Preview (15 of 49 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 17 to 18 Chapter 17: African Americans and the 1920s Multiple Choice Questions 1) In 1921 and in 1924, Congress restricted immigration entirely from what region? A) Asia B) Africa C) Europe D) Australia Answer: A 2) What is true about academic studies and academic views of race in the 1920s? A) Many scholars and writers were beginning to denounce ideas of white supremacy. B) Scholars published books warning that immigrants and people of color were “diluting” the white race. C) Many academic reports were beginning to accept that blacks and whites were equal. D) Academic studies tended to avoid controversy during the 1920s, especially regarding issues of race. Answer: B 3) What did the film Birth of a Nation depict? A) Birth of a Nation was an incredibly racist film that portrayed blacks as either ignorant or immoral; it glorified the Ku Klux Klan B) Birth of a Nation was a film about the American Revolution, as seen through the eyes of a black slaver. C) Birth of a Nation was the first film directed, written, and produced by blacks; it attempted to glorify black patriots’ military service during World War I. D) Birth of a Nation was an accurate, although somewhat romanticized, portrayal of Reconstruction. Answer: A 4) How did the NAACP respond when the sound version of The Birth of a Nation was released in 1930? A) It celebrated the improved version of the film. B) It renewed its opposition to the film. C) It ignored the release of the film. D) Its members attacked theaters showing the film. Answer: B 5) How did the public react to the film The Birth of a Nation? A) Like the NAACP, American audiences praised it for stereotyping blacks. B) It was enormously unpopular among American audiences. C) The film occasionally incited white violence against blacks. D) The film encouraged students to study the American Revolution. Answer: C 6) How did books like The Passing of the Great Race (1916) and The Rising Tide of Color (1920) connect to white supremacy? A) They stopped it. B) They weakened it. C) They strengthened it. D) They had no impact on it. Answer: C 7) What is the connection between ideas about race in the 1920s and U.S. immigration policy during the decade? A) Immigrants arrived in large numbers because of relaxed ideas about race. B) The U.S. immigration service prevented Europeans but not Asians from arriving. C) Congress acted on racist ideas to pass very restrictive immigration laws. D) The President of the United States opened the U.S. border to free Mexican immigration. Answer: C 8) How are the NAACP and the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation related? A) The NAACP collaborated with the filmmakers. B) The NAACP refused to get involved in the controversy surrounding the film. C) The NAACP voluntarily paid people to promote the film for its focus on racial equality and black success. D) The NAACP had the film banned in a few cities but probably publicized it indirectly to a wider audience. Answer: D 9) What organization reemerged shortly after the release of the movie The Birth of a Nation? A) the NAACP B) the Ku Klux Klan C) Actors Against Racism D) the first motion picture rating organization Answer: B 10) What led to the decline of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s? A) People across the country began to see them as common terrorists and many began to denounce their ideas of racism. B) Its leaders began to fight among themselves; also, a Klan leader was convicted of raping a young white woman who later died. C) The Great Depression limited income, so many whites could no longer afford the expensive membership. D) The Supreme Court declared it a dangerous, subversive organization. Answer: B 11) What was the relationship between native-born Protestant white women and the Ku Klux Klan? A) they did not support the Klan B) they formed separate auxiliary Klan units C) they formed Klan units with black women D) they did not allow their female children to serve in Klan groups Answer: B 12) How was the Klan of the 1920s different from the Reconstruction-era Klan? A) The Klan in the 1920s was violent and all-white, whereas the Reconstruction Klan generally was not. B) The Klan of the 1920s expanded hate targets to Catholics, Jews, and immigrants as well as blacks. C) The Klan of Reconstruction was more of a political power. D) The Klan was able to run a viable candidate for president in 1924. Answer: B 13) Why did the Ku Klux Klan work to prohibit alcohol? A) The organization wanted to appeal to blacks. B) The organization wanted to distance itself from white women. C) The organization associated alcohol with a loose and immoral lifestyle. D) The organization wanted to reach out to southern European immigrants. Answer: C 14) What does the publicity poster for the film The Birth of a Nation convey about the Ku Klux Klan? A) Members of the KKK are villains who should be jailed. B) The KKK ruined Reconstruction for the nation. C) Members of the KKK are heroes fighting for Christianity and justice. D) The KKK was composed of European immigrants who were un-American. Answer: C 15) Which of the following men played a pivotal role in expanding the membership of the NAACP through the 1920s? A) James Weldon Johnson B) W.E.B. Du Bois C) Marcus Garvey D) Booker T. Washington Answer: A 16) What author influenced Marcus Garvey's early ideas about changing the situation of blacks? A) W.E.B. Du Bois B) Teddy Roosevelt C) Frederick Douglass D) Booker T. Washington Answer: D 17) What organization did Marcus Garvey form in Jamaica in 1914? A) the Universal Negro Improvement Association B) the NAACP C) the World Negro Association D) the Congress of Racial Equality Answer: A 18) What did Du Bois ask for at the first Pan-African Congress? A) the creation of a central black nation for African Americans to inhabit B) that Africans come to America and help African Americans gain rights C) that Africa begin a communist revolution to support the Soviet Union D) that countries in Africa work toward taking over a state within America Answer: A 19) What was the ultimate result of the Dyer anti-lynching bill? A) It was the first piece of legislation to make lynching a federal crime, and lynchings greatly declined after this law was instituted. B) It was very unpopular and it was never allowed to be discussed in the House. C) Although the NAACP gained publicity for the anti-lynching crusade, the bill ultimately failed. D) Although it passed, it was a very weak law and had no effect on slowing the tide of lynching. Answer: C 20) What benefits did Marcus Garvey and his ideas bring to many black people? A) His organization brought direct economic benefits to blacks, providing a minimum income to all members of the UNIA, regardless of class or race. B) Garvey brought spiritual salvation to his followers, as he was primarily a Baptist minister. C) Garvey’s ideas brought an opportunity to celebrate black culture, history, and heritage. D) Garvey brought few benefits to his members, as his organization was always very small and extreme. Answer: C 21) How is James Weldon Johnson an example of civil rights leadership during the 1920s? A) He was a black labor union president. B) He was a star athlete who fought for integration. C) He was a field secretary of the NAACP. D) He was a Harlem Renaissance artist who fought for the inclusion of black art in museums. Answer: C 22) What is the connection between black radicalism in the U.S. and the Caribbean during the 1920s? A) Black radicalism made no gains in the U.S. during the era. B) Black radicalism disappeared because of police action against activists. C) Some black radicals in the U.S., such as Marcus Garvey, were from Jamaica. D) Some black radicals in the U.S. were banished to various Caribbean islands. Answer: C 23) What did Du Bois and Garvey, as well as other black leaders, have in common? A) They had very little in common—they differed on just about every issue during the time. B) They accepted segregation in America. C) They shared a great interest in Africa and trying to improve or eliminate colonial rule. D) They thought that working through the court system was the best way to win rights for blacks Answer: C 24) Examine the Voices passage that appears under the heading “The Negro National Anthem” in Chapter 17. What is the subject of James Weldon Johnson’s “Lift Every Voice and Sing”? A) the black desire for a return to Africa B) the black desire for supremacy over whites C) the black desire for a more hopeful future after the experience of a challenging past D) the black desire for segregated social services in order to avoid racist southern whites Answer: C 25) What was A. Philip Randolph's political orientation? A) Democrat B) Republican C) Socialist D) Randolph voted for whomever would support blacks. Answer: C 26) What is true about the occupations of black people after World War I and the Great Migration? A) A great majority of blacks were now employed in industrial trades. B) Almost all black industrial workers were union members. C) Most black people were still employed in agricultural work or domestic service. D) Many African Americans had college educations and were employed as managers. Answer: C 27) Which of the following types of discrimination did Pullman porters not face? A) Customers called all porters by the same name, regardless of their real name. B) They often had to purchase supplies and uniforms themselves. C) They were paid less than white workers and were required to complete some job duties without pay. D) They often were discriminated against within the black community as porters were considered lowly. Answer: D 28) How did Pullman porters react to the difficulties of their jobs? A) Pullman porters were generally very uneducated and did not know how to change their situation. B) Pullman porters formed a union to improve their situation. C) The porters sometimes burned entire trains. D) The porters tried to work behind the scenes, very quietly, to try to get helpful legislation passed by Congress. Answer: B 29) How did the Pullman Company respond to Randolph's attempt to make gains for the porters? A) Because they realized the union represented all of their porters, they had no choice but to give in to some demands. B) The Pullman Company fired those who were in the union and established their own alternative company union. C) The company gave the workers more dignity when management adopted the slogan "Service not servitude." D) They called in the National Guard. Answer: B 30) Why was the Pullman Company an early area for black labor organizing? A) The company provided the lowest wages available