: D 38) What role did police play in many of the race riots of the era? A) Police generally tried to assist blacks in any way they could. B) Police tried to be neutral enforcers of the law. C) Police were often either the cause of the trouble or the helpmates of the rioters. D) Police completely ignored the riots, allowing violence to go unchecked for some time before making their presence known. Answer: C 39) How did Booker T. Washington react to the Atlanta Riot of 1906? A) He became an outspoken opponent of the use of violence by blacks. B) He said that black resistance would only lead to more black deaths and urged racial harmony. C) He decided to support liberal arts education as a way of preventing violence. D) He advocated the use of self-defense and violence in the Atlanta Riot because blacks had been attacked first. Answer: B 40) What were the results of the Springfield Riot of 1908? A) the imprisonment of over 300 blacks B) the creation of the NAACP C) W.E.B. Du Bois's death at the hands of white police D) Washington being beaten by police, after he was mistaken for a rioter Answer: B 41) What is the connection between violence and blacks in America during the era of World War I? A) Violence decreased against blacks as all Americans turned to support the war. B) Violence against blacks during the war was often perpetrated by blacks themselves. C) Violence against blacks expanded from the South to include the North as well. D) Violence against blacks was widespread but limited to the South. Answer: C 42) Why did a race riot erupt in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1906? A) Republican candidates made speeches that stirred up racial animosity. B) White people had been excluding blacks from coming into the city. C) Blacks attacked a white policeman. D) The Atlanta newspapers ran inflammatory, often exaggerated or false accounts about black crime and black men who brutalized white women. Answer: D 43) What did many race riots of the early twentieth century have in common? A) Whites feared that blacks would leave northern cities and their jobs and families behind. B) Police always protected black people. C) The causes of the riots often included whites charging sexual misconduct against black men. D) They generally led to some sort of improvement in race relations. Answer: C 44) Examine the 1921 photograph of the Greenwood neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that appears in Chapter 16. What tells historians that it depicts a race riot? A) Houses and telephone poles are shown in the foreground. B) A road lies at the center of the image. C) A fire and a cloud of smoke appear in the background. D) Cars are shown in the image. Answer: C 45) Why did a riot erupt in Houston in 1917? A) Houston police killed a small black child. B) Houston police raped a young black woman. C) Black soldiers were angry at the racism of the police in the segregated city. D) Blacks in the city burned city hall in an attempt to protest discrimination. Answer: C 46) What area became known as the "Negro Capital of the World"? A) Chicago, Illinois B) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania C) Charleston, South Carolina D) Harlem, New York City, New York Answer: D 47) What is true about black migration between 1910 and 1940? A) Many blacks migrated but not as many as had left the South after the Civil War. B) Blacks were unable to migrate because of strict laws in the South forbidding migration. C) Black migration was limited exclusively to black women because men could not find jobs or housing outside of the South. D) Many blacks migrated, doubling the population of blacks outside the southern states. Answer: D 48) Why did blacks find Chicago advantageous? A) The city lacked black residents and lacked any black business competition. B) The city provided some opportunities for political influence by black politicians. C) The city lacked a history of racial tension over jobs and housing. D) The city elected a black mayor in the early 1900s. Answer: B 49) Why did blacks initially settle in the Harlem area of New York City? A) The area had been a way station on the underground railroad and had a history of black protest. B) Because builders were unable to sell to whites, they sold to blacks to avoid bankruptcy. C) Blacks were forced into the area by whites who wanted them removed from more expensive areas. D) For almost a century, numerous powerful black politicians resided in the area. Answer: B 50) Why was the Harlem Property Owners' Improvement Corporation formed? A) Blacks were attempting to get improvements made to their homes and to get the city to furnish them with public services like garbage pickup. B) Whites were attempting to keep blacks out of Harlem. C) Blacks were attempting to gain voting rights in that area. D) Blacks and whites came together to work for educational opportunities for their children. Answer: B True/False Questions 51) Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League in 1900 and served as its president until he died in 1915. Answer: True 52) After Booker T. Washington outlined his philosophy at the opening ceremonies of the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta in 1895, the black editor of the New York Age told Washington that he had replaced Frederick Douglass (who had died in 1895) as an African-American leader. Answer: True 53) The Niagara movement lasted several generations while the NAACP declined to a small organization by 