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This Document Contains Chapters 11 to 12 Chapter 11: Liberation: African Americans and the Civil War Multiple Choice Questions 1) What was Lincoln's initial aim regarding the Civil War when it began in 1861? A) to free the slaves and allow the nation to separate peacefully B) to preserve the Union without ending slavery C) to preserve the Union and free the slaves D) Lincoln was completely surprised by the South's secession; he had no initial aims Answer: B 2) Consider the excerpt of Paul Lawrence Dunbar’s 1895 poem “The Colored Soldiers” that appears at the beginning of Chapter 11. How is the poem reflective of black efforts for the Union during the Civil War? A) The poem chastises black men for not doing enough during the war since blacks played a minimal role in the conflict B) The poem condemns black men for fighting for the Confederacy, as most blacks did in the war C) The poem celebrates the courage of black men to fight for freedom and democracy, as many did during the war D) The poem largely ignores black men since blacks largely avoided the Civil War. Answer: C 3) What did the First Confiscation Act of 1861 accomplish? A) It allowed the North to seize any property that belonged to Confederates used in the war effort. B) It allowed the South to confiscate blacks in service to the Union. C) It allowed the North to confiscate all slaves in all areas of the Confederacy. D) It allowed both sides to confiscate the land of their enemies. Answer: A 4) How did Lincoln react to the actions of generals John C. Fremont and David Hunter, who ordered all slaves in their areas freed under the First Confiscation Act? A) He generally ignored their actions. B) He immediately countermanded their orders and told them to follow the law. C) He officially approved of their actions, sending them medals for their efforts. D) He privately approved, but required them to return slaves to their masters. Answer: B 5) How were black volunteers greeted by the United States government in 1861? A) The government eagerly integrated its military and allowed blacks to serve immediately. B) The government accepted the early volunteers but only with great reluctance. C) The government immediately sent them into the South to serve as unofficial spies. D) The government refused to enlist them. Answer: D 6) How were the requests made by free black men in Philadelphia to the federal government in 1861 reflective of black attitudes at the start of the Civil War? A) Blacks petitioned the government to form a new colony of African Americans in Canada as an example of black initiative. B) Blacks wanted to form a segregated army unit with lower pay until they could prove themselves fit for full equality with whites, reflecting their desire for gradual emancipation. C) Blacks wanted to form a mission in Liberia to minister to Africans now that slavery would soon end in the U.S., indicating their continued belief in colonization. D) Black men volunteered to infiltrate the South and burn plantations because they realized that the future of slavery was tied to the outcome of the war. Answer: D 7) How is the First Confiscation Act of 1861 symbolic of the direction of congressional policies at the start of the Civil War? A) The act stipulated that all slaves were now free in the South and could enter the Union army. B) The act held that only slaves in the Border States were now free and could enter the Union army. C) The act specified that only slaves who benefitted the Confederate war effort would be freed when captured. D) The act provided that slaves of Confederate military officials were now free. Answer: C 8) How is Lincoln’s attitude towards the Border States related to his approach to the Civil War? A) He wanted to immediately invade the Border States and subdue them military before they joined the Confederacy. B) He wanted to immediately free all of the slaves in the Border States to intimidate all southern whites into abiding by federal law. C) He ignored the Border States during the entire war because the real fight was in the Deep South. D) He wanted to ban slavery in the Border States with slave owner approval and persuade the states to remain in the Union Answer: D 9) Examine the photograph of African-American troops who served as teamsters in for the Union army in Virginia. What aspect of the photograph indicates that the teamsters are part of the Union Army? A) They stand in front of the camera. B) They are all black men. C) They have wagons behind them. D) They wear Union Army hats and uniforms. Answer: D 10) How did black interpretations of the war and its connection to slavery compare to white northerner sentiment on the same subject? A) Blacks did not see the war as necessary to wage compared to northern whites. B) Blacks failed to understand the profound connections between the war and the expansion of slavery while northern whites quickly understood it. C) Blacks rejected Lincoln’s use of force against southern white resistance to federal law while northern whites eagerly embraced it. D) Blacks compared to northern whites understood early in the war that the fate of slavery was connected to the war’s outcome. Answer: D 11) What did Abraham Lincoln initially think was the appropriate long-term solution to slavery? A) Lincoln thought that slaves should be freed immediately, without compensation. B) Lincoln thought no slaves should be freed, since that would damage property rights. C) Lincoln wanted to compensate masters for their slaves and then send the slaves out of the United States. D) Lincoln believed that slaves should be moved to the West, so that they could be used in building railroads. Answer: C 12) What were the terms of the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation? A) It would keep blacks in slavery in areas under rebellion on January 1, 1863. B) It gave the Confederacy until January 1, 1863, to come back into the Union. C) If the Confederacy returned to the Union by January 1, 1865, they could keep their slaves. D) It allowed slaves to leave the country to obtain their freedom if they wished. Answer: B 13) What did the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation accomplish in 1862? A) It freed all the slaves in the United States. B) It freed no one during that