for any blacks. B) By the 1920s, it was the largest employer of black people in America. C) They utilized blacks' educational skills in engineering and developing technology for railroads. D) They were not discriminatory and allowed blacks great freedom in their jobs. Answer: B 31) What was the “Harlem Renaissance”? A) a time when historic buildings in Harlem were given great attention B) a brief time when blacks in Harlem had equal social rights to whites C) a name given to the time period when Harlem was part of the New York colony D) an outpouring of literary and artistic work from blacks during the 1920s Answer: D 32) What was the “Niggerati,” according to Zora Neale Hurston? A) white people who read and supported black literature B) her black literary colleagues in the Harlem Renaissance C) white racists D) blacks who were racist against darker-skinned black people Answer: B 33) What was true about the formal education of many black writers and artists of the Harlem Renaissance? A) They were generally very poorly educated but made great strides in art and literature. B) Many of them went to elite schools at a time when any college education was rare. C) Generally, they had high-school educations but little additional schooling. D) They felt that education for blacks was useless because they were confined to menial jobs. Answer: B 34) What idea did works like Color Struck and The Blacker the Berry… reflect? A) Blacks, if given the opportunity, could excel in America. B) Many black people also had color prejudices against darker-skinned blacks. C) Slaves were constantly beaten, and degraded. D) Most black intellectuals were leaning toward communism as a solution to black problems. Answer: B 35) How is Paul Robeson an example of black artistic development during the Harlem Renaissance? A) He painted famous whites. B) He sculpted famous blacks. C) He ran integrated nightclubs. D) He acted in major theatrical productions. Answer: D 36) What images are conveyed in the 1937 Aaron Douglas painting Aspects of Negro Life? A) black musicians and the KKK B) black athletes involved in various sports C) black children attending integrated schools D) black life in the new African colony of Liberia Answer: A 37) Why did the Harlem Renaissance end? A) Racists began an influential campaign against art and literature. B) The great artists of the period began to die off. C) The Great Depression devastated book sales across the country. D) Artists' disagreements over the role of literature became very heated, and they split apart. Answer: C 38) Which was the most famous Harlem nightspot? A) Ellington's B) the Cotton Club C) Connie's Inn D) Sugar Cane Answer: B 39) What was true about the Cotton Club? A) It was generally a black club with few whites allowed. B) Blacks performed there but were not allowed entrance as customers. C) It was known for its interracial character and its anti-discriminatory policies. D) It was not very popular because it was in Harlem, and whites were afraid to travel there. Answer: B 40) What does the photograph of Noble Sissie and Eubie Blake that appears in Chapter 17 reveal about black entertainment during the 1920s? A) Black entertainers had started to transition away from stereotypical dress and roles. B) Black entertainers had to embrace the Jim Crow era’s stereotype of subservience. C) Black entertainers decided to remove themselves from the Broadway spotlight. D) Black entertainers to remove black women from their acts. Answer: A 41) What was one of the differences between white and black clubs in Harlem? A) The black clubs were less expensive. B) The white clubs refused to allow blacks to come in as customers. C) The white clubs often had bands playing in smoke-filled rooms, while the black clubs disallowed dance numbers. D) Some black clubs stayed open past the closing hour of 3:00 a.m. Answer: D 42) Who was Andrew “Rube” Foster? A) a white pitcher during the 1910s B) the man behind the formation of the White National League C) founder of the Negro National League D) head of the National Hockey Association Answer: C 43) Black men were banned from which sport in 1887? A) football B) basketball C) baseball D) hockey Answer: C 44) In 1901 Baltimore Orioles manager John J. McGraw signed a black man, Charlie Grant, to play second base, claiming he was of what ethnicity? A) white B) black C) Asian D) Native American Answer: D 45) In 1919 in the Chicago Defender argued for a baseball league for what race or ethnicity of Americans? A) white B) black C) Asian D) Native American Answer: B 46) The biggest obstacle faced by black baseball leagues was the lack of what item to play ball? A) balls B) bats C) gloves D) fields and stadiums Answer: D 47) Which of the following is true about amateur sports during the 1910s and 1920s? A) Black players on white teams rarely felt discrimination from fans or other athletes. B) Amateur sports were more rigidly segregated than professional sports. C) Amateur sports at black colleges were very popular and well attended. D) Amateur sports were almost nonexistent and died out before 1900. Answer: C 48) What was the result of black efforts to field black baseball teams in the 1920s? A) The leagues folded by 1930. B) The leagues surpassed attendance at white games. C) The leagues thrived with black players and fans. D) The leagues were banned by major league baseball. Answer: C 49) What was the relationship between white basketball coaches and the Big Ten regarding black players? A) The coaches would accept black players for only one season. B) The coaches would accept black players but not play them. C) The coaches would accept only black players for their teams. D) The coaches would not accept black players on their teams. Answer: D 50) What is the linkage among the Great Depression, Rube Foster, and the Negro League system? A) The onset of the Depression helped both Foster and the league system to thrive. B) The onset of the Depression had no impact on either Foster or the league system. C) The onset of the Depression and the death of Foster disrupted the league system. D) The onset of the Depression killed the league system: games had to be cancelled due to lack of funding. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) Racism in American society during the 1920s found expression primarily in one form. Answer: False 52) Thomas Dixon’s 1905 novel The Clansman is an example of racist literature that influenced white Americans to hate African Americans during the era. Answer: True 53) By the World War I years, the NAACP and the Urban League regularly appealed to employers and unions to accept black laborers. Answer: True 54) The Urban League persuaded the Department of Labor during World War I to establish a Division of Negro Economics to advise the secretary of labor on issues involving black workers. Answer: True 55) The Great Depression of the 1930s expanded job opportunities among the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Answer: False 56) In 1918 Urban League officials met with Samuel Gompers, the longtime president of the AFL, and he agreed to bring more black people into the federation, but there were few tangible results. Answer: True 57) In 1923 Jean Toomer published Cane, a collection of stories and poetry about southern black life. Answer: True 58) Rent parties that served food, alcohol, and music in black Harlem never raised enough money to pay the next month’s rent. Answer: False 59) The success of the black Broadway musical Shuffle Along included a stint of 504 performances. Answer: True 60) The efforts of black baseball players to integrate major league baseball during the 1920s were a major success. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The Ku Klux Klan became a potent political force in the states of Indiana, Oklahoma, and ______________ during the 1920s. Answer: Texas 62) In the early 1900s, people of African descent from sub-Saharan Africa developed the ______________ - ______________ movement which emphasized their identity, shared experiences, and the need to liberate Africa from its European colonizers. Answer: Pan-Africanism 63) The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was led by A. Phillip ______________ in 1925. Answer: Randolph 64) The son of former slaves, Carter G. ______________ earned a Ph.D. in history from Harvard and went on to found the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. Answer: Woodson 65) The creative movement known as the ______________ ______________ took place primarily in New York City and produced many lasting cultural achievements in literature and art by African American people during the 1920s and 1930s. Answer: Harlem Renaissance 66) The ______________ ______________ in 1919 inspired Claude McKay to write a famous poem, “If We Must Die.” Answer: Red Summer 67) The concept of the ______________ Age during the 1920s included the founding of new forms of cultural expression in music, arts, and literature. Answer: Jazz 68) Edward “Duke” ______________ is an example of blacks transforming American music during the era as bandleaders, singers, musicians, and songwriters. Answer: Ellington 69) Two well-known white athletes during the 1920s were Babe ______________ and Jack ______________. Answer: Ruth, Dempsey 70) The first black man to be signed by a major league baseball team was Charlie ______________. Answer: Grant Short Answer Questions 71) Why did many white Americans feel that the United States was under siege in the 1910s and the 1920s? Answer: Many white Americans in the 1910s and 1920s felt that the United States was under siege due to a combination of factors, including: 1. Immigration: The influx of immigrants, particularly from Southern and Eastern Europe, led to fears of cultural dilution and economic competition among native-born Americans. The 1920s saw a rise in nativist sentiments, culminating in the implementation of strict immigration quotas in the Immigration Act of 1924. 2. Red Scare: The aftermath of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia fueled fears of communist infiltration in the United States. The Red Scare of 1919-1920 led to government crackdowns on perceived radicals and immigrants, further heightening anxieties about internal threats. 3. Racial Tensions: The Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to urban areas in the North and Midwest, seeking better economic opportunities and fleeing racial violence, contributed to racial tensions. The resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s targeted not only African Americans but also immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and other minority groups. 