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This Document Contains Chapters 21 to 22 Chapter 21: The Freedom Movement Multiple Choice Questions 1) How do most white Americans view the 1950s? A) as a difficult time of repression and racial violence B) as a time of stable families and great prosperity C) as a time of great musical developments by blacks D) as a frightening time of worries about nuclear holocaust Answer: B 2) What amendment did the NAACP claim southern states were violating when they lacked black graduate education facilities or refused admittance to blacks? A) the First Amendment B) the Tenth Amendment C) the Fourteenth Amendment D) the Twenty-First Amendment Answer: C 3) What did the Supreme Court decide in Sweatt v. Painter? A) Blacks had no right to be admitted to white law schools if the school had a separate facility of any kind. B) Sweatt had to be admitted to the main law school, not simply given space in the basement of the university. C) Elementary education should not be segregated, as it had a negative effect on young schoolchildren and promoted racism. D) The NAACP had no right to fund the legal education of black students at white schools. Answer: B 4) Which of the following cases involved a young woman who had been denied admission to a law school because she was black? A) Gaines v. Canada B) Sweatt v. Painter C) Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma D) Brown v. Board of Education Answer: C 5) How was the case of Briggs v. Elliot different from prior NAACP cases in education? A) It involved medical-school education, rather than law school. B) It was the first case to involve elementary-school education. C) It was the first successful desegregation case. D) It was a loss for the NAACP and resulted in large setbacks. Answer: B 6) What was the result of the Brown case? A) The court declared that separate educations for blacks and whites were not equal, therefore overturning the Plessy case. B) Blacks were once again denied a right to equal educational opportunities. C) The Supreme Court agreed that segregation was bad but refused to issue a decision in the matter. D) All educational facilities, both private and public, had to be desegregated immediately. Answer: A 7) How does the life and career of Constance Baker Motley symbolize the struggle that black professionals waged during the era? A) She was easily accepted to the nation’s highest law schools and jobs. B) She became the Democrats’ top lawyer in the defense of segregation in schools. C) She struggled to overcome racial barriers to educational and career advancement. D) Her career was destroyed by the combined efforts of the Ku Klux Klan and the U.S. Congress. Answer: C 8) What did the Brown II decision say? A) Schools should desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” B) The Brown decision should be ignored because it was issued without due care. C) The president should enforce the Brown decision with all the resources at his command. D) African Americans should not have to tolerate segregation in any public facility. Answer: A 9) How did President Eisenhower react to the Brown decision? A) He supported it, and used his resources to desegregate the schools. B) He fought the decision at every turn and never assisted blacks in any way. C) He did not accept the ruling completely and refused to back it entirely. D) Eisenhower was unable to enforce Brown because he was so unpopular in office. Answer: C 10) What is true about school desegregation under Brown by 1960? A) About 75 percent of all school systems had been desegregated. B) Only 17 school systems had been desegregated. C) All but a few schools in Alabama and Mississippi had been desegregated. D) No school systems were desegregated under Brown at that time. Answer: B 11) What effect did the lynching of Emmett Till have on young black Americans? A) It frightened many. Young people would take only a small role in the civil rights movement because of their fear. B) It made many young black men turn to violence, crime, and terrorism. C) Because Till had been a war hero, many young blacks enlisted in the army. D) It infuriated many of them and caused them to fight its ever happening again. Answer: D 12) What provoked whites in Money, Mississippi, to lynch Emmett Till? A) Till attempted to register to vote in rural Georgia. B) Till raped a white woman in a large southern city. C) He breached social etiquette—the boy called a white woman "Baby." D) Till was married to a white woman and had several children in the North with her. Answer: C 13) What group was pivotal in early organizing and protest against the segregated buses in Montgomery? A) League of Women Voters B) Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters C) Southern Christian Leadership Conference D) Women's Political Council Answer: D 14) What event sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott? A) the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. B) a dispute over police brutality in the city C) the violence against black men on the buses D) the arrest of Rosa Parks, a civil rights activist Answer: D 15) What did the Supreme Court decide in the case of Browder v. Gayle? A) Whites had a right to segregate under the Fourteenth Amendment. B) Blacks had no right to sue a private facility for discrimination. C) Segregation in public transportation was unconstitutional. D) Law schools had to be open to both blacks and whites. Answer: C 16) When Rosa Parks was arrested, how long did E. D. Nixon and Jo Ann Robinson initially plan for the boycott to last? A) one year B) one month C) one week D) one day Answer: D 17) Who was chosen to lead the new Montgomery Improvement Association? A) E. D. Nixon B) Rosa Parks C) Martin Luther King, Jr. D) Jo Ann Robinson Answer: C 18) What Montgomery group was pivotal in the effectiveness of the boycott? A) The children of the city were pivotal because they persuaded adults to avoid the buses. B) The women of the city, who funded and organized the boycott, were pivotal. C) Martin Luther King, Jr., was the only reason the boycott became a major success. D) The ministers, who were united behind the cause and took great personal risks, were pivotal. Answer: B 19) How did the boycott affect the bus system? A) It did not—whites were able to compensate by riding the buses more regularly. B) The marches and protests completely disrupted the bus routes. C) It had a dramatic effect—it reduced bus ridership by 65 percent. D) It affected the bus system slightly, but it was the lawsuit that was the most effective. Answer: C 20) Because he was perceived as a communist, whom did the FBI stop warning after uncovering threats to his life? A) Bayard Rustin B) Marcus Garvey C) W.E.B. Du Bois D) Martin Luther King, Jr. Answer: D 21) Which of the following is true about the Montgomery Bus Boycott? A) It was a spontaneous action with little planning, history, or effort behind it. B) The bus boycott was a result of years of activism and organization. C) The bus boycott damaged the city's buses but was ultimately unsuccessful. D) It was planned, led, and organized entirely by the capable Martin Luther King, Jr. Answer: B 22) How did white violence impact the development of the civil rights movement? A) It made no impact. B) It helped to end the movement. C) It revealed southern racism to the larger public, extending the movement. D) It found approval as a tactic by the federal government, ending the movement. Answer: C 23) Why did the NAACP decide not to use Claudette Colvin's arrest as a test case on the buses? A) Colvin was a white woman who tried to sit in the black section of the bus, and they wanted a black woman arrested. B) Colvin and her parents were not part of the local black social elite. C) Colvin was too old and in unstable health, and they did not feel she would make it through an arduous trial. D) Colvin had already had her life threatened by white supremacists in Montgomery and Birmingham. Answer: B 24) Why was Rosa Parks arrested on December 1, 1955? A) for organizing the bus boycott B) for sitting in the white section of the bus C) for refusing to move from her seat for a white man D) she was assisting with marches and demonstrations over the boycott Answer: C 25) What group did Martin Luther King, Jr., form to continue the civil rights struggle begun with the Montgomery Bus Boycott? A) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee B) Montgomery Bus Boycott League C) Southern Christian Leadership Council D) Congress of Racial Equality Answer: C 26) How did Orville Faubus react to the Brown decision? A) He completely accepted it. B) He attempted to build a new school for blacks to keep them from integrating. C) He decided to do nothing and was quickly voted out of office