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This Document Contains Chapters 19 to 20 Chapter 19: Meanings of Freedom: Culture and Society in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s Multiple Choice Questions 1) What challenges did blacks face who wanted to study classical music in St. Louis in the 1930s? A) No black institutions for classical study existed in the city. B) Whites tended to relegate blacks to playing classical music. C) Blacks were frequently offered elevated roles in productions. D) Very few cultural opportunities of any kind existed in the Midwestern city. Answer: D 2) Which of the following is true about the difficulties faced by black artists in the 1930s and the 1940s? A) They were never allowed to include political views in their works. B) Whites simply refused to accept black art or culture in any way. C) Black artists often had to depend on whites for the financial backing to publish their work. D) Black artists were actively associated with the Communist Party during this time period. Answer: C 3) How did big band swing music originate? A) Using black gospel music as a base, whites then added complicated, individualized rhythms and more instruments to create big band swing. B) White bandleaders orchestrated innovative black music in creating the big band sound. C) Big band was actually a white innovation and blacks fed off its popularity to develop jazz and the blues. D) The government had underwritten music programs for blacks to develop new music. Answer: B 4) How did the Great Depression impact black music? A) It forced blacks to record only upbeat tunes because of public demand. B) It increased record sales because blacks were benefiting from federal welfare programs. C) It greatly reduced record sales, which had flourished in the 1920s. D) The Great Depression had no effect on black music. Answer: C 5) What roles or jobs did African Americans generally hold in the radio industry? A) Blacks were often staff musicians because they were heard and not seen. B) African Americans did much of the writing, acting, and directing for the show Amos 'n' Andy. C) Blacks were completely excluded from the entertainment industry during the 1930s and 1940s. D) Radio stations refused to hire any blacks as disc jockeys. Answer: A 6) What lessons did The Amos 'n' Andy Show teach white America? A) Racism was unacceptable, and blacks were the equals to whites. B) It was acceptable to laugh at black people's efforts to survive. C) Blacks could be successful in high-level positions in society. D) Blacks should be doctors, politicians, and lawyers. Answer: B 7) What roles did blacks generally play in films produced by whites? A) They played the roles of slaves in nonspeaking roles. B) They played the roles of servants, pranksters, or buffoons. C) Many films allowed blacks access to substantial, creative roles. D) Blacks were not allowed in film productions. Answer: B 8) What 1930s movie most solidified blacks in the roles of servants in the American mind? A) Belle of the Nineties B) The Little Colonel C) Gone with the Wind D) Just Around the Corner Answer: C 9) What was true about the film The Negro Soldier (1944)? A) It was directed by Frank Capra, a black director. B) It was very unpopular among black audiences. C) It portrayed blacks in a favorable manner rather than as servants. D) It was the first film to feature an African-American actor in a significant role. Answer: C 10) What role did comic strips, radio programs, and movies play during the Great Depression? A) Because of their realistic subject matter, they reminded everyone of the economic problems the country was facing and the inability of government to come up with solutions. B) They were merely attempts by whites to further subjugate blacks. C) They provided at least a small relief from troubles of poverty and hunger. D) They provided an outlet for black creativity and career advancement. Answer: C 11) What was true about the radio program The Amos 'n' Andy Show? A) It was a generally positive, non-stereotypical view of blacks. B) It was one of many shows about blacks on the radio at the time. C) It featured white actors performing the part of blacks. D) It included only women as the characters. Answer: C 12) How did black audiences react to Amos 'n' Andy? A) Black audiences were excited to have black actors accurately portraying black characters. B) Blacks audiences were hopeful that some black writers would get jobs on the show. C) Although many elite blacks embraced the portrayal of blacks on the show, they wished it would focus on more positive aspects of black middle-class life. D) Many urban, educated blacks resented the stereotypical view of blacks presented by the show. Answer: D 13) How did minority groups that influenced Hollywood, particularly Jews and Italians, treat African Americans? A) They realized that they were also discriminated against and tried to include them in film and television. B) They made no attempt to include them in Hollywood's power structure and marginalized them. C) They were forbidden by the owners of studios from employing black actors in anything but subservient roles. D) They had such little influence in Hollywood that they really could not change the situation for other minority groups. Answer: B 14) What is the relationship between World War II and Hollywood’s depiction of blacks in film? A) The war, through films like The Birth of a Nation, led to fewer numbers of blacks in film roles B) The war, through films like Giant, created more police roles for black men. C) The war, through films like Gone with the Wind, gave blacks subservient roles that carried over into peacetime D) The war, through films like The Negro Soldier, helped to place blacks in more realistic roles Answer: D 15) What is the connection between racism and the black culture industry? A) Whites controlled media production and exploited blacks. B) Whites controlled media production and entirely excluded blacks. C) Blacks controlled media production and exploited whites. D) Blacks controlled media production and entirely excluded whites. Answer: A 16) How were Oscar Micheaux's films different from standard Hollywood fare? A) His films were even more outwardly racist than most typical Hollywood portrayals. B) He produced movies for blacks and often focused on race within black culture. C) He was a French director who produced films that critiqued American society. D) His films set the standard that the rest of Hollywood followed regarding race. Answer: B 17) Where was the central, most vibrant place for the development of black culture in the 1930s and 1940s? A) Harlem B) Chicago C) Philadelphia D) New Orleans Answer: B 18) Which of the following men was a Chicago Renaissance artist? A) W.E.B. Du Bois B) Booker T. Washington C) Louis Armstrong D) Aaron Douglas Answer: C 19) What class of blacks did many Chicago Renaissance writers focus on during the 1930s and 1940s? A) the elite of black society, the "Talented Tenth" B) middle-class blacks who had achieved some gains C) working-class blacks struggling to survive D) the black underclass in urban America Answer: C 20) What changes occurred in music in Chicago during the 1930s and 1940s? A) Black music became a commodity, and some blacks even became disc jockeys on radio. B) Music in Chicago never developed in the same creative manner as in Harlem. C) Black music became more intellectual, pushing average people away. D) Black music began to incorporate the use of drums and electric guitars. Answer: A 21) In what area of Chicago was jazz focused? A) Harlem B) the North Side C) the South Side D) the stockyard neighborhoods Answer: C 22) Which of the following is true about Mahalia Jackson? A) She was a famous gospel singer based in Chicago. B) She was the first African-American woman to write a novel. C) She was a journalist who campaigned against lynching. D) She was an innovative dance director in Chicago. Answer: A 23) How did Katherine Dunham influence African-American dance? A) She was an anthropologist and incorporated African ritual dances into her choreography. B) She refused to be influenced by African dance styles. C) She opened a dance school for African Americans in New York. D) She forced dance into more conventional, white-inspired performances. Answer: A 24) What was a main characteristic of Dunham's dance choreography? A) It was very conservative and often compared to classical ballet. B) It was frequently filled with sexual movements and innuendo. C) It was a forerunner of tap dancing. D) It was quickly adopted by whites across the South. Answer: B 25) Which of the following statements is true about Katharine Dunham? A) She opened a school for white dancers where none had existed before. B) She incorporated elements of Norwegian culture into her choreography. C) She agreed to return to some venues if they supported segregation. D) She protested racial segregation, even though it hurt her popularity. Answer: D 26) How does the