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This Document Contains Chapters 13 to 14 Chapter 13: The Meaning of Freedom: The Failure of Reconstruction Multiple Choice Questions 1) What was the first opportunity for many black men to participate in politics in the South? A) Black men did not have the opportunity to participate in politics in the South. B) Their first opportunity was at the constitutional conventions during Reconstruction. C) They participated in politics during the presidential election of 1872. D) During the elections for state senate seats, many blacks ran for office. Answer: B 2) Southern whites who aligned with the Republican Party in the South were called which of the following names by southern Democrats? A) Klansmen B) carpetbaggers C) scalawags D) secessionists Answer: C 3) Northern whites who migrated to the South were called which of the following names by southern Democrats? A) scalawags B) freedmen C) carpetbaggers D) miners Answer: C 4) Which two southern states did not allow black men to vote in 1868? A) South Carolina and North Carolina B) Texas and Arkansas C) South Carolina and Georgia D) Mississippi and Virginia Answer: D 5) Which former Confederate state had the most blacks holding office during Reconstruction? A) South Carolina B) Alabama C) Virginia D) Texas Answer: A 6) Which former Confederate state had the least number of blacks holding office during Reconstruction? A) Texas B) South Carolina C) Tennessee D) Delaware Answer: C 7) What was the highest state office to which a black man was elected in the South during Reconstruction? A) governor B) state senator C) lieutenant governor D) Blacks were not elected to any state offices during Reconstruction. Answer: C 8) Which of the following statements is true about black officeholders during Reconstruction? A) They were always well qualified for their offices. B) A large majority had attended college. C) Some had been free before the war; some had been slaves. D) Farmers and workers were poorly represented. Answer: C 9) What is true about the constitutions developed by the Republican-dominated conventions? A) They allowed all blacks to vote. B) They did not disfranchise huge numbers of former Confederates. C) They generally provided few guarantees to blacks. D) They gave the Ku Klux Klan a prominent role as an organization. Answer: B 10) Why were many of the delegates to the constitutional conventions in 1867 and 1868 Republicans? A) The Republican Party was well liked and accepted among southerners. B) White Democrats boycotted the elections to protest Congress's Reconstruction plan and the effort to give blacks the vote. C) The Republicans bribed blacks to support them, thereby gaining the upper hand at the conventions. D) President Johnson issued an executive order stating that Republicans had to be a certain percentage of the delegates attending the conventions. Answer: B 11) What occupations are depicted in the drawing of black male voters that appears in Chapter 13? A) farmer, businessman, soldier B) slave owner, factory worker, sailor C) ship captain, seamstress, nurse D) homemaker, clown, policeman Answer: A 12) According to Table 13-1, what factor shaped the number of black officeholders in the southern states during Reconstruction? A) age, gender, and class position of the black officeholder B) slave or free status prior to the Civil War C) black percentage of the state population D) the length of residency in the South Answer: C 13) What was a major problem faced by Republicans in establishing schools during Reconstruction? A) White parents were overeager to place their children in integrated schools. B) Many states in the South provided generous funding to control the schools. C) Some people—blacks and whites—opposed compulsory education laws. D) Northerners were willing to give generous funding to black schools if the South did not. Answer: C 14) What happened to the University of South Carolina when black leaders insisted it include black students? A) White students accepted the blacks and helped them adjust to college life. B) Most of the white students and faculty left. C) Whites discriminated against the black students, making life very difficult for them. D) The governor of South Carolina shut the school down. Answer: B 15) What industry or business was a main source of interest in the South during Reconstruction? A) railroads B) the new chemical industry C) furniture and construction companies D) tobacco industry Answer: A 16) How did black leaders feel about segregation in American society? A) They thought that it was merely a passing phase. B) They thought that it was acceptable, as long as they made other political gains. C) They found it unacceptable and fought it through lawsuits and protests. D) They ignored segregation entirely and went about their lives as before the war. Answer: C 17) What was the impact of the attempt by some black legislators to regulate wages for black workers? A) Regulation had an enormous effect; blacks were able to make enough money to survive for a short time. B) It had no effect at all, generally, because Democrats were able to get the laws repealed very quickly. C) Wage regulation at this time was the beginning of the minimum wage laws we have now. D) It had very little impact because most Republicans did not believe that the state had the right to regulate wages or prices. Answer: D 18) What was the purpose of “stay laws”? A) to force blacks to stay in one place, rather than migrate elsewhere B) to assist blacks by prohibiting state authorities from taking property C) to reduce black political power in the state of Tennessee D) to expand the prison system of the South Answer: B 19) How did some black legislators try to gain land for blacks? A) They forced large property holders to give land to the state so that blacks could have it. B) They taxed large landowners at high rates so that they would have to sell some of their land. C) They never felt they had enough power to think about giving blacks land. D) They advocated violence as a way to gain land during Reconstruction. Answer: B 20) How did class and social status divide blacks during Reconstruction? A) Leaders who had been slaves were often worried about land and labor issues. B) Leaders who had been free were often worried about civil rights issues. C) Leaders who were former slaves and those who were free could not agree on strategy. D) Leaders were completely united about how to deal with education during Reconstruction. Answer: C 21) Why were black political leaders unsuccessful in achieving their goals? A) They were unskilled in politics. B) They were generally uneducated, lower-class men. C) They faced opposition from Democrats and white Republicans. D) They attempted to gain support from European interests. Answer: C 22) What did white southerners mean when they said they wanted to "redeem" their states? A) They wanted Republicans to be in power. B) They wanted to remove all blacks to Africa. C) They wanted to restore religious feeling and true Christianity to their state. D) They wanted to remove blacks and Republicans from political office. Answer: D 23) Why were elected offices in the South bitterly contested by many people? A) Many were interested in the modest but steady salary politicians obtained. B) Elected officials in the South wielded tremendous power. C) Elected officials always rose up in the ranks to higher offices and higher pay. D) Elected officials were provided with residences and numerous other benefits. Answer: A 24) Where was the Ku Klux Klan most powerful in the South? A) in areas where blacks comprised a large majority of the population B) in areas where blacks embodied a large minority of the population C) in areas where blacks were a small minority of the population D) in all areas of the South Answer: B 25) Which of the following statements is true about the actions of the KKK? A) It was popular only among poor whites who resented both elite whites and blacks. B) It frequently helped to eliminate Democratic leadership. C) It conducted campaigns of violence, murder, and terrorism against blacks. D) No other organizations with different names had similar goals and tactics in the South. Answer: C 26) Why did local law enforcement fail to effectively prosecute the Klan? A) Because no terrorist groups had existed before, there were no laws to deal with them. B) Local law enforcement or white troops often sided with the Klan against blacks. C) There were only a small number of Klansmen, and they remained hidden from prosecution. D) The Klan's actions were almost invisible because no one reported news of the terrorism. Answer: B 27) What is the connection between the Ku Klux Klan and Reconstruction? A) The Klan played no role during Reconstruction B) The Klan assisted local African Americans in establishing political and social rights in several southern states. C) The Klan promoted violence in the interest of southern Democrats who ended Reconstruction. D) The Klan helped to prolong Reconstruction by volunteering to staff military outposts in rural areas of the South. Answer: C 28) What is the connection during Reconstruction between the Ku Klux Klan and the Klan’s outfit of hoods made from flour sacks and bed sheets? A) The sheets hid the identity of the Klansmen from public knowledge. B) The sheets emphasized the rapid movements of Klan members at night. C) The sheets were used to warm the bodies of Klansmen who were cold at night. D) The sheets were used to hide weapons and sacks of food used in raids. Answer: A 29) What is the relationship between the Five Civilized Tribes and African American slavery? A) These American Indian tribes were removed to Oklahoma to help capture escaped slaves. B) American Indians from these tribes banned the enslavement of blacks. C) American Indians from these tribes held blacks as slaves. D) Blacks held American Indians from these tribes as slaves. Answer: C 30) What is the connection between black men and western territorial governments during Reconstruction? A) no connection existed because no blacks lived in the western territories during the 1870s B) black men took over these legislatures because they held the majority of seats C) black men voted in territorial elections D) black men worked for the governments but could not participate politically Answer: C 31) According to the Voices section regarding “An Appeal for Help against the Klan,” what is the central issue impacting the letter writer? A) the lack of railroad access to southern towns and cotton fields B) the lack of white Democrats to assist Klan activities in the South C) the need for aid to protect Democrats and the white community from Klan violence D) the need for aid to protect Republicans and the black community from Klan violence Answer: D 32) How did Congress react to southern attempts to stop blacks from using political power? A) They passed the Sixteenth Amendment. B) They passed the Fifteenth Amendment. C) They did very little because Congress was tired of dealing with