by a white supremacist majority of the state. D) He tried to keep blacks from attending the local high school by posting National Guardsmen there. Answer: D 27) Which of the following is true about the Civil Rights Act of 1957? A) The act outlawed poll taxes and literacy tests. B) The act created a commission to study infringements on black voting. C) The act provided an enforcement mechanism for school systems that refused to integrate. D) The act outlawed all discrimination in employment. Answer: B 28) Why did the SCLC form? A) to train black activists in violent protest B) to help get voting rights for whites C) to raise money for civil rights efforts across the country D) to work to spread the ideas of all religions Answer: C 29) What group began to come to the forefront of the civil rights movement beginning in 1960? A) older blacks B) northern whites C) college students D) gays and lesbians Answer: C 30) What tactic did college students begin to employ beginning in 1960? A) the protest bombing B) the boycott C) the musical concert benefit D) the sit-in Answer: D 31) What facilities did Atlanta students specifically target? A) private, restricted clubs B) government-owned facilities, which should have been willing to serve all customers C) Woolworth's lunch counters D) swimming pools and outdoor parks Answer: B 32) What group did students form to continue their activism? A) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee B) Southern Christian Leadership Conference C) Congress of Racial Equality D) Southern Regional Congress Answer: A 33) What was the outcome of the Freedom Rides? A) All of the students made it successfully to New Orleans. B) The students who persevered through Alabama were arrested in Mississippi. C) The students were able to get the buses desegregated after some legal effort. D) The students decided not to continue because they had been frightened so badly. Answer: B 34) What were the Freedom Rides? A) an attempt by whites to destroy the SCLC and SNCC B) an attempt to gain voting rights for blacks C) an interracial ride by students on public transportation through the South D) an effort by the Kennedy administration to publicize black problems in the North Answer: C 35) What adult proved very influential in the formation of SNCC? A) Martin Luther King, Jr. B) Ella Baker C) Bayard Rustin D) Jackie Robinson Answer: B 36) How did many local residents of the southern towns support the students' efforts? A) Southerners never supported black efforts. B) Many southerners moved North at this time as a protest against the South. C) They supported them through economic boycotts of offending businesses. D) They supported them by donating substantial amounts of money to black colleges. Answer: C 37) What is true about the sit-in in Greensboro, North Carolina, in February of 1960? A) It was a completely spontaneous effort, with little planning beforehand. B) It was the first time the sit-in tactic had been used. C) It sparked similar activities and support from the student community. D) It was a complete failure generally. Answer: C 38) How did whites in Alabama react to the Freedom Riders passing through their state? A) They paid little attention because the riders were peaceful and made no trouble. B) They reacted violently, bombing the buses and beating the riders and bystanders. C) They generally supported the black students, as long as they were peaceful and quiet. D) They overwhelmingly supported the students with donations of food, clothes, and money. Answer: B 39) Why did students form the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee rather than join the SCLC? A) They thought that Martin Luther King, Jr., was a communist. B) They didn't agree with the leadership structure of the SCLC. C) They thought that older people did not know anything about segregation. D) They were sympathetic to white interests regarding the civil rights movement. Answer: B 40) Why did the SCLC object to the tactics and methods of SNCC? A) They thought that SNCC was too conservative in accepting segregation. B) They wanted the students to work solely on issues for younger children. C) They thought that SNCC was too radical and disrupted race relations. D) They wanted less control of the movement. Answer: C 41) Who did many African Americans initially support in the election of 1960? A) John F. Kennedy B) Richard Nixon C) George Wallace D) Lyndon B. Johnson Answer: B 42) Early in his administration, how did John F. Kennedy aid the cause of civil rights? A) He appointed numerous blacks to important administrative positions. B) He allowed his brother to put force into the Justice Department's civil rights litigation. C) He required government agencies to stop discrimination in federally supported housing. D) He eliminated segregation in the military, the postal service, and the federal marshal office. Answer: C 43) How did President Kennedy react to the challenges to federal authority posed by southern governors Ross Barnett and George Wallace? A) He approved of their decisions to allow students to attend universities. B) He dispatched federal marshals to ensure that black students were admitted to universities. C) He refused to do anything, allowing them to deny admission to black students. D) He told them verbally he supported their actions, disappointing his black supporters. Answer: B 44) How is King's “Letter from Birmingham Jail” an example of a strategic turning point in the civil rights movement? A) He justified the use of direct action as a way to force change to unjust laws. B) He justified the use of violence in civil rights organizing. C) He revealed he was converting from Christianity to the Muslim faith. D) He foreshadowed his own assassination, noting that he was ready to die for his cause. Answer: A 45) Why did African Americans support John F. Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election? A) Many did not—he was seen as a typical racist from the South. B) Kennedy, as governor of Massachusetts, had hired many blacks into important offices. C) He made several important gestures, including helping King get released from prison. D) Kennedy promised to desegregate the military and housing, and to allow black churches to be exempt from taxation in the South. Answer: C 46) Which state was generally seen as the symbolic center of racism and violence in 1964? A) Florida B) Georgia C) Arkansas D) Mississippi Answer: D 47) What is the relationship between the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965 and the Edmund Pettus Bridge? A) They marchers were allowed to cross peacefully, a great achievement for King. B) They marchers were highly criticized by most middle-class and upper-class blacks. C) The police beat the demonstrators, which was captured on television and accelerated the movement. D) The marchers received notice of the passage of the Civil Rights Act, and the protest became a great celebration. Answer: C 48) What does Map 21-1 reveal regarding the impact of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 on black voting patterns by 1971? A) The Voting Rights Act made no impact on black voting patterns. B) The voting Rights Act led to a decrease in black voters. C) The voting Rights Act led an increase in black voters. D) The Voting Rights Act led to a decrease in white voters. Answer: C 49) Why did COFO recruit northern white students to help with Freedom Summer? A) There were no black students interested. B) They thought the white students would give the project more media attention. C) They thought the white students were more experienced in organizing activities. D) They wanted some younger people to balance the age ratio. Answer: B 50) Why did the Civil Rights movement begin to change in the early 1960s? A) the Albany Movement and the Birmingham March B) the Albany Movement and King's assassination C) Nixon’s election to the presidency and the Vietnam War D) Kennedy's assassination and the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Answer: D True/False Questions 51) For most white Americans, the 1950s were an era of unparalleled decline in income and living standards. Answer: False 52) A year after the Brown decision, in May 1955, the Supreme Court issued a second ruling, commonly known as Brown II, which addressed the practical process of desegregation. Answer: True 53) In 1955 and early 1956, desegregation of education proceeded without hindrance in Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Answer: True 54) Although women occupied the top leadership positions in the Montgomery Bus boycott, men were the key to its effectiveness. Answer: False 55) The results of the Montgomery bus boycott included blacks returning to riding segregated buses. Answer: False 56) The results of the civil rights movement indicate the failure of the tactic of non- violent civil disobedience. Answer: False 57) Because the ballot was deemed the critical weapon needed to complete school desegregation and equal access to public accommodations, the SCLC focused on securing voting rights for black people. Answer: True 58) The Montgomery bus boycott set an example for future civil rights protests by blacks throughout the South. Answer: True 59) The results of Kennedy’s efforts to woo black voters through campaign statements supporting black protests were unsuccessful in the 1960 presidential campaign. Answer: False 60) In his speech for the 1963 March on Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr., cast aside his prepared remarks and made a passionate speech; his passionate delivery and his declaration of the rights of black people gave the speech its great power. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) In 1944 the Supreme Court decided in the case of ______________ v. Allwright that white primaries unconstitutional. Answer: Smith 62) The backlash of the ______________ decision on the NAACP included the closing of over 200 of its branches. Answer: Brown 63) The response of white southerners to the Brown decision was massive ______________. Answer: resistance 64) White Citizen’s ______________ formed in numerous southern cities after the Brown decision to “preserve the southern way of life.” Answer: Councils 65) An all-white jury acquitted the two men who lynched Emmett Till in ______________. Answer: Mississippi 66) The relationship of ______________ ______________ to the civil rights movement is akin to the relationship of mother to children. Answer: Rosa Parks 67) The Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) led by the Rev. Fred ______________ orchestrated campaigns of boycotts, pickets, and demonstrations during the civil rights movement. Answer: Shuttlesworth 68) Both President ______________ and President Kennedy took decisive action in their responses to challenges to their authority during the civil rights movement. Answer: Eisenhower 69) On August 28, 1963 nearly 250,000 marchers gathered before the ______________ Memorial to support the civil rights bill and the movement at large. Answer: Lincoln 70) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination in places of ______________ accommodation, including restaurants, hotels, gas stations, and entertainment facilities, as well as schools, parks, playgrounds, libraries, and swimming pools. Answer: public Short Answer Questions 71) Why is the decade of the 1950s known as the era of prosperity and prejudice? Answer: The 1950s is known as the era of prosperity due to the economic boom, technological advancements, and the growth of the middle class. However, it is also referred to as the era of prejudice because of the prevalent racial segregation, discrimination against women, and the anti-communist McCarthy era witch hunts. 72) How did people outside the city of Montgomery assist with the boycott? Answer: People outside Montgomery supported the boycott by organizing carpools to help African Americans commute, fundraising for legal fees, and spreading awareness through their churches and community groups. Additionally, some individuals and organizations, like the NAACP, provided legal and financial support to the boycotters. 73) How does the life of Rosa Parks reflect the African-American experience during the era? Answer: Rosa Parks' life reflects the African-American experience during the era by highlighting the struggles against racial segregation and discrimination. Her act of defiance on the bus in Montgomery symbolized the broader push for civil rights and equality. Parks' subsequent involvement in the civil rights movement further exemplified the determination and resilience of African Americans in the face of adversity. 74) What was the relationship between Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Montgomery Bus Boycott? Answer: Martin Luther King Jr. played a crucial role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott as a leader and spokesperson. His leadership skills, eloquence, and commitment to nonviolent resistance were instrumental in the success of the boycott. King's involvement in the boycott also catapulted him to national prominence as a key figure in the civil rights movement. 75) Why were blacks disappointed with the Civil Rights Act of 1957? Answer: Blacks were disappointed with the Civil Rights Act of 1957 because it was relatively weak and did not address key issues such as voting rights and desegregation of schools. The Act was seen as a compromise, and many felt it did not go far enough in addressing systemic racism and discrimination. Essay Questions 76) What was the relationship between the NAACP strategy regarding graduate education and grade-school education? How did the organization change its strategy over time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the older NAACP strategy as asking for separate but equal facilities. 2. Note that initially, the NAACP focused on legal cases in which young black undergraduates were attempting to gain admission to graduate schools, particularly law schools. This strategy was effective in the 1930s and 1940s in gaining blacks admission to law schools for the first time, a major blow to segregation. 3. Note that the NAACP viewed the graduate student cases as a stepping stone to compelling the court to rule against the Plessy doctrine of separate but equal facilities. They wanted to win under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. 4. Conclude that the organization changed it strategy over time by taking up cases of kindergarten through high school black students trying to integrate public southern high schools like Little Rock High School in 1957. Sample Answer: The NAACP's strategy regarding graduate education and grade-school education was rooted in its broader goal of achieving racial equality and desegregation in all facets of society. Initially, the NAACP focused on graduate education, believing that achieving desegregation in higher education would have a trickle-down effect on grade-school education. This strategy was based on the idea that victories in graduate education would set legal precedents and create momentum for desegregation efforts in other areas. Over time, however, the NAACP shifted its strategy to prioritize grade-school education. This change was influenced by several factors, including the slow progress in desegregating graduate schools, the urgent need to address the immediate impact of segregation on African American children, and the growing recognition of the importance of early education in shaping future opportunities. The NAACP's focus on grade-school education culminated in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case, which led to the desegregation of public schools and marked a significant victory in the civil rights movement. 77) Why did the lynching of Emmett Till take place? What effect did it have on the civil rights movement? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Emmett Till was a Chicago black native who went to Mississippi to visit relatives, and flirted with a white woman in a grocery store. 2. Note that he was killed by two white male relatives of the woman. 3. Explain that a legal case ensued after which the two white men were acquitted despite obvious evidence of their guilt before a white jury. 4. His body was shown to the public in Chicago where it made a media impact that reached the black public which was angered at the miscarriage of justice. 5. Conclude that this murder fed the flames of black discontent and helped steel blacks to the necessity of non-violent protest. Sample Answer: The lynching of Emmett Till took place in 1955 in Mississippi after he was accused of whistling at a white woman. The exact circumstances of Till's interaction with the woman remain unclear, but his brutal murder was a result of deep-seated racism and a culture of white supremacy that prevailed in the southern United States at the time. The men responsible for Till's death were acquitted by an all-white jury, highlighting the systemic racism in the criminal justice system. Till's lynching had a profound impact on the civil rights movement. His mother, Mamie Till-Mobley, insisted on an open casket funeral, which drew national attention to the brutality of racial violence in the South. The photographs of Till's mutilated body published in Jet magazine shocked the nation and galvanized support for the civil rights movement. Many historians cite Till's murder as a catalyst for the civil rights movement, sparking a new wave of activism and strengthening the resolve of those fighting for racial justice. 