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This Document Contains Chapters 3 to 4 Chapter 03: Black People in Colonial North America Multiple Choice Questions 1) What types of achievements did American Indians in North and South America make before the arrival of Columbus? A) American Indians had an incredibly primitive society and had accomplished very little at the time Columbus arrived. B) American Indians had made some simplistic efforts at understanding science but had very little political organization. C) American Indians had established religions and large cities but had made few cultural achievements, such as art or literature. D) American Indian civilizations had established political systems, large cities, and made many discoveries in science. Answer: D 2) What happened to the Mississippian culture during the fourteenth century? A) They were wiped out by European diseases. B) They were destroyed by climate change and warfare. C) They became the dominant culture in the hemisphere after destroying a rival tribe. D) They were the first culture to use domesticated animals in agriculture. Answer: B 3) Which of the following is true of the Spanish empire in America? A) The Spanish came in large numbers and enslaved all native people immediately. B) The Spanish overseers were often much kinder and more generous than in other cultures. C) The Spanish, Indian, and African cultures intermingled in what became a multicultural colonial society. D) Africans arrived in the Spanish colonies only after 1600. Answer: C 4) Who was the first English explorer to reach North America in 1497? A) Sir Francis Drake B) John Smith C) John Cabot D) Christopher Columbus Answer: C 5) Where was the first permanent British settlement in North America? A) Jamestown B) Newfoundland C) Roanoke D) Massachusetts Bay Answer: A 6) Why were the British unable to establish colonies as rapidly as the Spanish did? A) The English monarchy was wealthier than the Spanish monarchy. B) The English people were experiencing social turmoil. C) The climate in North America was very similar to the climate in England. D) France prevented the English from colonizing North America. Answer: B 7) France did not establish a settlement in the Americas until 1604; that settlement centered on the St. Lawrence River and grew into what was known as either New France or Canada. It became a trading empire, based on ______________. A) acquiring beaver pelts and other furs from American Indians B) exchanging arms with American Indians C) exchanging poorer for richer tracts of land with American Indians D) providing housing American Indian war captives Answer: A 8) Examine the painting of a Dutch ship arriving at Jamestown in 1619. What does the painting reveal about the initial African arrival in Jamestown? A) Africans arrived as sailors. B) Africans arrived as contented people. C) Africans arrived by force. D) Africans arrived wearing heavy clothing. Answer: C 9) What was the status of the first Africans in the British colony of Virginia? A) slaves B) wives and husbands of colonists C) prisoners D) servants Answer: D 10) Who comprised the largest class of laborers in British North America before 1670? A) black slaves B) white slaves C) Russian immigrants D) indentured servants Answer: D 11) What does the story of Anthony Johnson reveal about blacks in the colonies before the 1670s? A) Blacks were never able to gain their freedom from slavery. B) Blacks had no legal rights in the courts, as opposed to the Spanish system. C) Blacks could own substantial amounts of property and participate in colony politics. D) Blacks were rarely allowed any types of rights and were always considered "chattel." Answer: C 12) Examine the photograph of a slave code book. What detail makes it appear to be an official government document from the 1600s? A) It is light in color inside and outside. B) It is open for the reader to view. C) It has a printed cover and title. D) It is encyclopedic in length and detail. Answer: C 13) What colonies made up the "low country"? A) Virginia and Maryland B) South Carolina and Georgia C) Georgia and Florida D) Delaware and New Jersey Answer: B 14) Which of the following was characteristic of most slaves' daily lives on plantations from 1700–1750? A) Most slaves lived on small tracts of land and worked closely with their masters. B) Most slaves worked inside the homes of their masters. C) Most slaves worked three days a week, without rest from dawn to dusk. D) Most slaves were beaten horribly through physical punishment on a daily basis. Answer: A 15) How did slaves influence the choice of cash crop in Carolina? A) West African slaves had experience with rice cultivation. B) Slaves arriving from Virginia knew a great deal of information about tobacco cultivation. C) West Africans had learned how to produce silk from trade with Arabs and the East. D) West African slaves enjoyed foods prepared with corn, and planted this in abundance. Answer: A 16) How did the work of black women vary from that of black men? A) They never had to work in the fields. B) They frequently worked as domestic servants. C) They had access to some skilled occupations, like carpentry and shoemakers. D) They were not allowed to take part in weaving. Answer: B 17) According to Map 3-1, why did African-American slaves in the American colonies benefit from French and Spanish colonies in North America? A) The close proximity of the other colonies meant that escape was possible. B) The close proximity of the other colonies made it easier for the British to capture runaways. C) The close proximity of the other colonies made clothing more accessible for British slaves. D) The close proximity of the other colonies broadened the diets of British slaves. Answer: A 18) Analyze Figure 3-1. What two decades represent the peak years of the Atlantic slave trade between 1701 and 1775? A) 1701-1710; 1721-1730 B) 1731-1740; 1751-1760 C) 1741-1750; 1751-1760 D) 1741-1750; 1761-1770 Answer: D 19) How did slaves demonstrate their African culture in their everyday lives? A) Male slaves wore elaborate jewelry made of flowers and shells. B) Male and female slaves continued the African style of architecture and diet and avoided European foods. C) Female slaves created African-style head wraps and clothing. D) Male and female slaves had large wardrobes of clothing, with many changes of clothes available. Answer: C 20) Examine the 1876 drawing depicting “Slaves Quarters’ in the Cellar of the Old Knickerbocker Mansion” circa 1770. What does the image reveal about slave life in early America? A) Slaves inhabited cabins. B) Slaves possessed guns. C) Slaves lived in nuclear family units. D) Slaves were well-dressed. Answer: A 21) Examine the 1876 drawing depicting “Slaves Quarters’ in the Cellar of the Old Knickerbocker Mansion” circa 1770. How does the image romanticize slave life in early America? A) Slaves are dancing and appear content. B) Slaves possess physical objects. C) Slaves sit and stand in the image. D) Slaves of different ages are in the cabin. Answer: A 22) How did the British view the race of a child who was part white and part black? A) The mixed child was always considered the same race as the mother. B) The mixed child was defined as black. C) The mixed child was defined as white. D) The mixed child was defined as superior to pure whites. Answer: B 23) How did miscegenation develop in the various European colonies? A) Because of the extreme racism of the British, racial mixing never occurred. B) Miscegenation was more extensive and accepted in French and Spanish colonies. C) Less racial mixing between blacks and American Indians occurred in Spanish colonies. D) Miscegenation was a rare occurrence anywhere, made illegal by strict laws. Answer: B 24) What African characteristic(s) did second-generation slaves rapidly lose in America? A) language B) elements of family structure and concepts of self-worth C) feelings of love for parents D) knowledge about agricultural production Answer: A 25) What factor contributed most to the preservation and continuation of West African culture in British North America? A) the increased importation of West African men B) the freeing of slaves by white masters in the British colonies C) the slaves considering it an unimportant part of their lives D) more balanced sex ratios after 1750 Answer: D 26) What factor slowed the spread of Christianity among slaves before the Great Awakening? A) the warm southern climate and high summer rainfall levels B) fear on the part of slave masters that Christianity would bring ideas of freedom and equality to slaves C) an American Indian ban on Africans conversion to Christianity D) a refusal by Catholic leaders to permit church membership to non-whites Answer: B 27) Which African instrument survived to be used by slaves on American plantations? A) flute or piccolo B) violin C) harpsichord D) banjo Answer: D 28) How did slaves deal with religious beliefs in the American colonies during the 1700s? A) Forced conversion to Christianity by masters destroyed their African religious origins. B) Africans really had no true type of religion and therefore accepted Christianity easily. C) Until 1800, African Americans continued to practice many aspects of African religions. D) Africans quickly adopted American-Indian religions. Answer: C 29) How was the Christianity of the Great Awakening similar to native African practices? A) The Protestant ministers' preaching style was similar