year at all. C) It appeased white southerners. D) It freed some slaves in 1862, immediately after it was issued, and the rest in 1863. Answer: B 14) How did antislavery advocates react to Lincoln's plan to abolish slavery by compensating owners? A) They preferred immediate abolition but thought his idea was a good compromise because it would free the slaves. B) They approved of his idea because they had forced him to act in their favor. C) They were never informed of the idea and therefore had little reaction. D) They were against the idea because it recognized slaves as property, rather than as human beings. Answer: D 15) How did Lincoln’s plan of compensated emancipation and colonization affect many white Americans’ view of the war? A) They felt that Lincoln was using this plan to provide black soldiers for the Union army. B) White abolitionists thought the plan would bring about a Union victory. C) Most of them, including an increasing number of Democrats, became convinced of the justness of the war. D) They realized the war would be linked to the issue of slavery. Answer: D 16) Why did Lincoln decide to postpone his July 1862 decision to emancipate the slaves? A) He was considering changing his mind and allowing the South to keep their slaves. B) His cabinet told him to wait for a victory so that the decision would not appear desperate. C) His racist wife and cabinet were attempting to change his mind about emancipation of southern slaves. D) He wanted to wait until Great Britain entered the war on the side of the Union. Answer: B 17) What is the message of the painting that depicts President Lincoln with a black family in front of the White House? A) that Lincoln is a racist B) that Lincoln wanted to continue slavery C) that Lincoln was sympathetic to blacks D) that Lincoln wanted to surrender the armed forces of the United States Answer: C 18) Why did Lincoln decide to postpone his July 1862 decision to emancipate the slaves? A) He was considering changing his mind and allowing the South to keep their slaves. B) His cabinet told him to wait for a victory so that the decision would not appear desperate. C) His racist wife and cabinet were attempting to change his mind about emancipation of southern slaves. D) He wanted to wait until Great Britain entered the war on the side of the Union. Answer: B 19) Other than outright racism, why did many white working-class people oppose the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation? A) They feared that it would lead to social and political rights for blacks. B) They feared that blacks would rush into the North and compete with them for jobs. C) All northerners actually approved of the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. D) They thought that it would make southerners act more harshly toward their slaves. Answer: B 20) How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the nature of the war? A) It became a war to free the slaves, giving the North a moral advantage. B) The South realized it was futile to continue and surrendered their armed forces. C) The North began to rebel against Lincoln as well. D) The Emancipation Proclamation had no real effect on the war itself. Answer: A 21) How did the Emancipation Proclamation impact the South? A) It caused fewer slaves to run away from their masters, as they knew they would soon have complete equality with whites. B) It destroyed any chance that Britain or France would offer diplomatic recognition to the Confederate government. C) It caused slave owners to improve working conditions on the plantations so slaves would not leave even after they gained their freedom. D) It strengthened the South's ability to fight the war. Answer: B 22) Examine Map 11-1. In addition to the border states, what area did the Emancipation Proclamation affect? A) Texas B) the western part of Virginia C) most of California D) most of Oregon Answer: A 23) Examine the image of the Emancipation Proclamation that appears in Chapter 11. Why are American flags and other symbols of the U.S. surrounding the document? A) to call attention to the treasonous actions of President Lincoln during the war B) to celebrate the southern causes of fighting the war C) to reject the contributions of blacks to the Union war effort D) to celebrate the contributions of President Lincoln for democracy and justice Answer: D 24) Who commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, the main Confederate Army? A) Robert E. Lee B) Ulysses S. Grant C) Abraham Lincoln D) John C. Fremont Answer: A 25) What eventually happened to the First South Carolina Volunteers? A) They were mostly disbanded at the start of the war but were later regrouped and inducted into the U.S. Army. B) They won the assault on Fort Wagner for the North and received medals of honor from the federal government. C) They were all killed in the Battle of Bull Run. D) They mutinied, protesting against poor treatment in the military. Answer: A 26) What radical idea did Thomas Higginson hold as commander of the First South Carolina Volunteers? A) He wanted to destroy southern blacks for helping the Confederacy. B) He thought that blacks should be sent to Africa rather than stay in the United States. C) He not only wanted to abolish slavery but to show that blacks and whites were equal. D) He wanted to join southern forces to fight for the continued enslavement of blacks. Answer: C 27) What was "the crater" in Petersburg, Virginia? A) a prison for black soldiers B) a hiding place for slaves waiting for Union help C) a large hole in the ground from an explosion, part of an unsuccessful effort by the Union to win a battle over the Confederates D) a huge impression made by a falling meteorite, seen by Confederate troops as an omen against the Union’s attempt to free the slaves Answer: C 28) Which of the following statements is true about black military service during the Civil War? A) Occasionally, black men served in integrated units in the army. B) White officers were often ready to command black troops because they received more pay to do so. C) Black soldiers were paid less because whites thought they would be used only for menial work. D) Blacks were used only as combat troops, since that was more dangerous. Answer: C 29) How did the men of the 54th Massachusetts protest race discrimination? A) They