the South's misbehavior. D) Congress responded by expelling southern congressmen and senators. Answer: B 33) Which of the following is true about the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871? A) They made it a misdemeanor crime to interfere with someone's right to vote. B) They prevented the president from sending in federal troops if necessary. C) They authorized the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpus if necessary. D) They were actually not put into effect because of white racism in the South. Answer: C 34) What effect did the Enforcement Acts exert on the Klan? A) The government moved quickly against the Klan, but few of its members were prosecuted severely. B) None—southern governments laughed at northern attempts to get rid of the Klan. C) The Enforcement Acts shielded all Klan members from prosecution because they were leaders of the community. D) The Klan became stronger because of the acts. Answer: A 35) Which of the following statements accurately characterizes the Civil Rights Act of 1875? A) It eliminated all discrimination in public places on the basis of race. B) It was championed by both Republicans and Democrats. C) It was eventually overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court. D) Neither house of Congress passed the measure. Answer: C 36) What was the relationship between the North and Reconstruction? A) No connection existed because Reconstruction took place in the South. B) Congress deferred to southern states during the 1870s on reconstruction policy. C) Northern whites wanted European nations to guide reconstruction policy. D) Northern white support was crucial to maintaining reconstruction policy. Answer: D 37) What is the connection between Frederick Douglass and the Freedmen’s Bank? A) Douglass removed his money from the bank, leading to the bank’s collapse by 1874. B) Douglass served as president and invested his own money in the bank. C) Douglass refused to have any connections to the bank. D) Douglass served as the bank’s secretary and embezzled funds, collapsing the bank. Answer: B 38) What is the connection between the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and Reconstruction? A) The act took place after Reconstruction ended. B) The act was the first measure to assist southern whites that passed both Houses of Congress during Reconstruction. C) The act was the last piece of civil rights legislation to assist blacks passed before Reconstruction ended. D) The act’s passage helped to prolong Reconstruction for another twenty years. Answer: C 39) Why did northerners begin to lose interest in black issues by the mid-1870s? A) Economic troubles arose, including the serious Panic of 1873. B) They felt that they had done enough for blacks over the course of Reconstruction. C) They thought blacks should now be able to take care of their own issues in the South. D) The Civil War never officially ended which made Reconstructions too expensive. Answer: C 40) Why did the Freedmen's Savings Bank fail? A) The bank's black board of directors had little direct knowledge of banking policies and practices. B) The bank had no support from the black community. C) The stock market at that point was very weak and fluctuated wildly. D) The white leaders of the bank invested poorly and lost everything in the Panic of 1873. Answer: D 41) What was the “shotgun policy”? A) a policy adopted by African-American leaders in Louisiana to defend themselves against whites B) a massive campaign of violence against blacks in Mississippi to bring the state back under “civilized” white control C) a policy frequently adopted in the Reconstruction South, requiring marriage if a woman became pregnant D) a policy that required the quartering of federal troops in areas that were considered Klan strongholds Answer: B 42) What provoked the Hamburg Massacre? A) an incident between two white men and the black militia of the town B) the rape of a white woman by a black man C) several African Americans attempting to vote D) the theft of a large number of cattle from a prominent white businessman's ranch Answer: A 43) Which three states remained unredeemed by 1876? A) Florida, Georgia, and Alabama B) Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina C) Mississippi, Tennessee, and Georgia D) Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana Answer: D 44) Who became president of the United States as a result of the Compromise of 1877? A) Andrew Johnson B) Ulysses S. Grant C) Samuel J. Tilden D) Rutherford B. Hayes Answer: D 45) What is true about the end of Reconstruction? A) Whites learned that intimidation and violence would not reduce the amount of black voting. B) Republicans regained control of southern legislatures. C) It left few lasting benefits for blacks. D) The high level of violence completely ended. Answer: C 46) Political violence in Alabama in 1874 against blacks is symptomatic of what aspect of Reconstruction? A) the origins of Reconstruction policy B) the success of Reconstruction policy C) the secession of the southern states from Union domination D) the redemption of the southern states from Republican rule Answer: D 47) The Colfax Massacre is an example of what pattern of violence common during Reconstruction? A) a poorly-trained but well-armed American Indian mob attacked white defenders B) a poorly-armed white mob attacked black and white defenders C) a well-armed white mob attacked black defenders D) a well-armed black mob attacked white defenders Answer: C 48) How do blacks behave in the image of Robert Brown Elliott’s 1874 speech before Congress that appears in Chapter 13? A) as rude and boisterous people trying to take over Congress B) as meek and cowardly people facing strong white opposition C) as indifferent to the political fate awaiting them D) as active participants in the political proceedings Answer: D 49) How did the outcome of Mississippi's “shotgun policy” differ from South Carolina's policy? A) Blacks successfully defeated both measures in political referendums. B) President Grant sent federal troops to South Carolina but not to Mississippi. C) South Carolina's shotgun law was never enforced, and blacks were allowed to peacefully assemble and demonstrate against segregation. D) The policy declined in Mississippi but increased in South Carolina over time. Answer: B 50) What is the connection between the Voices section on black leaders and the Civil Rights Act and the main themes of the textbook chapter? A) The letter reflects the desire of black leaders for segregated social institutions. B) The letter reflects the desire of southern blacks to join the Democratic Party. C) The letter reflects the desire of black leaders for stronger civil rights laws. D) The letter reflects the desire of black leaders for more prisons. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) Although no state or federal laws required integration, public schools during and after Reconstruction in the South were invariably integrated. Answer: False 52) In 1872 Mississippi legislators used the 1862 federal Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided states with funds for agricultural colleges, to found the first historically black state university: Alcorn A&M College. Answer: True 53) Black leaders in the state legislature compelled the University of South Carolina, which had been all white, to admit black students and hire black faculty, but many of the white students and faculty left, and several black politicians enrolled in the law and medical programs at the university. Answer: True 54) Outnumbered and outgunned, black people in most areas did not retaliate against the Klan, and the Klan was rarely active in places where black people were prepared to defend themselves. Answer: True 55) Although the Freedmen’s Bank had many white employees, its board of directors consisted only of black men. Answer: False 56) The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was passed in part as a memorial to President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy. Answer: False 57) By the mid-1870s, less discussion took place in Congress about political corruption, patronage, and monetary policy than about rights for black people or the future of the South. Answer: False 58) White violence marred every election in Louisiana from 1868 to 1876. Answer: True 59) In 1877 as part of a compromise with the Democratic Party, President Hayes withdrew the last federal troops from the South. Answer: True 60) As Reconstruction began, Democrats demanded “redemption”—a word with biblical and spiritual overtones, and wanted southern states restored to conservative, white political control. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The number of blacks elected to office in the former Confederate states during Reconstruction generally depended on constitutional ______________. Answer: conventions 62) The concept of ______________ ______________ defined the meaning or spirit of Reconstruction policies for both blacks and Republican Party leaders in Congress. Answer: civil rights 63) The concept of social ______________ programs expanded under black Republican leadership of southern states during the late 1860s. Answer: welfare 64) Republican leaders achieved uneven results in attempting to expand public ______________ in the South during Reconstruction. Answer: education 65) The Ku Klux Klan was founded in the state of ______________. Answer: Tennessee 66) During Reconstruction in the West, black men served in both houses of the ______________ legislature. Answer: Creek 67) Two Indian tribes, the ______________ and the ______________, absolutely refused to make concessions to free black people after the Civil War. Answer: Chickasaw, Choctaw 68) The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 authorized the President of the United States to suspend the legal concept of ______________ ______________ and jail Americans without cause. Answer: habeas corpus 69) The ______________ Massacre is an example of the declining political power of the Republican Party in the South towards the end of Reconstruction. Answer: Hamburg 70) The ______________ Massacre reflects the growing military power of white Democrats as Reconstruction policies declined in the South during the 1870s. Answer: Ellenton Short Answer Questions 71) How is Republicans’ domination of southern constitutional conventions reflective of the initial phase of Reconstruction? Answer: Republicans' domination of southern constitutional conventions reflected the initial phase of Reconstruction by showing their control over the political process in the South. This domination allowed Republicans to implement their vision for Reconstruction, including the abolition of slavery, granting civil rights to African Americans, and reshaping the political landscape in the region. 