1930. Answer: False 54) Besides providing college students with an opportunity to enjoy each other’s company, black fraternities and sororities stressed scholarship, social graces, and community involvement. Answer: True 55) When World War I erupted in Europe in August 1914, most Americans were eager to participate. Answer: False 56) Black troops returned to America from World War I on integrated ships. Answer: False 57) The Marine Corps allowed black men to serve in non-combat roles. Answer: False 58) The results of unrestricted submarine warfare by 1917 helped to bring the U.S. into World War I against Germany. Answer: True 59) The impact of World War I on the African-American community included a reduction in the collective demand for racial equality at home. Answer: False 60) In January 1923, the small town of Rosewood, Florida, was destroyed, and its black residents were driven out or killed. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) Opposition to Booker T. Washington intensified in the late 1800s when William Monroe ______________, the Harvard-educated editor of the Boston Guardian, described Washington as “the Great Traitor.” Answer: Trotter 62) The book, The ______________ of Black Folk, written by W.E.B. Du Bois, was one of the major literary accomplishments of the twentieth century and contained his first formal attack on Washington. Answer: Souls 63) The motto of the ______________ was “lifting as we climb.” Answer: National Association of Club Women (NACW) 64) In the early twentieth century, no one was more committed to improving the lives of young black women than Jane Edna ______________. Answer: Hunter 65) In 1914 war almost broke out between the United States and ______________ when U.S. Marines landed at Vera Cruz after an attack on American sailors. Answer: Mexico 66) The government of ______________ praised African-American soldiers for their courage and exploits during World War I. Answer: France 67) One result of the East ______________ ______________ race riot of 1917 was a report written by W.E.B. Du Bois on the causes of the riot. Answer: St. Louis 68) The effect of the efforts by Ida Wells ______________ in the aftermath of the Elaine, Arkansas, race riot of 1919 was to generate widespread publicity about the tragic event. Answer: Barnet 69) The connection between the West ______________ and the northern states includes many thousands of migrants who arrived in the early 1900s during the Great Migration. Answer: Indies 70) The connection between Oscar ______________ and George ______________ includes the fact that both were black U.S. congressmen separated by 27 years of service, reflecting a profound gap in black office holding in the history of Congress. Answer: DePriest, White Short Answer Questions 71) Discuss Booker T. Washington's role as a black leader during the early twentieth century. Answer: Booker T. Washington emerged as a prominent black leader in the early twentieth century, advocating for vocational education and economic self-reliance for African Americans. He founded the Tuskegee Institute, emphasizing practical skills and trades, and promoted a philosophy of accommodation and gradualism in race relations, which contrasted with the more immediate demands for civil rights by other black leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois. 72) Who is Mary Church Terrell, and how does her life reveal the intersection of black women and the club movement during the era? Answer: Mary Church Terrell was a pioneering African American educator, suffragist, and civil rights activist. Her life illustrates the intersection of black women and the club movement as she co-founded the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) in 1896, advocating for both racial and gender equality. Terrell's leadership in the NACW highlighted the critical role black women's clubs played in addressing social issues and advancing civil rights during the era. 73) Who is Lewis Latimer and how does his life reveal the challenges and opportunities facing blacks during this time? Answer: Lewis Latimer was an African American inventor and draftsman who played a key role in the development of the electric light bulb and telephone. His life reveals the challenges and opportunities facing blacks during his time, as he overcame racial barriers to contribute significantly to technological advancements, working with prominent figures like Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell. Latimer's achievements highlight both the potential for success and the systemic obstacles that black individuals faced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 74) What was the connection between American foreign relations and blacks in the military during the Woodrow Wilson administration? Answer: During the Woodrow Wilson administration, American foreign relations influenced blacks in the military by exposing the contradictions between fighting for democracy abroad and experiencing segregation and discrimination at home. Despite their service in World War I, black soldiers faced racial prejudice and were often relegated to non-combat roles, highlighting the disparity between America's democratic ideals and its domestic racial policies. 