went on a hunger strike to protest unequal treatment. B) They had the first sit-in, at the White House, and were arrested. C) They said they would accept no pay unless it was equal to white men's pay. D) The 54th Massachusetts men made no protest against race discrimination. Answer: C 30) What was one result of the assault on Battery Wagner in July of 1863? A) The black soldiers fought but ran away when they heard the cannons. B) The first black man received the Congressional Medal of Honor. C) The Union won the battle. D) The assault ended before it began, as the Union forces discovered a spy in their midst. Answer: B 31) Why did the federal government photograph Jackson, a slave boy, in two images, and stand them side by side? A) to emphasize the physically small stature of black troops as a result of slavery B) to justify the continuation of slavery C) to inspire white troops to continue fighting D) to serve as propaganda to enlist more blacks Answer: D 32) What theme is the artist providing in the painting of the Union assault in 1862 on Battery Wagner in Charleston harbor? A) that black troops were cowards and refused to fight against the Confederacy B) that white officers were inept and poor military leaders C) that the Confederacy would win the battle and the war D) that black troops and their white officers were courageous and sacrificial Answer: D 33) How might northern whites have interpreted the photograph of black Union soldiers “poised with their rifles” firing on the opposition? A) that blacks were physically and mentally weak B) that blacks were traitors C) that blacks were cowards and malingerers D) that blacks were fit for military service Answer: D 34) How was the 54th Massachusetts different from the South Carolina regiments? A) The 54th was commanded by a black man. B) The 54th was composed mainly of free blacks, rather than slaves. C) The 54th included only black men from Massachusetts. D) Because work for the 54th was so dangerous, they received more pay than the average white soldier. Answer: B 35) What was General Order 11? A) an order issued by Grant, freeing all slaves in South Carolina B) an order issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in the United States C) an order issued by Lincoln, threatening retaliation for the mistreatment of black soldiers by Confederate forces D) an order issued by Lee, threatening to kill all black prisoners of war held by the South Answer: C 36) How do blacks and whites interact in the image of the Confederate assault on Fort Pillow? A) Black soldiers attack white civilians and attempt to massacre them. B) Black civilians assist black troops in executing white Confederate troops who are attempting to surrender their weapons. C) Both groups are peacefully setting aside their political differences in order to stop the war. D) White Confederate troops massacre innocent blacks and defenseless black and white Union troops. Answer: D 37) How are black women portrayed in the image of the Confederate assault on Fort Pillow? A) as accomplices to the murder of Confederate troops B) as accomplices to the murder of Union white and black troops C) as completely passive actors in the event D) as victims and resistors of the white Confederate attack Answer: D 38) How did southerners react to black troops fighting for the Union? A) They generally refused to recognize them as prisoners of war and instead attempted to treat them like escaped slaves. B) They treated them as they did the other white Union prisoners, infuriating Lincoln, who wanted the prisoners kept separate. C) They attempted to persuade them to become slaves and fight for the Confederate cause. D) They immediately hanged every black soldier they caught. Answer: A 39) How were the experiences of blacks in the Union navy atypical of black military service in general during the Civil War? A) Blacks were denied service in the Union navy. B) Blacks were allowed to be officers in the Union navy. C) Backs in the navy received higher pay than blacks in the army. D) Blacks served on integrated ships. Answer: D 40) How were the experiences of blacks in the Union navy typical of black military service in general during the Civil War? A) They were allowed to become officers. B) They received many official commendations for bravery. C) They suffered exploitation and were paid less than whites. D) They served in integrated units. Answer: C 41) What was the relationship between black women and Union military during the Civil War? A) The Union ignored entirely the interest of black women in contributing to the war effort. B) Black women served as cooks and nurses but did nothing behind enemy lines in the South. C) Black women served as spies, liberators, and guides for the Union and other blacks. D) Black women helped the Union as slaves but not as free women. Answer: C 42) Which of the following statements is true about black service in the Navy? A) Blacks in the navy rarely performed menial tasks, and they frequently received promotions to officer status. B) Blacks had a tradition of continuously serving in the navy in substantial numbers. C) Blacks in the army suffered from less discrimination than in the navy. D) Blacks in the navy served for long periods of time on land during the war. Answer: B 43) What did Harriet Tubman and Mary Elizabeth Bowser share in common about their activities during the Civil War? A) Both women led helpful spying efforts for the Union. B) Both women were influential writers for the Union cause. C) Both women supported the Confederacy. D) Both women were early women's rights activists. Answer: A 44) What happened during the New York City Draft Riot of 1863? A) New Yorkers, angry about the mistreatment of slaves, amassed to join the army. B) Working-class Irishmen, angry over suspected black attempts to take jobs, rioted against blacks and the government. C) After police beat and arrested several prominent blacks, the black community responded with violence and destruction of the city. D) Southerners infiltrated New York and began the draft riot to confuse northern troops. Answer: B 45) How did the Union treat southern blacks during the war? A) Union soldiers were always more humane than southern soldiers toward blacks. B) Union soldiers refused to accept blacks into their care. C) Union