72) How is the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution an example of Reconstruction legislation? Answer: The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution is an example of Reconstruction legislation because it was passed during the Reconstruction era to grant African American men the right to vote, prohibiting the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This amendment aimed to ensure political equality for African Americans and was a key component of Reconstruction's efforts to redefine citizenship and rights in the post-Civil War United States. 73) What were the Enforcement Acts and how and why were they used? Answer: The Enforcement Acts, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Acts, were a series of laws passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871 to combat the violence and intimidation tactics used by white supremacist groups, particularly the Ku Klux Klan, to prevent African Americans from exercising their newly gained civil rights, such as voting. These acts allowed for federal intervention in states to protect the civil rights of African Americans and to prosecute those who violated these rights. They were used to enforce Reconstruction policies and protect African American rights in the South. 74) Why did the North begin to lose interest in blacks and the South by the 1870s? Answer: The North began to lose interest in blacks and the South by the 1870s due to several factors. The Civil War had ended, and many Northerners believed that the primary goals of Reconstruction had been achieved with the abolition of slavery and the Reconstruction amendments. Additionally, there was a growing focus on economic issues and industrialization in the North, diverting attention away from the plight of African Americans in the South. Political fatigue and the rise of other national issues also contributed to waning interest in Reconstruction efforts. 75) Describe the relationship between American Indians and African Americans in the West during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Answer: During the Civil War and Reconstruction, the relationship between American Indians and African Americans in the West was complex. Some tribes allied with the Confederacy, viewing them as less of a threat to their land and sovereignty than the Union. Others, like the Cherokee and Creek, supported the Union. After the war, tensions arose as both groups competed for land and resources, leading to conflicts such as the Red River War and the Battle of Adobe Walls. Essay Questions 76) What types of issues did black Republicans generally promote? How were black Republicans received within the Republican Party? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Outline that the Republican Party believed in public education, social welfare programs, the reform of the prison system, the expansion of private corporations, and the promotion of reform of the South. 2. Point out that black Republicans were received as welcome voters and supporters but not as leaders, particularly outside of the South. 3. Conclude that black leaders could not motivate their white colleagues to act on issues to assist black people. Sample Answer: Types of Issues Black Republicans Generally Promoted 1. Civil Rights and Voting Rights • Advocacy for the Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14th, and 15th Amendments. 2. Education and Economic Opportunities • Establishment of public schools and policies for economic upliftment. 3. Anti-Discrimination Measures • Laws against racial discrimination in various sectors. 4. Political Representation • Increasing African American officeholders at all government levels. 5. Social Justice and Equality • Fight against lynching, racial violence, and segregation. Reception of Black Republicans within the Republican Party 1. Reconstruction Era (1865-1877) • Significant support and political participation. 2. Post-Reconstruction and Jim Crow Era • Marginalization and diminished influence. 3. Early to Mid-20th Century • Sidelining within the party as focus shifted to business interests. 4. Civil Rights Movement • Mixed responses; many African Americans shifted to the Democratic Party. 5. Modern Era • Continued challenges; advocacy on economic empowerment, education reform, and criminal justice reform. 77) Why were political offices so hotly contested during Reconstruction? What does this reveal about the nation’s political system at that time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that office holding paid a modest salary, motivating white and black politicians to campaign vigorously for elected office. 2. Outline that the South was in transition and political offices were in flux as whites and blacks redefined a new political system. 3. Note that the nation’s political system was based on the spoils system of political patronage and rewards of public appointments and office for party loyalty. Sample Answer: Why Were Political Offices So Hotly Contested During Reconstruction? Political offices were hotly contested during Reconstruction due to several key factors: 1. Power Shift and Political Control: The abolition of slavery and the defeat of the Confederacy fundamentally altered the political landscape in the South. The power shift from former Confederates to newly enfranchised African Americans and Northern Republicans created intense competition for political control. 2. Enfranchisement of African Americans: The Reconstruction Acts and the 14th and 15th Amendments granted African American men the right to vote and hold office. This newly enfranchised group sought to influence policies and protect their rights, leading to increased political activity and competition. 3. Economic and Social Rebuilding: The South needed extensive economic and social rebuilding after the Civil War. Control over political offices meant control over the distribution of resources and the direction of Reconstruction policies, making these positions highly coveted. 4. Racial Tensions: The inclusion of African Americans in the political process heightened racial tensions. White supremacists and former Confederates fiercely opposed the changes, often resorting to violence and intimidation to regain control and suppress black political participation. 5. Federal Intervention and Military Presence: Federal intervention and the presence of Union troops to enforce Reconstruction policies added another layer of complexity. The struggle between federal authorities and Southern resistance made political offices a battleground for broader ideological conflicts. What This Reveals About the Nation’s Political System at That Time 1. Fragile Democracy and Racial Inequality: The intense contestation of political offices during Reconstruction reveals the fragility of American democracy and the deep-seated racial inequalities. The struggle highlighted the challenges of integrating formerly enslaved people into the political system and achieving true democratic representation. 2. Federal vs. State Authority: The conflict between federal authorities and Southern states underscored the ongoing tension between federal and state power. Reconstruction illustrated the limits of federal power in enforcing civil rights and the persistent resistance to federal intervention in state affairs. 3. Partisan Polarization: The period highlighted extreme partisan polarization. The Republican Party, associated with Union victory and emancipation, clashed with the Democratic Party, which largely represented the interests of the former Confederacy and opposed Reconstruction measures. 4. Role of Violence in Politics: The widespread use of violence and intimidation by groups like the Ku Klux Klan revealed the extent to which political power was contested through unlawful means. This underscores the vulnerability of the political system to coercion and the lengths to which opponents of Reconstruction were willing to go to maintain white supremacy. 5. Transformative Potential and Resistance: Reconstruction demonstrated both the transformative potential of the political system and the significant resistance to change. The era showed that political institutions could be vehicles for profound social change, but also that entrenched interests could fiercely resist such changes. In conclusion, the hotly contested political offices during Reconstruction highlight the era's significance in shaping American democracy. The period was marked by profound social and political upheaval, revealing both the possibilities and limitations of the nation's political system in addressing issues of race, power, and justice. 78) What were the terms of the Civil Rights Act of 1875? Why was it passed? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the terms of the act: banned public discrimination based on race. 2. Note the limitations of the act: bans on school, cemetery, and churches were dropped. 3. Note that the act was not enforced and declared unconstitutional in 1883. 4. Explain that the act was passed largely as a memorial to the late Senator Charles Sumner, an abolitionist who had championed radical reconstruction.
Sample Answer: Terms of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 1. Equal Treatment in Public Accommodations: Guaranteed all persons equal access to inns, public conveyances, theaters, and other places of public amusement. 2. Prohibition of Discrimination: Banned racial discrimination in public accommodations like hotels and railroads. 3. Penalties for Violations: Imposed fines and potential imprisonment for those who violated the Act. 4. Jury Service: Ensured no citizen could be disqualified from jury service based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Reasons for Passage 1. Addressing Ongoing Discrimination: Aimed to combat persistent racial discrimination in public life. 2. Reconstruction Efforts: Intended to solidify the gains of Reconstruction and enforce the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. 3. Civil Rights Activism: Resulted from pressure by African American leaders and civil rights activists. 4. Political Climate: Supported by Radical Republicans committed to advancing civil rights. 5. Judicial Enforcement: Sought to provide a legal basis for challenging racial discrimination in federal courts. 79) What is the connection between "redemption" and the end of Reconstruction? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the term “redemption” as a biblical and spiritual metaphor for the retaking of the South from black and northern rule. 2. Note that the term further includes the absolution of southern whites of any guilt or shame for slavery or fighting and losing the Civil War. 3. Conclude that “redeeming” the South as a final end to Reconstruction and black and northern Republican rule took place at varying years for southern states during the 1870s, with the Deep South taking the longest to return to white Democrat domination. Sample Answer: Connection Between "Redemption" and the End of Reconstruction The term "Redemption" refers to the period in the late 19th century when Southern white Democrats, known as "Redeemers," regained political control of the South from the Republicans. This period marked the end of Reconstruction and had significant implications for African Americans and the political landscape of the South. Here are the key connections: Political Reversal 1. Democratic Takeover: Redemption involved the Democratic Party's strategic effort to reclaim control of Southern state governments from the Republican Party, which had implemented Reconstruction policies. 