4. Labor Unrest: The 1910s and 1920s were marked by significant labor unrest, including strikes and unionization efforts. The fear of radicalism and the perceived threat to capitalism led to anti-labor sentiments among many white Americans. 5. Cultural Changes: The 1920s saw significant cultural changes, including the rise of the "New Woman" challenging traditional gender roles, the popularity of jazz music, and the loosening of social mores, all of which were perceived as threats to traditional American values by some. 6. Economic Uncertainty: The post-World War I period was marked by economic uncertainty, including the recession of 1920-1921 and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. These economic challenges heightened anxieties and contributed to a sense of national crisis. Overall, these factors combined to create a climate of fear and uncertainty among many white Americans in the 1910s and 1920s, leading to a sense that the United States was under siege from various internal and external forces. 72) What type of activities did the NAACP utilize to improve the situation of blacks during the 1920s? Answer: During the 1920s, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) utilized a variety of activities to improve the situation of African Americans. These activities included: 1. Legal Advocacy: The NAACP used legal strategies to challenge discriminatory laws and practices. One of their most famous legal victories was in the case of _NAACP v. Alabama_ (1958), where the Supreme Court ruled that the NAACP did not have to disclose its membership list to the state, protecting members from potential harassment and discrimination. 2. Political Activism: The NAACP lobbied for civil rights legislation and worked to mobilize African American voters. They also campaigned against lynching and other forms of racial violence. 3. Education: The NAACP fought for equal educational opportunities for African Americans. They were involved in landmark cases such as _Brown v. Board of Education_ (1954), which led to the desegregation of public schools. 4. Media and Public Relations: The NAACP used the media to raise awareness about racial injustice and to garner support for their cause. They published _The Crisis_ magazine, which featured articles and essays on civil rights issues. 5. Community Organizing: The NAACP organized local chapters and grassroots campaigns to address issues facing African American communities. They provided support and resources for local activists and leaders. 6. Legal Defense Fund: The NAACP established the Legal Defense Fund to provide legal representation for African Americans in cases involving civil rights and racial discrimination. Overall, the NAACP's activities during the 1920s played a crucial role in advancing the civil rights movement and improving the situation of African Americans in the United States. 73) What is the relationship between whites and the Harlem Renaissance? Answer: The relationship between whites and the Harlem Renaissance, a cultural, social, and artistic movement that took place in the 1920s in Harlem, New York City, was complex and multifaceted. The Harlem Renaissance was primarily a movement led by African American intellectuals, writers, musicians, and artists who sought to celebrate black culture, identity, and pride, and to challenge racial stereotypes and discrimination. While the movement was predominantly driven by African Americans, it also involved significant interaction with white individuals and institutions. Some white patrons, publishers, and supporters played key roles in promoting and disseminating the works of Harlem Renaissance artists. For example, white publishers such as Alfred A. Knopf and Thomas H. Harper were instrumental in bringing the works of writers like Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston to a wider audience. Additionally, some white critics and scholars recognized the significance of the Harlem Renaissance and contributed to its recognition as a major cultural movement. However, there were also instances of cultural appropriation and exploitation, where white individuals and institutions sought to profit from the talents of African American artists without fully acknowledging or respecting their contributions. Overall, the relationship between whites and the Harlem Renaissance was one of both collaboration and conflict, with white involvement ranging from genuine appreciation and support to exploitation and appropriation. This complex relationship reflects the broader social and cultural dynamics of the time, characterized by racial segregation, discrimination, and the struggle for civil rights. 74) What serious cultural developments did African-American writers accomplish prior to the 1920s and the Harlem Renaissance? Answer: Prior to the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, African American writers made significant cultural developments that laid the foundation for the later flourishing of African American literature and intellectual thought. These earlier developments, while less recognized in mainstream literary history, were crucial in shaping the themes, styles, and narratives that would become prominent during the Harlem Renaissance. Some key accomplishments include: 1. Slave Narratives: In the 18th and 19th centuries, African American writers such as Olaudah Equiano, Harriet Jacobs, and Frederick Douglass wrote powerful autobiographical accounts of their experiences as slaves. These narratives challenged the prevailing stereotypes of African Americans and exposed the harsh realities of slavery, contributing to the abolitionist movement and laying the groundwork for later African American literature. 2. Early Black Newspapers and Periodicals: In the 19th century, African Americans began publishing newspapers and periodicals that provided a platform for African American writers to express their views and share their experiences. Publications such as Freedom's Journal, The North Star (edited by Frederick Douglass), and The Crisis (founded by W.E.B. Du Bois) played a vital role in shaping African American literary and intellectual discourse. 3. The New Negro Movement: In the early 20th century, the New Negro Movement emerged as a cultural and intellectual movement among African Americans. Writers such as Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and James Weldon Johnson explored themes of racial pride, identity, and social justice in their works, laying the foundation for the later Harlem Renaissance. 4. The Chicago Renaissance: While less recognized than the Harlem Renaissance, the Chicago Renaissance of the 1910s and 1920s was a significant cultural movement among African American writers. Writers such as Gwendolyn Brooks, Langston Hughes, and Richard Wright emerged from Chicago and contributed to the development of African American literature. 5. Literary Societies and Organizations: African American literary societies and organizations, such as the African Grove Theatre in New York City and the Dark Tower in Boston, provided African American writers with a supportive community and a platform to showcase their talents. These organizations helped to nurture and promote African American literary and cultural expression. Overall, prior to the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, African American writers made significant cultural developments that laid the groundwork for the later flourishing of African American literature and intellectual thought. These early accomplishments are essential to understanding the rich and diverse history of African American literary and cultural expression. 75) What were some of the difficulties faced by blacks in professional sports during the 1920s? Answer: During the 1920s, African Americans faced numerous difficulties in professional sports, reflecting the broader racial discrimination and segregation prevalent in American society at the time. These challenges were both institutional and social, severely limiting opportunities and recognition for black athletes. Some of the key difficulties included: 1. Segregation and Exclusion: African American athletes were largely excluded from major professional sports leagues, which were segregated and did not permit black players. For instance, Major League Baseball (MLB) had an unwritten color line that prevented African Americans from joining until Jackie Robinson broke the barrier in 1947. This exclusion forced black athletes to play in separate, often underfunded, and less-publicized leagues, such as the Negro Leagues in baseball. 2. Limited Opportunities and Resources: Black athletes had fewer opportunities to compete at high levels due to segregation in sports organizations and facilities. They often had to rely on black-owned teams and leagues, which generally had less financial support and inferior training facilities compared to their white counterparts. This disparity hindered their ability to develop and showcase their talents. 3. Economic Challenges: The financial rewards for black athletes were significantly lower than those for white athletes. Black sports teams and leagues struggled to attract the same level of sponsorship, media coverage, and fan support as white teams, leading to lower salaries and fewer economic opportunities for black athletes. Many had to work additional jobs to support themselves. 4. Racial Discrimination and Prejudice: Black athletes faced widespread racial discrimination and prejudice both on and off the field. They were often subjected to racist taunts, threats, and violence from fans, opponents, and even officials. This hostile environment made it difficult for black athletes to focus on their performance and achieve recognition for their accomplishments. 5. Lack of Media Coverage: The mainstream media largely ignored or marginalized black athletes and their achievements. Coverage of black sports events and accomplishments was minimal, and when it did occur, it was often biased or negative. This lack of recognition in the media further limited the visibility and career opportunities for black athletes. 6. Travel and Accommodation Difficulties: When black athletes traveled for competitions, they faced significant challenges in finding accommodations and services due to segregation laws and practices. They were often denied access to hotels, restaurants, and other public facilities, forcing them to seek alternative, and often substandard, arrangements. 