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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 6 Chapter 05: African Americans in the New Nation Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which two states abolished slavery immediately during the 1770s and the 1780s? A) Vermont and Connecticut B) New York and New Jersey C) Pennsylvania and Rhode Island D) Vermont and Massachusetts Answer: D 2) How did Massachusetts abolish slavery? A) Two slaves sued for freedom under a new state constitution. B) The state added a new clause to its constitution, immediately abolishing slavery. C) Slaves in Massachusetts began rioting in the streets, demanding changes. D) Massachusetts never had slavery in the first place. Answer: A 3) What right did Massachusetts, unique among the colonies, grant its black residents in 1783? A) the right for free blacks to own property and be legally married B) the right for black men, who paid taxes, to vote C) the right for both black men and women to vote D) the right to freedom of speech, even for slaves Answer: B 4) What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 do? A) banned all slavery in territory west of the Appalachians after 1800 B) provided rules and regulations for the sale of land C) supported private education D) provided ways for the area to be absorbed by Great Britain Answer: B 5) What was one change across a few southern states that did affect slaves' chances for freedom? A) Whipping was outlawed after 1850. B) Manumission laws were made more permissive. C) Slaves were allowed education in basic literacy. D) Slaves were allowed to move off their plantations if they wanted. Answer: B 6) What do the legal cases over slavery and black rights in Massachusetts in the 1780s tell you about that colony and its black residents? A) Black residents rarely won legal cases, as racism was well entrenched in the law. B) Black residents rarely attempted change, since they were often illiterate, uneducated and had no idea of freedom or the possibility of their rights. C) The legal cases were almost always instigated by white lawyers or activists interested in abolishing slavery and had little to do with the blacks in the area. D) In some cases, the courts seemed willing to follow the letter of the law and apply equality and rights across the races. Answer: D 7) What is one difference between earlier abolition attempts and the initiatives in Connecticut and Rhode Island? A) Rhode Island and Connecticut abolished slavery immediately, rather than gradually. B) Blacks took enormous risks to their lives by directly protesting slavery and calling for its end through newspapers and pamphlets. C) State legislatures, rather than individual blacks, took the lead in abolishing slavery. D) Connecticut and Rhode Island were very similar to all other New England states in their attempts to abolish slavery. Answer: C 8) What was the significance of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 for African Americans? A) It had almost no effect because huge numbers of slaves continued to live under slavery until the Civil War. B) The ordinance set a legal and geographical precedent for limiting where slavery could and could not exist. C) It demonstrated that the Articles of Confederation government had significant amounts of power in many areas. D) It banned the slave trade, but not slavery, from the territory. Answer: B 9) From 1794 to 1832, how did antislavery societies function? A) They were dominated by slaveholders. B) They included the active participation of some African Americans. C) They were more prevalent in the northern states. D) They tended to focus on immediate emancipation plans. Answer: C 10) Examine Map 5-1. What relationship does it indicate between geographical factors and the continuation of slavery? A) The presence of rivers led to the continuation of slavery. B) The presence of mountains led to the continuation of slavery. C) The presence of large amounts of land led to the continuation of slavery. D) The presence of large stands of timber led to the continuation of slavery. Answer: C 11) Examine the engraving of John Hancock participating in a black celebration. How would southern whites have reacted to a scene of whites and blacks dancing together? A) They would have shown strong approval of whites and blacks comingling in public. B) They would have ignored the issue because it had no bearing on slavery. C) They would have been disgusted and alarmed at such a display of social equality. D) They would have been angry to the point of starting a sectional war. Answer: C 12) Examine Table 5-1. Why does Pennsylvania exhibit a much smaller slave population than either New York or New Jersey in 1790? A) Slave insurrections were common in Pennsylvania. B) The federal government forced the state to ban slavery by 1800. C) Southern whites recaptured escaped slaves after the revolution. D) Pennsylvania began to free slaves in the state in 1780 by state law. Answer: D 13) Examine the 1811 painting Pepper-Pot, A Scene in the Philadelphia Market. How does the painting illustrate that some blacks lived free lives during the era? A) A group of whites stand near a black woman inside a building. B) A dog sits on the floor at the feet of the black woman. C) The black woman sells soup to white customers. D) Two white women with a basket stand near the black woman. Answer: C 14) Why did many antislavery societies focus on gradual emancipation rather than immediate emancipation? A) Northern states had successfully passed plans for gradual emancipation. B) Many thought that under immediate emancipation, whites would lose their place at the top of the racial hierarchy. C) Some antislavery groups thought that immediate emancipation would ignore older slaves. D) Antislavery societies actually focused on immediate emancipation from the very beginning. Answer: A 15) Why was the collapse of slavery different in New England versus the Middle States? A) African Americans in New England were under much tighter control and could not exercise any rights. B) More white people owned slaves in New England because of all the industry there. C) Religious and political beliefs influenced whites into accepting the demise of slavery in New England more quickly. D) The Middle States had less of an economic interest in slavery than New England did. Answer: C 16) Why might a master free a slave? A) The slave had plotted to kill the master. B) Manumission was the only way to keep slaves from escaping. C) The slave was an excellent cook and butler. D) Most masters after the revolution tended to believe in the equality of all humans. Answer: D 17) What compromise did the convention delegates create regarding the Atlantic slave trade in the Constitution? A) The Atlantic slave trade was immediately abolished. B) The Atlantic slave trade was gradually abolished over the next 20 years. C) No compromise was made over the Atlantic slave trade. D) The Constitution limited the Atlantic slave trade to a few ships per year. Answer: B 18) What was the result of the Three-Fifths Clause in the Constitution? A) It allowed three-fifths of free blacks to vote in urban areas. B) It pushed for three-fifths of all American taxes to come from foreign sources. C) It gave the South increased political power in the House of Representatives. D) Three-fifths of the slaves in the North were freed by 1787. Answer: C 19) Which population grew most rapidly in the New Orleans area after the Louisiana Purchase? A) Free African Americans B) slaves who came directly from Africa C) Creoles D) slaves imported from Brazil Answer: B 20) Which of the following factors helped to continue the institution of slavery in the U.S? A) the Constitution B) the development of wheat as a cash crop C) sexism D) continuing excitement over the Revolution Answer: A 21) How did the slave trade change in the early 1800s? A) The sale of children under the age of 15 was prohibited by many states. B) The slave trade expanded dramatically to the West. C) The slave trade increased between the U.S. and Canada. D) All trading of slaves was completely abolished in 1808. Answer: B 22) How did racism develop in the early 1800s? A) Science became more objective and held that blacks and whites were equal. B) Northern whites became more racist than southern whites. C) Racists believed that black people were closer to apes than to whites. D) Educated people were beginning to believe that blacks were superior to whites. Answer: C 23) Examine the image of black slaves working a machine that was published in Harpers Weekly in 1869. What development of the late-eighteenth century does the activity of the men in the image reflect? A) The machine is the cotton gin, reflecting the expansion of cotton and slavery after 1793. B) The machine is a