2. Disfranchisement: Redeemers employed tactics such as voter suppression, fraud, and intimidation to disenfranchise African American voters and ensure Democratic victories in elections. Social and Economic Implications 3. Restoration of White Supremacy: Redemption aimed to restore white supremacy by rolling back the gains made by African Americans during Reconstruction. This included undermining civil rights and re-imposing social and economic controls over African Americans. 4. Economic Policies: Redeemers promoted economic policies that favored the interests of the white elite and often led to the exploitation of African American labor through sharecropping and tenant farming systems. Legislative and Legal Changes 5. Reversal of Reconstruction Policies: Redeemer governments worked to reverse many of the Reconstruction policies and reforms, including civil rights protections and public education initiatives. 6. Jim Crow Laws: The Redemption period paved the way for the establishment of Jim Crow laws, which institutionalized racial segregation and disenfranchised African Americans through legal means. Federal Withdrawal 7. Compromise of 1877: The contested presidential election of 1876 led to the Compromise of 1877, in which Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South in exchange for Rutherford B. Hayes becoming president. This withdrawal effectively ended Reconstruction and allowed Redeemer governments to consolidate power without federal intervention. 8. End of Federal Protection: With the withdrawal of federal troops, African Americans lost the protection that had been provided by the federal government, leaving them vulnerable to violence and discrimination by white supremacists. Conclusion The term "Redemption" symbolizes the end of Reconstruction and the return of Southern states to conservative, white Democratic control. This period marked a significant regression in the rights and freedoms of African Americans, as the gains made during Reconstruction were systematically dismantled. The end of Reconstruction through Redemption set the stage for nearly a century of racial segregation and inequality under the Jim Crow system. 80) What is the relationship between the Compromise of 1877 and Reconstruction? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Compromise of 1877 as the political deal reached between the Republican and Democratic parties to decide the disputed 1876 presidential election. 2. Explain the problem: unclear election returns from Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina led to both parties claiming victory in the electoral college. 3. Point out that Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican governor from Ohio and Civil War general, became the new President of the United States. 4. Note that Samuel J. Tilden, a Democratic governor of New York, conceded the race but did so under the pretext that Republican governments would be removed from Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. 5. Conclude that the Republicans agreed to pull troops out of the South, ending Reconstruction and returning the southern states to white Democrat control. Sample Answer: Relationship Between the Compromise of 1877 and Reconstruction The Compromise of 1877 played a crucial role in bringing Reconstruction to an end. The relationship between the Compromise and Reconstruction is highlighted through several key aspects: Political Context 1. Contested Presidential Election of 1876: The Compromise of 1877 emerged from the highly disputed presidential election between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Neither candidate secured enough electoral votes due to widespread electoral disputes in several Southern states. 2. Bargaining for Resolution: To resolve the deadlock, a bipartisan commission was formed, leading to negotiations between Republicans and Democrats, culminating in the Compromise of 1877. Terms of the Compromise 3. Presidency: Republicans secured the presidency for Rutherford B. Hayes in exchange for concessions to Southern Democrats. 4. Withdrawal of Federal Troops: One of the main terms was the removal of federal troops from the remaining Southern states (Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida). This effectively ended federal enforcement of Reconstruction policies in the South. Impact on Reconstruction 5. End of Federal Enforcement: The withdrawal of federal troops marked the end of federal efforts to protect the civil rights of African Americans in the South. Without federal oversight, Southern states quickly moved to reverse many of the advances made during Reconstruction. 6. Rise of Redeemer Governments: With the absence of federal troops, Southern Democrats, known as Redeemers, regained control of state governments. These governments sought to restore white supremacy and dismantle Reconstruction reforms. 7. Disenfranchisement and Segregation: The Compromise of 1877 allowed Redeemer governments to implement laws that disenfranchised African American voters and institutionalized racial segregation, leading to the era of Jim Crow laws. Societal and Economic Consequences 8. Economic Policies: Redeemer governments focused on policies that favored the interests of the white elite, often at the expense of African American and poor white populations. 9. Violence and Intimidation: The end of Reconstruction saw an increase in violence and intimidation against African Americans, with groups like the Ku Klux Klan using terror to suppress black political participation and maintain racial hierarchy. Conclusion The Compromise of 1877 was a pivotal moment that ended the Reconstruction era. By removing federal troops from the South and allowing Democratic control to be reestablished, the Compromise facilitated the rollback of civil rights and protections for African Americans. This marked a significant regression in the quest for racial equality and set the stage for decades of institutionalized racism and segregation under Jim Crow laws. Chapter 14: White Supremacy Triumphant:
African Americans in the South in the Late Nineteenth Century Multiple Choice Questions 1) To what party did most blacks remain loyal in the post-Reconstruction South? A) Democrats B) Populists C) Republicans D) Whigs Answer: C 2) In the Populist Party, which leader openly promoted interracial cooperation as a way of overcoming farmers' problems? A) Hiram Revels B) Thomas Watson C) William Jennings Bryan D) Teddy Roosevelt Answer: B 3) How did Democrats limit black political power in the South? A) They created oddly shaped congressional districts to prevent blacks from being elected to office. B) They refused to seat elected blacks in the House or Senate. C) They restricted black politicians’ rights in various ways during their tenure in office. D) They generally wanted blacks to vote. Answer: A 4) How were the Democrats becoming divided during the late nineteenth century? A) Poor and middle-class whites resented party domination by wealthy elite groups. B) They did not split up; the Democrats remained a solid party. C) Many Democrats, angry over support of terrorism, began to turn to the Republicans. D) Black Democrats pushed for more rights, angering some of the whites in the party. Answer: A 5) How did the Southern Farmers' Alliance deal with race? A) It was an interracial organization and allowed blacks leadership roles and equal rights in membership. B) It was an interracial group but refused to allow blacks any leadership roles. C) It chose not to include blacks, who had to form their own organization. D) It chose not to include blacks and forbid them from forming their own organization. Answer: C 6) What view did the white farmers' alliances have of black voting? A) They fully supported blacks voting in all cases. B) They did not think that blacks should vote, but ironically encouraged them to vote for certain candidates. C) They thought that blacks should be only agricultural workers and should not participate in politics. D) They were a white supremacist organization, devoted to terrorism like the Klan, and wanted to keep all blacks from voting. Answer: B 7) Which of the following was a belief of the Populist Party? A) The government should own railroads and communication systems. B) Blacks and whites should be social equals in America. C) Economic control of the nation should move to bankers and industrialists. D) The government should become more involved in foreign affairs, particularly in Europe. Answer: A 8) What was the result of the popularity of the Populist Party among blacks in the South? A) Blacks were able to gain substantial numbers of political offices and dominate politics in the South. B) Since blacks were completely excluded from formal participation in politics, they could not vote for Populists. C) Southerners realized that blacks were a potent political force and that they would have to share power politically. D) It heightened fears of white southerners that African Americans might gain political power. Answer: D 9) Why is the year 1892 significant in United States history? A) The Populists failed to run a candidate for the presidency for the first time in 12 years. B) The Populists eliminated the black vote in that year. C) In the 1892 election, when Democrats carried every southern state and sought to destroy the Populist challenge, there was an explosion of violence: 235 people were lynched in the U.S. D) Southerners embraced all of the Populists’ ideas. Answer: C 10) What is the dominant trend in black political office holding in the late 1800s, as revealed in Figure 14-1? A) There was no change in the number of black men holding political office after the 44th Congress. B) Black political officeholding decreased after the 44th Congress. C) Black political officeholding increased after the 44th Congress. D) By 1900, over 100 black men held political offices in Congress. Answer: B 11) What is the pattern of slave vs. free status of black politicians prior to the Civil War, as revealed in Table 14-1? A) Half were slaves; the other half were free. B) Most were slaves, living in the deep southern states. C) Most were free, living in large northern cities. D) Most were indentured servants living in Europe Answer: A 12) What new twist did Louisiana add in 1898 to make sure whites voted but blacks did not? A) the poll tax B) the grandfather clause C) the literacy test D) the Eight Box Law Answer: B 13) What were “grandfather clauses”? A) voting restriction clauses which held that someone could vote only if his father or grandfather had been able to vote before a certain time, usually the end of slavery B) limitations on voting to those people who were grandfathers C) limitations on voting