7. Psychological Toll: The constant battle against discrimination and prejudice took a psychological toll on black athletes. They had to constantly prove themselves in a society that systematically devalued their talents and humanity. This stress and the need to maintain high performance in a hostile environment were significant burdens. Despite these challenges, many black athletes demonstrated extraordinary resilience and talent. Figures like Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson in baseball, and Jack Johnson and Joe Louis in boxing, achieved remarkable success and paved the way for future generations of black athletes. Their perseverance and achievements were instrumental in challenging racial barriers and advancing the cause of civil rights in the United States. Essay Questions 76) How did the release of the film The Birth of a Nation impact whites in the U.S? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the storyline of the film and its impact on blacks. 2. Explain that whites, particularly in the South, strongly approved of the film because of its negative stereotypes about blacks and Reconstruction. 3. Note that the Ku Klux Klan increased membership because of the film. 4. Explain that many whites reacted with violence against blacks after seeing the film. 5. Note that the film was shown at the White House by President Woodrow Wilson. Metro Goldwyn Mayer, the studio that made the film, gained enormous power in Hollywood because of the film. 6. Conclude that whites who wanted to expand segregation drew upon the film for inspiration and adherents. Sample Answer: Social Impact 1. Reinforced Racial Stereotypes: • Depicted African Americans negatively, promoting harmful stereotypes. 2. Revitalized the Ku Klux Klan: • Glorified the Klan, leading to a resurgence in membership and activities. Cultural Impact 1. Showcased Cinema's Power: • Demonstrated film's potential to influence public opinion and set new filmmaking standards. 2. Widespread Influence: • Reached a large audience, shaping perceptions across the nation. Political Impact 1. Influenced Public Policy: • Reinforced support for segregation and disenfranchisement of black voters. 2. Presidential Endorsement: • Praised by President Woodrow Wilson, lending the film legitimacy and influence. 77) What was the relationship between black leaders and Africa during the 1920s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Identify black leaders as W.E.B. Du Bois, Monroe Trotter, Marcus Garvey, and A. Phillip Randolph. 2. Explain that some black leaders continued the call to go “back to Africa” to escape racism and cultivate a pan-African national identity. These leaders had become frustrated with the lack of gains in civil rights and the rise in violence against blacks. 3. Note that Du Bois and Garvey continued to call for pan-African cooperation in arriving at a location in Africa to settle blacks from around the globe. 4. Explain that most African American leaders, including Du Bois, felt that racism must be conquered first in the U.S. where most African Americans wanted to remain as American people. Sample Answer: Pan-Africanism and Global Solidarity 1. Marcus Garvey and UNIA: • Promoted African self-determination and unity. 2. Influence of African Diaspora: • Emphasized global solidarity among people of African descent. Cultural Renaissance and Identity 1. Harlem Renaissance: • Celebrated African heritage, fostering pride and connection to Africa. 2. Cultural Exchange: • Reconnected with African roots through art, literature, and travel. Political Advocacy and Anti-Colonialism 1. Support for African Independence: • Backed anti-colonial movements, linking them to the civil rights struggle in the U.S. 2. Diplomatic Engagements: • Advocated for international support for African liberation. Organizations and Conferences 1. Pan-African Congresses: • Addressed issues facing people of African descent, strategizing for racial equality. 2. Promoting Pan-Africanism: • Collaborated with African leaders through various organizations supporting African struggles. 78) Why did the Pullman porters organize into a union? How did they address difficulties presented by white-owned corporations? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Pullman Company as the largest employer of blacks in the nation, with 12,000 blacks working for the company in the 1920s. 2. Explain that A. Phillip Randolph, a socialist labor leader, attempted to organize the brotherhood to provide improved working conditions for black porters. 3. Note that Randolph attempted to negotiate with the Pullman Company but was rebuffed and the brotherhood was infiltrated by company spies and agents. 4. Explain that Randolph called for a strike in 1928 but called it off upon request of the AFL. 5. Conclude that the brotherhood made later gains during the 1930s when federal legislation provided greater support for unions in the workplace and more blacks joined the union. Sample Answer: The Pullman porters, African American men who worked as attendants on Pullman sleeping cars, organized into a union to combat the oppressive working conditions and racial discrimination they faced. Their efforts culminated in the formation of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) in 1925. Understanding why they organized and how they addressed the challenges posed by white-owned corporations involves examining several key factors. Reasons for Organizing 1. Poor Working Conditions: • Pullman porters endured long hours, low pay, and strenuous work. They were often required to be on duty for 400 hours a month, with minimal rest and little job security. Their compensation largely depended on tips, which were inconsistent and often inadequate. 2. Racial Discrimination: • Porters faced systemic racism, both from the Pullman Company and the passengers they served. They were subjected to demeaning treatment, such as being called derogatory names and being expected to perform personal tasks for passengers without additional compensation. 3. Lack of Representation: • The porters had no formal representation to advocate for their rights and interests. The white-owned Pullman Company did not provide a platform for addressing grievances, leaving the porters with little recourse to improve their situation. Addressing Difficulties Presented by White-Owned Corporations 1. Formation of the BSCP: • Under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph, the porters organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925. Randolph, a prominent civil rights leader and labor organizer, provided the strategic direction and leadership necessary to challenge the Pullman Company effectively. 2. Strategic Alliances: • The BSCP built alliances with other labor organizations and civil rights groups. By aligning themselves with the broader labor movement, they gained support and legitimacy. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) granted the BSCP a charter in 1935, which strengthened their position. 3. Legal and Public Pressure: • The BSCP utilized legal avenues and public advocacy to press their demands. They brought their grievances to the National Mediation Board and leveraged public opinion to highlight the injustices they faced. This pressure led to increased scrutiny of the Pullman Company's practices. 4. Persistence and Negotiation: • Despite initial resistance from the Pullman Company, the BSCP persisted in their efforts. After years of organizing, strikes, and negotiations, they finally achieved a major victory in 1937. The Pullman Company recognized the BSCP as the official bargaining agent for the porters, leading to improved wages, working conditions, and job security. Conclusion The organization of the Pullman porters into the BSCP was driven by the need to address poor working conditions, racial discrimination, and lack of representation. By forming a union, building strategic alliances, applying legal and public pressure, and persisting in their negotiations, the porters effectively confronted the challenges posed by the white-owned Pullman Company. Their successful struggle not only improved their own working conditions but also marked a significant milestone in the broader labor and civil rights movements. 79) Why did large numbers of whites during the 1920s become interested in elite or “high” black art for the first time in U.S. history? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Harlem Renaissance as the vehicle for publicizing black art to a wider white audience. 2. Define artistic development as embracing painting, sculpture, drama, and literature. 3. Note that black “high” art had existed for decades but the concentration of artists in New York City’s Harlem district, and the media saturation of the city, led to the mass marketing of elite black art for the first time in museums and galleries. White patrons provided steady support for black artists during the era. 4. Conclude that black culture had long fascinated whites through film, theater, and other genres. The use of African motifs by black artists in the 1920s further provided an exotic appeal of black art to white audiences. Sample Answer: Reasons for White Interest in Black Art During the 1920s 1. Harlem Renaissance: • The cultural movement brought black art, literature, and music to mainstream attention. 2. Popularity of Jazz: • Jazz music, with icons like Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, captivated white audiences. 3. Influential Writers: • Authors like Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston produced high-quality literature that resonated widely. 4. Great Migration: • Increased interactions between black and white communities in urban areas sparked cultural exchange and interest. 5. Social Change: • The assertiveness of the "New Negro" movement challenged stereotypes and encouraged appreciation of black art. 6. White Patronage: • Wealthy white patrons supported and promoted black artists, bridging cultural gaps and fostering acceptance. 80) What is the relationship between the Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Harlem Renaissance as the outpouring of black artistic development and the Jazz Age as the specific influence of jazz music on many facets of American culture during the 1920s. 2. Note that the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s coincided with the Jazz Age and both movements influenced and expanded the other. 3. Point out that jazz music was played at Harlem nightclubs and came to define the nightclub scene during the Harlem Renaissance. 4. Explain that black entertainers were also part of the Harlem Renaissance, and their musical influence on black and white culture helped to further define the identity of black artistic development during the decade. 