career of singer Billie Holiday reveal the efforts of black artists to agitate for civil rights during the era? A) She used her art to protest black radicalism. B) She used her art to elevate southern whites. C) She used her art to challenge black oppression. D) She used her art to champion Jim Crow segregation. Answer: C 27) What is the relationship between music and black cultural movements in American history? A) Music and black cultural movements presented little overlap and mutual influence. B) Music was the primary catalyst for the destruction of black cultural movements. C) Music was the primary inspiration for the creativity of black cultural movements. D) Music was the primary content of black cultural movements. Answer: C 28) What is the connection between the Great Migration and the black class structure of Chicago in the 1920s? A) Fewer numbers of blacks in the city helped to flatten the class system. B) More black people in Chicago meant less class divisions. C) The new migrants helped to establish a discernible class system. D) Most of the new migrants became wealthy in a few years. Answer: C 29) How was gospel music different from earlier spiritual black music? A) It was very similar and basically copied earlier styles. B) It was never sung in churches because most thought it was the "devil's work." C) It used instruments, including drums, guitars, and horns. D) It was developed in California, rather than in the Deep South. Answer: C 30) What was one difference between the Harlem Renaissance and the Chicago Renaissance? A) Chicago Renaissance writers focused solely on political gains for their race and refused to take part in "frivolous" fictional writing. B) Chicago Renaissance writers refused to publish their works with white publishers. C) Chicago Renaissance writers did not feel that their work would solve racial problems. D) These artists were very similar in goals, methods, and projects. Answer: C 31) How does Archibald Motley’s painting Barbecue (1934) capture the spirit of the black Chicago Renaissance? A) Multiple colors are shown in the image. B) Tables are shown with white tablecloths. C) Black people are shown acting exuberantly. D) Black people are shown sitting in a restaurant. Answer: C 32) Which of the following statements accurately characterizes black art in Depression era? A) It was generally upbeat, attempting to provide an escape in difficult times. B) Because the Depression was severe, no artwork of any consequence was produced by blacks during the period. C) Although blacks produced much art, most of it refused to deal with any type of controversial issue. D) Black art of the Depression era was a part of social realism, which attempted to make a political statement. Answer: D 33) What concerns or attitudes did the painting Defense Worker reflect? A) the inability of black workers to get ahead in the world B) the strength of the black worker and dreams of a racially integrated work force C) the inability of black workers to gain jobs in defense industries D) the strength of the black soldier during World War II Answer: B 34) What is the connection between the Federal Arts Project and African American people? A) No connection existed between the project and blacks. B) The project was funded by elite blacks. C) The project prevented blacks from receiving federal support for the arts. D) Black artists were funded to paint black murals. Answer: D 35) How did the Federal Arts Project promote the development of black arts? A) It funded the creation of murals that illustrated American ideals in public buildings, such as post offices and schools. B) It discriminated against blacks and did not assist with the development of black art. C) It funded academic studies and had little effect on the arts. D) No black art from the period would exist without the agency. Answer: A 36) What was characteristic of black literature during the 1930s and 1940s? A) Black literature generally consisted of frivolous stories of romance and adventure. B) Black writers focused on black identity, urban life, and discrimination and poverty. C) Black writers avoided political topics and focused on black elites. D) Most black literature focused on science fiction where racism did not exist. Answer: B 37) What is true about the story in the novel Native Son? A) It was a story about a black man who triumphed over whites and founded a new nation in Africa. B) It was a story about how discrimination and the difficulties of black life could lead some blacks to murder and violence. C) It was the story of an American black man who is rejected by his country and adopted by the French as a national hero. D) It was the story of a young black musician who performs on the radio and gains success by fooling many into thinking he is white. Answer: B 38) How did James Baldwin challenge Richard Wright over his characters in Native Son? A) James Baldwin never challenged Richard Wright. B) Baldwin felt that blacks were more victimized than Wright portrayed. C) Baldwin disagreed with Wright's portrayal of blacks as helpless victims of racism. D) Baldwin felt that Wright should focus on color discrimination within the black community. Answer: C 39) What was the novel Invisible Man about? A) It focused on a chemical accident that made a black man invisible. B) It was about a young black man who migrates to New York. C) It involved the rape of a black woman by a white man and her son's efforts to exact revenge. D) It was about blacks surviving in society by adopting white ways, including discrimination against darker skin. Answer: B 40) In what sport did Jesse Owens excel during the 1930s? A) boxing B) track events C) horse racing D) tennis Answer: B 41) In what sport did Joe Louis excel during the 1930s? A) tennis B) track events C) horse racing D) boxing Answer: D 42) Who broke the color barrier in baseball in 1947? A) Satchel Paige B) Rube Foster C) Jackie Robinson D) Sammy Sosa Answer: C 43) Jesse Owens is an example of success in what aspect of black life? A) music B) religion C) sports D) television Answer: C 44) Why did the Dodgers decide to sign Robinson? A) They were doing it as a marketing ploy, to bring more people in to the stadium. B) They were forced into signing him by the Supreme Court. C) They were hoping to improve their chances at a pennant race. D) President Roosevelt, who was a friend of Robinson, personally asked the Dodgers to sign him. Answer: C 45) Why did blacks struggle to field black professional baseball teams in the 1930s? A) Whites refused to allow blacks to play in the Negro Leagues. B) The integration of major league baseball made black teams unnecessary. C) They were excluded by major league baseball and impacted by the economic downturn of the 1930s. D) The federal government abolished the Negro Leagues. Answer: C 46) What message did the Nation of Islam preach? A) Whites and blacks should integrate America’s social institutions and begin to work together as equals in God's eyes. B) Blacks were the second inhabitants of the earth. C) Whites were created by a magician and banished to Europe, where they began to introduce and spread evil. D) Members of the Nation of Islam should not serve in the military. Answer: C 47) What beliefs did Father Divine preach? A) Blacks were a stronger people than whites. B) A black revolution would soon occur and only violence would destroy racism. C) Followers should be honest and sober to achieve recognition under God. D) Blacks should avoid eating pork. Answer: C 48) What did the Nation of Islam and the Peace Mission Movement have in common? A) Both embodied "black supremacist" religions; each stressed the superiority of blacks over whites. B) Both religions targeted the problems of blacks in urban areas during the Depression. C) Both were very small and had almost no effect upon blacks. D) Combined, they had more members than the traditional Protestant religions. Answer: B 49) How did black religious and secular culture overlap in the 1930s and 1940s? A) They generally did not overlap because blacks tried to maintain separation between religious and home life. B) Music was a constant feature of both religious and secular culture. C) Both forms were against desegregation. D) Both types of culture brought southern whites closer to black people. Answer: B 50) Why did the police arrest Father Divine and 80 of his followers in 1931? A) He was charged of being a rapist. B) He was charged with being a racist. C) He was charged with being a murderer. D) He was charged with being a “public nuisance.” Answer: D True/False Questions 51) Beginning in the 1930s, a second wave of black migrants made St. Louis the fifth largest city in the United States. Answer: True 52) During the late 1930s and 1940s, corporate America decided to abandon the idea of producing and marketing black culture. Answer: False 53) The impact of the Great Depression helped to increase the sale of musical records produced by black culture industry of the 1930s. Answer: False 