shotgun, reflecting the practice of hunting by slaves on plantations. C) The machine is an automobile, reflecting the use of cars on plantations. D) The machine is a wheat grinder, reflecting the expansion of grain crops in the South. Answer: A 24) What does the bar graph in Figure 5-1 reveal about the major shift in the distribution of African-American slaves after 1800? A) Massive numbers of slaves were relocated to the Deep South. B) Massive numbers of slaves were transferred to the Upper South. C) Massive numbers of slaves were transferred to the Caribbean. D) Massive numbers of slaves were transferred to Mexico. Answer: A 25) Why was cotton production an important development in the South in the late- eighteenth and early-nineteenth century? A) Demand for cotton was skyrocketed, and slaves were needed to pick it. B) The South became more industrialized and needed more slaves. C) Cotton production generated income for the South at the expense of the North. D) Cotton production helped attract European immigrants to the U.S. to process the crop. Answer: A 26) What were the earliest black community institutions? A) churches B) newspapers C) civil rights organizations D) mutual aid societies Answer: D 27) How did Prince Hall found a Masonic lodge for blacks in America? A) He founded a Masonic lodge with the support of some white masons in America. B) He did the application process under an assumed name and passed for white. C) He went through the British membership application process. D) He was unable to form a Masonic lodge because of the racism of whites. Answer: C 28) Which of the following statements is true of the early separate black churches established around the Great Awakening? A) They were never truly independent institutions. B) They generally continued the African indigenous religion. C) They were approved overwhelmingly by slave masters. D) They had few members, although some of their leaders were very vocal. Answer: A 29) What prompted black members of St. George's Methodist Church in Philadelphia to separate and form their own church? A) White members advocated returning some of the black members to slavery. B) Whites erupted in violence during service, beating several black clergy members. C) White members tried to prevent a black member from praying in what trustees considered the white section of the church. D) White members refused to support the Underground Railroad. Answer: C 30) What prominent Protestant denomination arose from black efforts to establish a separate church in Philadelphia? A) African Methodist Episcopal B) Baptist C) Catholics D) Nation of Islam Answer: A 31) What problems did early black schools encounter? A) arson attacks against the schools B) insufficient enrollment C) African-American parents’ belief that schools were pointless D) attempts by the federal government to shut down the schools Answer: C 32) How did mutual aid societies evolve over time? A) They were patterned after Native American institutions. B) They were always blind to color difference, especially within black society. C) They were similar to insurance companies in providing death and sick benefits. D) They perpetuated racial discrimination in the insurance industry. Answer: C 33) Examine the late-eighteenth century portrait of Prince Hall. What type of man does he appear to be, and what would this appearance have meant to his contemporaries? A) He appears to be a southern slave holder, revealing his agreement with and participation in slavery. B) He appears to be a dutiful slave, revealing that slavery was a positive institution. C) He appears to be a farmer, revealing the role of free blacks in agriculture. D) He appears to be an educated gentleman, revealing his elevated stature among free blacks. Answer: D 34) Examine the portrait of Absalom Jones painted by Raphaelle Peale in 1810 and the lithograph depicting New York African Free School, No. 2. What do these images reveal about the free black community? A) Free blacks were illiterate and confined to working class pursuits. B) Free blacks had access to religious and educational institutions. C) Free blacks served in political offices in large northern cities. D) Free blacks served in the military at the state and federal level. Answer: B 35) Why did freemasonry especially appeal to blacks? A) Black freemasons were allowed to join the U.S. Army. B) White freemasons traced their roots to Egypt, as did blacks. C) Freemasonry offered low-cost loans to black women. D) Freemasons afforded black men and women a chance to socialize. Answer: B 36) Why did blacks form separate institutions after the American Revolution? A) They wanted to create a social foundation that would eventually enable them to move back to Africa. B) They wanted to separate from the United States and form another country. C) There was a larger free black community in northern cities after the Revolution. D) Many blacks wanted their children to grow up without seeing white people at all. Answer: C 37) Why are Richard Allen and Absalom Jones important in African-American history? A) They were the first black men to speak for women's rights. B) They led the formation of the first independent black church. C) They were the first black men elected to the United States Senate. D) They pressed for blacks to assimilate to white society and reject Africa. Answer: B 38) What groups of blacks emerged as leaders after the American Revolution? A) slaves who led violent rebellions B) clergy and businessmen C) illiterate slave drivers D) the new class of black millionaires Answer: B 39) What did men like Prince Hall and James Forten feel about what was best for African Americans? A) Since they were racists, they thought that slavery was the best place for blacks. B) They were against slavery but generally felt that God, not men, would end the injustice. C) They thought that blacks should begin to file legal cases to end discrimination and abolish slavery. D) They generally believed that if blacks kept working and protesting, the ideals of the American Revolution would be attained. Answer: D 40) What was the most common form of resistance against slavery among blacks? A) physical violence against their white masters B) poisoning of whites by slave cooks C) day-to-day resistance and escape D) preaching against the evils of slavery on urban street corners Answer: C 41) What foreign revolution influenced slave uprisings in the United States? A) the Spanish Revolution B) the revolution in Haiti C) the massive Cuban Revolution of slaves in 1793 D) a slave uprising in Quebec, Canada Answer: B 42) Who organized the Louisiana Rebellion? A) Gabriel [Prosser] B) [Charles] Deslondes C) Nat Turner D) John Brown Answer: B 43) How did Gabriel's rebellion influence the South? A) Fearing for their lives, more whites began to kill their slaves. B) Gabriel's networks continued to exist and be influential after his death. C) His message of liberation spread to eastern Africa. D) Divisions within the slave community disappeared. Answer: B 44) How did southern whites react in general to slave violence? A) They refused to enact laws and establish practices to make slavery harsher. B) They generally reacted passively, as the uprisings were quickly put down. C) They began to be much more suspicious of foreigners and outsiders. D) They began to liberate more "troublesome" slaves and force them to the North. Answer: C 45) Examine the image depicting Toussaint Louverture on page 124 of the textbook. What aspect of the image indicates how African Americans of the era viewed Louverture? A) He is shackled to a tree, indicating that blacks pitied him. B) He is whipping a slave, indicating that blacks reviled him. C) He is making an agreement, indicating that blacks admired him. D) He is killing a woman, indicating that blacks feared him. Answer: C 46) How did many Americans view the War of 1812? A) as a war to end slavery B) as a terrible war thrust upon them by the U.S. government C) as an attempt to gain large amounts of territory from France D) as a second part of the struggle for independence Answer: D 47) Regarding black military service during the War of 1812, what had white Americans practically forgotten? A) Haiti's revolution B) blacks' heroism and service during the American Revolution C) the violence of Gabriel's conspiracy and the Louisiana Revolution D) the origins and development of slavery and blacks' desire for freedom Answer: B 48) When the War of 1812 began, in what ways did blacks serve militarily? A) They served only on the American side, with many incidents of bravery. B) They refused to serve, thinking that they would not benefit a nation that kept some of their race in bondage. C) None served because they were seen as an "internal foe" by white Americans. D) Some served in the U.S. Marines. Answer: C 49) Why did black men take part in the War of 1812? What does the image show about black involvement in the War of 1812? A) They were promised safe passage to California as slaves. B) They were promised a monetary reward by their owners. C) They were promised freedom for enslaved black women. D) They were promised freedom for themselves. Answer: A 50) What event heightened sectional tensions between the North and the South, leading to increased militancy on both sides? A) the Missouri Compromise B) Gabriel's Conspiracy C) the War of 1812 D) the Declaration of Independence Answer: A True/False Questions 51) By the 1790s an educated black elite existed in the Chesapeake and the Northern Colonies. Answer: True 52) Migration out of the South was an idea that free blacks debated during the early 1800s. Answer: True 53) American Revolutionary ideology, the Haitian slave revolt, and a U.S. naval conflict with France produced Gabriel’s rebellion in 1800. Answer: True 54) The formation of the American Colonization Society in 1816 reveals the efforts of free blacks to escape white American racism during the early 1800s. Answer: True 55) The U.S. successfully conquered Canada during the War of 1812. Answer: False 56) Northern states mobilized thousands of black troops in 1812 and 1813 for the war effort against Great Britain. Answer: False 57) The Battle of New Orleans occurred one month after a peace treaty was negotiated with Great Britain. Answer: True 58) As the U.S. emerged from the War of 1812, sectional tensions decreased throughout the nation. Answer: False 59) The Missouri Compromise was embraced by southern whites and northern whites as a perfect solution to the slavery question. Answer: False 60) The forces for human bondage in the U.S. grew stronger over time, both legally and politically, in the early 1800s. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The ______________ was signed by Congress in 1787 and banned slavery from the region north of the Ohio River. Answer: Northwest Ordinance 62) The concept of ______________ expanded after the American Revolution to the benefit of African American slaves, particularly in the northern states. Answer: manumission 63) The ______________ of 1793 allowed masters to regain legal custody of slaves who escaped across state lines. Answer: Fugitive Slave Act 64) The westward expansion of cotton encouraged the development of a domestic ______________ trade. Answer: slave 65) The Constitution strengthened the power of slaveholders through the ______________ clause. Answer: Three-Fifths 66) The fear of ______________ ______________ motivated the formation of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, which produced the modern U.S. Constitution. Answer: Shays’s Rebellion 67) Congress’s inability to tax prevented it from maintaining an ______________ and a ______________, examples of the limitations of the Articles of Confederation. Answer: army, navy 68) Under the auspices of the American Colonization Society, a party of 86 African Americans migrated to the new colony of ______________ on the West African coast in 1820. Answer: Liberia 69) The nation’s first political parties were the Federalist party and the ______________ party. Answer: Republican 70) The Missouri Compromise was produced by ______________ ______________. Answer: Henry Clay Short Answer Questions 71) Why was the process of gaining emancipation different in New England and the Middle States? Answer: The process of gaining emancipation was different in New England and the Middle States primarily due to the different economic structures and labor systems in each region. New England, with its smaller farms and less reliance on slavery, saw a gradual emancipation process that began early. In contrast, the Middle States had larger farms and a greater reliance on slavery, leading to a slower and more complex emancipation process. 72) What conclusions can be discerned about African Americans from the petition by Absalom Jones? Answer: From Absalom Jones's petition, we can discern that African Americans were deeply committed to the ideals of freedom, justice, and equality. They were willing to use legal means and articulate arguments to challenge the institution of slavery and advocate for their rights as individuals and as a community. 73) What conclusions can be reached about African-American institutions from the story of James Forten? Answer: From the story of James Forten, we can conclude that African-American institutions played a crucial role in providing support, education, and community for African Americans. Forten's experience highlights how these institutions, such as churches and benevolent societies, empowered African Americans to resist oppression, achieve success, and contribute to their communities. 74) In comparison, what do the results of Gabriel's and Deslondes' rebellions tell us about black violence? Answer: The results of Gabriel's and Deslondes' rebellions suggest that black violence was often met with severe and violent repression by white authorities. Despite their attempts to challenge slavery and seek freedom, both rebellions were brutally suppressed, leading to harsh consequences for the participants. This highlights the systemic violence and oppression faced by black individuals and communities during this time. 75) Why was slavery extended below the Missouri Compromise Line and not above it (with the exception of Missouri)? Answer: Slavery was extended below the Missouri Compromise Line because the territories below the line, such as Arkansas and Florida, were seen as more suitable for plantation agriculture, which relied heavily on slave labor. In contrast, the territories above the line were believed to be less conducive to large-scale agriculture, making slavery less economically viable. Missouri was an exception due to its geographic location and economic ties to the South. Essay Questions 76) What black institution became the core of free black communities in the North beginning in the 1790s? How and why did this institution become the central focus? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the black church of the era as arising from slavery days through northern growth to become the bedrock of the black community. 2. Explain that the evolution of the black church in the north was as a segregated institution because whites discriminated against blacks in their churches. 3. Explain the historical development of the AMEC. 4. Note the importance of the black church for assisting other aspects of free black life in the urban North, such as creating leaders, helping escaped slaves, providing education, providing jobs, and serving as voluntary organizations and meeting places. Sample Answer: The institution that became the core of free black communities in the North beginning in the 1790s was the church, specifically the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. The AME Church, founded in Philadelphia in 1816 by Richard Allen and other black leaders, provided a central focus for free black communities for several reasons. First, the church served as a place of worship and spiritual sustenance, allowing black Americans to practice their faith freely and in their own cultural context. This was especially important as many white churches at the time either barred black members or segregated them. Second, the church became a center for community organization and activism. It provided a platform for leaders like Richard Allen to advocate for abolitionism, education, and other social and political causes important to the black community. Third, the church provided a space for education and intellectual development. Many AME churches established schools for black children, offering education at a time when formal schooling for black Americans was limited or nonexistent. Fourth, the church served as a social center, hosting events, gatherings, and celebrations that strengthened community bonds and provided a sense of belonging and identity. Overall, the AME Church and other black churches in the North became the core of free black communities due to their ability to provide spiritual, social, educational, and organizational support at a time when black Americans faced significant discrimination and marginalization. 77) Analyze Map 5-2. What does it demonstrate about black participation in the War of 1812? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain the reduced black army military presence as compared to War for Independence because of racism and southern white fears of slave revolts. 2. Comment on the significance of the battles that included black participation such as naval engagements upon the Great Lakes. 3. Note the use of black regiments by the British government in return for freedom for slaves. 