soldiers circulated rumors of black threats of violence and arson, justifying placing them under arrest. D) Like urban whites, Union soldiers often engaged in acts of enormous brutality, including rape and murder. Answer: D 46) What is the connection between the labor movement and the New York City Draft riots of 1863? A) The Irish and African-American working class served in the same unions and fought against the federal government together during the riots. B) African Americans would not allow the Irish into their unions, starting the riot. C) The Irish wanted blacks to join their union but blacks refused, sparking the riot. D) Black stevedores had replaced striking Irish stevedores, angering the Irish. Answer: D 47) Which event prompted Confederate military leaders to consider enlisting black men? A) the possibility of gaining British aid or recognition B) ineffective Union military efforts, especially the naval blockade C) terrible losses of manpower at several battles D) President Jefferson Davis’s proclamation stating that blacks were equal to whites Answer: C 48) What policy did General Patrick Cleburne recommend? A) putting all slaves in prison until after the war B) freeing slaves for their military service, if they were loyal to the Confederacy C) surrendering to the North in exchange for keeping their slaves D) the wholesale slaughter of black soldiers and runaway slaves Answer: B 49) What did Robert E. Lee think about enlisting blacks in the military? A) He thought that it was a very poor idea because no slave would support the Confederacy. B) He refused to hear any arguments about it. C) He favored it because as slaves, blacks were accustomed to obedience and discipline. D) No southerner ever thought about enlisting blacks in the military. Answer: C 50) What main agricultural product were black slaves expected to cultivate to contribute to the southern war machine? A) hemp B) tobacco C) flax D) cotton Answer: D True/False Questions 51) At the start of the war, General Winfield Scott, the Union army’s chief of staff, lobbied to allow Confederate slave owners to recover slaves who crossed the Potomac River. Answer: True 52) On May 9, 1862, General David Hunter ordered slavery abolished in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Answer: True 53) Black people recognized long before most white northerners that the fate of the Union was inextricably tied to the issue of slavery. Answer: True 54) Ulysses S. Grant served as the influential editor of the New York Tribune during the Civil War. Answer: False 55) In 1863 the government tried to settle 453 black American colonists at Ile à Vache, an island near Haiti. Answer: True 56) To many white Americans, Lincoln’s support for compensated emancipation and colonization was a misguided attempt to link the war to the issue of slavery. Answer: True 57) The Emancipation Proclamation increased the chance that Britain or France would offer diplomatic recognition to the Confederate government. Answer: False 58) Without emancipation, the United States would not have survived as a unified nation. Answer: True 59) The battle at Honey Springs in Indian Territory in 1863 is an example of the unsuccessful use of black men in the Union army during the Civil War. Answer: False 60) The disastrous events surrounding the event known as “the crater” illustrate the hesitancy of Union commanders to commit black troops to combat. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The concept of slaves as “______________,” or “enemy property,” was first implemented during the war by Benjamin Butler. Answer: contraband 62) The Union’s indecisive victory at ______________ preceded Lincoln’s issuing the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Answer: Antietam 63) The black rejection of ______________ during the war exemplifies the full-blown American identity felt by African Americans during the Civil War era. Answer: colonization 64) The ______________ 54th regiment was involved in the assault on Battery Wagner in July of 1863. Answer: Massachusetts 65) The unofficial black think tank, known as the ______________ ______________, consisted of Frederick Douglass, Martin Delany, James Redmond, and Henry Highland Garnet. Answer: Black Committee 66) Nathan Bedford ______________ was the Confederate officer in charge of the Fort Pillow massacre. Answer: Forrest 67) The escaped slave ______________ is an example of a black woman who worked as a Union spy during the Civil War. Answer: Harriet Tubman 68) The battle of ______________ in Pennsylvania in 1863 was a turning point in the war. Answer: Gettysburg 69) The Confederacy relied upon the policy of ______________ to obtain slaves for military work purposes. Answer: impressment 70) The concept of ______________ black men by the end of the war became a policy favored by southern newspapers but never fully implemented by the Confederacy. Answer: arming Short Answer Questions 71) What was Lincoln's aim during the early stages of the war? Why did he create specific wartime policies? Answer: During the early stages of the Civil War, Lincoln's aim was to preserve the Union and prevent the Southern states from seceding. He created specific wartime policies, such as the Emancipation Proclamation, to weaken the Confederacy by undermining its economy and military strength, while also addressing the issue of slavery. 72) How and why did Lincoln's views toward emancipation change over time? Answer: Lincoln's views toward emancipation evolved over time due to various factors. Initially, he prioritized preserving the Union over abolishing slavery. However, as the war progressed and the moral and strategic advantages of emancipation became apparent, Lincoln began to see it as a crucial step toward ending the conflict and achieving long-term peace and justice. 73) How and why did black reaction to Lincoln change over time? Answer: Black reaction to Lincoln changed over time due to his evolving stance on emancipation and civil rights. Initially, many blacks viewed Lincoln with skepticism, as his primary focus was on preserving the Union rather than ending slavery. However, as Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and advocated for the passage of the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery, his reputation among blacks improved, and he became seen as a champion of freedom and equality. 