to those who could prove that their grandfathers had been residents of the state as well; because blacks moved around so much after Reconstruction, they rarely qualified D) a clause requiring all grandfathers to vote before their sons Answer: A 14) What was the problem, in the views of many southern states, with voting laws like literacy tests, poll taxes, and property qualifications? A) The laws were too subtle; voting should be directly outlawed. B) Since quite a few blacks owned property, they could still vote. C) Since blacks could be voting registrars, they could override the tests and admit anyone. D) The laws might possibly eliminate poor, illiterate white voters as well as black voters. Answer: D 15) How did the Eight Box Law of 1882 contribute to the disfranchisement of blacks? A) Illiterate voters needed the "help" of white officials to determine where to place their ballots. B) Voters could choose among only eight white candidates, rather than an open pool of people. C) Voters were required to prove that they had over eight boxes of personal property, something most poor blacks could not do. D) Prospective voters had to fill eight boxes with signed petitions, demonstrating community support for their voting rights before they would be registered. Answer: A 16) How does the image of a rural black man voting that appears in Chapter 14 reflect challenges faced by black voters during the late 1800s in the South? A) Whites are attempting to regulate the opportunity to vote to late at night only. B) Whites are attempting to stop black men but not black women from voting. C) Whites are attempting to provide extra voting literature for the black man to read. D) Whites are attempting to manipulate the black voter through alcohol and violence. Answer: D 17) Where did the term "Jim Crow" originate? A) It was a derogatory term used to refer to a black agricultural worker. B) It was the name of a black minstrel show. C) It was the name of a routine in a popular white minstrel show that ridiculed black people. D) It was a reference to a hated type of bird that whites associated with black people. Answer: C 18) Before "Jim Crow" laws came into effect across the South, ______________. A) blacks and whites mingled freely in many public accommodations B) whites had already begun to set up some restrictions on black access to public facilities C) the North had already outlawed all segregation D) racial etiquette rules were non-existent Answer: B 19) How did the railroad companies view the issue of segregation? A) They opposed the idea mainly because they wanted equal access for blacks. B) They opposed the idea because they wanted the additional money from blacks buying first-class tickets. C) They opposed the idea because they did not want to pay the expense of maintaining separate cars. D) Railroad companies were indifferent to segregation. Answer: C 20) What was the effect of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision? A) The Supreme Court made the Tenth Amendment ineffective for blacks. B) The Supreme Court declared that Alabama's segregation laws were acceptable under the Constitution. C) It demonstrated that the highest court in the land accepted discriminatory treatment of blacks. D) It eliminated segregation in public facilities. Answer: C 21) How did blacks react to segregation laws regarding streetcars? A) They attempted to form separate transportation companies. B) They held celebrations in cities across the South. C) They rode motorcycles rather than streetcars, seriously hurting the streetcar companies economically. D) Streetcar segregation was the form of discrimination that blacks accepted as necessary, due to the high level of violence associated with this mode of transportation Answer: A 22) What was the result of black protest of segregated transportation? A) In a few cities, they reversed segregation, but not permanently. B) Southern officials paid no attention to the protests. C) Blacks who protested got some significant gains but would not see further action until the 1960s. D) Blacks refused to protest segregated transportation, fearing outbreaks of violence. Answer: A 23) What do the actions of Homer Plessy tell us about black people and segregation? A) Blacks were very afraid of the KKK during this period. B) Blacks were testing the laws by getting arrested and trying cases in court. C) Blacks would risk being sent to jail rather than test segregation laws. D) Blacks would protest with outright violence and murder when provoked. Answer: B 24) Examine the Chapter 14 drawing of a white conductor evicting a well-dressed black man from a railroad car to allow a white woman and child to sit. How would elite blacks have viewed the drawing? A) They would have approved of the image for its emphasis on black equality. B) They would have seen the image as depicting a typical form of discrimination impacting blacks at that time. C) They would have tolerated and accepted the image because they realized nothing could be done about such situations. D) They would have argued that the black man should physically assault the white conductor. Answer: B 25) Why did a group of blacks in Nashville, Tennessee, form a black-owned bus company in 1905? A) The governor asked local blacks in the state to form their own bus line. B) Local white-owned bus companies had gone out of business in the city. C) The safety record of other bus companies was very poor. D) Local blacks wanted to establish a transportation alternative to counter the discrimination posed by segregated buses. Answer: D 26) Examine the Pullman Compartment Cars advertisement that appears in Chapter 14. What view of black people is conveyed by the advertisement’s image? A) Blacks despise white people. B) Blacks are the social equals of whites. C) Blacks are superior intellectually to whites. D) Blacks are expected to be subservient to whites. Answer: D 27) How did whites expect blacks to behave after the Civil War? A) Black men were supposed to keep their hats on in the presence of a white person. B) Black and white people could shake hands, but only if the black person looked the white person in the eye. C) Black men were never to look at, and certainly never to touch, white women. D) Blacks should behave coldly in the expectation that whites would treat them with respect. Answer: C 28) What incident prompted the racial violence in Wilmington, North Carolina? A) The KKK held a very large parade in the city’s downtown area. B) The editor of a local black newspaper wrote an editorial that condemned white men for the sexual exploitation of black women and suggested that black men had sexual liaisons with rural white women. C) Blacks decided that only violence would end segregation. D) A young black woman decided that she would sit in the white section of a streetcar. Answer: B 29) What was the stated reason given by whites for many lynchings? A) White people were afraid of blacks gaining political power. B) Blacks had murdered a white man. C) A black man had raped a white woman. D) Blacks had started some sort of violent protest. Answer: C 30) If lynching victims were predominantly male, how did black women experience white-generated violence? A) Many were subjected to rape by white men. B) Whites actually lynched black men and women in equal numbers. C) Black women were always cheated out of their earnings by whites. D) Black women had to endure threats of violence against their children. Answer: A 31) What is true about the number of lynchings in the South over the period 1889–1932? A) Two or three people were lynched, on average, every week for thirty years. B) It was actually very small, although the black press constantly reported false occurrences. C) About ten people were lynched daily, in the South alone. D) No statistics were ever kept about the numbers of lynchings. Answer: A 32) What were the actual reasons for many lynchings? A) In many cases, blacks had committed crimes, and whites were impatient for justice. B) Many times, blacks who were lynched had competed economically with whites. C) Lynchings occurred only because the lowest element of white society felt threatened by blacks. D) Often, blacks who were lynched had started some sort of violent protest in urban areas. Answer: B 33) Why was political and mob violence still common in the South by the 1890s? A) Black Republicans used violence to win elections against ex-Confederate leaders. B) White Republicans used violence against blacks to finally end Reconstruction. C) White Democrats used violence against Republicans to seize control of the southern states. D) White Democrats used violence to help the federal government gain power in the southern states. Answer: C 34) With regard to lynching, what pattern was exhibited in the South? A) Whites were actually lynched in greater numbers but without much of the violence. B) Only blacks were lynched. C) Lynchings were a way to prove white supremacy. D) Lynchings were not an issue most southern blacks worried about. Answer: C 35) Study Figure 14-2. What pattern is indicated regarding the frequency of lynching between 1889 and 1932? A) The frequency of lynching decreased over time. B) The frequency of lynching increased over time. C) The frequency of lynching remained the same over time. D) The frequency of lynching cannot be determined. Answer: A 36) Examine the Chapter 14 photograph of Jesse Washington, a17-year-old who was accused of the murder and rape of a white woman in Waco, Texas, in 1916. What does the photograph reveal to be typical of lynchings? A) Victims of lynchings were always surrounded by trees. B) Lynchings were often a social phenomenon, carried out before large crowds of jeering white observers. C) Blacks and whites would gather to aid in the lynchings of black men. D) Lynchings occurred only at night. Answer: B 37) Where were black migrants of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century most likely to go? A) Kansas B) Africa C) Oklahoma or Arkansas D) the North Answer: D 38) What was "Liberia Fever"? A) a disease similar to malaria that killed many of the black migrants to that country B) a strong desire to leave America for the African colony of Liberia C) an interest in African culture and artifacts D) a ship that took many people to Africa, until white southerners sank it shortly after the Civil War Answer: B 39) What was an "Exoduster"? A) a black person who moved to the western United States in search of a better life than in the South B) a white person who advocated destroying the black race C) a black person who wanted to migrate to Africa D) an African person who came to America shortly before the Civil War Answer: A 40) Examine the 1878 photograph of an African American family awaiting a steamboat that appears in Chapter 14. What does the photograph reveal about the experiences of black migrants during the era? A) Migrants always traveled by water. B) Migrants could not take any belongings with them when they moved. C) Migrants traveled with only meager belongings and built temporary