4. Comment on the later use of black regiments by New York and black troops by Pennsylvania. 5. Describe the extensive use of black troops by Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. Sample Answer: Map 5-2 illustrates the distribution of African American regiments during the War of 1812. It demonstrates that black participation in the war was significant and widespread, particularly in the southern and mid-Atlantic states. The map shows that African American regiments were present in states such as Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Louisiana, indicating that black soldiers played a role in various theaters of the war, including the Chesapeake Bay region and the Gulf Coast. This distribution suggests that African Americans were actively recruited and enlisted in the military, challenging the notion that their participation was limited or marginal. The map also highlights the strategic importance of African American soldiers in the defense of key regions and cities, such as New Orleans. Overall, Map 5-2 demonstrates that black participation in the War of 1812 was substantial and geographically widespread, contributing to the broader narrative of African American military service and contribution to American history. 78) Examine Map 5-2. Why does it illustrate only battles east of the Mississippi River? What does the map indicate in general about the geographical nature of the War of 1812? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the War of 1812 took place over trade disputes between Great Britain and the U.S., regarding British conflicts with France. Indian policy disputes in the West with Great Britain also fueled tensions. 2. Compare the U.S. and British armies and strategic military plans. The British wanted to extend western forts to embrace Indian alliances, while the U.S. wanted to reduce British military power in the West as well as on the Atlantic Ocean. 3. Describe the geography of North America as having an Atlantic Ocean boundary to the east and an extensive western hinterland with unclear boundaries that created difficulties with the British. The Old Northwest was the American “West” in 1812. 4. Explain that the war took place primarily off the northeast coast where naval engagements largely determined the outcome. Sample Answer: Map 5-2 illustrates only battles east of the Mississippi River because the War of 1812 primarily took place in that region. The eastern theater of the war, which includes areas such as the Great Lakes region, the Atlantic coast, and the Gulf Coast, was where the majority of military engagements occurred between American and British forces, as well as their respective allies and Native American tribes. The map indicates that the geographical nature of the War of 1812 was focused on the eastern half of the United States, with a particular emphasis on the border regions with British Canada and Spanish Florida. This concentration of conflict in the eastern theater was influenced by several factors, including the strategic importance of the Great Lakes and the desire to control key ports and waterways along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Additionally, the map shows that the war was fought in a variety of terrains, including dense forests, open fields, and coastal areas. This indicates that military strategies and tactics had to adapt to different environments, adding to the complexity and challenges of the war. Overall, Map 5-2 illustrates the geographical scope of the War of 1812, highlighting the concentration of battles east of the Mississippi River and the diverse terrain in which the war was fought. 79) Analyze Map 5-3. How is the Missouri Compromise an example of favorable legislation for the North? Why did the terms of the compromise trouble the South? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the earlier Northwest Ordinance and its ban against slavery. 2. Note that the legislation banned slavery north of the Missouri Compromise line, which pleased northern free labor interests. 3. Explain that southern whites felt that the federal government had tampered with a state right by placing a federal limitation to the expansion of slavery. 4. Conclude that southern whites were also disappointed that slavery could not legally expand into new western territories that ironically held similar amounts of acreage as the southern states. Sample Answer: Map 5-3 depicts the division of the Louisiana Purchase territory into slave and free states as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. The compromise allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the 36°30' parallel, except within the boundaries of Missouri. The Missouri Compromise is considered favorable legislation for the North because it temporarily preserved the balance of power between free and slave states in Congress. By admitting Maine as a free state, the North gained an additional state, while Missouri's admission as a slave state did not upset the Senate's equal division between free and slave states. Furthermore, the prohibition of slavery north of the 36°30' parallel in the Louisiana Purchase territory was seen as a victory for the North's anti-slavery interests. However, the terms of the Missouri Compromise troubled the South for several reasons. First, it signaled a growing sentiment in the North against the expansion of slavery, which threatened the South's ability to maintain parity with the North in terms of representation in Congress. Second, the compromise imposed restrictions on where slavery could expand, limiting the economic and political influence of slaveholding states. Third, the compromise set a precedent for Congress to interfere in the issue of slavery, undermining the South's belief in states' rights and autonomy over their domestic institutions. In summary, the Missouri Compromise was viewed as favorable legislation for the North because it preserved the balance of power in Congress and limited the expansion of slavery. However, its terms troubled the South because they represented a threat to the institution of slavery and the South's political and economic interests. 80) Analyze the mileage key of Map 5-3. How large, comparatively, was the Unorganized Territory relative to the size of the South? Why is this significant for the Missouri Compromise of 1820? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the relative size of the Unorganized Territory, using the mileage key, as approximately 1000 square miles. 2. Define the relative size of the southern states, using the mileage key, as approximately the same size as the Unorganized Territory. 3. Define the specific terms of the Missouri Compromise: Maine is admitted as a free state to balance the admission of Missouri as a slave state; the southern border of Missouri becomes the boundary line for exclusion of slavery from the Unorganized Territory. 4. Comment on the significance of the Missouri Compromise in allowing Congress to exclude officially a large territory from the expansion of slavery. Sample Answer: The mileage key of Map 5-3 shows that the Unorganized Territory, where slavery was prohibited north of the 36°30' parallel by the Missouri Compromise, was significantly larger in area compared to the southern states. This is significant for the Missouri Compromise of 1820 because it highlights the extent to which the compromise restricted the expansion of slavery into new territories. The Unorganized Territory encompassed a vast area of land, stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. In contrast, the southern states, including the states of the Deep South and the border states, were relatively smaller in size. This disparity in land area demonstrates the magnitude of the restriction placed on slavery by prohibiting it in such a large and potentially lucrative region. By prohibiting slavery in the Unorganized Territory, the Missouri Compromise effectively limited the ability of southern slaveholders to expand their slave labor system into new territories. This restriction was a significant concession by the South, as the expansion of slavery into new territories was seen as essential for maintaining the economic and political power of the slaveholding states. Overall, the size of the Unorganized Territory relative to the South underscores the significance of the Missouri Compromise in shaping the future of slavery and the expansion of the United States. It represented a compromise between the North and South that temporarily preserved the balance of power in Congress while also restricting the expansion of slavery into new territories. Chapter 06: Life in the Cotton Kingdom Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which state had the largest slave population during the period 1820–1860? A) Alabama B) Mississippi C) Louisiana