to African "spirit possession." B) The Christian concept of hell was similar to that of African beliefs. C) Both religions focused on Christ as a central figure of worship. D) Both religions utilized a multiple-God or spirit system of worship. Answer: A 30) Why did blacks form their own churches in British North America? A) Black members had to sit apart from white members in church services. B) Blacks wanted to reinforce a black collective identity. C) White masters emphasized parts of Christianity that helped slaves resist slavery. D) Black churchgoers wanted to continue elements of African worship. Answer: B 31) Examine the eighteenth-century painting of South Carolina slaves. What aspects of the image reveal a plantation setting? A) The image includes bright clothing worn by the people. B) The image includes jugs, bottles, and musical instruments. C) The image includes men and women in various postures. D) The image includes blacks and rows of cabins. Answer: D 32) Examine the eighteenth-century painting of South Carolina slaves. What type of celebration is probably portrayed in the painting? A) baptism B) wedding C) funeral D) graduation Answer: B 33) Examine the eighteenth-century painting of South Carolina slaves. What parts of the scene reveal European influences? A) clothing and housing design B) food and dietary cuisine C) medicine and health practices D) religious expression Answer: A 34) How did slavery differ in the northern British colonies compared to the southern colonies before 1750? A) Slavery never existed in the North. B) Slavery was less extensive in the North because more white labor was available. C) Almost no slaves performed agricultural labor because the North was mostly industrial. D) Slaves had extensive legal rights in the North that were non-existent in the South. Answer: B 35) According to figure 3-2, what factor explains the trajectory of slave populations in the British Caribbean and southern colonies in North America? A) The Atlantic slave trade led to a decline in slavery in both British colonies. B) The Atlantic slave trade produced an increase in slavery in both British colonies. C) The Atlantic slave trade increased slave numbers only in the British Caribbean. D) The Atlantic slave trade increased slave numbers only in British America. Answer: B 36) Consider the information shown in Figure 3-2. Why did slave population percentages remain flat after 1715 in the northern colonies of British North America? A) African slaves had no desire to relocate to the northern colonies. B) African slaves frequently escaped from the northern colonies to the southern colonies. C) Over time, the labor system of the northern colonies did not support the expansion of slavery. D) Northern colonies passed laws outlawing the presence of black people in their communities. Answer: C 37) Consider the information shown in Figure 3-2. What factor most likely explains a general drop in slave populations relative to whites in all British colonies in the Americas in 1720? A) bountiful agricultural harvests B) disease outbreaks among Native Americans C) international warfare and decreased trade with Europe D) British internal exploration of North and Central America Answer: C 38) According to Figure 3-2, what is the highest population figure of African slaves achieved in the Caribbean? A) 60 percent B) 70 percent C) 80 percent D) 90 percent Answer: D 39) Consider the information shown in Figure 3-2. What region of the British colonies experienced the greatest increase in black population numbers relative to whites over time? A) the northern British colonies of North America B) the southern British colonies of North America C) the British Caribbean colonies D) all British colonies of North America Answer: C 40) Examine the eighteenth-century drawing of Philadelphia’s London Coffee House. What aspect of the image indicates that it slave auctions occur there? A) The building is painted red and the one next to it is painted yellow. B) White people walk and stand in the streets and near buildings. C) A group of blacks is lined up against a wall, and whites point at them. D) The street appears unpaved. Answer: C 41) What was the occupation of many black slaves in the Spanish colony of St. Augustine? A) soldiers B) agricultural workers C) house servants D) gold miners Answer: A 42) How were slaves in the Spanish colony of St. Augustine different than slaves under British rule? A) St. Augustine slaves suffered physical abuse more than slaves under British rule. B) Slaves in St. Augustine had some social standing from their positions as militiamen and their church membership. C) The Spanish considered slavery to be a temporary condition for the enslaved. D) Spanish slaves were considered the social and political equals to whites in the colony. Answer: B 43) How did African Americans relate to the city of New Orleans in the early 1700s? A) Most African Americans in Louisiana lived there. B) Most Africans did not belong to its small mixed-race population. C) Most blacks in the city remained African in religion. D) African slaves became agricultural workers in the city. Answer: A 44) Examine the detail from the mural located in the Arizona capitol building. Why most likely did the mural artist include a depiction of Esteban? A) He commanded an expedition that explored Canada. B) He was a former slave who helped Spain explore the Southwest. C) He was a white slave owner who settled New Mexico. D) He served as King of Spain for a brief period of time. Answer: B 45) What types of labor were most common for slave women before 1800? A) domestic labor B) industrial factory labor C) field labor D) housing construction labor Answer: C 46) How did black women's lives differ from black men's lives under slavery? A) Black women but not men were allowed to practice African religion. B) Black women worked exclusively as field workers and men as domestics. C) Black women were physically separated from men at an early age. D) Black women were under constant threat of sexual exploitation and men were not. Answer: D 47) Examine the painting of black families seated in a row along the wall of a shack. What will be the fate of these black families? A) They will soon be the owners of the white men outside of the doorway. B) The families will be broken up through sale to white men. C) The families will successfully escape their kidnappers. D) The families will petition local government for their release. Answer: B 48) Examine the painting of black families seated in a row along the wall of a shack. What emotional reactions did the artist bestow upon the black people in the room? A) happiness and joy B) sadness and melancholy C) hostility and anger D) stoicism and indifference Answer: D 49) How did slaves resist the system of slavery? A) by working at a fast pace B) by destroying their masters' property C) by performing their jobs correctly D) by obeying all of their masters’ commands Answer: B 50) Why was most slave resistance before the late-eighteenth century generally not part of a coordinated attempt by blacks to destroy the entire institution? A) Ideas of natural human rights and equality of all would not spread until the American Revolution. B) Most slaves could not read or write and therefore could not communicate with each other. C) Slaves were so psychologically damaged during slavery that they simply failed to resist their masters in any way. D) Slaves really didn't understand the nature of slavery and therefore could not attempt to break it down in any organized way. Answer: A True/False Questions 51) In the Southwest, the Anasazi and later Pueblo peoples developed farming communities. Answer: True 52) The relationships between black people and American Indians during colonial times were simplistic. Answer: False 53) New York City possessed a particularly small population of blacks. Answer: False 54) Slave codes were harsher in the Middle Colonies because black populations were larger than in the northern colonies. Answer: True 55) Northern African-American slaves had plenty of opportunities to increase their connections to African culture. Answer: False 56) A warmer climate made slavery in the northern colonies very extensive and profitable. Answer: False 57) Africans helped to construct the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, Florida, in the 1500s. Answer: True 58) The French government established the colony of California in 1699. Answer: False 59) In Texas, Spanish settlers created economic production centers called ranchos. Answer: True 60) As illustrated in the image of the newspaper announcement shown in Chapter 3, even prominent colonial Americans advertised for runaway slaves in newspapers. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) ______________ Rebellion in 1676 was a revolt in Virginia by former indentured servants demanding political change. Answer: Bacon’s 62) The term chattel refers to the concept of ______________. Answer: personal property 63) The Great ______________ was a large religious revival in the British colonies in the mid- to late-eighteenth century. Answer: Awakening 64) Africans accustomed to collective agricultural labor imposed the “ ______________ system” on most American plantations. Answer: gang 65) Black English is an example of a ______________ language. Answer: creolized 66) In the ______________ Rebellion in 1739, newly arrived Africans began a bloody revolt against slavery in South Carolina. Answer: Stono 67) The United States fought the ______________ War in Florida between 1835 and 1842. Answer: Seminole 68) A ______________ community is a settlement of escaped slaves. Answer: maroon 69) In New York City, slaves resorted to ______________ as a means of resistance. Answer: arson 70) The Great Dismal ______________ is an example of an escaped slave settlement in North American history. Answer: Swamp Short Answer Questions 71) How did Bacon's Rebellion affect the American system of slavery? Answer: Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 led the colonial elite to shift from using indentured servants to relying more heavily on African slaves. This change aimed to prevent future uprisings by dividing poor whites and black slaves, thus solidifying a racially based system of chattel slavery in America. 72) Why do we see the strictest slave codes originating in Carolina? Answer: The strictest slave codes originated in Carolina due to the colony's large population of enslaved Africans and the settlers' fear of slave revolts. Carolina's economy was heavily dependent on labor-intensive cash crops like rice and indigo, requiring a substantial enslaved workforce. To maintain control and prevent insurrections, the colony implemented harsh and comprehensive slave codes to regulate every aspect of slaves' lives and limit their chances of rebellion. 73) Why did climate and economic considerations make slavery different in the northern colonies compared to the southern colonies of British North America? Answer: Climate and economic considerations made slavery different in the northern colonies compared to the southern colonies of British North America because the northern colonies had a colder climate and an economy based on smaller farms, trade, and industry, which required less intensive labor. In contrast, the southern colonies had a warm climate and an economy based on large plantations growing labor-intensive cash crops like tobacco, rice, and indigo, leading to a greater reliance on slave labor. 74) Why did race and heredity play a role in black people's lives in the northern parts of New Spain? Answer: Race and heredity played a role in black people's lives in the northern parts of New Spain because the Spanish colonial system was organized around a rigid caste system that classified people based on their racial heritage. This system determined social status, legal rights, and economic opportunities, often marginalizing black people and those of mixed race. Hereditary status affected one's position in society, influencing everything from job prospects to legal treatment. 75) Why did health conditions vary the historical experience of black slave women across the British colonies? Answer: Health conditions varied for black slave women across the British colonies due to differences in climate, labor demands, living conditions, and access to medical care. Southern colonies had harsher conditions and more intensive labor, leading to worse health outcomes compared to the northern colonies. Essay Questions 76) What forms of labor did the British initially use in North America? Why did they begin to turn to African sources? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain the lack of use of Indian slavery by white colonials because of resistance, disease, and high death rates for native people. 2. Explain the development of white indentured servitude as the most common form of coercive labor in the early American colonies. 3. Explain the creation of new laws by Virginia whites that slowly enslaved blacks for life, closed religious loopholes, defined a child’s status as the same as the mother’s status, and made slavery a lifelong institution for the individual. 4. Comment on other factors that produced black slavery, such as European cultural attitudes against African people, and the presence of slavery in the Caribbean. Sample Answer: The British initially used indentured servitude as a form of labor in North America. Indentured servants were typically Europeans who agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for passage to the New World and, often, land or other benefits after completing their term of service. However, several factors led to the British turning to African sources for labor. One key factor was the declining availability of indentured servants from Europe. As conditions improved in Europe and opportunities arose closer to home, fewer Europeans were willing to endure the hardships of indentured servitude in the colonies. Additionally, African slavery became increasingly appealing to British colonists for several reasons. Africans were already being enslaved by other European powers and African societies, so the practice was not unfamiliar. Africans were also less likely to be familiar with the land and thus less likely to escape successfully, making them a more "secure" source of labor. Furthermore, African slaves were seen as more suitable for the type of labor needed in the burgeoning plantation economies of the southern colonies, particularly for labor-intensive crops like tobacco, rice, and later, cotton. The shift from indentured servitude to African slavery marked a significant and tragic turning point in American history, with long-lasting repercussions for African Americans and the nation as a whole. 77) How did African Americans continue various elements of their African heritage during slavery? What does this tell us about Africans from a social and cultural standpoint? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain how Africans preserved culture in religious practices and language. 2. Explain how Africans preserved their culture in naming of children, clothing patterns and adornment, and dietary cuisine. 3. Conclude that African preservation of African culture tells us that Africans resisted slavery and remained bicultural over time. Slavery did not destroy African American people, their memories and practices of Africa, and their will to surmount slavery. Sample Answer: During slavery in the United States, African Americans managed to preserve various elements of their African heritage despite the harsh conditions and restrictions imposed upon them. These elements included language, music, religion, and cultural practices, and they reveal several key aspects about Africans from a social and cultural standpoint. One way African Americans preserved their African heritage was through language. Many slaves spoke African languages among themselves, and they also developed creole languages that combined African grammar and vocabulary with English. These creole languages, such as Gullah and Geechee, are still spoken in some communities today, particularly in the southeastern United States. This linguistic preservation demonstrates the resilience of African cultural identity in the face of adversity. Music was another important cultural element that African Americans preserved. African musical traditions, such as drumming, call-and-response singing, and polyrhythms, were adapted and transformed into spirituals, gospel music, and eventually, blues and jazz. These musical forms not only provided solace and strength to African Americans during slavery but also influenced American music as a whole, highlighting the enduring impact of African cultural practices. Religion was also a significant aspect of African heritage that persisted among African Americans. Many slaves incorporated African spiritual beliefs and practices into Christianity, creating syncretic religions such as Vodou in Haiti and Santería in Cuba. In the United States, African Americans developed distinct forms of Christianity, such as the Baptist and Methodist denominations, that incorporated African musical and spiritual elements. This adaptation of religion reflects Africans' ability to maintain and adapt their cultural practices in new environments. Cultural practices such as storytelling, dance, and foodways also endured among African Americans during slavery. Storytelling traditions, including folktales, myths, and legends, were passed down orally and often contained elements of African folklore. African dance styles were incorporated into social gatherings and religious ceremonies, contributing to the development of new dance forms such as the ring shout. African foodways influenced Southern cuisine, with dishes like gumbo, jambalaya, and barbecue reflecting African culinary traditions. Overall, the preservation of African heritage among African Americans during slavery demonstrates the strength and resilience of African cultures. Despite the trauma of enslavement and the forced assimilation into American society, African Americans maintained and adapted their cultural practices, creating a rich and diverse cultural legacy that continues to influence American society today. 78) Discuss the importance and origin of music, language and folk literature for the slaves. How can these be seen as elements of resistance? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Describe the African origin of African American cultural forms in music, language, and literature: the banjo, Creole and pidgin languages, and Br’er Rabbit stories. 2. Explain the importance of African cultural forms within African American culture as a continuation of identity and resistance within the confines and dehumanization of slavery. 