shelters in which to rest while they waited for transportation. D) Children rarely accompanied their parents if a family decided to migrate. Answer: C 41) Examine Map 14-1. What factors explain the dominant trend in black population numbers in the American West during the late 1800s? A) Southern weather prompted black westerners to move to the South. B) Southern food motivated black westerners to move to the South. C) Southern white corporations lobbied Congress to force blacks to migrate westward. D) Southern racism motivated blacks to migrate westward. Answer: D 42) Why did some southerners oppose migration? A) Whites were happy that blacks were leaving because they wanted to discontinue the cotton industry. B) Some African-American leaders felt that the South offered the best political and employment opportunities for blacks. C) Opponents of migration argued that blacks should stay because political equality in the South would allow blacks to become rich landowners. D) No one really opposed migration for blacks from the South. Answer: B 43) What was a “crop lien”? A) Merchants, in exchange for goods and products needed at a general store, would have a legal claim to part of the black family's crop. B) These were crops planted in an African style, leaning against a fence. White farmers frequently thought black agricultural techniques were inefficient and backwards. C) This was the use of a year's crop to pay a gambling debt. D) It meant that crops were used to get a loan from a bank. Answer: A 44) What is true about most rural black families in the South after Reconstruction? A) Many were achieving high-school level educations. B) Their diet was adequate, although not up to today's standards. C) They generally stayed in the South, under conditions of desperate poverty. D) Rural black families often had some level of savings, although they were never rich. Answer: C 45) Examine the image of sharecroppers that appears in Chapter 14. How is the image reminiscent of the slave era? A) A black woman and two children are working together. B) Blacks are shown wearing hats and long clothing. C) No whites are shown in the image. D) A group of blacks is shown tending a cotton crop. Answer: D 46) Why did most rural black families remain close to involuntary servitude by the late 1800s? A) They granted power to their former owners in order to avoid work. B) They lacked education, land, and political access to improve their lives. C) They wanted their children to know what it felt like to struggle to survive. D) They wanted to develop domestic and agricultural skills for future prosperity. Answer: B 47) What was the pattern of cotton cultivation by the late 1800s? A) Large farm families had an advantage because they had more people to labor in the fields. B) Technological developments made the picking of cotton much easier and less labor intensive. C) Cotton gins were still generally operated under water or by animal power. D) Cotton plants needed no help or cultivation until harvesting. Answer: A 48) What was a typical characteristic of sharecropping for blacks? A) Blacks generally could dispute the landowner’s valuation of crops or goods. B) Black men were forced to accept the white man’s word in disputes over crop prices or the value of goods provided to the sharecroppers. C) Cotton brokers and gin owners paid equal prices to blacks and to whites for cotton. D) Contracts had to be written and had to be filed in court. Answer: B 49) What is the pattern of black land ownership between 1870 and 1900? A) It fell as the government took land away from blacks. B) It fell as many blacks left the area or were forced to give up land because of debts. C) It remained stagnant over the time period. D) It increased at enormous rates. Answer: D 50) What is true about the justice system in the South after Reconstruction? A) Some blacks were allowed to serve on juries, as long as they were prominent leaders and showed proper deference to whites. B) Black defendants always received very harsh punishments, regardless of whom they knew or whom they worked for. C) Blacks often were not charged with crimes like adultery and bigamy because white people considered such offenses typical black behavior. D) Generally, the southern justice system was balanced regarding blacks and whites. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) Table 14-1 suggests that in the relationship between black political officeholding and occupation, most black politicians worked as lawyers or in other professional jobs. Answer: True 52) The relationship between literacy and voting in Mississippi under the new state constitution in 1890 meant that illiterate voters could vote if it was proven that they could understand the Constitution if it was read to them. Answer: True 53) Race riots during the era were started primarily by blacks seeking revenge against whites. Answer: False 54) The results of the Wilmington race riot included the destruction of a newspaper office. Answer: True 55) The result of lynching as a social phenomenon by 1932 included approximately 3, 745 recorded murders, with many lynching episodes unreported. Answer: True 56) Some black leaders continued to advocate for migration to Liberia into the late 1800s. Answer: True 57) Black migrant pioneers formed all-black towns in the West after the Civil War and most of the towns survived into the twenty-first century. Answer: False 58) Many white and black Americans took advantage of the Homestead Act of 1862 to migrate west and buy cheap land taken from Native Americans by the federal government and sold at low prices. Answer: True 59) Black women had a better chance than black men of finding regular work in a town, although it was usually as a domestic or cleaning woman. Answer: True 60) The legal system became increasingly white after Reconstruction. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The concept of political ______________ was the key to white efforts to subdue black political and economic efforts at community development in the late 1800s. Answer: disfranchisement 62) The legal case of ______________ v. ______________ upheld Louisiana segregation law, effectively establishing the legal basis for segregation by race. Answer: Plessy, Ferguson 63) Blacks in the city of ______________, Tennessee, formed their own bus company in 1905 as an example of boycott efforts to defeat Jim Crow segregation in the late 1800s. Answer: Nashville 64) After emancipation, white southerners sought to maintain that dominance through a pattern of racial ______________ that determined how black and white people dealt with each other in their day-to-day affairs. Answer: etiquette 65) In July 1900, a major race riot broke out in the southern city of ______________ ______________, resulting in the deaths of at least thirteen blacks and seven whites. Answer: New Orleans 66) The Phoenix ______________ ______________ is an example of mob violence inflicted by whites on blacks to control the black community during the late 1800s. Answer: race riot 67) The “Exodusters” were the 40,000 black migrants who headed to the state of ______________ from 1865 to 1880. Answer: Kansas 68) By 1900 African Americans possessed 1.5 million acres in the state of ______________ worth $11 million. Answer: Oklahoma 69) In a system similar to slavery and known as debt ______________, a black family would get into debt and would not be allowed to leave the land until it had paid off the money owed. Answer: peonage 70) White southerners devised the convict ______________ system that provided very cheap (and mostly black) prison labor for private white businessmen in the local community. Answer: lease Short Answer Questions 71) Why did some blacks accept segregation? Why did most oppose it? Answer: Some blacks accepted segregation due to social and economic pressures, as it offered some level of security and stability in a deeply segregated society. However, most opposed it because it enforced inequality, limited opportunities, and perpetuated discrimination. They believed in equality and fought against segregation through legal challenges and civil rights activism. 72) Why did lynching take place and what were the effects of lynching on blacks? Answer: Lynching took place as a form of racial terrorism used to maintain white supremacy and control African Americans, often in response to perceived violations of racial norms or economic competition. The effects of lynching on blacks were devastating, instilling fear and trauma in the community, reinforcing racial hierarchies, and perpetuating a culture of violence and discrimination. 73) How did the black farmers in the Colored Farmers' Alliance view economic issues differently than whites? Answer: Black farmers in the Colored Farmers' Alliance viewed economic issues differently than whites due to their experiences with racism and discrimination. They were more focused on achieving economic independence and equality, while many white farmers were primarily concerned with maintaining their economic status and political power. Black farmers sought economic reforms that would address their specific challenges, such as access to credit and fair prices for their crops. 74) Examine Map 14-1. What socioeconomic factors explain why some states or territories saw a larger increase in black population than others? What economic and political activities attracted blacks to these western places? Answer: Map 14-1 likely shows that states or territories with larger increases in black population had factors such as economic opportunities, political freedoms, and social conditions that attracted African Americans. These factors could include the availability of land for farming, the presence of industries offering jobs, and the promise of greater political rights and social equality. Blacks were attracted to these places in search of economic and political empowerment and to escape the harsh conditions of the South, including segregation and violence. 75) How did the southern court system at this time reflect the dominant values of whites toward blacks in southern society? Answer: The southern court system at this time reflected the dominant values of whites toward blacks in southern society by upholding and enforcing racial segregation, discriminatory laws, and unequal treatment of African Americans. The courts often sided with white interests, reinforcing white supremacy and the inferior status of blacks in the eyes of the law. Essay Questions 76) How did the Populist Party react to race issues? How did southern whites respond to Populism and its racial messages? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Point out that the Populists urged southern white men to abandon the Democrats and southern black men to reject the Republicans and unite politically to support the Populists. 2. Explain that the foremost proponent of black and white political unity was Thomas Watson of Georgia. He and other Populist leaders believed economic and political cooperation could transcend racial differences. 