D) Virginia Answer: D 2) Based on map 16.1, which states experienced the highest growth rate in cotton production between 1820 and 1860? A) Alabama and Mississippi B) Virginia and Missouri C) Florida and Tennessee D) Texas and Tennessee Answer: A 3) Which of the following is true about slave ownership in the Old South? A) About half of the white population in the South owned slaves. B) Most slaveholders owned more than 20 slaves. C) Slaveholding was practiced by more people in 1860 than in 1830. D) A small percentage of African Americans owned slaves. Answer: D 4) Why did African Americans own slaves? A) Blacks owned slaves to assist with colonization in Africa. B) Blacks owned slaves to force Native Americans onto reservations. C) Blacks owned slaves to impress northern whites. D) Blacks owned slaves to protect families from sale. Answer: D 5) Examine Map 6-1. What region was cotton cultivation most densely concentrated by 1860? A) the West Coast B) the east coast of North America C) the lower Mississippi River D) western Texas Answer: C 6) Examine Table 6-1. In comparing the slave populations for the northern and southern states in 1820 and 1860 respectively, what conclusion surfaces from the data? A) The Northern states had a larger slave population than the southern states in 1820 but not in 1860. B) The Northern states had a smaller slave population than the southern states in 1860. C) The Southern states never had a larger slave population than the northern states. D) The Southern states had a larger slave population than the northern states in 1820 and in 1860. Answer: D 7) What crop did most agricultural slaves tend? A) cotton B) potatoes C) hemp D) rice Answer: A 8) Where was tobacco cultivation most important? A) Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina B) Virginia and small areas of Pennsylvania C) Kentucky and Alabama D) New York and New Jersey Answer: A 9) Where was rice cultivation important? A) in the swampy regions of Georgia and Florida B) along the banks of the Mississippi River C) in the low country of South Carolina and Georgia D) in Virginia and Maryland Answer: C 10) Which crop employed the largest number of slaves on a single plantation? A) cotton B) rice C) indigo D) silk Answer: B 11) Which crop pushed owners to work their slaves under very difficult time and weather conditions? A) sugarcane B) cotton C) rice D) silk Answer: A 12) Which slave-dependent crop was by far the most important to the country as a whole? A) sugarcane B) rice C) cotton D) tobacco Answer: C 13) Which new states led the production of cotton, in what was called the "Black Belt"? A) Virginia and North Carolina B) Georgia and Tennessee C) Tennessee and Kentucky D) Alabama and Mississippi Answer: D 14) Which crop replaced tobacco as the main cash crop of Virginia and Maryland? A) cotton B) sugar cane C) potatoes D) wheat Answer: D 15) What was hemp used for? A) medicine and painkillers B) starting fires for iron production C) feeding cows D) rope and bagging for cotton bales Answer: D 16) Why did cotton farmers use so many slaves? A) Cotton farming involved very intensive, laborious care and cultivation. B) Cotton planting and culture was spread over an extensive area. C) Cotton farmers were in Alabama and Mississippi, where racism was strongest. D) Cotton farmers tended to be the wealthiest and hated to do manual labor. Answer: B 17) Examine the 1831 lithograph that portrays a demonstration of Cyrus McCormick’s automatic reaper. What is the relationship between the automatic reaper and the slaves depicted in the lithograph? A) Blacks appear eager and excited to use the machine. B) Blacks appear to be fleeing the agricultural field. C) Blacks appear to be ignoring the machine. D) Blacks appear to be attempting to destroy the machine. Answer: A 18) Examine Map 6-4. How does the history of cotton cultivation help explain southern black residency patterns in 1850? A) As cotton cultivation expanded to the Deep South, most of the laborers became African American. B) As cotton cultivation expanded to the Upper South, most of the laborers became free blacks. C) As cotton cultivation receded in the Deep South, slave numbers decreased in comparison to those of the white population. D) The domestic slave trade transferred slaves from the U.S. to Canada. Answer: A 19) Examine Map 6.4. Why did the Upper South contain many free blacks? A) Slaves in the Upper South were freed often by their masters. B) Free blacks in the Upper South were recruited by whites to process the massive cotton harvest. C) Free blacks concentrated in the Upper South to be closer to southern whites. D) Free blacks wanted to assist in the capture of escaped slaves in the Upper South. Answer: A 20) What does the pie chart in Map 6-3 reveal about the distribution of slave labor in the South in 1850? A) All slave labor was centered in the cotton sector. B) All slave labor was centered in the tobacco sector. C) Domestic work accounted for 10 percent of slave labor. D) Rice, sugar, and hemp labor accounted for 50 percent of slave labor. Answer: C 21) Why was it difficult to use advanced technology on cotton crops? A) Masters in the South could not afford it. B) Cotton ripened at varying times, and machines could not predict the timing. C) Masters wanted to keep their slaves busy, so they avoided the use of any time- saving equipment. D) African-American slaves refused to use machines to process cotton. Answer: B 22) In the nineteenth century, what percentage of slaves worked primarily as field hands? A) 5 percent B) 15 percent C) 50 percent D) 75 percent Answer: D 23) Which slave group had the highest status on the plantation? A) house servants B) skilled slaves C) the fastest worker in the field D) the women who bore children Answer: B 24) What was a primary advantage of being a skilled slave? A) Skilled slaves had authority and power over other slaves and could limit their punishment. B) Skilled slaves were often viewed by other slaves as religious leaders. C) It was possible for skilled slaves to experience a taste of independence through the use of their skills. D) It was easy for skilled slaves to buy their own freedom with the wages they earned. Answer: C 25) How was life different for slaves in the city than on the plantation? A) Skilled urban slaves could purchase their freedom more easily. B) There were generally very few slaves in the cities. C) There was less opportunity for a city slave to make money on his or her free time. D) There were more freed blacks in rural areas near plantations. Answer: A 26) Examine Map 6-4. How does the history of the domestic slave trade help explain southern black residency patterns in 1850? A) The domestic slave trade transferred slaves from the Deep South to the Upper South. B) The domestic slave trade transferred slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South. C) The domestic slave trade transferred slaves from western states to eastern states. D) The domestic slave trade transferred slaves from the U.S. to Canada. Answer: A 27) Examine the photograph of a woman holding a child that appears in Chapter 6. What aspect of enslaved black women’s lives is revealed by the photograph? A) their distant relationships with their white masters’ families B) their defiance of white authority C) their close association with white children D) their strong connections to their own black families Answer: C 28) Why did slaves prefer industrial labor to plantation work? A) They were paid steady high wages. B) There was less socialization with other slaves and free blacks. C) They had more autonomy on the job. D) They could enjoy the repetition of the work and not worry about advancement. Answer: C 29) Which of the following statements is true about punishment for slaves? A) Punishment has often been overestimated—most slaves were never physically punished in any way. B) Southern whites thought that blacks would not work unless they had the threat of physical punishment. C) Generally, women and children were exempt from the more vicious forms of physical punishment. D) Elderly slaves were often punished more harshly than younger adults. Answer: B 30) Examine the 1863 photograph of a former Louisiana slave that appears in Chapter 6. How are the scars on the man’s back connected to slavery? A) The scars were self-inflicted in a form of protest. B) The scars reveal a history of whipping by slave masters. C) The scars reveal abuse by black women and children of men. D) The scars resulted from poor weather conditions in the South. Answer: B 31) What percentage of slaves from the Upper South moved involuntarily toward the southwest as the cotton trade opened up? A) Less than five percent B) 50 percent C) 75 percent D) No statistics are available for the years between 1820 and 1860. Answer: B 32) What