75) Examine Map 16-1. Why did race riots occur where they did around the time of World War I? What other patterns are evident in the data? Answer: Race riots around the time of World War I occurred in cities experiencing significant demographic shifts due to the Great Migration, where large numbers of African Americans moved from the rural South to urban centers in the North. These areas faced heightened racial tensions due to competition for jobs and housing. Other patterns in the data indicate that these riots were more likely in industrial cities with growing black populations, reflecting broader social and economic strains. Essay Questions 76) What was the relationship between the “Tuskegee Machine” and the U.S. political system of the era? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define Booker T. Washington’s ideology and strategy of black uplift as one of accommodation to segregation, a focus on industrial education for black youth, and business growth for the black community. 2. Note that Washington’s political influence among white corporation owners and politicians increased over time because of his emphasis on business growth and avoidance of civil rights. They donated to his Tuskegee Institute. 3. Note that Washington’s political connections led to greater political influence and a web of functionaries in delivering the black vote to major Republican party politicians like McKinley and Roosevelt. 4. Conclude that the pinnacle of success for Washington’s political career was in dining with President Roosevelt in 1901. Sample Answer: The "Tuskegee Machine" refers to a network of political power and influence that was centered around the Tuskegee Institute, a historically black college in Alabama, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Tuskegee Machine played a significant role in African American politics, particularly in the South, and had a complex relationship with the U.S. political system of the era. At the time, African Americans in the South faced widespread disenfranchisement and discrimination, making it difficult for them to participate fully in the political process. The Tuskegee Machine sought to address this by promoting education, economic advancement, and political activism among African Americans. One of the key figures associated with the Tuskegee Machine was Booker T. Washington, the founder of the Tuskegee Institute. Washington emphasized vocational education and economic self-sufficiency as a means for African Americans to gain respect and acceptance in society. He also believed in working within the existing political system and building alliances with white politicians and business leaders to advance the interests of African Americans. The Tuskegee Machine was successful in some respects, particularly in promoting education and economic development among African Americans. However, it was also criticized for being too accommodating to white interests and not aggressive enough in advocating for civil rights and political equality. In terms of its relationship with the U.S. political system, the Tuskegee Machine can be seen as both a product of the system and a force for change within it. On one hand, it operated within the constraints of a political system that was deeply entrenched with racism and segregation. On the other hand, it sought to challenge and change that system by empowering African Americans and promoting their participation in politics. Overall, the Tuskegee Machine represented a complex interplay between African American activism and the U.S. political system of the era, highlighting both the challenges and opportunities for political change during a tumultuous period in American history. 77) What were Booker T. Washington's views on how to improve blacks' situation? How did he contradict these views at times? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define Booker T. Washington as the major spokesman for black America during the era. A former slave, he attended Hampton Institute and later founded the Tuskegee Institute, an all-black college in Alabama that became the model for black education during the late 1800s and early 1900s. 2. Explain that his program of racial uplift included a focus on industrial and vocational education, accommodation to white needs for segregation, and a patient philosophy regarding agitation for political civil rights. 3. Conclude that Washington contradicted these views on many occasions when he agitated for the expansion of the vote for blacks, in the wake of race riots, and note he also led a secret campaign of anonymous letter writing to newspapers expressing a much more civil-rights orientated approach to solving racism. Sample Answer: Booker T. Washington, a prominent African American educator and leader in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, advocated for the economic and educational advancement of African Americans. His views on improving the situation of blacks can be summarized as follows: 1. Emphasis on Education: Washington believed that education was crucial for African Americans to achieve economic independence and social equality. He emphasized vocational training and practical skills that would enable blacks to secure employment and contribute to society. 2. Self-Help and Self-Reliance: Washington believed in the importance of self-help and self-reliance within the black community. He encouraged African Americans to take responsibility for their own upliftment and to work hard to improve their circumstances. 3. Accommodation and Cooperation: Washington believed that African Americans should work within the existing social and political system, rather than agitating for immediate civil rights. He advocated for cooperation with white people and emphasized the need for African Americans to prove their worth through hard work and good citizenship. 