3. Note that during the 1892 presidential campaign, Watson explained that black and white farmers faced the same economic exploitation, but that they failed to cooperate with each other because of race. 4. Explain that Watson was not calling for improved race relations. While he opposed economic exploitation that was disguised by race, he was also a staunch supporter of segregation. 5. Conclude that the Populists lost the national election that year and again in 1896, although they did win several congressional and governor’s races. Southern Democrats, outraged at the Populist appeal for black votes, often resorted to fraud and terror to prevail. When a biracial coalition of black and white Populists took control of Grimes County in east Texas in 1900, Democrats massacred first the black and then the white leaders. Sample Answer: Populist Party's Reaction to Race Issues The Populist Party, or People's Party, had a complex and often contradictory stance on race issues: 1. Economic Unity Over Racial Division: The Populist Party initially sought to unite poor white and black farmers under a common cause of economic reform and opposition to the economic policies that favored wealthy industrialists and bankers. 2. Interracial Cooperation: Some Populist leaders, like Tom Watson of Georgia, advocated for interracial cooperation, arguing that both black and white farmers were oppressed by the same economic forces and should work together to improve their conditions. 3. Platform of Reforms: The Populists pushed for reforms that would benefit all poor farmers regardless of race, including the regulation of railroads, a more flexible monetary system, and the direct election of Senators. 4. Shift in Rhetoric: Over time, as the Populist Party faced increasing pressure and competition, some leaders began to adopt more racist rhetoric to appeal to the broader white electorate, leading to a decline in their initial interracial solidarity efforts. Southern Whites' Response to Populism and Its Racial Messages The reaction of southern whites to Populism and its racial messages was mixed and evolved over time: 1. Initial Opposition from Elites: Southern white elites, including large landowners and Democratic politicians, were vehemently opposed to the Populist Party. They saw the Populists' appeal to poor white and black farmers as a threat to the established social and economic order. 2. Racial Fear Tactics: To undermine Populism, Southern Democrats often used racial fear tactics, portraying the Populist movement as an alliance that would lead to black political domination and social equality, which they framed as undesirable. 3. Violence and Intimidation: In many areas, white supremacists resorted to violence and intimidation to prevent African Americans from aligning with the Populist Party. This included lynching, beatings, and economic reprisals against black Populist supporters. 4. Co-optation and Division: The Democratic Party worked to co-opt the economic messages of the Populists while simultaneously emphasizing white supremacy to divide potential Populist coalitions. By appealing to white racial solidarity, they were able to draw white Populists back to the Democratic fold. 5. Legislation and Disenfranchisement: Southern legislatures passed laws that disenfranchised black voters and poor whites through measures like poll taxes and literacy tests, effectively dismantling the potential political power base of the Populist Party and ensuring continued Democratic dominance. Conclusion The Populist Party's approach to race issues was marked by an initial attempt to build a multiracial coalition based on shared economic interests. However, this effort was undermined by the entrenched racial attitudes of the time and the concerted efforts of Southern white elites to maintain racial and economic hierarchies. The Southern white response, characterized by fear, violence, and legislative actions, ultimately fragmented the Populist movement and reinforced the racial divisions that the Populists had initially sought to bridge. 77) Why did black voting decline across the South after Reconstruction? How did state politics and changes in state government influence this trend? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Note that the end of Reconstruction in 1878 with the election of President Rutherford Hayes removed federal soldiers and progressive policies from the South in general, enabling the southern wing of the Democratic party to take over. 2. Explain that white terrorism, as well as changes in state constitutions that allowed for literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, and outright voting fraud combined to reduce the black male vote by wide margins by the late 1800s in the southern states. 3. Conclude that when white Democrats took over state leadership, they passed new state constitutions that defrauded African American people of their rights. Sample Answer: Decline in Black Voting Post-Reconstruction Political and Social Context 1. End of Federal Enforcement: The Compromise of 1877 led to the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, which had been protecting African American rights. This marked the end of Reconstruction and the beginning of an era where Southern states could impose their own laws without federal oversight. 2. Rise of Redeemer Governments: Southern Democrats, known as Redeemers, regained control of state governments. These leaders were committed to restoring white supremacy and reversing the advancements made by African Americans during Reconstruction. Legal and Extralegal Tactics 3. Discriminatory Laws: Southern states enacted a series of laws designed to disenfranchise African American voters. These included: • Poll Taxes: Required voters to pay a fee to vote, which many African Americans could not afford. • Literacy Tests: Required voters to pass reading and writing tests, which were often unfairly administered to disqualify African Americans. • Grandfather Clauses: Allowed only those whose grandfathers had the right to vote before the Civil War to bypass literacy tests and poll taxes, effectively excluding African Americans. 4. White Primaries: Democratic parties in the South established white-only primaries, ensuring that only white voters could choose the candidates who would run in general elections. 5. Violence and Intimidation: White supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan used violence, intimidation, and lynching to suppress African American political participation. Black voters were often threatened or attacked if they attempted to exercise their voting rights. State Government Influence 6. Constitutional Conventions: Southern states held constitutional conventions to enshrine disenfranchisement measures in state constitutions, making it more difficult to challenge these practices legally. For example: • Mississippi Plan (1890): Introduced poll taxes and literacy tests in Mississippi, which served as a model for other Southern states. • South Carolina Constitution (1895): Implemented similar measures to disenfranchise African American voters. 7. Judicial Support: State courts and, eventually, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld many of these disenfranchising laws. Notably, the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) supported state laws that established racial segregation under the doctrine of "separate but equal." Long-term Effects 8. Political Marginalization: The combined effect of these tactics was a dramatic decline in African American political participation. By the early 20th century, black voter turnout in the South had plummeted, and African Americans were effectively excluded from the political process. 9. Entrenchment of White Supremacy: These disenfranchisement efforts allowed white supremacist Democrats to consolidate power in the South, leading to the establishment of Jim Crow laws and institutionalized racial segregation that persisted for decades. Conclusion The decline in black voting across the South after Reconstruction was the result of a concerted effort by white supremacists to regain and maintain political control. Through a combination of discriminatory laws, violence, and judicial support, Southern states systematically disenfranchised African American voters. These actions not only suppressed black political participation but also reinforced a racial hierarchy that dominated Southern politics and society for much of the 20th century. 78) What do the violent riots in Texas, North Carolina, and New Orleans reveal about living conditions for blacks in the late nineteenth century? What provoked the violence? What were the effects of these actions for blacks and whites? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define each riot in terms of details, dates, and outcome. 2. Explain that the riots reveal impoverished and segregated living and social conditions for blacks that generated frustration, rage, and resistance. 3. Note that local law enforcement in each city was very racist. 4. Explain that whites were the aggressors in the riots and reacted in mob fashion after blacks asserted their rights or criticized the white community in some fashion. 5. Conclude that the outcome of each riot was major loss of life for blacks and widespread property damage to the economic benefit of whites, some of whom were rewarded with political positions for their efforts during the riots. Sample Answer: Living Conditions for Blacks in the Late Nineteenth Century Social and Economic Context 1. Pervasive Racism and Discrimination: African Americans faced systemic racism and discrimination in all aspects of life, including employment, housing, and education. 2. Economic Exploitation: Many African Americans were trapped in exploitative labor systems such as sharecropping and tenant farming, which kept them in a cycle of debt and poverty. 3. Political Disenfranchisement: Following the end of Reconstruction, African Americans were systematically disenfranchised through laws and practices that restricted their voting rights. Provocation of Violence 1. Racial Tensions and White Supremacy: The violent riots were often provoked by racial tensions, with white supremacists aiming to maintain racial hierarchies and prevent African Americans from achieving social, economic, and political equality. 2. Perceived Threats to White Dominance: Events or actions that were perceived as challenges to white dominance, such as African Americans exercising their right to vote, seeking better economic opportunities, or asserting their civil rights, often triggered violent backlash. 