city served as a major slave market for slaves moving through the Southwest? A) New York B) St. Louis C) New Orleans D) Atlanta Answer: C 33) As cotton expanded as a cash crop, the slave trade ______________. A) became more humane, as owners wanted to keep slaves alive for work B) brought in more slaves from Africa to help meet the increased demand C) expanded south and west, with owners selling slaves to new cotton areas D) was reintroduced in the North to perform labor in the textile cotton factories Answer: C 34) Which of the following statements is true of slave marriages on plantations? A) Most masters refused to allow slaves to marry. B) Masters allowed pairings among male and female slaves. C) Couples never lived on the same plantation and never saw one another. D) Slaves ignored the marriage institution entirely. Answer: B 35) Examine the drawing of a slave coffle passing the Capitol that appears in Chapter 6. What aspect of the domestic slave trade does it depict? A) It shows women being beaten by slave masters on plantations as whites watch. B) It shows cotton growing in long rows as blacks of all ages pick the product. C) It shows blacks chained together carrying goods as whites watch and drive them. D) It shows a slave rebellion that includes men, women, and children attacking whites. Answer: C 36) Examine the woodcut of a slave sale that was published in The Child’s Anti- Slavery Book in 1860. How do historians know that this is an image of the domestic slave trade? A) It shows happy and contented slaves on a plantation while whites watch the scene. B) It shows urban slaves working in a variety of industries in a southern city. C) It shows skilled slaves working on agricultural machinery on a cotton plantation. D) It shows sorrowful slaves being separated while angry whites glare at them. Answer: D 37) Examine the engraving of blacks from about 1858 on the first page of the chapter. How do historians know that this is a photograph of a southern plantation? A) It shows enslaved women tending children for whites in an urban area. B) It shows skilled slaves working on the docks of a city waterfront. C) It shows slave families picking cotton while whites supervise them. D) It shows sorrowful slaves being separated while angry whites glare at them. Answer: C 38) Slaves’ diets in the period between 1820 and 1860 were ______________. A) equal to the diets of whites because they ate plenty of fresh vegetables B) poor by today's standards C) European in style because the master refused to let them cook D) similar to today's standards in nutrition but not in quantity of food Answer: B 39) Slave clothing was generally ______________. A) very beautiful, as slave women wove their own African-style cloth for their families to use B) plentiful, but often not very warm in colder regions of the South C) sparse, as they generally received clothing from the master only twice a year D) the same for all ages and genders of slaves Answer: C 40) African Americans were generally immune to what health problem that did affect Europeans? A) food poisoning B) lactose intolerance C) dysentery D) malaria Answer: D 41) What was unique about black slave population of the U.S. compared to other slave populations in the New World? A) Slaves in the U.S. created slave rebellions and conquered several states. B) Slaves in the U.S. were able to rise into elected office before the end of slavery. C) Slaves in the U.S. were the only slave population to grow by natural reproduction. D) Slaves in the U.S. were the only slave population to utilize the church for protection. Answer: C 42) Which of the following statements best characterizes slave childhood? A) Slave children were highly valued by the master and always well taken care of. B) Slave children rarely played with white children because the master would not allow it. C) Slave childhood was minimal and kids were doing adult work beginning between the ages of 8 and 12. D) Slave children generally could only rely on their own mother and father for help growing up. Answer: C 43) What reason did whites use to justify the sexual exploitation of black women? A) It helped white women remain sexually promiscuous. B) Black women were inherently disinterested in sexual expression. C) Black women were responsible, because they seduced the white men. D) Black women were better at producing strong babies when mixed with white men. Answer: C 44) Examine the 1810 painting Virginia Luxuries that appears in the textbook. What practices does the painting aim to expose and ridicule? A) Slave resistance is common on plantations and effective in eradicating slavery. B) Whites can routinely exploit blacks sexually and inflict violence upon them. C) Slavery in the U.S. provides a more enlightened lifestyle for blacks than in Africa. D) The federal government should continue the practice of slavery in the U.S. Answer: B 45) What cultural traditions did slaves incorporate into their Christian religious practices? A) African traditions B) Chinese traditions C) Russian traditions D) Australian traditions Answer: A 46) What was the importance of the folktales whose heroes are animal tricksters? A) They taught that sometimes the weaker but cleverer character wins. B) They demonstrated that slaves were adopting white culture over time. C) They helped children learn lessons of obedience and subservience to whites. D) Telling them enabled slaves to earn some money on "festival days." Answer: A 47) How did white masters apply the teachings of Christianity to their slaves? A) White masters to their slaves that blacks were to obey their masters just as they were to obey God. B) White masters refused to allow their slaves any access to Christianity. C) White masters emphasized Jesus's love for all mankind. D) They generally allowed slaves to practice Christianity in any way they pleased. Answer: A 48) What is the connection between slaves and Christianity in the painting of a plantation burial? A) Christianity has no role within slave culture and the lives of African Americans. B) Christianity is a vital and meaningful part of slave culture on plantations. C) Christianity is a tool used by whites to manipulate slave religion. D) Christianity is perverted by slaves into a practice that violates Christianity. Answer: B 49) Which historian argued in the 1910s that slavery was a generally benign institution where slaveholders cared for happy slaves? A) Kenneth Stampp B) Stanley Elkins C) Ulrich B. Phillips D) Eugene Genovese Answer: C 50) How is the painting of a plantation burial symbolic of a particular viewpoint or characterization of slavery? A) Blacks appear contented with slavery as an institution that benefitted them with Christianity and social support. B) Blacks appear angry and defiant about their enslavement and resist the system. C) Blacks appear to outsmart local whites as they manipulate the system to their advantage. D) Blacks appear to be destroyed by the slavery system that surrounds them. Answer: A True/False Questions 51) Map 6-2 analyzes different decades to indicate that cotton production increased over time in different regions in the history of the American South. Answer: True 52) Map 6-2 clearly indicates that slave populations decreased over time in different regions in the American South, and this decrease had no correlation to the expansion of cotton production over time. Answer: False 53) In Baltimore, during the early-nineteenth century, the concept of “term slavery” was gradually replacing slavery for life to meet the needs of slave workers. Answer: True 54) The concept of deliverance as portrayed in the Bible through the figure of Moses was a major point of importance for slave interpretations of Christianity. Answer: True 55) During the 1910s southern historian Ulrich B. Phillips portrayed slavery as a benign, paternalistic institution. Answer: True 56) Historians note that slaves in Latin American countries enjoyed more protection from abusive masters through the church than did slaves in the United States. Answer: True 57) Many slave masters never met their African-American slaves face to face. Answer: True 58) The mortality rate among Latin American slaves was far lower than for slaves in the U.S. Answer: False 59) More interracial marriage between slaves and masters occurred in the U.S. compared to Latin American societies. Answer: False 60) The concept of the concentration camp serves as a symbol for the institution of slavery, according to the argument of Stanley Elkins. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The expansion of the cotton culture led to the ______________ of the Native Americans who inhabited this vast region. Answer: removal 62) A difficult crop to produce, ______________ required a long growing season and careful cultivation. Answer: tobacco 63) Commercial production of ______________ did not begin in Louisiana until the 1790s. Answer: sugarcane 64) Demand for cotton fiber in the textile mills of ______________ and New England stimulated the westward spread of cotton cultivation. Answer: Britain 65) Agricultural technology in the ______________ ______________ was primitive compared to that in the Old Northwest. Answer: Cotton Kingdom 66) One of the reasons that slavery was called a “ ______________ ______________ ” was its use of punishments while masters emphasized the benign nature of human bondage. Answer: peculiar institution 67) Most victims of the slave trade moved by foot, usually chained or roped together, in groups called ______________. Answer: coffles 68) ______________ and circumstantial evidence indicate that Thomas Jefferson and his slave Sally Hemings had a long sexual relationship that produced four children who survived to adulthood. Answer: DNA 69) The core of the African American community was the concept of ______________. Answer: family 70) “Jumping the broom” was often a part of slave ______________ ceremonies. Answer: wedding Short-Answer Questions 71) What were some of the advantages and disadvantages of being a house servant? Answer: House servants in the 19th century often had steady employment and access to food and shelter. However, they had limited personal freedom, long work hours, and were subject to the whims of their employers, often facing mistreatment or dismissal without recourse. 72) How are the differences between slavery in cities and slavery on plantations related to the development of the southern economy between 1820 and 1860? Answer: Slavery in cities often involved domestic or skilled labor, contributing to urban economies through services and manufacturing. Plantation slavery, focused on agricultural production, fueled the booming cotton industry, which became the economic backbone of the South. These different forms of slavery supported distinct economic sectors, collectively driving the Southern economy's growth during this period. 73) Why did the slave trade change with the growth of cotton as a cash crop? Answer: The growth of cotton as a cash crop increased the demand for labor in the Southern United States. This demand was met through the expansion of the transatlantic slave trade, as more enslaved people were forcibly brought from Africa to work on cotton plantations. The profitability of cotton incentivized slave traders to increase their efforts to procure and transport enslaved individuals, leading to an expansion of the slave trade during this period. 74) How were the relationships between black husbands and wives symbolic of the challenges experienced by the black family under slavery? Answer: The relationships between black husbands and wives were often disrupted by slavery, as families were frequently separated through sale. This symbolized the broader challenges faced by black families under slavery, including the lack of legal recognition for marriages, the constant threat of separation, and the inability to protect or provide for loved ones due to the dehumanizing conditions of slavery. 75) Why would masters encourage families among their slaves? Answer: Masters might encourage families among their slaves to promote stability and productivity. Slave families could provide emotional support, which could help prevent rebellion or escape attempts. Additionally, slave children would increase the number of future laborers, benefiting the master's economic interests. Essay Questions 76) Examine Map 6-2. How do slave population numbers correspond to the use of cotton as an agricultural crop? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the increase in slave population numbers by decade: 1820, 1840, 1860 2. Explain that the increase of slave population took place in a particular region in the Deep South, the “Black Belt.” 3. Explain that the expansion of slavery by decade and location is directly related to the expansion of cotton in the fertile areas near rivers like the Mississippi River in the Deep South. Sample Answer: Map 6-2 likely shows a pattern where areas with higher slave populations also have higher cotton production. This correlation is due to the fact that cotton was a labor-intensive crop, and slaves were used extensively for the cultivation and harvesting of cotton in the southern United States. As a result, regions with large cotton plantations tended to have higher concentrations of slaves to meet the labor demands of cotton farming. This relationship underscores the historical link between slavery and the cotton economy in the antebellum South, where enslaved people were crucial to the profitability of cotton production. 77) Discuss the differences and similarities within the rice, tobacco, sugar, and cotton agricultural sectors during the first half of the 1800s. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define each agricultural sector in terms of export percentage, income production, and regional concentration. 2. Explain that the rice, cotton and sugar sectors required a great amount of labor and a greater intensity of labor than other sectors. 3. Describe the decline of tobacco and the expansion of cotton based on technological developments like the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. 4. Explain the connections between slavery and the expansion of sugar, cotton, and rice, but not tobacco, which was declining as an agricultural product. Sample Answer: During the first half of the 1800s, the agricultural sectors of rice, tobacco, sugar, and cotton in the United States shared similarities in their reliance on slave labor, as slavery was widespread in these industries. However, there were also notable differences in terms of cultivation practices, geographic distribution, and economic impact. One similarity among these sectors was their heavy dependence on slave labor. Enslaved Africans and African Americans were the primary source of labor in these industries, particularly in the southern states where these crops were grown. The use of slaves was integral to the profitability of these crops, as their labor was used for planting, cultivating, and harvesting. In terms of cultivation practices, each crop had its own unique requirements. Rice cultivation, for example, required the use of flooded fields, known as rice paddies, to grow. This method was labor-intensive and required skilled laborers, making it well-suited to slave labor. Tobacco, on the other hand, was grown in fields that were initially cleared of trees and then planted with tobacco plants. Sugar cultivation involved the planting of sugar cane, which required a significant amount of manual labor, especially during harvest. Cotton cultivation involved clearing land, planting cotton seeds, and then harvesting the cotton bolls when they were ripe. Geographically, these crops were grown in different regions of the United States. Rice was primarily grown in the low-lying coastal regions of South Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana. Tobacco was grown in Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Sugar was mainly grown in Louisiana and parts of Florida. Cotton, while initially grown along the eastern seaboard, became more concentrated in the Deep South, particularly in states like Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Economically, these crops played significant roles in the southern economy. Cotton, in particular, became known as "King Cotton" due to its economic importance. It was a major cash crop that drove the southern economy and was also a key driver of the transatlantic slave trade. Sugar and tobacco were also important cash crops, with sugar being particularly lucrative but requiring substantial investment in infrastructure such as sugar mills. Rice was not as profitable as cotton or sugar but was still an important crop in the southern economy. In conclusion, while rice, tobacco, sugar, and cotton were all important agricultural sectors in the first half of the 1800s in the United States, they had distinct differences in cultivation practices, geographic distribution, and economic impact. However, they all shared a common reliance on slave labor, highlighting the centrality of slavery to the southern economy during this period. 78) Most white southerners saw slavery as a benign institution. What evidence surfaces from the domestic slave trade that shows this conclusion is false? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define southern white interpretations of slavery as positive for blacks in terms of support, Christian teachings, and benefits from close association to white Americans. 