4. Avoidance of Political Agitation: Washington believed that African Americans should focus on economic advancement rather than political agitation. He believed that by proving their economic value to society, African Americans would eventually gain political and social equality. However, Washington's views were not without contradictions. Critics argued that his emphasis on vocational education and economic advancement was too narrow and did not address the broader issues of racial discrimination and segregation. Washington's approach of accommodation and cooperation was also criticized for being too conciliatory and for failing to challenge the systemic racism that existed in American society. Additionally, Washington's views on education were criticized for promoting an education that was focused on manual labor and practical skills, rather than on intellectual and academic pursuits. Critics argued that this approach reinforced stereotypes of African Americans as being suited only for menial labor and limited their opportunities for advancement in fields such as law, medicine, and academia. Despite these criticisms, Washington's views had a significant impact on African American education and politics at the time. His emphasis on self-help and economic empowerment resonated with many African Americans, and his leadership of the Tuskegee Institute helped to establish it as a leading institution for African American education. Washington's approach also influenced other African American leaders and organizations, shaping the strategies they adopted in the fight for civil rights and equality. 78) What is the connection between the labor movement and the race riots that erupted between 1917 and 1921? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the anger of working-class whites at losing their jobs after World War I in northern cities led to a racist focus on black people as the cause of economic suffering by the white working class. 2. Note that several race riots, including the Chicago race riot in 1919, were essentially riots against a new population of black workers in areas that were previously dominated by whites. 3. Conclude that the labor movement was unable to halt these riots in part because unions did not embrace black workers during this time. Blacks also served as strikebreakers by corporations trying to lock out white workers during a strike or labor protest. During the 1930s when unions expanded under government authority, black and white workers would join together to improve race relations within the ranks of labor. Sample Answer: The connection between the labor movement and the race riots that erupted between 1917 and 1921 in the United States can be understood through the context of social and economic tensions of the time. 1. Competition for Jobs: During this period, there was intense competition for jobs, particularly in industrial cities where both African Americans and white immigrants were seeking employment. The labor movement, which was gaining strength and advocating for better working conditions and wages, often saw African American workers as competitors who could undermine their bargaining power. 2. Racial Discrimination: The labor movement, like society at large, was not immune to racial discrimination. Many labor unions excluded African Americans or relegated them to lower-status jobs, even when they were members. This discrimination contributed to tensions between white and black workers. 3. Divide and Conquer Tactics: Employers often used racial divisions to undermine labor organizing efforts. By exploiting racial tensions, employers could weaken the solidarity among workers and prevent them from effectively organizing for better working conditions. 4. Post-World War I Unrest: The period following World War I was marked by economic uncertainty and social unrest. Many returning soldiers faced difficulty finding jobs, leading to increased competition for employment. This heightened economic anxiety contributed to the escalation of racial tensions. 5. Resentment and Violence: In some cases, white workers who felt threatened by the presence of African American workers resorted to violence to intimidate or drive them out of certain industries or neighborhoods. This violence often took the form of race riots, with white mobs attacking African American communities. Overall, the connection between the labor movement and the race riots of this period lies in the complex interplay of economic competition, racial discrimination, and social unrest. While the labor movement sought to improve conditions for all workers, including African Americans, racial divisions and economic pressures often led to conflicts that manifested in violence and unrest. 79) Why did blacks leave the South in large numbers during the Great Migration? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Great Migration as the migration of nearly two million blacks from the southern to the northern states in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The migration was part of several large movements of black people during slavery and post-slavery eras. 2. Explain that push and pull factors motivated blacks to leave the South. They were pushed by segregation, lynching, and natural disasters. 