5. Conclude that both movements helped to slowly integrate American society in the arena of art and entertainment. Sample Answer: Relationship Between the Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age 1. Cultural Flourishing: • Harlem Renaissance: Literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture. • Jazz Age: Era marked by the popularity of jazz music, originating from African American communities. 2. Shared Foundations: • African American Roots: Both movements drew from rich black cultural traditions. • Urbanization and the Great Migration: Migration to northern cities like Harlem created vibrant cultural hubs. 3. Mutual Influence: • Cross-Pollination: Writers and artists of the Harlem Renaissance were inspired by jazz, and jazz musicians were influenced by the era's literary and artistic achievements. • Breaking Racial Barriers: Both movements challenged racial stereotypes and promoted new representations of African American identity. 4. Social and Political Impact: • Empowerment and Pride: Both movements celebrated black excellence, addressing social issues and advocating for civil rights. • Influence on American Culture: They significantly shaped American culture, influencing music, literature, and social norms. Chapter 18: Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal Multiple Choice Questions 1) What was the “Bronx Slave Market”? A) an area in New York where white racists tried to re-institute the slave trade B) an area in New York where black men could get jobs, which paid very little C) an area in New York where white women could obtain day help from black women D) a play by Langston Hughes about the difficulties of black life in the city of New York Answer: C 2) What is revealed about the black population of the U.S. for the year 1930 in Table 18-1? A) Most blacks lived in the Pacific. B) Most blacks lived in the Northeast. C) Most blacks lived in the Midwest. D) Most blacks lived in the Southeast. Answer: D 3) Examine Table 18-1. What factor explains why the black population of the U.S. increased in large numbers in the Pacific region between 1930 and 1950? A) Whites in the West wanted to integrate their small towns. B) Whites in the West were providing free housing to southern blacks. C) Southern whites were allowing blacks to join the Democratic Party. D) Southern blacks migrated westward during the Great Depression and World War II. Answer: D 4) What was the relationship of the median income of black families to the median income of white families in 1935 and 1936, according to Table 18-2? A) Whites earned much less than blacks. B) Whites earned about the same income as blacks. C) Whites earned twice or three times as much income as blacks. D) Whites earned fifty to seventy-five times as much income as blacks. Answer: C 5) What was the relationship between family type and the median income of black families, according to Table 18-2? A) Husband-wife families earned the same income as other families. B) Husband-wife families earned a lower income than other families. C) Husband-wife families earned a higher income than other families. D) The data does not indicate a relationship between family type and black income. Answer: C 6) What was the connection between the region of residence and the median income for blacks and whites in 1935-1936, according to Table 18-2? A) Blacks in southern cities made more money than whites in southern cities. B) Blacks in northern cities made more money than whites in northern cities. C) Blacks in southern cities made less money than whites in any city. D) Blacks in southern cities made the same money as whites in any city. Answer: C 7) How did the rate of black unemployment in large cities compare with the national unemployment rate? A) Black unemployment was lower. B) Black unemployment was higher. C) Black unemployment was at the national average. D) No statistics were kept on black unemployment during the time. Answer: B 8) Why were black women often affected more than black men during the Depression? A) Black women generally lacked the high level of education that black men had achieved. B) White families could not afford domestic help during the Depression. C) The only jobs available during the Depression were the skilled jobs for black men. D) Black women had to stay at home and take care of their children. Answer: B 9) What does the story of the Binga Bank tell us about blacks during the Great Depression? A) Some blacks were financially ruined by attempts to help other blacks. B) Some black businesses were able to succeed despite the Great Depression. C) Some blacks would turn on each other during the crisis for their own economic gain. D) Black-owned businesses could be very corrupt and uninterested in black needs. Answer: A 10) What does the story of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company tell us about blacks during the Great Depression? A) Some blacks were financially ruined through their attempts to help their community and other blacks. B) Some black businesses were able to succeed even with the difficulties of the Great Depression. C) Some blacks would turn on each other during the crisis for their own economic gain. D) Black-owned businesses could be very corrupt. Answer: B 11) Why did President Hoover do very little during the Great Depression to alleviate poverty? A) He was actually a very active president, but Congress refused to pass the huge variety of relief programs he proposed. B) He believed that government, when it acted, should help only the wealthy and big businesses. C) He strongly believed that individuals or charities, not the government, should help alleviate poverty. D) Hoover was president for only the first few months of the Great Depression. Answer: C 12) What did W.E.B. Du Bois criticize the NAACP for in 1934? A) not filing enough legal cases to end segregation B) being divided and not helping Marcus Garvey before he was deported C) not putting enough emphasis on economic development for black Americans D) for their record of violent protest against both segregation and lynching Answer: C 13) Who was Juanita Jackson? A) She was the first black woman admitted to practice law in Maryland and through her legal cases helped destroy segregation. B) She was the first woman to gain a recording contract with a major white label. C) She was the first black doctor in the state of Georgia, although she was never allowed to practice medicine in the southern states. D) She was killed by whites after having an affair with a white married man. Answer: A 14) What was a goal of the Detroit Housewives' League, and housewives' leagues established in other cities? A) to gain women the right to vote B) to help increase black economic opportunity C) to help children have cleaner schools D) to compel equal pay for teachers in black schools Answer: B 15) Why did Charles Houston and Thurgood Marshall focus on gaining blacks access to professional and graduate schools? A) They desperately needed more lawyers. B) Almost no graduate schools existed for blacks in the South. C) Black graduate schools had been outlawed by many southern states. D) Blacks could only get high-paying, top jobs in corporations with graduate degrees. Answer: B 16) What did the NAACP's fight over the Terrell law demonstrate? A) Racism was so entrenched in Texas that public schools could be completely shut down rather than accept black children. B) Lynching could be legalized in several southern states. C) Local and community involvement in NAACP activities was very important. D) Whites would refuse to accept limits on the KKK's activities. Answer: C 17) Why did the all-white primary law disfranchise black voters in Texas when they could still vote in the general election? A) It did not allow any blacks to vote in the general election either. B) It limited the political candidates to whites so that blacks would have fewer options for improvement. C) Texas was so heavily Democratic that the only contested election was the primary race. D) It removed all black businesses, and blacks had no financial base to campaign for offices. Answer: C 18) What was a problem with the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)? A) It only employed whites. B) It employed few blacks in segregated camps. C) It paid whites and blacks the same amount and provoked violent riots among workers. D) Many workers were made sick because of the focus on urban industrial work in the CCC. Answer: B 19) Who was black people's main ally within the Roosevelt administration? A) Franklin Roosevelt himself B) no one; the Roosevelt administration was very unfriendly to blacks C) Eleanor Roosevelt D) Harry Truman Answer: C 20) How did black voting patterns begin to change after the first election of Franklin Roosevelt? A) Blacks continued to stay with the Republican Party, the party of Lincoln. B) Blacks began to shift to the Democratic Party. C) Blacks briefly formed their own separate party, just as they had formed separate churches and other institutions. D) Blacks split over Roosevelt, with their support about evenly divided between him and Hoover in 1936. Answer: B 21) How did the AAA benefit blacks? A) It did not—it generally only benefited white landowners. B) It poured money into the area in which many blacks were employed. C) It provided food for blacks in the cities and the countryside. D) It helped to reopen banks after the crisis and got savings returned to black investors. Answer: B 22) How was Roosevelt unlike Hoover in his attempts to end the Great Depression? A) Roosevelt merely implemented the changes Hoover wanted to put through. B) Roosevelt had very intelligent people working for him. C) He proved very flexible and willing to experiment with new changes and ideas. D) Roosevelt was very committed to black rights and worked consistently through his presidency to gain rights for blacks. Answer: C 23) How was the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) unevenly implemented? A) Control of AAA money was left to national boards. B) White landlords often gave the money to more subservient blacks, rather than all of their tenants. C) White landlords sometimes evicted tenants illegally from their land during the Great Depression. D) Blacks were actually given first choice at AAA funding. Answer: C 24) What was the role of the "black cabinet"? A) They were token blacks in the administration; they had no real power. B) They helped the president formulate policy with respect to the Great Depression. C) They helped reorganize the university system of the U.S. to eliminate segregation. D) They pressured the government to create and support color-blind legislative policies. Answer: D 25) What happened to most of the First New Deal legislation during the Great Depression? A) The Supreme Court declared much of it unconstitutional. B) Blacks