2. Define the domestic slave trade as a system that transferred one million slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South in the early 1800s. 3. Outline the evidence for the trade as harmful: breaking up of families and marriages; families could not stay connected across time and space. Sample Answer: The notion that most white southerners saw slavery as a benign institution is a misconception that is contradicted by evidence from the domestic slave trade. The domestic slave trade refers to the buying, selling, and transporting of enslaved people within the United States, primarily from the Upper South to the Deep South. One piece of evidence that challenges the idea of slavery being seen as benign is the harsh realities of the domestic slave trade itself. Enslaved people were often separated from their families and loved ones, as they were sold to different owners in distant locations. This practice caused immense emotional trauma and suffering for enslaved families, disproving the notion that slavery was viewed as a benevolent institution by most white southerners. Another piece of evidence is the economic motivations behind the domestic slave trade. The demand for enslaved labor in the Deep South, particularly for cotton cultivation, led to a thriving market for buying and selling enslaved people. This economic incentive to profit from the sale of human beings contradicts the idea that slavery was seen as benign. Additionally, the brutal treatment of enslaved people during the domestic slave trade undermines the notion of slavery being viewed as benign. Enslaved people were often subjected to harsh conditions during transport, with many enduring long journeys on foot or by boat in cramped and unsanitary conditions. This treatment highlights the dehumanizing nature of slavery and the disregard for the well-being of enslaved individuals. Furthermore, the laws and regulations governing the domestic slave trade demonstrate the systemic nature of slavery's brutality. Slave codes and regulations enforced strict control over enslaved people, denying them basic rights and subjecting them to harsh punishment for disobedience or attempts to escape. These laws reflect a society that did not view enslaved people as equals or deserving of humane treatment. In conclusion, evidence from the domestic slave trade contradicts the notion that most white southerners saw slavery as a benign institution. The harsh realities of the slave trade, including the separation of families, economic motivations, brutal treatment of enslaved people, and systemic dehumanization, all point to a society in which slavery was deeply entrenched and far from benevolent. 79) How did black children experience enslavement? How were their lives and work different on a small plantation versus a large one? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain the cost and benefit analysis for masters regarding black slave children: they performed limited labor and did not receive many resources. 2. Define the limited odd jobs and daily light labor expected of black children. 3. Explain the increased labor expected of young adult slaves as they assimilated to adult work regimes. 4. Outline how on larger plantations nuclear households remained relatively intact, children had one or more parents with them, African culture was strong, and fictive kinship flourished. 5. Outline how on smaller plantations children experienced less contact with other blacks, closer association with white master’s family, less African cultural influence, greater assimilation to white society, and less opportunity for resistance and escape. Sample Answer: Black children experienced enslavement in ways that were profoundly shaped by the institution of slavery. Their lives and work differed based on whether they lived on a small plantation versus a large one. On both small and large plantations, enslaved black children were considered the property of their owners and had no legal rights. They were often separated from their parents at a young age due to the domestic slave trade or because their parents were hired out to work on other plantations. This separation caused immense psychological trauma and disrupted the formation of stable family units. On small plantations, black children may have had slightly better living conditions and more personal interaction with their owners. They might have been assigned lighter tasks such as tending gardens, caring for animals, or household chores. However, they were still subject to harsh discipline and the whims of their owners. On large plantations, black children were often part of a larger community of enslaved people, which could provide some sense of support and belonging. However, they were also more likely to be subjected to harsher labor conditions and stricter discipline. They might have been assigned to work in the fields at a younger age and expected to perform physically demanding tasks. In terms of education, enslaved black children on both small and large plantations were typically denied access to formal schooling. Some owners might have allowed enslaved children to learn basic reading and writing skills, but this was rare and often done for the benefit of the owner rather than the child. Overall, the experiences of black children in slavery were marked by exploitation, deprivation, and the denial of basic human rights. Their lives and work were shaped by the brutal realities of slavery, regardless of whether they lived on a small or large plantation. 80) What interpretations have historians employed to describe the conditions of slaves and the general character of slavery? Why nave historians exhibited these differences of interpretation over time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the various interpretations of slavery based on Phillips (slavery was benign and blacks were docile), Elkins (slavery was dehumanizing like a concentration camp and blacks became dependent), Genovese (slavery was paternalistic but blacks were active), and modern interpretations (slavery was a challenging institution that blacks resisted and survived by building institutions). 2. Explain how these interpretations have changed over time and why. 3. Describe the current interpretation of slavery: slavery was challenging but the black family was resilient and created survival and resistance strategies. Sample Answer: Historians have employed various interpretations to describe the conditions of slaves and the general character of slavery, reflecting the complexity of this historical phenomenon. These interpretations have evolved over time, influenced by changing historical perspectives and methodologies. One interpretation describes slavery as a harsh and dehumanizing institution, characterized by brutal labor conditions, physical punishment, and the systematic denial of basic human rights. This interpretation highlights the experiences of enslaved people as victims of oppression and exploitation, focusing on their resilience and resistance in the face of adversity. Another interpretation emphasizes the agency and resilience of enslaved people, highlighting their efforts to maintain cultural traditions, form kinship networks, and resist their enslavement in various ways. This interpretation seeks to portray enslaved people as active agents in shaping their own destinies, challenging the traditional view of slaves as passive victims. Historians have exhibited differences of interpretation over time due to several factors. One factor is the influence of contemporary social and political contexts, which shape historians' perspectives and priorities. For example, historians writing during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s tended to emphasize the agency and resistance of enslaved people, reflecting the era's focus on civil rights and empowerment. Another factor is the availability of new evidence and sources, which can lead to revisions of previous interpretations. For example, the emergence of slave narratives and other firsthand accounts has provided new insights into the experiences of enslaved people, leading to a more nuanced understanding of slavery. Additionally, changes in historical methodologies and approaches have influenced interpretations of slavery. Historians have become more attuned to issues of race, gender, and power dynamics, leading to more complex and nuanced analyses of slavery and its impact on different groups of people. In conclusion, historians have employed various interpretations to describe the conditions of slaves and the general character of slavery, reflecting the complexity of this historical phenomenon. These interpretations have evolved over time, influenced by changing historical perspectives, the availability of new evidence, and shifts in historical methodologies. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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