54) Unlike the dominant Hollywood stereotypes of black people, the black men and women in Oscar Micheaux’s films were often educated, cultured, and prosperous. Answer: True 55) Comic strips, radio programs, and movies were less affordable forms of artistic creativity which denied blacks a momentary escape from the bleakness and despair of the Depression years. Answer: False 56) Commercial radio delivered an audience of white consumers to white advertisers, and it denied black people jobs as announcers, journalists, or technicians. Answer: True 57) The Amos ‘n’ Andy movie, Check and Double Check featured music by Duke Ellington’s orchestra and brought Ellington’s work to a wider audience of affluent white people and enhanced his reputation. Answer: True 58) As the Depression worsened, black artists became even more determined to portray the crisis in capitalism, creating images that depicted social and racial inequality. Answer: True 59) The most intricate novel written about the black experience in America during the 1940s and 1950s was Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, which won the National Book Award for fiction in 1952. Answer: True 60) The intersection of sports and racism in U.S. history indicates that African American athletes did not escape discrimination and segregation in any athletic field. Answer: True Fill-In-the-Blank Questions 61) The relationship between Thomas ______________ and black urban gospel included the synthesis of blues with religious hymns. Answer: Dorsey 62) An example of a major gospel singer in Chicago during the 1930s and 1940s was Mahalia ______________. Answer: Jackson 63) Ralph Ellison echoed the concept of “______________” expressed earlier by W.E.B. Du Bois, the idea that African Americans occupied a double identity in American society. Answer: twoness 64) The controversy between ______________ ______________ and James Baldwin ended their friendship; Baldwin subsequently inherited the mantle of “best-known black American male writer.” Answer: Richard Wright 65) In July 1947 Larry ______________ became the first black player in the American League when he joined the Cleveland Indians. Answer: Doby 66) Although African Americans were integrated in track and boxing, professional _____________ remained segregated until after World War II. Answer: baseball 67) One of the most famous black baseball players during the era was ______________ Paige. Answer: Satchel 68) In 1938, Joe Louis defeated Max Smelling, a major blow to ______________ in Germany Answer: Nazism 69) Both Jesse Owens and Joe Louis were the sons of ______________ from Alabama. Answer: sharecroppers 70) Father Divine was the leader of the Peace ______________ Movement. Answer: Mission Short Answer Questions 71) Why was it difficult for blacks to get published in any genre or venue in the 1930s and 1940s? Answer: Blacks faced significant barriers to getting published in the 1930s and 1940s due to systemic racism and segregation. Publishing industries were largely controlled by white individuals who often held discriminatory beliefs, limiting opportunities for black writers. Additionally, there were few venues that catered to black writers, and those that did often faced censorship and limited distribution. 72) What was significant about the Chicago radio program known as Destination Freedom? Answer: Destination Freedom was significant because it was one of the first radio programs to showcase African American achievements and history. It aired from 1948 to 1950, featuring stories of prominent black figures and addressing racial issues, challenging stereotypes prevalent in mainstream media. The program helped amplify black voices and narratives during a time of racial segregation and discrimination. 73) How was the Chicago Renaissance different from the Harlem Renaissance? Answer: The Chicago Renaissance, also known as the Black Chicago Renaissance, differed from the Harlem Renaissance in several ways. While the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s was centered in Harlem, New York, and focused primarily on literary and artistic achievements of African Americans, the Chicago Renaissance of the 1930s and 1940s encompassed a broader range of cultural and intellectual activities. It was characterized by the emergence of black writers, artists, musicians, and intellectuals who contributed to various fields, including literature, music, theater, and social activism. Additionally, the Chicago Renaissance was more directly influenced by the social and political conditions of the Great Migration and the urban experience of African Americans in Chicago. 74) Why did James Baldwin have problems with Richard Wright's views and work? How does this explanation reveal the role and influence of race in black literature during this era? Answer: James Baldwin had problems with Richard Wright's views and work because he felt that Wright's portrayal of black life was too bleak and deterministic, focusing too much on the struggle and suffering of black people. Baldwin believed that this perspective reinforced negative stereotypes and limited the portrayal of black life to a narrow narrative of oppression. This reveals the role and influence of race in black literature during this era by highlighting the debate within the black community about how to represent black life and experiences in a predominantly white society. 75) What is the connection between the civil rights movement and black athletes and sports during the era? Answer: The civil rights movement and black athletes were closely connected during the era, as athletes played a significant role in advancing civil rights causes. Athletes like Jackie Robinson, Muhammad Ali, and Tommie Smith used their platforms to protest racial discrimination and advocate for social change. Their actions helped raise awareness about civil rights issues and contributed to the broader struggle for racial equality. Essay Questions 76) Why did Chicago jazz arise? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the seeds that blossomed into full-bodied jazz culture were planted across America at the turn of the century. The most famous musicians, however, all went to or passed through Chicago. 2. Note that as the Chicago Jazz Age came into its own, “Pretty Baby” became the city’s theme song. It was written by Tony Jackson, whom Jelly Roll Morton (the self-proclaimed “inventor of jazz”) called “maybe the best entertainer the world has ever seen.” 3. Point out that the South Side, specifically along State Street between 31st and 35th, was the beating heart of the city’s Jazz Age. 4. Conclude that although Chicago did not replace New York as the major location for the aspiring jazz musician, it was the place you went to prove you had what it took to make a name for yourself. Sample Answer: Chicago jazz arose as a result of several key factors, including the Great Migration, Prohibition, and the city's vibrant nightlife and cultural scene. The Great Migration brought thousands of African Americans from the South to Chicago, creating a diverse and vibrant urban culture that fostered musical innovation. Prohibition led to the proliferation of speakeasies and nightclubs, providing venues for jazz musicians to perform. Chicago's cultural diversity and status as a major transportation hub also contributed to the development of a thriving music scene. Additionally, the city's distinctive sound, characterized by a focus on ensemble playing and a strong rhythm section, helped distinguish Chicago jazz from other regional styles. Overall, Chicago jazz emerged as a dynamic and influential genre that reflected the energy and creativity of the city's cultural landscape. 77) How and why did bebop develop? How was it received by whites? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that bebop featured complex rhythms and harmonies and highlighted improvisation. Dizzie Gillespie (1917–1993) said that Kansas City-born Charlie “Bird” Parker (1920–1955) was “the architect of the style.” 2. Note that white America resisted bebop. The nation was about to enter World War II and was too preoccupied to switch from the big band swing ballroom dancing music to bebop. Because jazzmen played in small, intimate clubs too small for big bands, they had more freedom from the expectations of white society. 3. Point out that bebop music was of such enduring quality, however, that it shaped American popular culture and style for two generations. Before long, bebop became the principal musical language of jazz musicians around the world. 4. Explain that bebop was a way of life and had its own attendant styles whose nuances depended on class status and, perhaps, age. Gillespie helped create one side of bebop style in dress, language, and demeanor. 