were able to get it repealed through Eleanor Roosevelt. C) White supremacists ended it because it benefited blacks politically. D) Franklin Roosevelt changed his mind and decided to stop reforming the United States. Answer: A 26) What did many blacks think about the role of the social sciences during the Great Depression? A) Many thought social scientists should provoke additional research and thought only; they should to stay away from political issues. B) Many intellectuals thought that they might improve race relations. C) Blacks refused to get into the social sciences during the Great Depression, as this field was dominated by racist whites. D) The social sciences would prove that racism, and the inferiority of blacks, was an accurate view. Answer: B 27) What was significant about the 1936 presidential election? A) Black voters in the South shifted to the Republican Party. B) Fewer blacks voted because violence and intimidation tactics were rampant. C) Black voters outside the South shifted in significant numbers to the Democrats. D) Whites refused to vote for Roosevelt because of his support for black political issues. Answer: C 28) Why did blacks move over to the Democratic Party during the 1936 election? A) Blacks felt that Roosevelt had been doing more for them than any other president. B) Blacks wanted to support the Democratic Party, especially in the South. C) Blacks actually didn't begin to support the Democratic Party until after World War II. D) Blacks hoped to continue the dramatic gains made during the 1920s in civil rights. Answer: A 29) The results of the Second New Deal for blacks included which of the following? A) the end of economic distress and poverty for blacks B) the end of influence over President Franklin Roosevelt C) the passage of an anti-lynching law to protect blacks from violence D) legislation that enlarged the scope of the federal government which helped blacks Answer: D 30) What were the limitations of the First New Deal? A) It was opposed by most northern Democrats in Congress. B) It was opposed by President Franklin Roosevelt and his wife. C) It was halted by Republicans in Congress because it did not help urban workers. D) Major parts of the legislation were found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Answer: D 31) How did most southern whites view blacks joining the Democratic Party in the late 1930s? A) They accepted having new voters in the party. B) They were indifferent and thought that blacks would not vote. C) They remained overjoyed that the party was becoming integrated. D) They were fearful and frustrated at the impudence of blacks joining the party. Answer: D 32) How did many whites react to the increased presence of blacks in the Democratic Party? A) Whites accepted blacks, as long as they stayed in subordinate positions. B) Blacks were not formally allowed to participate in the Democratic Party in any way. C) Some southern whites walked out of the presidential convention when blacks spoke. D) Whites organized a violent action in the presidential convention to get rid of blacks. Answer: C 33) How successful was the administration of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)? A) It was limited completely to whites, in a compromise with southern congressmen. B) It never had any money to spend on jobs programs and was limited by a small staff. C) The WPA was limited to only about 1000 jobs and whites obtained all of the work. D) The WPA was actually administered far more equally than previous programs. Answer: D 34) Mary McLeod Bethune is an example of which of the following occupation groups of blacks during the Great Depression? A) domestic workers B) shipyard workers C) school teachers D) social scientists Answer: D 35) What industry saw substantial union organizing among black women? A) tobacco B) steel C) cotton farming D) domestic workers Answer: A 36) Why did John L. Lewis form the Committee for Industrial Organization? A) He was angry that the AFL refused to incorporate unskilled workers into its ranks. B) He wanted to gain power for himself and make a bid for the presidency in 1940. C) He did not like the AFL's new policy of including blacks and wanted an all-white organization. D) He was a very conservative Republican and thought that labor unions were becoming too liberal. Answer: A 37) How did the Railway Labor Act amendments of 1934 affect the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters? A) It completely destroyed the union because it said that black people had no right to organize unions. B) Its provisions eventually forced the Pullman Company to recognize the union and bargain with it. C) It had no effect on blacks because it failed to include any provisions about unions. D) It said companies had to bargain with unions, but was so weak it never had any real effect. Answer: B 38) How were jobs allocated in the tobacco industry? A) Overall, they were allocated fairly, and all positions were given out according to skills and ability. B) Black women were generally the only workers in the tobacco industry, so they exercised a tremendous political clout. C) They were allocated by race and gender and gave black women the most difficult and tedious jobs in the industry. D) Generally, only according to seniority within the company. Answer: C 39) How did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the 1930s? A) It did not—labor unions remained hostile toward blacks. B) Labor unions actually became more hostile toward blacks because jobs were scarce. C) More labor unions allowed blacks membership. D) The government forced unions to accept any black during the 1930s. Answer: C 40) What organization rushed to help the young black men accused in the Scottsboro case? A) the NAACP B) the Democratic Party C) the Communist Party D) Clarence Darrow's law firm Answer: C 41) What organization did the National Negro Congress become increasingly associated with during the late 1930s? A) the UNIA B) the NAACP C) the Communist Party D) the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Answer: C 42) What Supreme Court case decided that all Americans have the right to a jury of their peers? A) Dred Scott v. Sanford B) Brown v. Board of Education C) Plessy v. Ferguson D) Norris v. Alabama Answer: D 43) Who served as the first president of the National Negro Congress? A) John Davis B) Marcus Garvey C) W.E.B. Du Bois D) A. Phillip Randolph Answer: D 44) In the U.S. presidential election of 1932, what black man ran for vice president on the Communist Party ticket? A) W.E.B. Du Bois B) Booker T. Washington C) Martin Luther King, Jr. D) James Ford Answer: D 45) Why were some blacks attracted to the Communist Party during the 1930s? A) The Communist Party vowed to establish a separate nation for them in Africa. B) The Communist Party said it was against racism, but never did anything to prove it. C) The Communist Party worked to reduce unemployment and worked against racism. D) The Communist Party was a large, mainstream party in the 1930s with many members. Answer: C 46) What did the case of the Scottsboro Boys involve? A) two young communists accused of plotting to overthrow the government B) two young white women who falsely accused nine black men of rape on a train C) a case where blacks' schoolteachers had taught the concept of evolution rather than the Biblical story of the evolution of man D) two young boys who were lynched by a group of whites for stealing candy from a white store owned by the local sheriff and police chief Answer: B 47) What is the connection between the ILD and the Scottsboro Boys? A) The ILD paid them to lie. B) The ILD ignored their plight. C) The ILD paid for their defense. D) The ILD used violence against white supremacists in Alabama. Answer: C 48) What was the Tuskegee experiment? A) a group of communists that attempted to take over the political affairs of Macon County, Alabama B) an effort by blacks to revive Booker T. Washington's philosophy of accommodation C) a federal government-sponsored health study that monitored black men with syphilis D) an organization of black women who worked to get better prices for household goods in the city of Detroit Answer: C 49) What is ironic about the Tuskegee experiment photograph that appears in Chapter 18? A) It appears that doctors have paid a black patient to fake an illness. B) It appears that doctors have allowed a white person to pose as a black person. C) It appears the man is being treated for syphilis when in reality he was not told he had the disease. D) It appears the doctors are attempting to psychologically manipulate the men into sitting for a medical exam. Answer: C 50) What was the media involved in the outcome of the Tuskegee study? A) A journalist was murdered by Tuskegee staff. B) News reporters served as subjects in the study. C) A news reporter broke the story to the public in 1972. D) Television reporters conspired to hide the study from public view. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) During her career, Dr. Matilda Evans established two hospitals, founded a nursing training school, organized the Good Health Association of South Carolina, edited the Negro Health Journal, and served a term as president of the Palmetto Medical Association. Answer: True 52) The leading black insurance companies were destroyed by the economic ravages of the 1930s. Answer: False 53) Most Americans blamed the stock market crash and Republican President Herbert Hoover for the hard economic times of the early 1930s. Answer: True 54) The economic collapse did not hit African Americans particularly hard because they were immune from downturns in the economy. Answer: False 55) In the 1940s several southern states, including North Carolina, Texas, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, established law schools for their black citizens. Answer: True 56) From 1943 to 1946, Ella Baker, later a famous civil rights worker in the 1960s, worked as director of NAACP branches. Answer: True 57) During the 1930s the NAACP began to decline and become less of an effective advocate for African-American civil rights. Answer: False 58) In the 1938 decision in Gaines v. Canada, the Supreme Court ordered the state of Missouri to provide black citizens an opportunity to study law in a state-supported institution. Answer: True 59) The results of community organizing by black women in the South included the creation of important social networks that would pay further dividends during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Answer: True 60) The case of Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1947) was another example of the legal strategy of the NAACP to compel southern states to integrate state colleges or pay for separate black law schools. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) Attorneys Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston helped Donald Gaines ______________ win his case in 1938 for admission to the University of Maryland Law School. Answer: Murray 61) The legal case of Nixon v. ______________ reflected the attempt by the NAACP to destroy the white primary in Texas and throughout southern state politics. Answer: Herndon 63) The Agricultural ______________ Act, was a piece of New Deal legislation designed to protect farmers by giving them subsidies to limit production and thereby stabilize prices. Answer: Adjustment 64) Eleanor Roosevelt endeared herself to black Americans when she resigned her membership in the Daughters of the American Revolution after that organization refused to allow a young black opera singer, Marian ______________, to perform at its Constitution Hall in Washington in 1939. Answer: Anderson 65) The limitations of the ______________ administration to respond meaningfully to the economic crisis in the early 1930s doomed the Republican Party in the 1932 election. Answer: Hoover 66) The experience of African Americans with the ______________ mirrored their experiences with other major pieces of New Deal legislation in terms of the retention of racial barriers to equal pay and employment. Answer: National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) 67) Arthur W. ______________ was the first black Democrat to win a House of Representatives seat. Answer: Mitchell 68) The efforts of A. Phillip Randolph during the 1930s in the interest of organized ______________ included the expansion of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Answer: labor 69) Many black workers were drawn to the ______________ Party in the 1930s because it criticized the refusal of organized white labor to include them. Answer: Communist 70) The outcome of the ______________ case included all nine young men being released from jail by the 1940s. Answer: Scottsboro Short Answer Questions 71) What is the connection between class position and the impact of the Great Depression upon the black community? Answer: Class position influenced the impact of the Great Depression on the black community. Middle-class black families often lost their jobs and faced economic hardships, while those in lower classes experienced severe poverty and homelessness. Discrimination exacerbated these effects, as black workers were often the first fired and last hired, leading to disproportionate suffering among the black population. 72) What role did W.E.B. Du Bois play regarding racial issues during the 1930s? Answer: During the 1930s, W.E.B. Du Bois played a prominent role in advocating for civil rights and racial equality. He was a founding member of the NAACP and served as editor for its magazine, *The Crisis*. Du Bois also campaigned against racial segregation and discrimination, and he was a strong voice for African Americans' rights and dignity during this turbulent time. 73) Why was Smith v. Allwright such a big victory for the NAACP? Answer: Smith v. Allwright was a significant victory for the NAACP because it declared the white primary unconstitutional, which was a major step towards dismantling the Jim Crow laws that disenfranchised African Americans in the South. This decision opened up the political process to African Americans, allowing them to participate more fully in the democratic process. 74) What was the relationship between race and New Deal programs? Answer: Race played a complex role in New Deal programs. While the programs aimed to provide relief to all Americans, many were implemented in a way that discriminated against African Americans. For example, the Social Security Act initially excluded agricultural and domestic workers, jobs often held by African Americans. Additionally, the Federal Housing Administration's policies effectively segregated housing, limiting opportunities for black Americans. 75) How was Roosevelt able to get elected in 1932 and reelected in 1936? Answer: Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to get elected in 1932 and reelected in 1936 primarily due to his response to the Great Depression. His New Deal policies offered hope and relief to millions of Americans struggling with unemployment and poverty, which resonated strongly with voters. Additionally, his leadership during the crisis and ability to communicate effectively through his fireside chats helped build his popularity and secure his reelection. Essay Questions 76) How did the Depression impact black workers in the North compared to the South? What skills did blacks utilize to survive? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that black workers in the north worked primarily in urban factory jobs while blacks in the South were primarily agricultural laborers or sharecroppers. 2. Note that northern blacks lost urban jobs while southern blacks witnessed a decline of cotton prices and production. 3. Note that blacks relied upon self-help efforts and government programs to survive the depression. Urban blacks had greater access to New Deal programs that did southern blacks who were also exploited by southern whites. 4. Note that some blacks migrated to other locations, primarily urban areas in the West, to survive the economic hard times. Sample Answer: The Great Depression had a profound impact on black workers in both the North and the South, but the experiences differed due to regional economic structures and social dynamics. In the South, where Jim Crow laws and racial segregation were deeply entrenched, black workers faced extreme challenges. Many were sharecroppers or tenant farmers, living in poverty even before the Depression. The collapse of agricultural prices worsened their situation, leading to widespread displacement and hunger. Additionally, discrimination often pushed black workers to the margins of the economy, making them the first to lose their jobs and the last to be rehired. In contrast, black workers in the North, while not immune to economic hardship, had somewhat better prospects. Industrial jobs in cities like Detroit, Chicago, and New York provided opportunities for steady employment, albeit often in low-paying and menial positions. However, when the Depression hit, these jobs became scarce, and competition with white workers intensified. Many black workers were laid off, and those who managed to keep their jobs often faced wage cuts and increased discrimination. To survive these difficult times, black workers employed various strategies. In the South, many turned to subsistence farming, growing their food to survive. Others migrated to urban centers in search of work, contributing to the Great Migration. In the North, black communities relied heavily on mutual aid societies, churches, and other social networks to provide food, shelter, and support. Skills such as resilience, adaptability, and resourcefulness were crucial for black workers during the Depression. Despite facing immense challenges, many managed to persevere, laying the groundwork for the civil rights movement that would follow in the decades ahead. 77) Why did Eleanor Roosevelt help blacks during the 1930s, and what impact did she make on racial issues? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Eleanor Roosevelt as a Progressive era reformer and a woman sympathized with the ethnic minority struggle of African American people. 2. Note that she met with black leaders, spoke out on black issues, cajoled her husband to create specific legislation to assist poor and jobless blacks, convinced him to appoint blacks to important political positions, defied Jim Crow laws, wrote newspaper columns, and resigned her membership with the Daughters of the American Revolution when they refused to allow Marian Andersen to sing at one of their events. 3. Conclude that President Roosevelt and blacks benefitted enormously from the efforts of this outspoken critic of racial injustice. She was instrumental in convincing blacks to vote for Roosevelt in mass in 1936. Sample Answer: Eleanor Roosevelt played a significant role in advocating for the rights and well-being of African Americans during the 1930s. Her efforts were driven by a combination of personal beliefs, social conscience, and a desire to address the injustices faced by African Americans. One key reason for Eleanor Roosevelt's advocacy for African Americans was her personal beliefs in equality and justice. She was deeply influenced by her upbringing and education, which emphasized the importance of social responsibility and human rights. These beliefs led her to empathize with the struggles of African Americans and to view racial discrimination as a fundamental injustice that needed to be addressed. Furthermore, Eleanor Roosevelt's experiences as First Lady during the Great Depression exposed her to the harsh realities faced by many African Americans. She traveled extensively across the country, visiting impoverished communities and speaking with people from all walks of life. These experiences gave her a firsthand understanding of the economic and social challenges faced by African Americans, reinforcing her commitment to advocating for their rights. Eleanor Roosevelt's advocacy for African Americans had a significant impact on racial issues during the 1930s. She used her platform as First Lady to speak out against racial discrimination and to champion civil rights. For example, she publicly supported anti-lynching legislation and worked to desegregate the armed forces. Her actions helped to raise awareness of racial issues and to promote greater equality and justice for African Americans. In addition to her public advocacy, Eleanor Roosevelt also played a role in advancing African American civil rights behind the scenes. She frequently met with African American leaders and activists, including figures such as Mary McLeod Bethune and Walter White, and used her influence to push for change. Her efforts helped to lay the groundwork for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which would ultimately lead to the end of legal segregation in the United States. Overall, Eleanor Roosevelt's advocacy for African Americans during the 1930s was driven by a combination of personal beliefs, social conscience, and a desire to address injustice. Her efforts had a significant impact on racial issues during the decade, helping to raise awareness of racial discrimination and to promote greater equality and justice for African Americans. 