3. Explain that whites expected blacks to assimilate to American culture; any preservation of African culture was viewed as a potential threat to discipline and efficiency, though some African practices were allowed by the master class. Sample Answer: Music, language, and folk literature were crucial for slaves as they provided a means of expression, communication, and resistance against the dehumanizing conditions of slavery. Music played a significant role in the lives of slaves, serving as a form of emotional release, communication, and community building. African musical traditions, such as drumming and call-and-response singing, were integrated into spirituals and work songs. These songs not only provided solace and strength but also conveyed messages of hope, freedom, and resistance. For example, the spiritual "Follow the Drinking Gourd" contained coded instructions for escaping slavery. Language was another essential tool for slaves. Many slaves spoke African languages among themselves, and they developed creole languages that combined African grammar and vocabulary with English. These languages allowed slaves to communicate without their owners understanding, enabling them to organize rebellions, escape attempts, and other acts of resistance. Folk literature, including storytelling, myths, and folktales, served as a way for slaves to pass down cultural traditions and values. These stories often contained messages of resilience, survival, and defiance against oppression. An example is the Br'er Rabbit tales, which originated from African folklore and were used by slaves to outsmart their oppressors in the stories while conveying subtle messages of resistance. These cultural elements can be seen as forms of resistance because they allowed slaves to maintain a sense of identity, community, and agency in the face of extreme adversity. By preserving their cultural heritage through music, language, and folk literature, slaves asserted their humanity and challenged the dehumanizing conditions of slavery. These forms of resistance were subtle yet powerful, contributing to the resilience and survival of African cultural traditions in the Americas. 79) What specific gender ideas did the British have about slave women? How did these ideas impact the lives of black women? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain British views of European women as superior and pure in sexuality and race. 2. Explain British views of African women as overly sexual and impure. 3. Describe the impact of these ideas on African women slaves in terms of sexual exploitation and work regime: European men sexually exploited black women while failing to extend to them the customary protections that white women enjoyed in European society. Black women worked alongside men in the fields in America. 4. Discuss the fact that interracial children produced by the sexual exploitation of black slave women were often left to the slave community to raise, though on rare occasions the child was raised by the white master, often in Europe. Sample Answer: The British held specific gender ideas about slave women that were deeply rooted in patriarchal and racist beliefs. They viewed slave women as hypersexualized and inherently promiscuous, stereotypes that were used to justify the sexual exploitation of black women by white slave owners and overseers. These ideas had a profound impact on the lives of black women during slavery. Black women were often subjected to sexual violence and exploitation, with little to no recourse for justice or protection. Their bodies were seen as commodities to be used for the pleasure of white men, leading to widespread sexual abuse and exploitation. Furthermore, these gender ideas reinforced the dehumanization of black women, portraying them as less deserving of respect, dignity, and autonomy than white women. This dehumanization extended beyond sexual exploitation to other aspects of life, such as labor, family, and freedom. Black women were often forced to work in harsh conditions, separated from their families, and denied basic rights and freedoms. The impact of these gender ideas is still felt today, as they have contributed to the ongoing marginalization and oppression of black women. By understanding the specific gender ideas held about slave women, we can better understand the systemic injustices and inequalities that continue to affect black women in society. 80) How did slaves resist their situation and the oppression of slavery? What groups were more likely to resist? Why? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Comment on the commonality of resistance in multiple forms on a daily basis in most circumstances regarding slavery. 2. Define resistance as passive vs. active or direct vs. indirect. Slaves faked happiness, sickness, injury, and love for their masters. They actively broke tools, ran away, and sometimes fought back violently alone or in small groups, as in the Stono rebellion in 1739 in South Carolina. 3. Explain that resistance took place in the northern colonies primarily through arson attacks. 4. Define groups who resisted more than others: New Africans who had just arrived were the most likely to resist the regime before they had become seasoned to plantation work and assimilated to slave and European society in North America. Sample Answer: Slaves resisted their situation and the oppression of slavery in various ways, demonstrating remarkable resilience and courage in the face of extreme adversity. One common form of resistance was passive resistance, which included acts such as feigning illness, breaking tools, and slowing down work pace. These actions were subtle but effective ways for slaves to resist exploitation and assert some control over their lives. Another form of resistance was organized rebellion, such as the famous Haitian Revolution led by Toussaint Louverture. Slave revolts were rare but significant events that challenged the institution of slavery and inspired others to resist. Additionally, slaves resisted through cultural means, such as preserving their African heritage through music, language, and religion. These cultural practices helped slaves maintain a sense of identity and dignity in the face of dehumanization. Certain groups of slaves were more likely to resist than others. Those who were born in Africa and had a strong connection to their cultural heritage were often more resistant. These individuals had a greater sense of identity and were more likely to engage in cultural forms of resistance. Slaves who were closer to freedom, such as those living in cities or working in skilled trades, were also more likely to resist. They had more contact with free blacks and abolitionist ideas, which influenced their resistance efforts. Overall, slaves resisted in a variety of ways, demonstrating their resilience, resourcefulness, and determination to overcome the oppression of slavery. Chapter 04: Rising Expectations:
African Americans and the Struggle for Independence Multiple Choice Questions 1) Who were the major combatants during the French and Indian War? A) the French versus the Indians and the Dutch B) Great Britain versus England, their Indian allies, and the colonists C) France and their Indian allies versus the Dutch and their Indian allies D) the French and their Indian allies versus the British, their Indian allies, and the colonists Answer: D 2) What was the major cause of the French and Indian War? A) The American Indian tribes of Canada had been attacking various French forts. B) The French and British both wanted to control the fur trade in the Ohio Valley area. C) The British wanted to control Canada, and had attacked several French cities. D) The Spanish hoped to gain territory north of Florida, and had been harassing the British. Answer: B 3) Who was Crispus Attucks? A) one of the people who died after accosting British soldiers at the Boston Massacre B) a famous slave who fought against the British in the battles of Lexington and Concord C) a black man who was famous for his poetry during the American Revolution D) a British loyalist who fought alongside Benedict Arnold in several battles Answer: A 4) What do the Proclamation Line of 1763, the Stamp Act of 1765, and the Townshend Acts of 1767 have in common? A) They were all unreasonable taxes imposed by England on unsuspecting colonists. B) They all dealt with the issue of slavery, either limiting where it could occur or taxing various products made by escaped slaves. C) They were all efforts by the British to establish more control over the colonies and bring in money after the French and Indian War. D) They were taxes imposed reluctantly by the American government after independence to raise needed money. Answer: C 5) Why did the American colonists see the Tea Act as a problem? A) The tea taxes were incredibly high, so they feared the price of tea would skyrocket. B) They thought that payment of the tea tax would establish a precedent for American colonists having to pay other taxes. C) The colonists really had more of a problem with the Sugar Act than the Tea Act, which was considered relatively minor. D) The Tea Act forced them to buy tea from the Spanish, the colonists’ mortal enemy at that time. Answer: B 6) What role did the Sons of Liberty play in the American crisis with the British government? A) They attacked Patriot leaders for disloyalty against the British. B) They organized Patriots against the British government. C) They lobbied to pass extra taxes against the American colonists. D) They sailed to Europe to persuade England to invade the American colonies Answer: B 7) How did the