5. Conclude by noting that beboppers created their own slang, hip Black English that mingled colorful and obscene language. They also engaged in a freewheeling lifestyle. Sample Answer: Bebop developed in the 1940s as a reaction to the commercialization of swing music and a desire among musicians to create a more complex and improvisational form of jazz. Musicians like Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Thelonious Monk sought to push the boundaries of jazz by introducing faster tempos, intricate melodies, and harmonic innovations. Bebop was received differently by whites depending on their perspective. Some white jazz musicians and enthusiasts embraced bebop for its technical prowess and artistic innovation. Others, however, found bebop challenging and inaccessible due to its complex rhythms and harmonies. Additionally, some white critics and audiences viewed bebop as too avant-garde or radical, preferring more traditional forms of jazz. Overall, bebop played a significant role in the evolution of jazz, influencing subsequent genres like cool jazz and hard bop, and challenging conventional ideas about musical structure and improvisation. 78) How did technology intersect with black activity in the recording industry in the 1920s and 1930s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that although there were individual exceptions, African-American jazz musicians embraced the commercial and technological developments that revolutionized the music industry in the 1920s. The phonograph allowed for wide distribution of the music they created, just as the recording studios served as incubators for their creative innovations. 2. Note that by the end of the 1920s, black musicians had embraced electrical recording, and in the 1930s they learned to appreciate microphone amplification—a product of radio technology—which allowed for the dominating rhythmic pulse of electric guitars and bases that would radically change black popular music. 3. Conclude that by the 1930s jazz musicians were making records that replicated live performances more closely than ever before. Radio and improved record making helped spread black music and ensured its survival. Sample Answer: Technology intersected with black activity in the recording industry in the 1920s and 1930s in several key ways. The emergence of recording technology allowed black musicians and singers to reach a wider audience and gain recognition for their talent. Record labels like Paramount, Okeh, and Black Swan began recording and distributing music by black artists, providing them with a platform to showcase their work. The spread of radio also played a crucial role, as it allowed black musicians to reach listeners beyond the confines of their local communities. This exposure helped popularize genres like blues, jazz, and gospel, which had previously been marginalized. Additionally, advancements in recording technology, such as the development of electrical recording and microphones, improved the quality of sound recordings, making them more appealing to listeners. Despite these advancements, black artists often faced discrimination and exploitation in the recording industry. Many record labels marketed black music as "race records," targeting them specifically to black audiences and segregating them from mainstream markets. Black artists also faced challenges in receiving fair compensation for their work, as they were often paid less than their white counterparts. Overall, technology played a complex role in the recording industry in the 1920s and 1930s, offering new opportunities for black musicians while also reinforcing racial barriers and inequalities. 79) How did “The Jones Family” reflect the reality of black life in urban American during the 1930s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that this comic strip, drawn by an editorial cartoonist named Branford, centered on the young Jones boy’s search for the “good life” of money, success, love, and a happy marriage. But at every turn he confronts a harsh reality. Unable to get a job because of the Depression, he becomes an outlaw and narrowly escapes jail. Constantly “on the run” from oppression, his only consolations are his family and his beautiful, ever-faithful girlfriend. 2. Point out that “The Jones Family” illuminates the gray areas that most African Americans, regardless of their class, faced when attempting to live rational, coherent lives in the northern cities. Although they cherished middle-class values, they often had to live with poverty, crime, and racial oppression. 3. Conclude that the black comic strips sought to provide entertaining, nonjudgmental prescriptions and blueprints for middle-class life, but to more cynical and alienated black people they seemed to be promoting unattainable values and lifestyles. Sample Answer: "The Jones Family," a popular radio program that aired from 1938 to 1951, reflected the reality of black life in urban America during the 1930s in several ways. The show centered around the Jones family, an African American family living in a tenement in Harlem, New York. The characters faced everyday challenges such as discrimination, poverty, and social injustice, reflecting the experiences of many black families during the Great Depression. "The Jones Family" also highlighted the resilience and strength of black communities, as the characters often found creative ways to overcome adversity and support each other. The show's portrayal of the Jones family as a loving and close-knit unit challenged stereotypes about black family life and offered a more nuanced depiction of black urban communities. Additionally, "The Jones Family" addressed issues of race and identity, often using humor and wit to comment on social issues. By presenting these themes in a mainstream format, the show helped to humanize black characters and provide a more accurate representation of black life in America during the 1930s. Overall, "The Jones Family" offered a realistic portrayal of black life in urban America during the 1930s, highlighting both the challenges and strengths of black communities during this period. 80) Who were some of the prominent black authors of the 1930s and 1940s and what did they write about? How did they differ in their views of the challenges facing the black community? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and James Baldwin were some of the main black authors of the era. Note the books they wrote. 2. Point out that each approached the subject of blacks in society differently; for example, Baldwin denied the centrality of racism in the black experience while Wright and Ellison made it the entire issue. 3. Point out the controversy between Wright and Baldwin that led to their split. 4. Conclude that black writers differed primarily over the issue of how to solve racism in the United States and what role blacks should play in the struggle. The duality of violence vs. non-violence, the “twoness” of the black identity, and the problem of discrimination remained the focus. Sample Answer: Some prominent black authors of the 1930s and 1940s include Richard Wright, Zora Neale Hurston, and Ralph Ellison. Richard Wright is known for his novels "Native Son" and "Black Boy," which explore the psychological and social impact of racism on black individuals. Wright's work often portrayed the harsh realities of life for African Americans in the early 20th century, highlighting the systemic injustices they faced. Zora Neale Hurston, on the other hand, focused on capturing the culture and folklore of the rural South in works such as "Their Eyes Were Watching God." Hurston celebrated the richness of black culture and challenged stereotypes about African Americans, presenting a more nuanced and positive portrayal of black life. Ralph Ellison's novel "Invisible Man" is a seminal work that explores themes of identity, race, and invisibility in society. Ellison's protagonist grapples with the challenges of being black in a society that often ignores or marginalizes black voices, highlighting the complexities of racial identity and social visibility. These authors differed in their views of the challenges facing the black community, with Wright focusing more on the systemic injustices of racism, Hurston celebrating black culture and resilience, and Ellison exploring the complexities of black identity in a racially stratified society. Despite these differences, all three authors made significant contributions to African American literature and offered valuable insights into the African American experience during this era. Chapter 20: The World War II:
Era and the Seeds of a Revolution Multiple Choice Questions 1) What two countries formed the Axis on the eve of World War II? A) Germany and China B) Germany and England C) Japan and Italy D) Germany and Italy Answer: D 2) What did Executive Order 8802 do? A) It ended discrimination by race in the armed forces. B) It desegregated all U.S. government facilities and government-funded facilities. C) It technically ended discrimination by race in defense industry employment. D) It allowed black women into the military as nurses and cooks. Answer: C 3) What was the effect of Executive Order 8802? A) It had a great effect, as even industries across the South were forced to comply with the president’s orders. B) White resistance and a failure to include union activity and the military greatly limited the order's effectiveness. C) Black women were still refused entry into the armed forces, although they had proven themselves able to handle combat roles. D) It continued to exclude blacks, very effectively, from any type of defense job in the nation. Answer: B 4) What was the primary force behind many of Adolf Hitler's policies? A) nationalism, focused on bringing strength to Italy B) racism, blaming Jews for all of Germany's problems C) anticommunism, although Hitler refused to persecute them for fear of Soviet reprisals D) radicalism, driven by the desire to eliminate conservatives from politics Answer: B 5) How did the government incorporate blacks into the workforce to prepare for World War II? A) The government was overcoming the idea of racism even prior to the war. B) The government thought that too many whites would refuse to work in menial positions. C) The government wanted all Americans behind the war. D) Most employers and unions refused to allow blacks to work in wartime industries. Answer: D 6) What was the March on Washington Movement designed to do? A) stop racial segregation in the nation's public schools and transportation B) stop discrimination against blacks in wartime industries and the military C) stop the lynching of black men by white mobs D) eliminate discrimination in restaurants and theaters Answer: B 7) Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor? A) They were trying to assert control over Asia and force the United States out. B) They had no apparent reason. It was simply an unprovoked act of aggression. C) They were angry over American treatment of Japanese and black citizens. D) They were retaliating for American use of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. Answer: A 8) Why did the United States delay getting involved in World War II? A) Franklin Roosevelt continuously worked against involvement. B) Congress was isolationist and thought that we should not have been involved in World War I. C) England refused to allow America to become involved, thinking that the United States would dominate the war. D) The Soviet Union planted communist spies to try to make sure America did not enter the war. Answer: B 9) What statement is Horace Pippin making in his painting, Mr. Prejudice (1943)? A) black inferiority to whites B) white superiority to blacks C) the problem of racism during wartime D) the problem of integration during wartime Answer: C 10) Why did Hitler and Mussolini create the Axis alliance? A) They wanted to control Asia. B) They wanted to control Africa. C) They wanted to control Europe. D) They wanted to control the United States. Answer: C 11) What policies did the War Department lay out for black participation in the military during World War II? A) African Americans would be the lead troops and undertake the first wave of combat in Europe. B) African Americans would be kept segregated and serve mainly in noncombat units. C) African Americans would have absolutely no role or presence in Europe. D) African Americans would be limited to digging ditches in Europe for white troops. Answer: B 12) What was a common occupation for many black soldiers in Europe? A) They were often a part of the transportation corps, delivering supplies to soldiers at the front lines. B) They were only responsible for digging trenches and setting up temporary quarters for white soldiers. C) They were rarely put in any position of danger during the war. D) No African Americans were sent to Europe because they were thought to be lazy and cowardly. Answer: A 13) What did Mabel K. Staupers fight against during the war? A) She fought against the ban of women in combat roles. B) She tried to halt discrimination against black men in combat roles. C) She fought against quotas for black nurses in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps. D) She fought against the lynching of black soldiers. Answer: C 14) What did the 1925 American War College study conclude about African Americans? A) They were physically fit for combat duty. B) They were inferior in intelligence. C) They could control themselves in the face of danger. D) They should serve as officers. Answer: B 15) What was the result of Mabel K. Staupers's efforts on behalf of black nurses? A) Her efforts were never successful. B) The War Department ended quotas and exclusion of black nurses before the end of the war. C) The War Department enlarged the number of black nurses it accepted, but refused to end quotas. D) The War Department actually made nursing more restrictive when they raised requirements for service. Answer: B 16) What did Dorie Miller's actions during Pearl Harbor illustrate about blacks in the military? A) They completely confirmed white racist attitudes. B) Since Miller was the first man to perish at Pearl Harbor, he became an instant hero. C) Miller received the Navy Cross for heroism but was immediately returned to mess duty. D) Miller's action showed that the 1925 American War College study was correct. Answer: C 17) Why did the federal government issue a wartime poster showcasing Dorie Miller? A) He had passed the entrance exam into the U.S. Navy. B) He had decided to join the U.S. Army. C) He had defended sailors at the battle of Pearl Harbor. D) He had attacked white sailors on board a U.S. destroyer. Answer: C 18) Examine the photograph of a black nurse with a German prisoner of war that appears in Chapter 20. What might the German prisoner have thought of a black woman attending him? A) He would have held steadfastly to the notion of German racial superiority to world peoples, particularly non-whites. B) He would have attempted to marry the woman out of love for women of color. C) He would have viewed her as racially inferior but most likely would have changed his mind after her treatment of him. D) He would have committed suicide out of despair. Answer: C 19) What was a difference between German POWs' treatment in camps and the treatment of African Americans in the military? A) Germans often received worse treatment than blacks. B) Germans were more restricted in their ability to move about the camps. C) Germans were white and therefore received better treatment by whites than African-American soldiers did. D) Germans could periodically return to Germany and come back. Answer: C 20) Which type of plane was not usually flown by the Tuskegee Airmen? A) B-52s B) P-40s C) P-39s D) P-51s Answer: A 21) Why were the Tuskegee Airmen the most visible group of black soldiers? A) They were a group of Native American code talkers in the Air Force. B) They were a group of German prisoners of war who flew planes for the U.S. C) They were an all-black unit of Air Force pilots and had black officers. D) They refused to serve in the war because of racism and discrimination. Answer: C 22) What was the G.I. Bill? A) a bill that black soldiers had to pay to the federal government B) a bill that white soldiers had to pay to the states C) a bill that provided soldiers with reduced costs for college and housing D) a bill that men paid if they did not serve in the U.S. military during World War II Answer: C 23) In 1942 blacks formed what civil rights organization? A) the NAACP B) SNCC C) CORE D) the Urban League Answer: C 24) Which of the following statements is true of black labor during World War II? A) The agricultural economy began to recover, and few blacks left the farms voluntarily. B) Pressure from the government, and the promise of high wages, drew many blacks into industrial positions. C) There were very few changes for blacks during World War II. D) Blacks began to speak out about greater changes in jobs, but were rarely able to take advantage of the situation. Answer: B 25) How did labor opportunities change for black women during World War II? A) They did not—black women continued to be employed only in domestic work. B) Black women were able to move into high-level clerical jobs because white women were employed elsewhere. C) Many women were able to move from domestic service jobs to industrial work. D) Black women began to take over male barbershops when black men left for the war. Answer: C 26) What was the most common result of the efforts of Malcolm Ross and the Committee on Fair Employment Practice to end discrimination? A) resistance by whites, especially in the South, to desegregation B) improvement in blacks' situation in labor across the South C) worsening conditions for blacks, as the South began to fire blacks so they would not have to deal with Ross D) many in the South abandoned the idea of segregation in employment Answer: A 27) How did blacks and other ethnic groups interpret the causes of the Detroit race riot? A) They saw it as the result of ongoing, long-standing white supremacist tactics in Detroit. B) They thought blacks had been too aggressive in pushing