78) How do events at Little Rock High School in 1957 reveal the approach to civil rights practiced by the Eisenhower administration? How did Little Rock shape the civil rights movement? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Eisenhower was a racist whose approach to the civil rights movement was to respond only to blatant violations of the federal supremacy of the executive branch, 2. Note that this was proven in the case of Eisenhower’s dispatch of the U.S. Army to suppress the Arkansas National Guard ordered out to stop black youth from integrating Little Rock High School in 1957. 3. Conclude that the Little Rock incident helped to further polarize southern whites from the federal government and blacks in the civil rights movement. Other southern states dug in their heels and resisted desegregation of public schools. Sample Answer: The events at Little Rock Central High School in 1957 revealed the Eisenhower administration's approach to civil rights, which was marked by a cautious and moderate stance. When the Little Rock Nine, a group of African American students, attempted to integrate the previously all-white school, they faced violent opposition from segregationists and were initially prevented from entering the school by the Arkansas National Guard, acting under orders from Governor Orval Faubus. In response, President Eisenhower reluctantly intervened by federalizing the National Guard and sending federal troops to escort the students into the school, ensuring their safety and enforcing the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. However, Eisenhower's intervention was seen as a reluctant and minimal response, reflecting his administration's cautious approach to civil rights and its reluctance to challenge segregation head-on. The events at Little Rock had a significant impact on the civil rights movement. They highlighted the resistance to desegregation in the South and the need for federal intervention to enforce civil rights laws. The images of African American students facing jeering crowds and armed soldiers sparked outrage across the country and helped mobilize support for the civil rights movement. Little Rock also led to increased activism and efforts to desegregate schools and other public institutions, contributing to the momentum of the civil rights movement in the years that followed. 79) Why were the sit-ins organized? What results did the sit-ins achieve? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the sit-ins as a spontaneous reaction driven by a small group of black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina, who wanted to desegregate lunch counters in their southern college town. The sit-ins were the direct opposite of boycotts, reflecting changes in tactics towards a more confrontational style to achieve more civil rights. 2. Note that the young men had wanted to strike a blow against segregation and invented a new strategy. 3. Note that the results of the sit-ins included a rolling movement that led to sit- ins and occupations in other cities and helped inspire more confrontational tactics such as the Freedom Rides throughout the South. 4. Conclude that the involvement of local black people in supporting the sit-ins helped to increase the base of organized civil rights workers during the early 1960s. Sample Answer: The sit-ins were organized in response to widespread racial segregation and discrimination in public places, particularly in restaurants and lunch counters. African American students, inspired by the teachings of nonviolent resistance, sought to challenge segregation by peacefully sitting at segregated lunch counters and refusing to leave until they were served. The sit-ins aimed to draw attention to the injustices of segregation, to demonstrate the dignity and resolve of African Americans, and to provoke a moral awakening in society. The sit-ins achieved several important results. They drew national and international attention to the civil rights movement and the issue of segregation. They also helped galvanize support for the movement, as many people were shocked by the violent reactions of segregationists to the peaceful protests. The sit-ins led to the desegregation of many public accommodations and helped pave the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed segregation in public places. Additionally, the sit-ins empowered a new generation of activists and demonstrated the effectiveness of nonviolent resistance as a tactic for social change. 80) What challenges did the civil rights movement experience in 1963? What strategies did King choose to utilize? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Note that in 1963 the movement appeared to be stalled. Southern black communities were strong and well organized, but their efforts had achieved only modest changes. It was impossible to overcome the power of southern governments without the intervention of the federal government, but national politicians remained reluctant to act unless faced with open defiance by white people or with televised violence against peaceful protesters. 2. Point out that King and other black leaders knew that if city governments throughout the South followed the model of Sheriff Pritchett in Albany, the civil rights movement might lose momentum. 3. Note that to rejuvenate the movement, SCLC decided to launch a massive new campaign of boycotts, pickets, and demonstrations code-named “Project C for Confrontation.” Their program would be far more extensive than any before, including demands to integrate public facilities and the desegregation of schools. 4. Note that King’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” helped to further define the confrontational but non-violent nature of the civil rights strategy. 5. Conclude that the Birmingham movement of public non-violent protest had lost momentum because many of the protesters either were in jail or could not risk new arrests. King and other leaders believed it was necessary to risk harm to children to ensure their freedom. A “children’s crusade” involving thousands of youths, some as young as six, marched which enraged “Bull” Connor and his officers. The police not only arrested the children but flailed away with nightsticks and set dogs on them. 6. Conclude that the increase of mass direct action pushed Congress to pass greater civil rights legislation over the next several years. Sample Answer: In 1963, the civil rights movement faced significant challenges, including continued resistance to desegregation in the South, increasing violence against civil rights activists, and internal divisions within the movement. One of the key challenges was the resistance to the desegregation of Birmingham, Alabama, where the campaign led by Martin Luther King Jr. faced fierce opposition from local authorities and segregationists. To address these challenges, King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) adopted a strategy of nonviolent direct action, including sit-ins, marches, and boycotts, to confront segregation and discrimination. The Birmingham campaign, in particular, aimed to draw national attention to the brutality of segregationist policies and to provoke a moral outcry that would pressure authorities to enact change. King also emphasized the importance of nonviolent resistance as a means of achieving social change, believing that nonviolent protest could win the moral high ground and appeal to the conscience of white Americans. This strategy was exemplified by the famous "Letter from Birmingham Jail," in which King defended the use of nonviolent direct action and called on white moderates to join the cause of justice. Despite facing intense repression and violence, the civil rights movement in 1963 achieved significant victories, including the desegregation of Birmingham and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where King delivered his iconic "I Have a Dream" speech. These events helped to galvanize support for civil rights legislation and marked a turning point in the struggle for racial equality in America. Chapter 22: Black Nationalism, Black Power, Black Arts Multiple Choice Questions 1) What was the first political organization to adopt a black panther as its symbol? A) the Black Panther Party B) the Democratic Black Activist Party C) the Africa Free Liberation Party D) the Lowndes County Freedom Organization Answer: D 2) To what religion or denomination did Malcolm Little convert while in prison? A) Baptist B) African Episcopalian Methodist C) Nation of Islam D) the Peace Mission Movement Answer: C 3) What types of programs did the Black Panthers start in urban areas? A) programs to increase the prison inmate population B) programs to educate people about the importance of experimenting with drugs