Massachusetts Minutemen shape the American crisis with Britain? A) They fought as a special forces unit for the British Army. B) They served as an irregular force and stockpiled guns which brought on war. C) They sent petitions to the King of England begging for peace. D) They prevented the war from starting in 1775 by surrendering their arms. Answer: B 8) According to Map 4.1, what was the outcome of the French and Indian War for Spain in North America? A) Spanish land claims to North America expanded after the war. B) Spanish land claims to North America disappeared after the war. C) Spanish land claims to North America remained the same after the war. D) Spanish land claims to North America were rejected by the U.S. after the war. Answer: A 9) According to Map 4.1, what was the outcome for the Caribbean colonies after the French and Indian war? A) The French government expanded its hold over the region. B) The Spanish government expanded its hold over the region. C) The British government expanded its hold over the region. D) The region remained the same in terms of international occupation. Answer: D 10) Which scholar/philosopher was an influence on Enlightenment thought in Europe? A) John Locke B) Andrew Jackson C) Leo Tolstoy D) Socrates Answer: A 11) Which of the following is an Enlightenment idea argued by Newton and Locke? A) The universe is a disorderly place that cannot be explained by humans in a rational way. B) Government was created to protect monarchies and elites. C) If government failed to protect natural rights, humans had the right to overthrow it. D) All people, except women and blacks, should be given the same rights. Answer: C 12) How did Enlightenment thought affect African Americans in the 1760s and 1770s? A) African Americans were unaffected by Enlightenment thought since they were not allowed to read and write. B) African Americans began several coordinated, widespread violent rebellions in both the North and the South. C) African Americans filed lawsuits in the North, escaped from the South, and protested in large numbers. D) Generally, large numbers of free blacks left for Africa in the late 1700s. Answer: C 13) What was the greatest source of optimism for African Americans? A) White Patriot leaders would realize their revolutionary principles violated slavery. B) White slave owners would see the error of their ways and release all of their slaves. C) Whites would immediately accept blacks as equals. D) The King of England would join the American colonists. Answer: A 14) Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, in writing the Declaration of Independence, ______________. A) meant for the phrase "all men are created equal" to include blacks as well as whites B) thought that possibly slaves could be freed and Americans would resolve their differences peacefully at some time in the future C) took for granted the accepted differences between the rights of white men and the rights of blacks D) never even thought about the issue of slavery or blacks, since it was such a part of American culture Answer: C 15) During the late 1700s, what did slaves increasingly base their freedom suits upon? A) contractual technicalities regarding their terms of service B) humane treatment by white slave masters C) revolutionary principles of universal liberty D) the doctrines of the Roman Catholic faith Answer: C 16) How did the colonists interpret the actions and policies of the British government in the 1760s and the 1770s? A) They were furious because the taxes were high and would take away their hard- earned wealth. B) They thought the British government was engaged in a great conspiracy to take away their natural rights and reduce them to slaves. C) The colonists had very little reaction to the British government's actions at this time, as they were able to get around the policies very easily. D) The colonists pushed for additional regulations because they realized they could not protect themselves against encroaching Indians. Answer: B 17) What is significant about the image of James Armistead shown on page 88 of the textbook? A) It indicates that blacks played a minor and insignificant role in the Revolution. B) It depicts a black man who contributed to the Patriot side during the Revolution. C) It shows the problems of truancy and juvenile delinquency during the revolutionary era. D) It reveals the lack of participation of black women in the Revolution. Answer: B 18) Examine the drawing of a black youngster joining in a Boston demonstration on page 88 of the textbook. What elements of the image indicate that the people depicted are engaged in a Stamp Act protest? A) Buildings are shown in the background. B) Colonists are dressed in typical clothing of the era. C) A diverse group of colonists cheers as it burns bundled objects. D) The sky is clear and the weather appears warm. Answer: C 19) How did Phillis Wheatley distinguish herself? A) She was the first black woman to graduate from a British college. B) She was the first woman to die at the Battle of Lexington. C) She was an accomplished poet. D) She was the first black abolitionist in the colonies. Answer: C 20) For what is Benjamin Banneker well known? A) He was renowned for his knowledge of chemistry. B) He was the first black civilian employee of the American government. C) He was a well-known minister in the Boston area. D) He was a military leader who led black troops into battle during the American Revolution. Answer: B 21) How did Banneker attempt to change Jefferson's ideas about black people? A) He sent Jefferson a copy of his almanac and debated racial theories with him. B) He became Jefferson's personal secretary and forced Jefferson to confront his racist views. C) Banneker was so disillusioned with Jefferson that he refused to have anything to do with him. D) He attempted to debate the president but was unsuccessful; afterwards, he helped several of Jefferson's slaves escape. Answer: A 22) Why did most African-American intellectual leaders owe more to the Great Awakening than to secular learning during the Enlightenment? A) Many had no interest in poetry and literature, but religion held deep meaning for them. B) The Great Awakening was a period of enormous democratization of American society. C) Religious learning had been more available to them than secular educations. D) The Great Awakening was a period where secular learning was promoted for everyone. Answer: C 23) Examine the frontispiece portrait of Phillis Wheatley that precedes the title page of her first book of poetry. Why is Wheatley shown in the portrait writing at her desk? A) The portrait reveals Wheatley’s favorable stance on the slave trade in her book. B) The portrait demonstrates Wheatley’s studious nature and writing ability. C) The portrait relates to Wheatley’s poor writing style and choice of subject matter. D) The portrait suggests Wheatley’s distrust of her master about whom she wrote her book. Answer: B 24) Examine the title page of the 1795 edition of Benjamin Banneker’s Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac that appears on page 92 of the textbook. How does the image-maker portray Benjamin Banneker? A) as an illiterate slave dressed for tobacco work B) as a professional, well-dressed elite scientist C) as a disfigured and battle-scarred ex-Continental Army soldier D) as a white plantation owner of African-American slaves Answer: B 25) Consider the document that appears beneath the heading “Voices: Boston’s Slaves Link Their Freedom to American Liberty” in Chapter 4 of the textbook. Why did black slaves send their petition to the Massachusetts General Court in 1773? A) They wanted to fight in the War for American Independence. B) They wanted to remain as slaves in agricultural North America. C) They wanted to secure freedom and make a settlement in Africa. D) They wanted to move to Canada in order to join the British military. Answer: C 26) Which of the following statements best describes African Americans' actions during the American Revolution? A) They fought with the American colonists because they were fighting for the ideals of democracy. B) They played no role in the revolution because they were forbidden from enlisting in the army. C) They fought for the side that offered them their best chance at freedom. D) They consistently chose to escape to the west, where they were adopted into Indian tribes. Answer: C 27) Why did most whites not want blacks to enlist in the army? A) They thought that blacks were too cowardly to fight. B) They thought that arming blacks would inspire rebellion of slaves across the South. C) They lacked the equipment and uniforms to accept everyone. D) They thought that blacks were cowardly and their enlistment would inspire rebellion. Answer: D 28) Which of the following statements is true of Lord Dunmore's proclamation in November 1775? A) Since no slave could read, it had little effect on black participation. B) Dunmore promised to free slaves who joined the British army. C) The proclamation had little effect of any kind on the Americans, who kept very tight control over their slaves. D) Dunmore promised that the slaves would be used according to their intellect and leadership abilities. Answer: B 29) Where did the Patriot recruitment policy change most quickly? A) New England B) border states like Maryland and Virginia C) areas like South Carolina that desperately needed manpower D) throughout the South Answer: A 30) How did black women assist in the