74) Why did the North decide to enlist black men to fight for the Union? Answer: The North decided to enlist black men to fight for the Union for several reasons. Firstly, as the war dragged on, there was a need for more manpower. Secondly, enlisting black men helped to undermine the Confederacy's labor force, as many slaves were forced to work for the Southern war effort. Additionally, allowing blacks to fight was a step towards emancipation and equal rights, aligning with the Union's evolving war aims. 75) What types of reactions did the South have to black soldiers fighting for the Union? Why did the South react in particular ways to black troops? Answer: The South had varied reactions to black soldiers fighting for the Union. Initially, they refused to recognize black soldiers as legitimate combatants and threatened to enslave or execute captured black troops. However, as the war progressed and the Union gained momentum, the South began to fear the effectiveness of black troops and implemented harsher measures against them, such as denying them quarter if captured. Essay Questions 76) How did generals Fremont and Hunter interpret the First Confiscation Act? How did Lincoln? Why was there a difference? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Identify Generals Fremont and Hunter. 2. Outline the First Confiscation Act. 3. Explain that both generals freed slaves in areas under their control because they interpreted the act as a liberating measure for slaves. 4. Lincoln countermanded their orders because he feared antagonizing the Border States who held slaves and could join the Confederacy. 5. Conclude that the difference stemmed from matters of political necessity and war strategy, as well as the abolitionist leanings of the two generals. Sample Answer: General John C. Fremont and General David Hunter interpreted the First Confiscation Act of 1861 as authorization to confiscate the property, including slaves, of Confederate supporters in the areas they commanded. Fremont, in particular, issued a proclamation in Missouri declaring martial law and emancipating the slaves of Confederate sympathizers. Hunter similarly issued orders emancipating slaves in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina under his command. President Abraham Lincoln, however, had a different interpretation of the First Confiscation Act. While he supported the confiscation of property used to support the Confederate war effort, he believed that emancipation of slaves should be a policy decision made by the federal government, not a military commander. Lincoln feared that premature emancipation could push border states like Kentucky and Missouri into the Confederacy and alienate Northern Democrats who were crucial to maintaining support for the war effort. The difference in interpretation between the generals and Lincoln can be attributed to their differing perspectives and priorities. Fremont and Hunter, as military commanders, may have seen emancipation as a way to weaken the Confederate war effort and hasten the end of the conflict. Lincoln, on the other hand, was focused on preserving the Union and was cautious about taking actions that could jeopardize the loyalty of border states or Northern Democrats. 77) What were the limits of the Emancipation Proclamation as finally signed? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Emancipation Proclamation and its terms. 2. Outline the limitations: emancipated slaves only in area still in rebellion and not in four borders states still in the Union, or areas of Confederate states the Union had already occupied. 3. Point out that thousands of blacks remained in slavery within the Union despite the act. 4. Conclude that the act was a war measure and a step towards full emancipation at the end of the war. Sample Answer: The Emancipation Proclamation, as signed by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, had several key limitations: 1. It only applied to states that were in rebellion against the United States. This meant that it did not apply to the border states that had remained loyal to the Union, such as Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and Missouri. In these states, slavery was not abolished by the Proclamation. 2. It did not immediately free all slaves in the states to which it applied. The Proclamation only declared the slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be "forever free" as of January 1, 1863. In practice, this meant that the Emancipation Proclamation had to be enforced as Union forces advanced and occupied Confederate territory. 3. It did not abolish slavery in areas already under Union control. Slaves in Union-held territories, including the border states and parts of the Confederacy that had been captured by Union forces, were not affected by the Emancipation Proclamation. 4. It did not grant immediate citizenship or full rights to freed slaves. While the Proclamation declared slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be free, it did not automatically grant them citizenship or full rights under the law. The process of emancipation and granting full rights to freed slaves would continue after the Civil War through the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Overall, while the Emancipation Proclamation was a significant step towards the abolition of slavery in the United States, its limitations meant that it did not immediately free all slaves or grant them full rights and citizenship. Its impact was primarily symbolic and strategic, as it changed the nature of the Civil War by making abolition a central goal of the Union war effort and encouraging enslaved people to seek freedom behind Union lines. 78) What types of discrimination did blacks face in the Union military? How were their conditions different compared to whites' conditions? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define military as both navy and army. 2. Army: segregated units, no chance to become officers, less pay than whites, less combat training compared to whites, more dangerous assignments compared to whites, lack of easy combat assignments compared to whites. 3. Navy: less pay than whites, no chance to become officers, lower-level assignments compared to whites. 