for rights, and were under communist influence. C) White policies of lynching blacks for failing to take their hats off in a white woman's presence were ridiculous, demeaning, and should be changed. D) The NAACP's language of violence and retaliation was not part of protected First Amendment speech and was a primary cause of black anger. Answer: A 28) What successes did the NAACP see during the war? A) The NAACP experienced modest decline during the war. B) None, because the government shut down the organization during the war. C) The NAACP grew tremendously in membership and influence, even in the South. D) The NAACP suspended operations during the war to avoid being labeled “unpatriotic.” Answer: C 29) What was significant about the Southern Regional Council? A) It was a white racist group, dedicated to destroying the NAACP. B) It was a black group, organized to fight for civil rights in the South. C) It was an interracial group that challenged the racist system in the South. D) It was a militant black group that focused on the use of violence to destroy racism. Answer: C 30) How did whites such as William E. Dowling interpret the causes of the Detroit race riot? A) Racism had been the primary force in the riot, and whites should work toward better relations with blacks. B) Blacks were too aggressive in pushing for rights, and they were under communist influence. C) The police had acted too harshly and should be punished. D) The NAACP's language of violence and retaliation was not part of protected First Amendment speech and was a primary cause of black anger. Answer: B 31) Why did the Detroit Race Riot take place in 1943? A) disputes over employment and housing conditions B) anger over the brutality of the police towards whites C) a fight over segregation of Detroit's race track D) anger over a dramatic rise in the price of food Answer: A 32) Why did President Roosevelt issue Executive Order 9346? A) Mabel Stauper's efforts to end quotas for black nurses B) the March on Washington Movement C) the murder of 2500 black soldiers at the Battle of the Bulge D) the ineffectiveness of the FEPC during the early part of World War II Answer: D 33) What was the Cold War? A) the armed conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in Siberia after World War II B) an ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union C) another name for the Korean War during the early 1950s D) the war against segregation in the United States Answer: B 34) What statement did Paul Robeson make that infuriated anticommunists in the United States? A) Robeson advocated that all blacks move immediately to the Soviet Union. B) Robeson declared that he would not be drafted to fight in the Cold War. C) Robeson could not understand why blacks should fight for a country that denied them civil rights. D) Robeson made public comments stating that he thought HUAC had been infiltrated by communists. Answer: C 35) How did the U.S. government punish Robeson for his views? A) They placed him under house arrest. B) They revoked his passport and refused to allow him to travel abroad. C) They sent him to prison under solitary confinement and refused to allow him access to an attorney. D) They secretly kidnapped him and sent him to live in exile in the Soviet Union. Answer: B 36) What did Executive Order 9981 do? A) It forbade discrimination by race in defense industries. B) It forbade discrimination by gender in the armed forces. C) It officially desegregated the armed forces. D) It forbade discrimination by race or gender in defense industries. Answer: C 37) Which was the first war to see integrated American troop units in conflict? A) World War I B) World War II C) the Korean War D) the Vietnam War Answer: C 38) What organization was formed in 1949 by the U.S. and its allies against the Soviet Union? A) the Axis Pact B) the United Nations C) the NAACP D) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Answer: D 39) What point did W.E.B. Du Bois and Ralph Bunche agree on regarding Africa? A) Africa should come under American control for its benefit. B) Blacks should migrate to Africa to gain more civil and political rights. C) African nations should be free from colonial control. D) Africa should serve as a model for race relations in the United States. Answer: C 40) In what area did Du Bois think the NAACP should focus after World War II? A) toward economic gains for blacks B) toward winning independence for African nations C) toward desegregating the armed forces D) toward winning rights for black women in the South Answer: B 41) What domestic effect did the Cold War have in America? A) The tension with the Soviet Union created an era of repression against people suspected of supporting communism. B) Very little because the war was not actually fought in the United States. C) It caused blacks to gain favor with government leaders because they were active in fighting the Cold War with the Soviets. D) It had the effect of forcing the government to make concessions to African Americans without any demands on their part. Answer: A 42) How did Henry Wallace alter Truman's actions concerning African Americans during the election of 1948? A) Wallace caused Truman to adopt more policies favoring African Americans in order to keep their votes. B) Because Wallace was the leader of the Dixiecrat Party, Truman explicitly went against him in advocating black rights. C) Wallace was a black communist leader of the NAACP and caused Truman to crack down on that organization during the 1950s. D) Wallace really had no effect on Truman because he had no support. Answer: A 43) How did the Cold War influence African Americans' struggle for rights? A) It made racism and segregation less acceptable as the United States struggled for influence among Third World nations. B) It decreased the power of the federal government over social conditions in the nation, which made it more difficult for blacks to achieve civil rights. C) It decreased the power of the military, making military desegregation less significant. D) The Soviet policy of overt racism was seen as negative by Americans. Answer: A 44) How did the Cold War impact African Americans in world affairs? A) It expanded the level of segregation in the United States. B) It expanded the number of race riots taking place in the United States. C) It prevented an expansion of the role of blacks in the international arena. D) It gave new importance to the voices of blacks in the international arena. Answer: D 45) What was the connection between anti-communism and the civil rights movement after World War II? A) No connection existed. B) Anti-communism in the U.S. led to the end of the civil rights movement in 1960. C) Anti-communism in the U.S. helped the civil rights movement achieve full success by 1955. D) Blacks who criticized the U.S. were called communists and discredited. Answer: D 46) What is the relationship between Henry Wallace and the 1948 presidential election? A) Wallace served as Harry Truman’s campaign manager. B) Wallace served as Harry Truman’s vice presidential candidate. C) Wallace won the election. D) Wallace ran on the Progressive Party ticket against Truman. Answer: D 47) How did the Korean War reflect U.S. Cold War policy? A) The aim of the war was to allow communist nations to expand as Cold War policy dictated. B) The aim of the war was to form bonds of cooperation with the Soviet Union as Cold War policy unfolded. C) The aim of the war was to reconcile political interests with China as Cold War policy demanded. D) The aim of the war was for the U.S. to contain communism from expanding to other nations. Answer: D 48) How is Paul Robeson an example of the impact of the Cold War on black entertainers? A) Robeson’s career was not impacted by the Cold War. B) Robeson’s singing career skyrocketed after he was declared a communist. C) Robeson sang for President Truman because of Robeson’s Cold War efforts. D) Robeson’s singing career was destroyed because he was a communist. Answer: D 49) How was the black vote related to the desegregation of the military after World War II? A) Black voters helped to stall the eventual desegregation of the military. B) Black voters made no impact on the pace of desegregation of the military. C) Black voters helped to hasten the desegregation of the military. D) Black voters failed to vote in sufficient numbers to change segregation in the military. Answer: C 50) How did the blockade of East Berlin by the Soviet Union shape Cold War relationships with the U.S? A) It exerted no discernible impact. B) It helped improve relations between the two nations. C) It increased tensions between the two nations. D) It ended Soviet influence over Cuba. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) When Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935, black communities throughout the United States organized to send it aid. Answer: True 52) By early 1940 the United States had instituted its first peacetime draft to provide men for the army and navy. Answer: True 53) The “Double V” campaign entailed the fight of blacks against fascism at home in the U.S. and discrimination abroad. Answer: False 54) The March on Washington Movement was unsuccessful in pressuring the federal government to improve hiring practices in government military employment. Answer: False 55) Civil war in Spain stimulated renewed activism among leftist African Americans during the 1930s. Answer: True 56) Support of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade reflected a commitment by a few African Americans to the communists’ vision of internationalism. Answer: True 57) Black workers and volunteers helped staff the factories and farms that produced goods for World War II while also purchasing war bonds and participating in other defense activities. Answer: True 58) Because of its burgeoning aircraft industry and the success of civil rights groups and the federal government in limiting discrimination, Los Angeles saw its small African-American community increase by more than 340,000 during the war. Answer: True 59) The abundance of industrial jobs helped spur the second phase of the Great Migration, in which some 1.5 million migrants left the South. Answer: True 60) The results of U.S. military efforts during World War II entailed victory over Japan, Germany, and Italy, as well as a new and powerful role in Cold War affairs. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) Because of the military’s policies, most of the nearly ______________ ______________ African Americans who served during World War II did so in auxiliary units, notably in the transportation and engineering corps. Answer: one million 62) After the Battle of the ______________, a massive German counterattack in Belgium in December 1944, over 2,500 black volunteers fought in integrated units. Answer: Bulge 63) By 1947, World War II veterans accounted for ______________ of all college students in the United States. Answer: half 64) The war helped to ______________ the migration of African Americans from rural areas to the cities. Answer: accelerate 65) The most dramatic rise in black population in the nation during World War II took place in southern ______________. Answer: California 66) The relationship between the second phase of the ______________ Migration and World War II included the increase of black populations in northern and western cities with significant wartime industries. Answer: Great 67) In 1944 southern white liberals joined with blacks to establish the Southern ______________ Council, an example of the local initiative of private citizens devoted to expanding democracy in a region better known for the exploitation of its black citizens. Answer: Regional 68) By 1954 the army had disbanded its last all-black units, and the armed forces became one of the first sectors of American society to abandon ______________. Answer: segregation 69) Militant American anticommunism ignited an explosion of red-baiting hysteria that led to the rise of the House ______________ Activities Committee (HUAC). Answer: Un-American 70) In 1950 the North Koreans, allied with the ______________ attacked the American- supported government in South Korea and launched a “hot war” in the midst of the Cold War. Answer: Soviets Short Answer Questions 71) How did the struggles of African Americans for equal rights in the military reflect the overall fight for civil rights during the era? Answer: The struggles of African Americans for equal rights in the military reflected the broader fight for civil rights by highlighting pervasive discrimination, efforts to demonstrate patriotism and citizenship, and intersecting with the larger civil rights movement. 72) Who is Mabel K. Staupers and how does her life reveal the contours of the African-American experience during this time? Answer: Mabel K. Staupers was a prominent African American nurse and advocate for racial equality in healthcare. Her life reveals the contours of the African American experience during her time through her leadership in breaking racial barriers in nursing, advocating for better healthcare for African Americans, and highlighting the importance of education and professional advancement in overcoming discrimination. 73) How and why did policies toward blacks in the military begin to change during World War II? Answer: Policies toward blacks in the military began to change during World War II due to the need for manpower and the pressure from civil rights groups. The demand for soldiers led to the expansion of African American enlistment and the eventual desegregation of the military, symbolized by President Truman's Executive Order 9981 in 1948. 74) What were the origins of the Cold War? How did it affect American society? Answer: The Cold War originated from tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II, fueled by ideological differences, political ambitions, and mutual distrust. It affected American society by promoting fear of communism, leading to the Red Scare and McCarthyism, as well as influencing foreign policy decisions and military spending. 75) How did the 1948 election illustrate the growing power of African Americans? Answer: The 1948 election illustrated the growing power of African Americans through their support for President Truman, who had issued Executive Order 9981 to desegregate the military. African Americans, especially in key states like Illinois and Ohio, played a significant role in Truman's narrow victory, signaling their increasing influence in national politics. Essay Questions 76) How is the March on Washington Movement an example of civil rights agitation during the era? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the March on Washington Movement as reflective of black desires for equal pay with whites in any type of employment, particularly federal government war contracts. 2. Point out that the strategy of A. Phillip Randolph in creating the march was to use direct public protest to advertise the failure of democracy in the U.S. at home while the nation fought for democracy abroad. 3. Conclude that the threat of a march motivated FDR to issue an executive order banning racial discrimination in federal employment. Sample Answer: The March on Washington Movement (MOWM) was a pivotal example of civil rights agitation during the era, showcasing the power of organized nonviolent protest and demonstrating the widespread demand for racial equality. Led by A. Philip Randolph, the MOWM was a campaign that aimed to end racial discrimination in employment and the military. One key aspect of the MOWM was its ability to mobilize a large number of people from diverse backgrounds. This mass mobilization was evident in the proposed 1941 March on Washington, which pressured President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802, banning racial discrimination in the defense industry. This successful campaign marked a significant early victory in the civil rights movement. Furthermore, the MOWM highlighted the importance of strategic planning and organization in civil rights agitation. The movement utilized various tactics, including boycotts, marches, and mass meetings, to raise awareness and pressure the government to enact change. These tactics were later adopted and expanded upon by other civil rights leaders and organizations, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Overall, the March on Washington Movement served as a powerful example of how grassroots organizing and nonviolent protest could effectively challenge racial injustice and advance the cause of civil rights in America. 77) What is the meaning of the statement “the transformation of black soldiers” in relation to World War II? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the impact of warfare upon black men in U.S. history is a transformative experience in the sense that fighting for freedom and democracy for the nation is compared to the lack of freedom and democracy at home for black people. 