78) How and why did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the 1930s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the pre-1930s black relationship with labor unions was hostile because white labor unions refused to allow blacks to become members. Blacks therefore acted as “strikebreakers” at times for white employers trying to lock out white employees on strike. 2. Explain that President Roosevelt’s efforts to pass the National Industrial Recovery Act led to a strengthening of unions in the workplace. It also led to a redefining of the importance of labor unions for all workers. 3. Conclude that the efforts of the Communist Party to solicit black support also improved labor relations between blacks and whites. Black working class people increasingly saw unions as a place to protect their jobs. Sample Answer: During the 1930s, the relationship between African Americans and labor unions underwent significant changes, largely due to the impact of the Great Depression and the rise of the New Deal policies under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1. Great Depression: The economic hardships of the Great Depression affected African Americans disproportionately, as they were often the first to lose their jobs and the last to be hired. This shared economic struggle led many African Americans to seek support from labor unions, seeing them as potential allies in advocating for better wages and working conditions. 2. New Deal Policies: The New Deal introduced by President Roosevelt aimed to stimulate the economy and provide relief to those most affected by the Depression. This included the establishment of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) in 1935, which protected the rights of workers to organize and bargain collectively through unions. This legislation encouraged African Americans to join unions in greater numbers, as they saw them as a means to secure better economic opportunities and combat racial discrimination in the workplace. 3. Racial Discrimination: Despite these changes, racial discrimination within labor unions remained a significant issue. Many unions were predominantly white and resisted efforts to integrate or address the specific concerns of African American workers. This led to the formation of separate, often racially exclusive, unions by African Americans, such as the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters led by A. Philip Randolph. 4. Shift in Union Attitudes: As the decade progressed, some unions began to recognize the importance of including African Americans and other minority groups in their ranks. This shift was partly influenced by the efforts of African American leaders like Randolph, who advocated for racial equality within the labor movement. Some unions also saw the benefits of having a more diverse membership in terms of strengthening their bargaining power and political influence. In conclusion, the relationship between African Americans and labor unions during the 1930s evolved from one marked by discrimination and exclusion to one characterized by greater inclusion and cooperation, driven by shared economic hardships and the changing political landscape of the New Deal era. While challenges remained, this period laid the groundwork for future efforts to promote racial equality within the labor movement. 79) What was the impact of the Communist Party on the Scottsboro case? Why did the party assist the “Scottsboro Boys”? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the Communist Party took up the Scottsboro Boys’ case immediately, paid for their attorneys, and helped the defendants get a fair trial and eventual release in the 1940s. 2. Note that the Communist Party derived enormous benefits from linking itself to the controversial case. It demonstrated the harsh racial policies of social whites and the inability of either party to protect black agricultural workers in the South. 3. Conclude that the Communist Party helped to advertise the Scottsboro Boys’ case and gave it international notoriety which brought international pressure to bear upon Alabama to free them. Sample Answer: The Communist Party played a significant role in the Scottsboro case, which involved nine African American teenagers falsely accused of raping two white women in Alabama in 1931. The Party's involvement had a lasting impact on the case and the broader civil rights movement in the United States. 1. Legal Defense: One of the most significant impacts of the Communist Party on the Scottsboro case was its involvement in providing legal defense for the accused teenagers. The Party organized a defense committee and hired renowned lawyers, including Samuel Leibowitz, to represent the Scottsboro Boys. This legal support was crucial in challenging the unjust convictions and ensuring a fair trial for the defendants. 2. Public Awareness: The Communist Party used the Scottsboro case to raise public awareness about racial injustice and the plight of African Americans in the United States. Party members organized protests, rallies, and educational campaigns to garner support for the Scottsboro Boys and to highlight the systemic racism and inequality in the American legal system. 3. International Attention: The Communist Party's efforts brought international attention to the Scottsboro case, with many countries condemning the United States for its treatment of the defendants. This international pressure further highlighted the injustices faced by African Americans in the United States and increased the scrutiny on the American legal system. 4. Political Impact: The Communist Party's involvement in the Scottsboro case had a lasting political impact, both in terms of civil rights activism and the Party's influence in American politics. The case helped to galvanize support for civil rights causes and contributed to the broader civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. It also elevated the Communist Party's profile as a champion of racial equality and social justice. The Communist Party assisted the Scottsboro Boys for several reasons, including: 1. Ideological Commitment: The Communist Party was ideologically committed to fighting racism and promoting equality. The Party saw the Scottsboro case as a clear example of racial injustice and viewed the defense of the Scottsboro Boys as a moral imperative. 2. Political Strategy: The Communist Party saw the Scottsboro case as an opportunity to advance its political agenda and gain support for its cause. By championing the Scottsboro Boys, the Party sought to rally African Americans and other marginalized groups to its banner and challenge the prevailing racial order in the United States. 3. International Solidarity: The Communist Party saw the Scottsboro case as a way to build international solidarity with oppressed peoples around the world. The Party believed that by highlighting the injustices faced by the Scottsboro Boys, it could garner support from other countries and pressure the United States to address its racial problems. Overall, the Communist Party's involvement in the Scottsboro case had a profound impact on the civil rights movement and helped to advance the cause of racial equality in the United States. 80) How does the Tuskegee experiment reveal white attitudes toward blacks and black attitudes towards other blacks during the era? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Tuskegee study as a racial experiment that violated state and federal laws for forty years. 2. Explain that the study reveals the racist and class-based attitudes towards poor blacks in particular. 3. Note that the hiring of a black nurse to gain the men’s trust including her lying to the black sharecroppers, revealing the exploitation of working class blacks by other blacks for monetary gain and the intentional exploitation of the black victims by the medical community. 4. Conclude that the Tuskegee study reveals the manipulation of poor people of color by the medical community for gains primarily for the white community. Sample Answer: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932 to 1972, revealed deep-seated racial attitudes toward African Americans and complex dynamics within the black community. 1. White Attitudes Toward Blacks: • Dehumanization: The study reflected a dehumanizing view of African Americans by the medical establishment. Participants were denied proper treatment for syphilis, even after penicillin became a standard cure in the 1940s, to study the natural progression of the disease. This disregard for the health and well-being of black men reveals a deeply ingrained belief in the inferiority of African Americans. • Exploitation: The Tuskegee Study also highlights a troubling pattern of exploitation, as researchers used vulnerable populations for their own gain. The subjects were predominantly poor, African American sharecroppers who were unaware of the true nature of the study and were misled by promises of free medical care. • Neglect: The government's failure to stop the study for 40 years despite ethical concerns and the availability of a cure demonstrates a lack of concern for the lives of African Americans. This neglect underscores broader societal attitudes that devalued black lives and health. 2. Black Attitudes Toward Other Blacks: • Distrust: The Tuskegee Study contributed to a deep-seated distrust of the medical establishment among African Americans. The betrayal of trust by health officials perpetuated a belief that the healthcare system was inherently biased against black people. • Internalization of Racism: The study also highlights how black individuals may internalize negative stereotypes and beliefs about their own community. Some of the participants continued in the study despite its harms, possibly due to internalized racism or a lack of understanding about their rights. • Community Impact: The revelation of the study's unethical practices had a profound impact on the black community, leading to increased skepticism of medical research and healthcare providers. This legacy of distrust continues to affect healthcare disparities and access among African Americans today. In conclusion, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study exposed the pervasive racism and exploitation that characterized the era. It revealed how white attitudes toward blacks were marked by dehumanization, exploitation, and neglect, while black attitudes toward other blacks were shaped by distrust, internalized racism, and the lasting impact of exploitation. The study's legacy serves as a stark reminder of the enduring effects of racism on healthcare and society as a whole. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Charlotte Scott View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right