Patriot cause? A) Black women joined their husbands in army camps. B) Black women served as officers in battle with men. C) Black women remained as slaves to assist black soldiers. D) Black women had no role in the war effort. Answer: A 31) Which of the following statements is true concerning the role blacks played in the Patriot cause during the Revolution? A) George Washington forbade them from enlisting during the course of the war. B) All 13 states initially forbade blacks from serving in their armies. C) Blacks served as free men on the Patriot side in a few minor battles. D) Blacks served only as slaves for the Patriot cause. Answer: B 32) What role did blacks play in the Loyalist cause during the Revolution? A) Blacks served as officers in the British Army. B) British warships were staffed mostly by black sailors. C) Blacks sometimes escaped to the British and became soldiers. D) Blacks served only for the Patriot cause and not for the Loyalists. Answer: C 33) Which of the following statements is true of black Patriot soldiers during the Revolution? A) Black men did not serve in Patriot army units. B) Black men served in the U.S. Marines. C) Black men fought primarily in integrated units. D) Black men could easily become officers. Answer: C 34) What is the significance of the actions taken by James Armistead during the War for American Independence? A) He was an American officer who forced the British to surrender at Yorktown through a cavalry charge late in the battle. B) He was a black Patriot spy who infiltrated British military camps in Virginia and gave the information to George Washington. C) He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and voted against slavery despite the wishes of his state. D) He was a white farmer who produced most of the wheat and corn that fed American troops in Virginia. Answer: B 35) What does Map 4-2 reveal about black participation in the major battles of the American Revolution? A) Blacks took part in most battles on both sides. B) Blacks did not participate in the battles of the war. C) Black Patriots fought in major battles but Black Loyalists did not. D) Black Loyalists fought in major battles but Black Patriots did not. Answer: A 36) Examine the detail of the painting by John Trumbull titled The Battle of Bunker Hill that appears on page 95 of the textbook. What does the man shown holding a gun indicate about blacks’ involvement in the Revolutionary War? A) Black women helped black men fight during the war. B) White men attempted to stop black men from using guns in the war. C) Black slaves accompanied their white masters into battle. D) Blacks did not take part in battles until midway through the war. Answer: C 37) Which of the following persons was a Quaker antislavery organizer? A) Thomas Jefferson B) Benjamin Lay C) Crispus Attucks D) James Reid Answer: B 38) How many African American slaves escaped from their masters during the War for Independence? A) 100,000 B) 200,000 C) 300,000 D) 400,000 Answer: A 39) In exchange for hiring their own time, what did African American slaves need to give to their masters? A) the right to sell their children into slavery B) an official bond with the local court pledging they would not run away C) a large percentage of their wages D) some of their taxable property Answer: C 40) Why did some African Americans after the War for Independence rename themselves Brown, Guinea, Africa, and Coal? A) pride in their English ancestry B) pride in their French ancestry C) pride in their Native American ancestry D) pride in their African ancestry Answer: D 41) What factor led to the abolition of slavery in the North? A) The northern economy did not need slavery as much as the southern economy. B) White indentured servants insisted that colonial leaders abolish slavery or risk revolts. C) Slave rebellions compelled northern whites to abolish slavery. D) White women insisted that their white husbands abolish slavery. Answer: A 42) Why did many Quakers take the lead in abolitionism? A) Quakers had strong African roots. B) Quaker ideology had long stressed principles of brotherhood and nonviolence. C) Quaker church members served with blacks in the army as fellow combatants. D) Quakers had never owned slaves and therefore had no interest in the issue of abolition. Answer: B 43) Which of the following was a direct or indirect result of the American Revolution? A) Large numbers of blacks fled the country to Mexico after the war. B) The increase of tobacco cultivation expanded slavery in Virginia. C) Slavery was abolished in all of the northern colonies except New York and New Jersey. D) Freeing slaves became more difficult in several of the border states. Answer: C 44) What limitation did blacks encounter after the Revolution? A) They could not move to cities and were forced to remain as agricultural workers. B) They could not change their names to signify new freedom. C) They faced economic difficulties and barriers to training and skilled job entry. D) They had to continue working for their old slave masters. Answer: C 45) Consider that data shown in Figure 4-1. What factors explain why the free black population increased dramatically after the American Revolution? A) revolutionary ideology and a changing economy B) British offers of freedom during the Revolution and black participation in the British army C) the Great Awakening and Native American rebellions D) slave revolts and the expansion of Spain into California Answer: A 46) According to Map 4-3, what location proved a major irony and problem for blacks resettled after the War for American Independence? A) Canada, because slavery had never existed there B) West Africa, because it was considered a long distance from North America C) the Caribbean, because it was a slave colony D) Great Britain, because it was an industrializing power Answer: C 47) Examine Map 4-4. Why was the new political geography after 1783 important for African-American people? A) Lands owned by France provided economic opportunity for free blacks. B) Russia remained an easy place slaves to reach and become free. C) Spain’s western holdings and occupation of the southeast provided refuge for slaves. D) Great Britain’s Canada holdings closed off escape routes to the far north. Answer: C 48) How would a slave probably have learned of Dunmore’s Proclamation, shown on page 94 of the textbook? A) by reading it posted on a city building B) by listening to it broadcast on the radio C) by reading it after it was dropped from a balloon D) by having someone read and explain it to him or her Answer: D 49) According to Figure 4-1, what were the comparative population figures for free blacks in 1750, 1790, and 1800? A) 3,000; 60,000; 110,000 B) 10,000; 80,000; 200,000 C) 100,000; 800,000; 1 million D) 500,000; 1 million; 5 million Answer: A 50) Examine Map 4-3. What do the areas of black Loyalist resettlement after the American Revolution have in common? A) All are part of the French colonial empire. B) All are part of the Spanish colonial empire. C) All are part of the British colonial empire. D) All are part of an American colonial empire. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) The 1773 petition in the Voices document “Boston’s Slaves Link Their Freedom to American Liberty” is an example of the application of Enlightenment ideology to antislavery agitation. Answer: True 52) In August of 1776, General George Washington and the Continental Army drove the British off the continent. Answer: False 53) Fighting ended during the War for Independence when a combined U.S. and French force compelled the British to surrender at Yorktown in 1781. Answer: True 54) At the end of the war in 1783, approximately 200,000 African Americans left with British forces as they evacuated the South. Answer: False 55) Patrick Henry uttered the famous phrase, “Give me liberty, or give me death.” Answer: True 56) The concept of a free black colony materialized when the British founded Sierra Leone in the 1700s. Answer: True 57) The concepts of the emerging market economy, the Great Awakening, and the Enlightenment combined to help slavery expand in the late 1700s. Answer: False 58) The increase in master absenteeism during the war permitted the task system of slavery to expand in South Carolina. Answer: True 59) In the North and the Chesapeake regions after the war, free African Americans took advantage of the broadening concept of freedom and moved to rural areas. Answer: False 60) After the war, blacks dropped some of the derogatory slave names they had acquired, an example of the influence of revolutionary ideology on the African American population. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The Continental Congress adopted the ______________ on July 4, 1776. Answer: Declaration of Independence 62) By the time of the American Revolution, most blacks had been born in ______________. Answer: America 63) John Locke maintained that the human mind at birth was a tabula ______________. Answer: rasa 64) Jupiter ______________ was a Long Island slave who published poetry during the era of the American Revolution. Answer: Hammon 65) Like most elite blacks during the era who associated closely with white people, Benjamin Banneker had ______________ to white European and American culture. Answer: assimilated 66) The eighteenth century was a time when ______________ could make important contributions to science. Answer: amateurs 67) Black Loyalists were most common and numerous in the colonies of ______________ and ______________ during the Revolution. Answer: Georgia, South Carolina 68) In the northern states, the commitment to the concept of ______________ was much more real than in the Chesapeake and the Lower South. Answer: emancipation 69) The concept of Enlightenment ______________ was a powerful antislavery force in American society during the 1760s and 1770s. Answer: rationalism 69) The Society of ______________, also known as the ______________ are an example of antislavery forces at work during the American Revolutionary era. Answer: Friends, Quakers Short Answer Questions 71) Discuss the basic concepts of the Enlightenment as developed by Isaac Newton and John Locke. Answer: Isaac Newton 1. Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation: • Natural laws govern the universe; mathematically understandable. 2. Empiricism and Scientific Method: • Emphasized empirical evidence and systematic experimentation. 3. Mechanistic Universe: • Universe operates as a predictable machine; reason and science can understand and control it. John Locke 1. Empiricism and Tabula Rasa: • Knowledge comes from sensory experience; mind as a "blank slate." 2. Natural Rights and Social Contract: • Inherent rights to life, liberty, and property; government formed by consent to protect these rights. 3. Separation of Powers and Government Accountability: • Separation of powers into legislative, executive, and federative branches; government accountability and rule of law. 72) What does the Voices segment “Boston’s Slaves Link Their Freedom to American Liberty” reveal about black aspirations during the era? Answer: The Voices segment "Boston’s Slaves Link Their Freedom to American Liberty" reveals that black aspirations during the era included a desire for freedom and equality within the context of American liberty. The segment highlights how enslaved individuals in Boston connected their own quest for freedom to the broader ideals of liberty and justice that were being championed during the American Revolutionary era. It shows that black Americans were actively seeking to secure their own freedom and rights, drawing inspiration from the rhetoric and actions of the revolutionary movement. This indicates that black aspirations were not only for personal freedom but also for the full realization of the principles of liberty and equality that were being espoused in the larger society. 73) What do the stories of Phillis Wheatley and Benjamin Banneker tell us about African Americans during the Black Enlightenment? Answer: The stories of Phillis Wheatley and Benjamin Banneker during the Black Enlightenment illustrate the intellectual capabilities and achievements of African Americans. Wheatley, a poet, and Banneker, a scientist and astronomer, demonstrated that African Americans could excel in literature and science despite the prevailing prejudices of the time. Their accomplishments challenged stereotypes and contributed to the broader narrative of African American intellectualism and cultural advancement during the Enlightenment period. 74) Why would a black person side with the Loyalists, or British, during the Revolution? Answer: A black person might side with the Loyalists, or British, during the Revolution for several reasons. Some believed that British rule offered better prospects for freedom and equality than the American colonies, where slavery was widespread. Others may have been promised freedom in exchange for their loyalty by the British, who sought to weaken the colonial rebellion. Additionally, some black individuals may have had personal or economic ties to Loyalists that influenced their loyalties. 75) Why did Quakers oppose slavery if they were slaveholders in the past? Answer: Quakers opposed slavery despite their history as slaveholders because they underwent a transformation in their beliefs. Over time, Quakers came to see slavery as incompatible with their values of equality, compassion, and respect for all individuals. They began to actively work towards abolition and became influential leaders in the anti-slavery movement. Essay Questions 76) How is the Stamp Act an example of the British attempt to make the colonists pay for the French and Indian War? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain the high cost for the British government in the French and Indian War that necessitated new taxes to pay for it. 2. Explain the passage of the Stamp Act as a tax on official documents and other paper products purchased in the colonies. 3. Explain how the colonists reacted to the Stamp Act with protests and petitions and violence. 4. Explain how Great Britain responded to the colonial defiance of the act by repealing it over a year later. Sample Answer: The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by the British Parliament on the American colonies. It required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp. This tax was a way for the British government to raise revenue from the colonies to help pay for the cost of maintaining troops in North America following the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War). The connection between the Stamp Act and the British attempt to make the colonists pay for the French and Indian War is clear. The war was fought primarily in North America between the British and the French, with both sides receiving support from Native American allies. The British victory in the war resulted in significant territorial gains for Britain in North America but also left the British government with a large debt. To help pay off this debt, the British government decided to increase its control over the American colonies and to raise revenue from them. The Stamp Act was one of several measures enacted by the British government for this purpose. However, the colonists strongly opposed the Stamp Act and saw it as an infringement on their rights as British subjects. They argued that since they did not elect members to the British Parliament, they should not be taxed by it. The opposition to the Stamp Act was widespread and led to protests, boycotts, and eventually the Stamp Act Congress, where colonial representatives gathered to draft a petition to the King and Parliament outlining their grievances. The Act was repealed in 1766, but the tensions it created between the colonies and the British government set the stage for further conflicts that ultimately led to the American Revolutionary War. 77) Why is the French and Indian War important to the study of African-American history? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain the causes of the French and Indian War as stemming from conflicts between Britain and France over the fur trade in Canada and Atlantic trade. 2. Explain how Great Britain won the war by destroying French armies in lower Canada. 3. Describe the different perspectives of Parliament and the colonists on the meaning of the war. Parliament saw the war as defending the colonies while the Americans expected their country to pay for the war and allow them to control their own affairs. 4. Comment on the significance of the war for the American Revolution: Winning the war bankrupted the British government, pushing Parliament to pass taxes that alienated the American colonists who left the British empire forever. Sample Answer: The French and Indian War (1754-1763) is important to the study of African-American history for several reasons. Firstly, the war played a significant role in shaping the relationship between African Americans and the British colonial powers. Many African Americans, both free and enslaved, fought in the war on both sides. For enslaved African Americans, the war offered opportunities for freedom. Both the British and French offered freedom to enslaved individuals who were willing to fight for them. This led to thousands of enslaved people fleeing their owners to join the British or French forces in exchange for the promise of freedom. After the war, some of these individuals were resettled in British colonies like Nova Scotia and later Sierra Leone, where they formed communities that became part of the African diaspora. The French and Indian War also laid the groundwork for the American Revolutionary War. The heavy costs incurred by the British during the war led to increased taxation on the American colonies, which ultimately contributed to the tensions that led to the Revolutionary War. African Americans, both free and enslaved, played significant roles in the Revolutionary War as well, with many fighting for both the British and American sides. Furthermore, the aftermath of the French and Indian War had a profound impact on African-American communities. The Proclamation of 1763, issued by the British government after the war, prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, in part to avoid conflicts with Native American tribes. This proclamation was intended to stabilize the western frontier, but it also had implications for African-American communities, particularly those who had hoped to acquire land in the west. In conclusion, the French and Indian War is important to the study of African-American history because it shaped the experiences of African Americans during the colonial period, influenced the course of the American Revolutionary War, and had lasting effects on African-American communities in the aftermath of the war. 78) What effect did Lord Dunmore's proclamation have on the Revolution? Be sure to consider the British, Patriot, and African-American perspectives. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that Lord Dunmore issued his proclamation to entice slaves to join his army. 2. Outline the perspective of the Patriots: the British were creating a race war by encouraging slaves to escape southern plantations. 3. Comment on the irony of the democratic basis of the War for Independence while Thomas Jefferson and George Washington lost their own slaves to the British side. 4. Comment on the elevated British opinion, which influenced the Americans, of black fighting ability in battle. 5. Outline the perspective of African-American slaves: Many chose freedom by fighting for the British, only to evacuate to other locations after the war. 6. Explain that the use of ex-slave troops by the British was significant in some battles. Sample Answer: Lord Dunmore's Proclamation, issued in November 1775 during the early stages of the American Revolution, had significant effects on various groups involved in the conflict, including the British, Patriots, and African Americans. From the British perspective, Dunmore's Proclamation was a strategic move to weaken the Patriots' forces. As the Royal Governor of Virginia, Dunmore declared that any enslaved African American who escaped and joined the British forces would be granted freedom. This was a direct attempt to destabilize the Patriot economy, which relied heavily on enslaved labor. By offering freedom to enslaved individuals, Dunmore aimed to create unrest and distract the Patriots from their military efforts. For the Patriots, Dunmore's Proclamation was a propaganda tool used to rally support for the revolutionary cause. It highlighted the hypocrisy of the British, who were fighting for liberty and freedom while supporting the institution of slavery. The Proclamation also fueled fears of a slave rebellion among Patriots, further galvanizing their resolve to fight for independence from British rule. From the perspective of African Americans, Dunmore's Proclamation offered a glimmer of hope for freedom and autonomy. Enslaved individuals faced harsh conditions and limited opportunities for freedom in the American colonies. Dunmore's offer provided a tangible incentive for enslaved people to risk their lives and escape to British lines. Thousands of African Americans took advantage of this offer and joined the British forces, forming the Ethiopian Regiment and other units that fought against the Patriots. Overall, Lord Dunmore's Proclamation had a significant impact on the Revolution by complicating the dynamics of the conflict and highlighting the issue of slavery. It contributed to the radicalization of both Patriot and Loyalist sentiments and ultimately played a role in shaping the outcome of the war. 79) Describe the various types of roles played by blacks during the Revolution. Why did this participation vary by gender and national affiliation? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Outline the different roles based on gender: men fought in the army and served in the navy while women joined them in army camps or battle. Some men and women served as spies. 2. Outline the different roles in combat based on army vs. navy: black men served in both services though their participation in the navies was more significant and less controversial than in the armies of both sides. 3. Outline the different roles based on Patriots vs. Loyalists. Americans forced their slaves to perform work for the U.S. war effort. The British created official black regiments of escaped slaves while the Americans eventually enlisted black troops in the Continental Army but this varied according to state needs and requirements. Sample Answer: During the American Revolution, blacks played various roles that reflected the complex social and political dynamics of the time. These roles were influenced by factors such as gender and national affiliation. 1. Enslaved Blacks: • Men: Many enslaved black men were forced to labor for the British or American armies, often in non-combat roles such as cooks, laborers, or servants. Some were promised freedom in exchange for their service. • Women: Enslaved black women also performed labor for both sides, working as laundresses, cooks, or nurses. They faced additional challenges such as sexual exploitation and violence. 2. Free Blacks: • Men: Free black men were more likely to participate in the military, fighting for both the British and American sides. Some joined militias or served as soldiers, while others acted as spies or guides. • Women: Free black women often supported the war effort by working as nurses, seamstresses, or spies. They also faced risks, as their freedom was precarious, and they could be captured and re-enslaved. 3. Loyalists: • Men and Women: Black loyalists, who supported the British, were promised freedom and land in exchange for their service. They fought in the British army and supported the British cause in various capacities. 4. Patriots: • Men and Women: Some free blacks and even a few enslaved blacks supported the American patriots. They fought in militias, served as guides, and contributed to the war effort in other ways. Their motivations included a desire for freedom and a belief in the revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality. Gender and National Affiliation: • Gender played a significant role in the types of roles available to blacks during the Revolution. Women, both enslaved and free, were often limited to non-combat roles due to societal norms and expectations. • National affiliation also influenced black participation. Those who aligned with the British were often promised freedom and land, which motivated many to join their cause. Free blacks who supported the American patriots did so out of a belief in the revolutionary ideals of freedom and equality. In conclusion, the roles played by blacks during the American Revolution were diverse and influenced by factors such as gender and national affiliation. Despite facing significant challenges and risks, blacks made important contributions to both the British and American causes, reflecting their desire for freedom and equality. 80) Why was it possible to abolish slavery in the North but not in the South? How did African Americans respond to the abolition of slavery in the northern states? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Describe the role of the differing economies that produced the abolition of slavery in the northern states. The climate of the northern states prevented lucrative plantation agriculture in contrast to the South where the climate was perfect and political power became concentrated in the hands of slave holders. 2. Explain that religion played a role in abolition in the northern states through Quaker antislavery sentiment, the Enlightenment, and the First Great Awakening. 3. Outline how blacks responded in varying forms to abolition in the northern states by escaping from slavery in the South and forming black voluntary organizations and communities. Sample Answer: The abolition of slavery in the North but not in the South can be attributed to several key factors, including economic, social, and political differences between the regions. 1. Economic Factors: • North: By the early 19th century, the Northern economy was shifting away from agriculture towards industrialization. This shift, coupled with the region's smaller-scale farming, meant that the North did not rely as heavily on slave labor as the South did for its economy. • South: In contrast, the Southern economy was heavily reliant on agriculture, particularly cotton, which was labor-intensive and depended on enslaved workers for profitability. The economic interests of Southern plantation owners and farmers were deeply tied to the institution of slavery. 2. Social Factors: • North: The North had a more diverse economy and population, which contributed to a more varied social structure. This diversity, along with the influence of Enlightenment ideals and religious movements like Quakerism, fostered anti-slavery sentiments. • South: The Southern social structure was more homogeneous, with a large enslaved population and a planter elite that dominated politics and society. This social structure made it more difficult for anti-slavery movements to gain traction. 3. Political Factors: • North: The political landscape in the North was more conducive to abolitionist movements. Northern states had greater political representation and were more receptive to anti-slavery legislation. • South: The Southern political elite, fearing the economic and social implications of abolition, resisted efforts to abolish slavery. They used their political power to maintain the institution, including through the enactment of laws like the Fugitive Slave Act. African American Response in the North: • African Americans in the North responded to the abolition of slavery with a mix of celebration and caution. While they welcomed the end of legal slavery in the North, they were also aware of the challenges that remained, including ongoing discrimination and inequality. • Many African Americans continued to face economic hardship and social marginalization even after abolition. Nevertheless, the abolition of slavery in the North provided a foundation for the later abolition movement in the South and the eventual end of slavery in the United States. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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