4. Conclude that both experiences entailed similarities but key differences. Sample Answer: Blacks in the Union military faced various forms of discrimination, despite their crucial role in the war effort. Some of the types of discrimination they faced include: 1. Segregation: Black soldiers were often segregated from white soldiers in separate units, camps, and facilities. They were generally not allowed to serve in the same units as white soldiers, except in rare cases. 2. Lower Pay: Black soldiers were paid less than white soldiers. While both black and white Union soldiers were initially paid $13 per month, black soldiers received only $10 after a Congressional act in 1864. 3. Limited Opportunities for Promotion: Black soldiers were often denied opportunities for promotion and advancement within the military hierarchy. Many black soldiers served in non-combat roles or were given lower-ranking positions compared to white soldiers with similar abilities and experience. 4. Discriminatory Treatment: Black soldiers were sometimes subjected to discriminatory treatment by their white counterparts and officers. They faced insults, abuse, and unequal treatment in various aspects of military life. 5. Poor Living Conditions: Black soldiers often had to endure poor living conditions in segregated camps. They were sometimes given inadequate supplies, equipment, and medical care compared to white soldiers. Despite these challenges, black soldiers made significant contributions to the Union war effort and played a crucial role in securing victory for the Union. They demonstrated bravery, skill, and determination on the battlefield, earning the respect of many white soldiers and officers. The conditions faced by black soldiers were different from those of white soldiers, who generally did not face the same levels of discrimination and segregation within the Union military. White soldiers were more likely to receive higher pay, better opportunities for promotion, and improved living conditions compared to black soldiers. 79) In addition to fighting, what other roles did blacks take on during the war? What does this tell us about the challenges experienced by blacks during the war? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define non-combat roles: liberators, spies, guides, and that many black women combined all three roles. 2. Define slave vs. free contributions: free black women were often nurses; enslaved black women were more often the spies and the guides for the Union. 3. Outline liberators: black women like Harriet Tubman and the details of her role as liberator, spy, and guide. 4. The non-combat roles reveal the challenges of poverty, slavery, racial and gender discrimination, and the lack of literacy. Sample Answer: During the Civil War, in addition to fighting, blacks took on various roles that were crucial to the Union war effort. These roles included: 1. Laborers and Servants: Many blacks served as laborers and servants for the Union army, performing tasks such as cooking, cleaning, and building fortifications. They also served as teamsters, driving wagons and transporting supplies. 2. Spies and Scouts: Some blacks served as spies and scouts for the Union army, gathering intelligence on Confederate forces and providing valuable information to Union commanders. 3. Guides and Scouts: Black guides and scouts played a crucial role in leading Union troops through unfamiliar terrain, particularly in the South where local knowledge was essential. 4. Civilians in Occupied Areas: In areas occupied by Union forces, blacks often served as civilians, providing essential services to the army and local communities. 5. Recruiters: Blacks also served as recruiters, encouraging other African Americans to join the Union army and fight for freedom. These roles demonstrate the diverse contributions that blacks made to the Union war effort. They highlight the challenges experienced by blacks during the war, including: 1. Limited Opportunities: Despite their willingness to serve and their valuable contributions, blacks were often given limited opportunities for advancement and recognition within the military hierarchy. 2. Discrimination and Segregation: Blacks faced discrimination and segregation in various aspects of military life, including unequal pay, limited opportunities for promotion, and segregated living conditions. 3. Risk of Capture and Retaliation: Blacks who served as spies, scouts, and guides faced the additional risk of capture and retaliation by Confederate forces, as well as potential violence from local civilians sympathetic to the Confederacy. Overall, the diverse roles taken on by blacks during the Civil War highlight the challenges they faced and the resilience and determination they showed in the face of adversity. Despite these challenges, blacks made significant contributions to the Union war effort and played a crucial role in securing victory for the Union. 80) What policy did General Patrick Cleburne recommend regarding blacks in the Confederacy? Why was this recommendation ironic? What was the outcome of his recommendation? What does this tell you about the South at that time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Identify General Cleburne. 2. Outline Cleburne’s recommendations to arm slaves in exchange for their freedom. 3. Explain that his recommendation was ironic because the Confederacy fought to perpetuate slavery and prevent the abolition of slavery by northern whites. 4. Point out that the outcome of the recommendation included President Jefferson Davis stopping the discussion because southern whites did not support it. 5. Note that the desperate Confederate Congress finally authorized the use of black troops in exchange for emancipation and pay but the war ended soon after. 6. Conclude that this experiment in arming black men was symbolic of the contradictions inherent in southern society and the Confederacy in attempting to enslave half of its population. Sample Answer: General Patrick Cleburne recommended that the Confederacy should consider freeing and arming slaves to fight for the South. This recommendation was ironic because it went against the core principle of the Confederacy, which was founded on the preservation and expansion of slavery. Cleburne argued that arming slaves could help alleviate the manpower shortage faced by the Confederacy and improve its chances of winning the war. However, Cleburne's recommendation was met with strong opposition from Confederate leaders and politicians, who viewed it as a threat to the institution of slavery and the social order of the South. The Confederate government rejected Cleburne's proposal, and he faced backlash from many of his fellow officers and soldiers. The outcome of Cleburne's recommendation highlights the deep-seated commitment to slavery and white supremacy in the South at that time. Despite the dire circumstances of the Confederacy and the potential military benefits of Cleburne's proposal, the idea of arming slaves was seen as unacceptable and unthinkable to many Southern leaders and citizens. This reflects the entrenched attitudes and beliefs about race and slavery that pervaded Southern society during the Civil War. Chapter 12: The Meaning of Freedom:
The Promise of Reconstruction Multiple Choice Questions 1) What was the first concern of many African Americans once they achieved freedom? A) forming churches B) retaliating against former masters C) reuniting with lost family members D) moving to the northern cities Answer: C 2) How did some former masters react to the emancipation of their slaves? A) Some were tremendously hurt and surprised when their slaves chose to leave after freedom. B) Many were hopeful for their slaves' chances in freedom. C) Many whites reacted with violence against slaves. D) Most masters fled the country after the end of the war. Answer: A 3) How is the end of slavery related to the condition of southern black families in 1865? A) Blacks were disappointed in losing their white masters, leading to a disintegration of the black family. B) Blacks were delighted that slavery was over, enabling families to move back to Africa C) Blacks were indifferent about freedom, and many moved to Mexico D) Blacks were overjoyed about freedom, and many began to search for lost family members. Answer: D 4) What general conclusion can historians draw from the image of a Freedmen’s School that appears on the opening page of Chapter 12? A) Children of varying genders and ages attended the schools. B) Black women were the exclusive teachers of the schools. C) Adult men had no role to play in the schools. D) The schools were primarily in urban areas and made of brick. Answer: A 5) What were the terms of Special Field Order #15? A) It set aside some land between Charleston and Jacksonville for former slave use. B) It was issued by General Sherman and allowed some former slaves to use army mules. C) It set aside lands along the coast from Charleston, South Carolina, to Jacksonville, Florida, for former slaves. D) The order forced former slaves to work in repairing the wartime damages to southern cities. Answer: C 6) Which of the following is true about the Port Royal Experiment? A) Ex-slaves began to work the land around Port Royal, and some were able to purchase property. B) It was a southern experiment to re-institute slavery but the experiment failed when Lincoln discovered it. C) It was an attempt to force slaves into industrial labor in the North. D) Blacks there were immediately forced on ships to go to Africa. Answer: A 7) How is the issue of freedom for blacks connected to the subject of land after the Civil War? A) Blacks had no interest in land issues after receiving freedom. B) Blacks wanted to leave the South and secure land in the northern states after receiving freedom. C) Blacks wanted their own private lands after receiving freedom. D) Blacks wanted southern whites to retain cotton lands despite blacks being free. Answer: C 8) How is the Port Royal experiment in land distribution an example of the failures of Reconstruction? A) The land was obtained by Native American tribes instead of African Americans. B) The land stayed under black ownership and control. C) The land remained in the hands of the federal government. D) The land soon reverted to private white ownership. Answer: D 9) What was the main purpose of the Freedmen's Bureau? A) to free the slaves in the South B) to help blacks find jobs in the North C) to help assist the newly freed slaves in their transition to freedom D) to press for civil and political rights for blacks Answer: C 10) Who became president after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated? A) Lyndon Johnson B) Andrew Johnson C) John Danielson D) William Sherman Answer: B 11) What was the problem with the labor contracts for many blacks? A) There were few problems because of the beneficial attitudes of many Freedmen's Bureau workers. B) They were rarely done voluntarily or on an equal basis with white employers. C) Blacks refused to sign them, thinking that whites were trying to trick them into slavery again. D) White landowners simply refused to obey their terms of contracts. Answer: B 12) What was a common feature of many sharecropping agreements? A) Most of the time landowners accepted a share of the crop for rent. B) Sharecropping agreements spelled out blacks’ rights to vote and other constitutional rights. C) Landowners prevented blacks from growing cotton. D) Laborers could quit or strike. Answer: A 13) Which of the following was a limitation of the Freedmen's Bureau? A) Congress appropriated extensive funding for the Bureau. B) There were too many personnel involved. C) The Freedmen's Bureau was given huge responsibilities but insufficient funds to carry out its tasks. D) The Freedman's Bureau was not supported by any whites in the North. Answer: C 14) How is the Southern Homestead Act an example of reconstruction land policies passed by Congress? A) The land was sold at high prices to elite black families. B) The land was of high quality and black farmers developed it into tobacco fields. C) The land was of poor quality and unsuitable for farming. D) None of the land was made available to black families. Answer: C 15) What happened to Circular 13 and Special Field Order #15? A) They were both revoked and the land was returned to whites. B) They both served as models of black freedom for the rest of the country. C) They were generally ignored, as northern whites were just as racist as Southerners. D) They continued as they had during the war, but had little effect because they were of such