C) programs to instill racial pride D) programs to educate blacks about white history Answer: C 4) What sparked the uprising at Attica Prison in New York? A) the murder of a black prison guard by white inmates B) the rape of a white prison nurse by a black inmate C) George Jackson's killing by a white prison guard D) the revelation that a leader of the prison inmates was an FBI informant Answer: C 5) How did California demonstrate in 1964 that it was opposed to racial desegregation? A) It did not—California has always been at the forefront of legislation promoting racial equity. B) Although it was later declared unconstitutional, Californians approved a law allowing voter registration solely on the basis of race. C) It passed a state constitutional amendment repealing all legislation banning discrimination in housing. D) Californians passed a law in that year promoting segregated schools and abolishing some public schools in mostly black areas. Answer: C 6) How did the candidacy of George Wallace fare in the presidential election of 1964? A) Wallace did surprisingly well in several states outside the South. B) Wallace received almost no support in any area. C) Wallace was beaten very narrowly by Johnson in the primaries. D) Wallace received the support of all the Deep South states, but no others. Answer: A 7) What was Malcolm X’s view before 1964 about changing black people's status in America? A) He thought that police did not abuse black people. B) He rejected integration with whites in any fashion. C) He felt that real revolution would come only through peace with whites. D) He hoped to work with the NAACP and Martin Luther King, Jr., to effect change. Answer: B 8) How did Malcolm X's views change after his visit to Mecca in 1964? A) He began to favor segregation and subordination for blacks. B) He renounced his former view that all whites were evil and racist. C) He began speaking for the use of violence and force to overcome racism. D) He began to insist that all blacks move to Africa. Answer: B 9) How did Stokely Carmichael change SNCC around 1965? A) He expelled all white members. B) He began to admit whites. C) He forced all members to renounce nonviolence and Christianity. D) He set age limits on group members to allow only college-age students to be members. Answer: A 10) What did Carmichael say that the slogan “Black Power” meant? A) reverse discrimination, favoring blacks over whites in all areas and by any means necessary B) positive self-identity, racial pride, and independent economic and political power C) the removal of segregation D) Carmichael never really defined “Black Power.” Answer: B 11) Why did the Black Panthers alarm white Americans? A) They advocated self-defense and frequently patrolled black neighborhoods with guns. B) They were stressing a return to segregation, which had become unpopular. C) They advocated violence against all whites, regardless of political views. D) They hoped to move all African Americans to Africa, thereby removing an important part of the labor force. Answer: A 12) What was a primary complaint among black communities that experienced riots from 1965 to 1969? A) charges of black men raping white women B) charges of police brutality or unfair, discriminatory practices C) charges that blacks had been trying to exercise political power D) charges that food prices were too low in black neighborhoods. Answer: B 13) What problem did the Kerner Commission blame for the riots of 1967? A) unfair drafting practices in the U.S. Army B) widespread hunger among African Americans C) blacks attempting to make too many gains too fast D) white racism and the unequal treatment of blacks by whites Answer: D 14) Which of the following was a Great Society program? A) the Civilian Conservation Corps B) the Freedmen’s Bureau C) the Social Security Act D) Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) Answer: D 15) What were conditions like for most urban blacks during the 1960s? A) Economically, most blacks were far worse off than white Americans. B) Most urban blacks were gaining in status and prestige at the time. C) Most urban blacks were doing far better than urban whites at the time. D) Urban blacks and urban whites were at about the same economic level. Answer: A 16) How did President Johnson respond to the riots in the summer of 1967? A) He began drafting more black men from those areas for the war. B) He ignored the riots and hoped that they would die down in the future. C) He established a commission to investigate the conflicts and arrive at solutions. D) He declared martial law in large urban areas for the summer and restored the peace. Answer: C 17) Why did the Newark, New Jersey, riot take place in 1967? A) Newark had the most highly educated black population in the nation. B) Newark had the highest level of employed mothers with teenaged children. C) The city had the highest unemployment rate for black men in the nation. D) Newark was one of the only segregated cities in the North. Answer: C 18) Why were people surprised by the Detroit riot in the summer of 1967? A) Detroit had already had a large riot the summer before and things seemed quieter. B) Detroit had a history of racial confrontations and riots. C) Detroit was a model city for race relations, especially regarding Motown. D) Detroit blacks were among the best paid in the country. Answer: C 19) Why did some politicians oppose the Great Society? A) They did not want poor people to have access to voting. B) They felt that the programs ignored poverty issues. C) They thought the programs benefitted whites too much. D) Some Democrats thought that the policies favored the rich. Answer: A 20) Why did the Great Society programs decline? A) the election of Richard Nixon B) the Black Power movement C) Johnson loss of interest in creating the Great Society D) Johnson's increased spending on the Vietnam War Answer: D 21) Who was the leader of the Vietnamese Communists in 1945 and after? A) Kim Il Sung B) Nguyen Minh C) Vo Nguyen Giap D) Ho Chi Minh Answer: D 22) What was a goal of the Poor People's Campaign? A) to help poor people gain access to health care B) to help poor people clean up their neighborhoods C) to secure a federally guaranteed minimum income for everyone D) to receive better treatment from police, who constantly victimized poor blacks Answer: C 23) Who murdered Martin Luther King, Jr.? A) Don L. Lee B) Richard Daly C) Louis Farrakhan D) James Early Ray Answer: D 24) How did King feel about the Vietnam War after 1966? A) He became more supportive of the war as the United States began defeating the communists there. B) He never made a public statement about the war. C) He was increasingly critical of the war as well as the idea that blacks should fight for a country that wouldn't guarantee or protect their civil rights. D) He vacillated constantly over the war and never really came to a firm position before his death. Answer: C 25) How did the Vietnamese see the Americans after the defeat of the French in 1954? A) as liberators from French domination B) as role models in the attempt to restore democracy C) as freedom fighters, helping them win their independence from China D) as another white colonial power attempting to keep them from independence Answer: D 26) How did Johnson feel about U.S. involvement in Vietnam? A) He thought if he fought the war in Vietnam, he would gain more support for his domestic programs. B) He was very excited about the war and a chance to beat the communists and prove American military superiority. C) He had mixed feelings. He did not want to lose the war to the communists, but he knew it would hurt his Great Society programs. D) Johnson had repeatedly looked for ways to get out of Vietnam since taking office. Answer: C 27) How did Vietnam affect black participation in the armed forces? A) Vietnam witnessed a return to segregated military forces. B) Blacks were relegated to menial tasks and rarely fought in combat roles. C) Blacks refused to serve in the Vietnam War, thinking it was a white man's war. D) Blacks served in increasing percentages and were sent out for combat frequently. Answer: D 28) How did Lyndon Johnson react to the Tet Offensive? A) He decided to step up military maneuvers in Vietnam. B) He said he would halt the bombing of South Vietnam. C) He said he would halt the bombing of North Vietnam to encourage the start of peace negotiations. D) He announced that he would run for another term as president. Answer: C 29) Why was Project 100,000 formed? A) a program designed to increase the number of draftees for the Vietnam War by lowering standards B) a program designed to help 100,000 more young blacks get into traditionally white colleges and universities C) a program to give money to the poorest 100,000 