2. Note that during World War II, African American men became officers, fought and died to destroy fascism in Europe, and came back home determined to halt racial oppression of their families and themselves. Black men were literally transformed into civil rights leaders during the war. 3. Conclude that the war experience gave black men a broader perception of the world and a budding international consciousness. Sample Answer: The statement "the transformation of black soldiers" in relation to World War II refers to the significant changes experienced by African American soldiers during and after the war. Prior to World War II, African Americans faced systemic racism and segregation in the military and society at large. However, the war served as a catalyst for change, leading to the transformation of African American soldiers in several key ways. Firstly, World War II provided African American soldiers with opportunities for advancement and recognition that were previously denied to them. Despite facing segregation within the military, African American soldiers served with distinction in various roles and units, showcasing their abilities and patriotism. Secondly, the war exposed African American soldiers to different cultures and ideas, leading to a broader understanding of the world and their place in it. This exposure contributed to a growing sense of pride and identity among African Americans, fueling the desire for equality and civil rights upon their return home. Additionally, the experiences of African American soldiers during World War II played a crucial role in shaping the civil rights movement. Many returning soldiers became leaders in the fight for racial equality, drawing on their experiences in the war to challenge segregation and discrimination in American society. In conclusion, the transformation of black soldiers during World War II refers to the profound changes experienced by African American soldiers, both personally and societally. Their contributions to the war effort and their experiences abroad played a crucial role in advancing the cause of civil rights in America. 78) Who were the Tuskegee Airmen and why was their experience unique in terms of black service in the military during World War II? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Tuskegee Airmen as an Air Force unit of black men segregated and discriminated against but allowed to fly in combat towards the end of the war. 2. Note that their experience was unique in that they were officers who flew airplanes as an elite form of service while blacks in the Navy were cooks and blacks in the Army were frequently denied combat roles. 3. Conclude that the Tuskegee Airmen scored impressive victories in combat while support staff became experts in a variety of airplanes flown by the pilots. Sample Answer: The Tuskegee Airmen were a group of African American pilots and support personnel who served in the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. They were named after the Tuskegee Army Airfield in Alabama, where they trained. The experience of the Tuskegee Airmen was unique in terms of black service in the military during World War II for several reasons. Firstly, they were the first African American military aviators in the USAAF. This was significant as African Americans were generally not allowed to fly in combat roles due to the prevalent racial prejudices of the time. Secondly, the Tuskegee Airmen overcame significant obstacles and discrimination to become highly skilled pilots. Despite facing skepticism and racism from some white officers and fellow servicemen, they demonstrated exceptional skill and bravery in combat, earning the respect of their peers and superiors. Another unique aspect of the Tuskegee Airmen's experience was their impact on civil rights and desegregation efforts. Their success in combat highlighted the absurdity of racial segregation in the military and contributed to the eventual desegregation of the armed forces by President Harry Truman in 1948. Overall, the Tuskegee Airmen's experience was unique in terms of black service in the military during World War II due to their pioneering role as African American pilots, their ability to overcome discrimination and excel in combat, and their impact on civil rights and desegregation efforts in the United States. 79) How did the transition toward peace after World War II reflect the initial tensions of the Cold War? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Cold War as the battle-less fight between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over political and international control of other nations and resources from World War II to the collapse of the Soviet state in the early 1990s. 2. Note that immediately after World War II, the U.S. entered into a Cold War crisis regarding the division of Berlin, and the Soviet walling-off of part of the city under its control. The Berlin Wall would remain in place until 1991. 3. Note that the U.S. after World War II created a Berlin Airlift that rescued the western portion of the city from communist takeover and starvation. 4. Conclude that Truman and Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, continued to clash over the buildup of nuclear weapons and the creation of satellite states surrounding the Soviet Union. Sample Answer: The transition toward peace after World War II reflected the initial tensions of the Cold War in several ways. Firstly, the division of Europe into Eastern and Western blocs, with the Soviet Union and its satellite states in the East and the United States and its allies in the West, created a geopolitical rivalry that shaped the post-war world. This division was evident in the division of Germany and the establishment of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Secondly, the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for influence in the newly liberated countries of Eastern Europe and the developing world led to proxy conflicts and ideological battles. This was seen in the Greek Civil War, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, where each superpower supported opposing sides in an effort to expand its sphere of influence. Additionally, the development of nuclear weapons and the beginning of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union added a new dimension to the Cold War tensions. The fear of nuclear war and the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD) shaped the military strategies of both superpowers and led to a constant state of alertness and preparedness. Furthermore, the ideological differences between communism and capitalism fueled propaganda campaigns and ideological warfare. Both sides sought to promote their own system as superior and to undermine the legitimacy of the other. In conclusion, the transition toward peace after World War II reflected the initial tensions of the Cold War through the division of Europe, the competition for influence in the developing world, the development of nuclear weapons, and the ideological battle between communism and capitalism. These factors contributed to a state of tension and rivalry that defined the early years of the Cold War. 80) How did the activities of Ralph Bunche compare to the activities of W.E.B. Du Bois immediately after World War II? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Note that Bunche embraced U.S. policy and the political system and became involved in state department and U.N. functions as an international U.S. ambassador on race relations, a mediator in the Middle East, and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, the first African American to receive the award. 2. Explain that Du Bois remained an outsider and a fierce anti-imperialist who increasingly favored Pan-Africanism, black separatism, and fiercely opposed U.S. foreign policy in Africa during the Cold War. 3. Conclude that the men represented opposing strategies that reflected the diversity of viewpoints among the black intelligentsia regarding how to respond to black issues in an international and domestic context. Sample Answer: The activities of Ralph Bunche and W.E.B. Du Bois immediately after World War II reflected their differing approaches to civil rights and international affairs. Ralph Bunche, a diplomat and scholar, focused on international diplomacy and peacekeeping efforts, while W.E.B. Du Bois, a prominent civil rights activist and intellectual, continued his advocacy for racial equality and social justice in the United States. Ralph Bunche played a significant role in the early years of the United Nations (UN), serving as an instrumental figure in the establishment of the UN's Trusteeship Council and later becoming the first person of color to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in negotiating the 1949 Armistice Agreements in the Middle East. Bunche's work exemplified his belief in the power of diplomacy and international cooperation to resolve conflicts and promote peace. In contrast, W.E.B. Du Bois remained focused on domestic civil rights issues in the United States. He continued to advocate for racial equality and the end of segregation, co-founding the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and editing its magazine, The Crisis. Du Bois also became increasingly critical of U.S. foreign policy, particularly its treatment of African colonies and its role in the emerging Cold War. Despite their different approaches, both Bunche and Du Bois shared a commitment to advancing the rights and opportunities of African Americans. Bunche's work in international diplomacy helped to elevate the status of people of color on the world stage, while Du Bois's activism and scholarship contributed to the civil rights movement in the United States. Together, their efforts highlighted the interconnectedness of domestic and international struggles for equality and justice. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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