3. Explain that blacks were also pulled to the northern cities by higher paying jobs, integrated educational facilities, political opportunities, and the absence of lynching and segregation in general. 4. Conclude that the Promised Land of northern cities contained its own challenges of inhabiting the inner city environment of large urban America. Sample Answer: Blacks left the South in large numbers during the Great Migration for a variety of reasons, including: 1. Escape from Jim Crow Laws: The South was characterized by segregation and racial discrimination, enforced by Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced limited opportunities for economic and social advancement, as well as the constant threat of violence and intimidation. 2. Seeking Economic Opportunities: Many African Americans left the South in search of better economic opportunities. Northern cities, particularly during World War I and the 1920s, offered jobs in industries such as manufacturing, steel, and meatpacking. Wages were higher in the North, and there was a greater demand for labor. 3. Escape from Sharecropping and Tenant Farming: Many African Americans in the South were sharecroppers or tenant farmers, trapped in a cycle of debt and poverty. The promise of steady employment and the opportunity to own land in the North was a powerful incentive to leave. 4. Seeking Better Education and Healthcare: Northern cities often had better educational and healthcare facilities than those available to African Americans in the South. Many families moved to provide their children with better opportunities for education and healthcare. 5. Escape from Racial Violence: The South was notorious for racial violence, including lynchings and other forms of racial terrorism. Many African Americans left to escape this violence and seek a safer environment for themselves and their families. 6. Desire for Political and Social Freedom: African Americans in the South faced severe restrictions on their political and social freedoms. Many saw moving to the North as a way to escape these restrictions and live more freely. Overall, the Great Migration was driven by a combination of push factors, such as racial discrimination and economic hardship in the South, and pull factors, such as better economic opportunities and greater freedom in the North. The migration had a profound impact on African American culture, politics, and society, reshaping the demographic landscape of the United States. 80) Examine Map 16-2. Why did large numbers of blacks remain in the South despite the Great Migration of the early 1900s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Great Migration as the migration of two million blacks from the southern to the northern states in the first two decades of the twentieth century. 2. Explain why southern blacks left the South: segregation, lynching, natural disasters, relatives living in the northern cities, expansion of jobs in heavy industry because of World War I. 3. Note that most blacks stayed in the South. Issues of poverty, debt peonage, violence from southern whites, and family discouragement kept many blacks in the South. 4. Note that the Great Depression and World War II helped to increase black migration out of the South, this time also to western states. Sample Answer: Map 16-2 shows the percentage of African Americans in the total population by county in 1920. Despite the Great Migration of the early 1900s, which saw millions of African Americans leave the South for the North, Midwest, and West, large numbers of blacks remained in the South for several reasons: 1. Economic Factors: While economic opportunities were a major driver of the Great Migration, many African Americans in the South were tied to the land as sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Despite the hardships they faced, some were unable or unwilling to leave their homes and livelihoods. 2. Family and Community Ties: African Americans in the South often had strong family and community ties that kept them rooted in their communities. Leaving meant leaving behind family and the familiar, which was a significant barrier for many. 3. Racial Discrimination in the North: While the North offered better economic opportunities, it was not free from racial discrimination. African Americans faced segregation and discrimination in housing, employment, and education in the North as well, which made the prospect of moving less appealing to some. 4. Cultural and Social Connections: African American culture and traditions were deeply rooted in the South, and many were reluctant to leave behind their cultural heritage for the unfamiliarity of the North. 5. Lack of Information and Resources: The Great Migration was not an organized movement, and many African Americans in the South lacked the information and resources to make the journey north. Additionally, the cost of moving was prohibitive for many. 6. Resistance from Southern Whites: Southern whites often resisted the migration of African Americans, using violence and intimidation to discourage them from leaving. Overall, while the Great Migration was a significant demographic shift in American history, it did not lead to the wholesale exodus of African Americans from the South. Many factors, including economic, social, and cultural considerations, influenced the decision of African Americans to remain in the South despite the opportunities available in other parts of the country. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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