families in America, most of them black D) a program to give medical insurance to the 100,000 people injured in urban riots during the 1960s Answer: A 30) Why did King begin plans for the Poor People's Campaign in 1967? A) After working briefly in Chicago, he realized that racial discrimination and economics were closely linked. B) His advisors notified him that he was losing support among poor people in the cities because he had done little to help their economic situation. C) The Poor People's Campaign was actually a program initiated by Lyndon Johnson. D) King hoped to gain the support of the poor when he ran for president in 1968. Answer: A 31) Who was the “Godfather of Soul”? A) Berry Gordy B) Chuck Berry C) Miles Davis D) James Brown Answer: D 32) Who found jazz music the most important and influential during the black arts movement? A) the general black population B) black intellectuals C) white intellectuals D) black women Answer: B 33) Who was often considered the most popular black writer of the black arts movement? A) Leroy Jones B) Richard Wright C) James Baldwin D) Martin Luther King, Jr. Answer: C 34) What event is generally seen as starting the second phase of the black student movement? A) the Attica Prison Revolt B) the first sit-ins in the 1960s C) the Orangeburg Massacre D) the death of Malcolm X Answer: C 35) Which college created the first black studies department in 1968? A) University of California at Berkeley B) San Francisco State College C) Harvard University D) University of Alabama Answer: B 36) What is the connection of poetry to the black arts movement? A) It combined sounds and rhythms of the street, music, and religious sermons. B) It was published by a variety of journals in Chicago, Detroit, and New York. C) It used very formal language to dramatize the effects of white society on black life. D) The only poetry published was by black men. Answer: A 37) What did the black arts movement see as the role of art in black life? A) Art should be uplifting and simply provide an escape from everyday life's worries. B) Art should be combined with involvement in politics and community life to help blacks gain status. C) Art had no role in culture, and blacks should focus on combating political and social discrimination. D) All art forms came originally from Africa. Answer: B 38) Why was the black arts movement criticized? A) for being racist against whites and Asians B) for being overly concerned with racial equality C) for being too male-centered and homophobic D) for taking advantage of working-class people Answer: C 39) Why did jazz become so important to many blacks? A) Jazz was very controlled and rhythmic, and stressed classical learning. B) Jazz required greater understanding of art and literature than any other music form. C) Jazz challenged Western views of music and gave blacks self-expression. D) Jazz was invented in Europe. Answer: C 40) Why was Berry Gordy significant in black music and life? A) He was the first black presidential candidate and founded Motown. B) He contributed to the civil rights movement through the production of black music and by financing important ventures. C) He helped to stop Detroit race riots, both in 1957 and 1967, by appealing to the black community and police to avoid violence. D) He was the primary politician behind the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Answer: B 41) Why did the Orangeburg Massacre take place? A) Students protested a lynching of a local political activist. B) Students at a predominantly black college protested a bowling facility. C) The police attempted to stop college students from voting in a local town. D) White politicians in the area attempted to reintroduce segregation in schools. Answer: B 42) Why did colleges begin to form black studies departments in the late 1960s and early 1970s? A) They began to feel that black studies were important, even before blacks became students there. B) They were forced to form black studies departments by the Supreme Court. C) More blacks entered white colleges and began to demand courses of relevance to them. D) Local NAACP groups demanded such programs or they would riot and form protests. Answer: C 43) What issues did George Wallace, a candidate in the 1968 presidential election, stress? A) He pressed for additional rights for blacks and the initiation of affirmative action programs in the states. B) He stressed using more blacks in the military in Vietnam. C) He denounced desegregation and civil rights and approved of repression of demonstrators. D) He proved that black women were treated unfairly in defense industries. Answer: C 44) What did the “Moynihan Report” view as the main source of economic and civil problems among blacks? A) the “breakdown” of the black family, with too many families led by single women B) police brutality in the cities C) the lack of role models for black children D) the laziness and lack of work ethic among most blacks Answer: A 45) What occurred in Boston when a judge ordered several schools to desegregate by busing students to different areas? A) Whites accepted the proposal enthusiastically. B) Black parents and students rioted against police, with much racial violence continuing. C) White parents and students rioted against police, with much racial violence continuing. D) President Nixon refused to enforce the order, making it ineffective. Answer: C 46) Who became the first black mayor of a major American city in 1967? A) Vernon Jordan of Jackson B) Richard Daley of New York City C) Carl Stokes of Cleveland D) Martin Luther King of Atlanta Answer: C 47) How did the Voting Rights Act impact black voting power outside the South? A) It had virtually no impact—blacks there had been voting and getting significant political power for some time. B) It had a widespread effect, as blacks voted to demonstrate political power and voice. C) It had a marginal effect because the courts failed to enforce it. D) It had no effect because the Voting Rights Act only applied to the South. Answer: B 48) How is Ernest Green an example of a successful black civil rights activist during the era? A) He was a rioter in the late 1960s who reformed and became a nonviolent activist. B) He was a Baptist minister who defied southern segregationists and lynch mobs on many occasions. C) He was a Little Rock Nine student who became the assistant secretary of labor under President Carter. D) He was a veteran of World War II who founded many chapters of the NAACP throughout the South. Answer: C 49) How does Shirley Chisholm’s speech to the House of Representatives in 1969 reflect black viewpoints about the Vietnam War by the late 1960s? A) She was indifferent, as were most blacks to the impact of the war. B) She praised the U.S. effort in Vietnam as socially uplifting to African Americans and the Vietnamese. C) She lambasted the federal government for wasting human lives and taxpayer dollars on the war in Vietnam. D) She ignored the Vietnam War entirely in her speech and focused on the domestic problems of President Carter. Answer: C 50) What was the main difference between the winning mayoral campaigns of Carl Stokes and Richard Hatcher? A) Hatcher openly espoused racism and segregation, while Stokes stood for black civil rights. B) Hatcher won with a very small percentage of white votes, while Stokes won through an interracial effort. C) Stokes ran as a Black Panther, while Hatcher ran as a Democrat. D) Hatcher was endorsed and supported by Martin Luther King Jr. Answer: B True/False Questions 51) The Watergate break-in exemplifies the excesses of power undertaken by President Nixon and his inner circle of loyalists during the early 1970s. Answer: True 52) The 1970s were a decade of recessions and economic instability. Answer: True 53) During the 1970s, the gap between the incomes of the upper 20 percent of African Americans and their white counterparts narrowed, but the gap between black men and women at the bottom of the economic ladder and their white counterparts expanded. Answer: True 54) The black middle class grew during the 1970s: In 1970, 4.7 percent of black families had incomes of more than $50,000. By 1986 the number had almost doubled to 8.8 percent. Answer: True 55) In the 1976 election, ninety percent of African-American voters favored Jimmy Carter, a soft-spoken, religious Democrat, over President Gerald Ford. Answer: True 56) Without black votes, Jimmy Carter could still have carried his native South in the presidential election of 1976. Answer: False 57) Most African Americans found Carter’s overall record unsatisfactory because he failed to help Democrats in Congress pass either full-employment or universal health care bills. Answer: True 58) During the Carter administration, Congress increased social welfare programs to balance the budget and raised funding for school lunch programs and student financial aid. Answer: False 59) The results of the 1980 presidential race included reelection for Jimmy Carter in part because 90 percent of blacks voted for him. Answer: False 60) The rise of black power and the Voting Rights Act enabled blacks to engage in the electoral process and achieve political influence over polices that impacted black communities. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) Both Martin Luther King, Jr., and ______________ ______________ were assassinated in 1968. Answer: Robert Kennedy 62) The “______________ Report” included the idea that the inner city had destroyed the black family. Answer: Moynihan 63) The results of Nixon’s “______________ strategy” entailed alignment of the Republican Party with the white southern backlash against the civil rights movement, weakening the New Deal coalition. Answer: southern 64) President Nixon’s naming of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, one of President Johnson’s experts on social policy, to be his ______________ policy adviser illustrates his willingness to innovate in policies affecting African Americans. Answer: domestic 65) Educational ______________ in the North reflected residential segregation in cities like Boston where schools in black neighborhoods received less funding than their white counterparts. Answer: segregation 66) President Jimmy Carter acknowledged his debt to the black electorate by appointing blacks to highly visible posts, such as Patricia ______________ as secretary of housing and urban development, making her the first black woman to serve in the cabinet. Answer: Harris 67) President Jimmy Carter appointed Andrew ______________, former congressman from Georgia and a longtime political ally, as ambassador to the United Nations. Answer: Young 68) The Justice Department under the Carter administration chose cases to prosecute under the Fair ______________ Act that involved widespread discrimination, to make the greatest possible impact. Answer: Housing 69) A sluggish economy diminished Carter’s popularity, but it was the ______________ hostage crisis in 1979 that doomed his chances for reelection. Answer: Iran 70) The ______________ Convention of 1972 uncovered the political tensions that had developed within the black community since the civil rights movement had achieved major successes during the 1960s. Answer: Gary Short Answer Questions 71) How did the goals and tactics of the civil rights movement change during the late 1960s? Answer: In the late 1960s, the civil rights movement shifted towards broader goals, including economic justice and opposition to the Vietnam War. Tactics became more militant, with groups like the Black Panthers advocating armed self-defense. The movement also focused on urban issues and poverty, as seen in Martin Luther King Jr.'s Poor People's Campaign. 72) What was the connection of Stokely Carmichael to SNCC over time? Answer: Stokely Carmichael initially joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the early 1960s and became its chairman in 1966. Over time, he shifted SNCC's focus towards Black Power and self-defense, eventually leaving the organization in 1967 due to ideological differences. 73) How did the policies of the Great Society relate to the challenges impacting blacks in the 1960s? Answer: The Great Society policies aimed to address poverty and inequality, which disproportionately affected African Americans in the 1960s. Programs like the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 were part of this effort. However, many challenges remained, including ongoing discrimination and economic disparities. 74) Why did the war in Vietnam frustrate Johnson and his War on Poverty? Answer: The war in Vietnam diverted resources and attention away from Johnson's War on Poverty. The cost of the war limited the funds available for domestic programs, making it difficult to fully implement poverty alleviation measures. Additionally, the war sparked social unrest and protests, further distracting from efforts to address poverty. 75) Why and how were the 1970s an era of economic growth for many poor and working-class blacks? Answer: The 1970s saw economic growth for many poor and working-class blacks due to increased opportunities resulting from civil rights gains in the 1960s. Affirmative action policies opened up employment and educational opportunities, and programs like Medicaid and food stamps helped alleviate poverty. Additionally, the expansion of government jobs and the growth of the black middle class contributed to economic improvement for many. Essay Questions 76) Why did Malcolm X develop the types of views he had regarding the improvement of blacks' position in society? Who did he inspire and who were his critics? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Malcolm X lived a difficult childhood, experienced racial abuse, imprisonment, and then a later conversion to the Nation of Islam, whose values argued for the self-segregation of blacks to improve their own communities through their own efforts that did not include the vote but might include retaliatory violence in self-defense. 2. Point out that Malcolm X inspired many black prisoners as well as Nation of Islam members and the black urban working class and poor. 3. Note that his critics were the federal government and all its branches, as well as most white Americans. 4. Note that the media found him fascinating and gave him air time while the mainstream civil rights movement found his tactics to be too radical, violent, and dangerous. Many thought him to be a communist influenced by Fidel Castro and Mao Tse Tung. Sample Answer: Malcolm X developed his views on improving the position of blacks in society through his experiences with racism, his study of history and philosophy, and his involvement with the Nation of Islam (NOI). He believed in black self-determination, self-defense, and the need for black pride and unity. He inspired many in the black community, especially those who felt disillusioned with the nonviolent approach of the civil rights movement, and his message resonated with those seeking more radical change. Malcolm X also had critics, both within and outside the black community. Some civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr., criticized his confrontational approach and his views on race relations. Critics within the NOI and other black nationalist groups disagreed with his eventual move towards more inclusive and less separatist views after his pilgrimage to Mecca. Overall, Malcolm X's views reflected a complex response to the injustices faced by African Americans, and his legacy continues to inspire and provoke debate. 77) What is the relationship of the Kerner Commission to the urban riots of the late 1960s? How did its recommendations reveal the limitations of government reforms up to that time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the Kerner Commission, headed by Illinois Governor Otto Kerner, was convened by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate and report out as to why the riots of 1967 took place in Detroit and Newark. Two blacks served on the committee, Roy Wilkins who was director of the NAACP, and a black Republican Party Senator from Massachusetts. 2. Explain that in its final report, released in 1968, the Kerner Commission indicted white racism as the underlying cause of the riots and warned that America was “moving towards two societies, one white, one black—separate and unequal. . . . 3. Note that the report called for massive government aid to the cities, including funds for public housing, better and more integrated schools, two million new jobs, and funding for a “national system of income supplementation.” 4. Conclude that none of its major proposals was enacted. Sample Answer: The Kerner Commission, officially known as the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967 to investigate the causes of urban riots that occurred in cities across the United States in the late 1960s. The commission's report, published in 1968, concluded that the riots were primarily the result of systemic racism and poverty, particularly in African American communities. The Kerner Commission's recommendations revealed the limitations of government reforms up to that time by highlighting the failure of existing policies to address the root causes of urban unrest. The report called for sweeping reforms, including investment in job training, education, and housing in inner-city areas, as well as efforts to combat discrimination in housing and employment. However, many of these recommendations were not fully implemented, and the riots continued in subsequent years. Overall, the Kerner Commission's findings and recommendations exposed the deep-seated inequalities and injustices faced by African Americans and underscored the need for more comprehensive and sustained efforts to address these issues. 