3. Incitement by White Leaders: White political and social leaders sometimes incited violence by spreading fear and misinformation about African Americans, framing them as a threat to social order and white supremacy. Specific Incidents Texas (Houston Riot, 1917) • Provocation: Tensions between black soldiers stationed in Houston and the local white police force. • Violence: Clashes resulted in numerous deaths and injuries on both sides. • Effects: • For Blacks: Increased scrutiny and discrimination, military trials and executions of black soldiers involved. • For Whites: Reinforced white supremacist attitudes and justified further discriminatory practices. North Carolina (Wilmington Insurrection, 1898) • Provocation: A successful African American business community and political participation in Wilmington. • Violence: White supremacists overthrew the elected government, killed many African Americans, and destroyed black-owned property. • Effects: • For Blacks: Massive loss of life and property, forced migration, and long-term economic and political disenfranchisement. • For Whites: Consolidation of white political power and a model for similar actions in other Southern states. New Orleans (Mechanics' Institute Riot, 1866) • Provocation: A political convention advocating for African American voting rights. • Violence: White mobs attacked the convention, resulting in numerous deaths and injuries. • Effects: • For Blacks: Severe physical and emotional trauma, increased fear, and further political disenfranchisement. • For Whites: Reinforced white supremacist control and the perception of violence as a legitimate tool to maintain racial order. Effects of Violent Actions For Blacks 1. Increased Oppression and Fear: Violent actions reinforced the oppressive conditions under which African Americans lived, instilling fear and reducing their willingness to assert their rights. 2. Economic and Social Disruption: Riots often resulted in the destruction of black businesses, homes, and communities, leading to long-term economic hardship and social instability. 3. Migration: Many African Americans were forced to migrate to other regions, particularly to Northern cities, in search of safety and better opportunities. For Whites 1. Consolidation of Power: White supremacists used violence to consolidate their political and economic power, ensuring the continuation of racial hierarchies. 2. Legitimation of Violence: These violent actions were often seen as justified means to maintain social order, leading to a culture of impunity for those who perpetrated racial violence. 3. Social Division: The use of violence to suppress African Americans deepened racial divisions and tensions, contributing to the legacy of racial conflict in the United States. Conclusion The violent riots in Texas, North Carolina, and New Orleans reveal the harsh and oppressive living conditions for African Americans in the late nineteenth century. These incidents were provoked by racial tensions, perceived threats to white supremacy, and the incitement of violence by white leaders. The effects were devastating for African Americans, resulting in increased oppression, economic disruption, and forced migration, while reinforcing white supremacist control and deepening racial divisions. 79) Why did sharecropping arise and why and how did it benefit whites over blacks? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define post-Civil War labor conditions: whites have land but no labor or money; blacks have no land but have their own labor and need wages. 2. Explain the bargain reached that created a new labor system: the landlord furnished tools, seed, work animals, and other goods to the black or white family to grow a cotton crop. 3. Note that the landowner received one-third to one-half of the crop and the renter received the rest of the crop. 4. Conclude that the system ultimately benefitted whites because they owned the means of production and law enforcement, and charged high prices for goods that blacks often had to buy from them during the year, such as food. Blacks became indebted and could not move to another location without paying off their debts, effectively becoming debt peons. Sample Answer: Emergence of Sharecropping 1. Post-Civil War Economic System: Sharecropping emerged as a dominant economic system in the South after the Civil War, particularly during Reconstruction and the years that followed. 2. Lack of Capital: Many newly freed African Americans and poor whites lacked the capital and resources to own land or equipment, making sharecropping an attractive option. 3. Landowners' Needs: Landowners, facing labor shortages due to the end of slavery, turned to sharecropping as a way to maintain agricultural production. Benefits to Whites over Blacks 1. Economic Exploitation: Landowners often manipulated sharecropping agreements to exploit African American laborers, trapping them in cycles of debt and poverty. 2. Unequal Bargaining Power: Landowners, who held the land and resources, had significantly more bargaining power than sharecroppers, enabling them to dictate unfair terms. 3. Crop Lien System: The crop lien system, where sharecroppers were required to use their future crops as collateral for supplies, often led to high interest rates and debt bondage for African American sharecroppers. 4. Legal and Social Discrimination: African American sharecroppers faced legal and social discrimination, making it difficult for them to challenge unfair practices or improve their economic conditions. 5. Cycle of Poverty: The exploitative nature of sharecropping perpetuated a cycle of poverty for African Americans, preventing them from accumulating wealth or improving their economic status. How it Benefited Whites 1. Profitability: Sharecropping was profitable for landowners, as they could maintain agricultural production without incurring the costs of hiring labor. 2. Control: Landowners maintained control over the land and production process, ensuring that they could maximize their profits. 3. Social Control: Sharecropping allowed whites to maintain social control over African Americans, reinforcing racial hierarchies and preserving white supremacy. 4. Economic Stability: Sharecropping provided a stable source of labor for landowners, ensuring that they could continue agricultural production without disruptions. Conclusion Sharecropping arose as a post-Civil War economic system in the South, driven by the economic needs of landowners and the lack of resources among newly freed African Americans and poor whites. While it provided a means of survival for some, sharecropping disproportionately benefited whites over blacks, perpetuating economic exploitation, debt bondage, and racial inequality. Its legacy contributed to the economic challenges faced by African Americans in the South for generations. 80) What survival options did blacks possess when economic, social, and political conditions deteriorated in the South in the late 1800s? What were the most common reactions blacks demonstrated in the face of these challenges? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define southern race relations by the late 1800s as providing increasingly narrower opportunities for blacks to express creativity, community self- development, and economic prosperity within southern society. 2. Define specific challenges facing blacks as Jim Crow segregation, economic disempowerment, lynching, race riots, political disfranchisement, and widespread white supremacy. 3. Explain that blacks reacted by sometimes leaving the South for places in Liberia, Kansas, and Oklahoma. They wanted to exercise their full rights as American citizen and often formed all black towns or colonies. 4. Some blacks also migrated within the South to urban areas, working for whites for survival. 5. Conclude that most blacks did not leave the South, nor migrate to urban areas, in part because most blacks like Frederick Douglass rejected the idea of African colonization and were attached to local areas of the South. Sample Answer: Survival Options for Blacks in the Late 1800s South Economic Survival 1. Sharecropping: Many African Americans turned to sharecropping, a system where they rented land and paid a portion of their crops as rent. While this provided a means of survival, it often led to debt and continued economic dependence. 2. Tenant Farming: Some African Americans became tenant farmers, renting land and paying with cash or a share of their crops. This provided more autonomy than sharecropping but still left them vulnerable to economic exploitation. 3. Migration: Some African Americans chose to migrate to urban areas in search of better economic opportunities, particularly in the North. This was often motivated by the desire to escape economic hardship and racial violence in the South. Social Survival 4. Community Support: African Americans relied heavily on community networks for support, including mutual aid societies, churches, and other community organizations. These networks provided social, economic, and emotional support in times of need. 5. Education: Despite significant challenges, some African Americans pursued education as a means of social uplift and advancement. Schools and colleges for African Americans, such as historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), played a crucial role in providing education and training. Political Survival 6. Voting and Political Activism: Despite efforts to disenfranchise African Americans, many continued to engage in voting and political activism. This included participating in local and state politics, organizing voter registration drives, and supporting political candidates who advocated for their rights. 7. Legal Challenges: African Americans also sought legal recourse through the courts, challenging discriminatory laws and practices. Organizations like the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) played a key role in supporting these legal challenges. Common Reactions Demonstrated by Blacks 1. Resistance and Resilience: Despite facing immense challenges, African Americans demonstrated remarkable resilience and resistance to oppression. They continued to assert their rights and dignity in the face of adversity. 2. Adaptation: African Americans adapted to the changing social, economic, and political conditions, finding ways to survive and thrive within the constraints imposed by white supremacy. 3. Community Building: African Americans prioritized community building and solidarity, recognizing the importance of collective action in confronting systemic racism and oppression. 4. Cultural Expression: African Americans maintained their cultural heritage and traditions, using music, art, and literature as forms of resistance and expression in the face of adversity. Conclusion In the late 1800s South, African Americans faced economic, social, and political challenges that threatened their survival and well-being. Despite these challenges, they employed a variety of survival strategies, including sharecropping, tenant farming, migration, community support, education, voting, political activism, legal challenges, resistance, resilience, adaptation, community building, and cultural expression. These strategies allowed African Americans to navigate the difficult conditions of the time and maintain a sense of agency and dignity in the face of oppression. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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