78) How did Nixon relate to black struggles and the civil rights movement during his political tenure? In what ways did he symbolize the post-World War II Republican agenda regarding race relations? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Nixon presidency as pro-civil rights because Nixon wanted to secure black voters. 2. Note that he opposed forced busing of white and black students to high schools as a way to placate southern whites. 3. Explain Nixon’s “southern strategy” which entailed bringing enticing traditional white southern Democrats into the Republican Party by emphasizing the problems of civil rights legislation. 4. Point out that he symbolized the Republican Party attempt to destroy the New Deal coalition that had elected every Democrat to the presidency since FDR. 5. Conclude that Nixon was relatively atypical as a Republican president since U.S Grant for his attempt to meet the needs of black voters. Sample Answer: Richard Nixon's relationship with black struggles and the civil rights movement during his political tenure was complex. Initially, Nixon was seen as a supporter of civil rights, having voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the Civil Rights Act of 1960 during his time in Congress. However, as a presidential candidate in 1968, Nixon adopted a "law and order" platform, appealing to white voters who were wary of the civil rights movement and urban unrest. Nixon's administration took some positive steps for civil rights, such as implementing affirmative action policies and desegregating Southern schools. However, Nixon also opposed busing as a means of achieving school desegregation and sought to limit the reach of the Voting Rights Act. Nixon's approach to race relations symbolized the post-World War II Republican agenda, which focused on appealing to white voters, particularly in the South, by opposing federal intervention in civil rights issues. Nixon's "Southern strategy," aimed at winning over disaffected white Southern Democrats, highlighted the Republican Party's shift towards a more conservative stance on racial issues. Overall, Nixon's legacy regarding race relations is mixed, with some positive steps taken but also a willingness to exploit racial divisions for political gain, reflecting broader trends within the Republican Party during the post-World War II era. 79) Why was the Moynihan report so harshly criticized? What does this response reveal about the progression of race relations at that time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define Moynihan as assistant secretary of labor whose leaked memorandum became known as the “Moynihan Report.” 2. Explain that the report noted that Moynihan’s guiding assumption was that civil rights legislation, necessary as it was, would not address the problems of the inner city. There, he argued, the breakdown of the “lower-class” black family had led to the “pathology” of juvenile delinquency, illegitimacy, drug addiction, and poor performance in school. 3. Note that he attributed the vulnerability of the black family to “three centuries of almost unimaginable treatment” by white society: exploitation under slavery, the strain of urbanization, and persistent unemployment. 4. The report was harshly criticized for its condemnation of “matriarchy.” Black social scientists, such as Joyce Ladner, Andrew Billingsley, and Carol Stack, countered that the structure of the black family reflected a functional adaptation that black people had made to survive in a hostile and racist American society. Historians Herbert Gutman and John Blassingame argued that Moynihan underestimated the prevalence of two-parent black families in the past. 5. Conclude that the response reveals the rise of black power and community self-development as a new strategy of uplift that rejected the older notion of white leadership and analysis. Sample Answer: The Moynihan Report, officially titled "The Negro Family: The Case For National Action," was a controversial government report published in 1965 by then-Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan. The report argued that the high rates of poverty and social dysfunction among African Americans were largely the result of a "tangle of pathology" within the black family structure, particularly the prevalence of single-parent households headed by women. The report was harshly criticized for several reasons. Critics argued that it placed blame on African Americans for their own disadvantaged position in society, ignoring the broader context of systemic racism and economic inequality. They also argued that the report's focus on family structure oversimplified complex social issues and ignored the impact of historical injustices such as slavery and segregation. The response to the Moynihan Report reveals the progression of race relations at that time. While the report was published during the height of the civil rights movement and efforts to address racial inequality, its critics saw it as a step backward, reinforcing negative stereotypes and undermining efforts to promote equality and social justice. The controversy surrounding the report highlighted the ongoing struggle to understand and address the root causes of racial inequality in America. 80) What types of actions did Jimmy Carter take regarding black issues? What was the overall effect of his presidency upon African Americans? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Carter appointed African Americans to highly visible posts. He named Patricia Harris secretary of housing and urban development, making her the first black woman to serve in the cabinet. Carter appointed Andrew Young, former congressman from Georgia and a longtime political ally, ambassador to the United Nations. Clifford Alexander Jr. became the secretary of the army. Eleanor Holmes Norton became the first woman to chair the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Ernest Green, who had been one of the nine students to desegregate Little Rock’s Central High School, was appointed assistant secretary of labor. 2. Note that Carter’s black appointments were practically and symbolically important. Never had so many black people occupied positions that had direct and immediate impact on the operations of the federal government. 3. Point out that Carter also helped cement gains for civil rights. When Congress passed legislation to stop busing as a way to integrate the schools, he vetoed it. 4. Explain that he tried to improve fair employment practices by strengthening the powers of the EEOC. His Justice Department chose cases to prosecute under the Fair Housing Act that involved widespread discrimination. 5. Note that most African Americans found Carter’s overall record unsatisfactory. He failed to help Democrats in Congress pass either full- employment or universal health care bills. Under his watch congress cut social welfare programs to balance the budget, and the cuts included school lunch programs and student financial aid. 6. Conclude that for many black people, Carter had become a disappointment, who had done little to bring about greater social justice and economic advancement. Sample Answer: Jimmy Carter took several actions regarding black issues during his presidency from 1977 to 1981. He appointed a record number of African Americans to high-level positions in his administration, including Andrew Young as Ambassador to the United Nations and Patricia Roberts Harris as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and later Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Carter also supported affirmative action policies and advocated for civil rights legislation. However, Carter's presidency was also marked by challenges and criticisms from the African American community. His administration faced criticism for not doing enough to address economic issues affecting African Americans, such as high unemployment and poverty rates. Some also viewed his approach to civil rights as too moderate, especially compared to previous administrations. Overall, the effect of Carter's presidency on African Americans is mixed. While he took some positive steps to promote civil rights and diversity, his administration struggled to address the underlying economic issues facing many African Americans. His presidency highlighted the complexities of addressing racial inequality and the challenges of translating good intentions into meaningful change. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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