small scale. Answer: A 16) Why did the Freedmen's Bureau try to get blacks to sign labor contracts with white landowners? A) They thought that signing the contracts was in the best interests of blacks. B) They were pressing for economic stability in areas that needed labor to produce crops. C) They hoped to break the spirit of the South by showing how blacks could become economically independent. D) The Freedmen's Bureau had absolutely no role in helping blacks with labor contracts. Answer: B 17) Which denomination grew rapidly in the South after Reconstruction? A) Catholic B) African Methodist Episcopal C) Episcopalian D) Methodist Answer: B 18) Which of the following statements accurately describes of black Presbyterian, Congregational, and Episcopal churches after the Civil War? A) They were formed only after the Civil War by freed blacks. B) Their services were more rowdy and vocal than slave religious ceremonies had been. C) Their membership included the more prosperous, and lighter skinned, blacks in society. D) They died out after the Civil War. Answer: C 19) What purpose did churches serve for African Americans? A) The church allowed African Americans to comingle with whites. B) The church filled spiritual needs in difficult times and allowed for the development of black music. C) Because the church was a very wealthy institution, it often provided loans to its members, helping them through difficult times. D) The church provided an area for white leadership to develop and for the development of white culture and ideas. Answer: B 20) What characteristics did some black and white ministers preach against in their sermons to newly freed slaves? A) lack of wealth and lack of a desire to work hard B) blacks' refusal to stand up for their political rights C) the increasing level of violence among many former slaves D) lack of morals, drinking, and gambling Answer: D 21) Which of the following statements is true about the importance of education to blacks after Reconstruction? A) They did not really consider it very important because many realized they would be able to get work only as field hands. B) They saw education and freedom as closely linked and often went to great lengths to form schools and attend them. C) They thought it was important but felt as though they had to accomplish other things before whites would allow them an education. D) Blacks already had access to education in the United States and school attendance and attitudes did not change after Reconstruction. Answer: B 22) What were some of the limitations of black teachers in the South? A) They were often former house slaves and had no knowledge about the lives of agricultural workers. B) They were often poorly educated themselves. C) They were highly educated and frequently became very frustrated with their students. D) They had some education but were generally forced into teaching; therefore, they put little effort into their teaching. Answer: B 23) Which of the following was a black college established after the Civil War? A) Morehouse B) Hampton C) Cheyney University D) Wilberforce University Answer: A 24) How did whites react to blacks attempting to establish schools in the South? A) by using violence, including killing teachers B) by building schools with blacks in cooperation C) by donating private funds to help the schools D) by establishing integrated schools Answer: A 25) Which of the following is true about racially integrated schools in the South in the decades following Reconstruction? A) Because of limitations to funding, the first schools after Reconstruction were generally integrated, although students attended separate classrooms that were divided by race. B) No integrated schools were established immediately after Reconstruction. C) Racially integrated schools faced very high levels of violence from whites. D) Only Upper South states had racially integrated schools. Answer: B 26) What was the sentiment of northern teachers, black or white, who came to the South to teach? A) They rarely felt any connection to their students, often simply coming South for the paycheck. B) They maintained full respect for their students' lack of knowledge. C) Some emphasized teaching cleanliness and manners over academic subjects. D) They often came from Europe to teach in the South. Answer: C 27) How were the concepts of freedom and education interrelated in the minds of blacks after the Civil War? A) to become free meant that education could be postponed until later in life B) to become educated meant that one was free to exploit other blacks C) to remain illiterate was to remain enslaved D) to seek an education was to waste the time that freedom provided Answer: C 28) How is the American Missionary Association reflective of the general efforts of white philanthropic groups to help blacks in the South during Reconstruction? A) It sponsored a program to assist blacks in moving to Canada and Africa. B) It helped bring European generals to the South to train black troops. C) It helped southern whites obtain lands to provide jobs for blacks. D) It worked with the federal government to establish black colleges. Answer: D 29) What do Fisk, Hampton, Tougaloo, and Avery Colleges have in common? A) They all began as all-white colleges and became black institutions after the war. B) They had nothing in common since each college was founded at different times, by different people, and for different reasons. C) They taught only literature and writing to blacks. D) They were black schools established by religious organizations, along with the Freedmen's Bureau, after the Civil War. Answer: D 30) What form did violence take in the South in the first months after the Civil War ended? A) It was used only against individuals, when whites saw blacks as violating the racial order. B) It primarily comprised mobs of whites lynching black men. C) It mainly comprised blacks attacking whites D) It was widespread and took many forms at many levels of brutality. Answer: D 31) How was Lincoln changing his opinion of blacks shortly before he was assassinated? A) He suggested that perhaps some blacks who were educated or veterans should be able to vote. B) He thought that not only should all blacks be free, but also that they should enjoy the same political and social rights as whites. C) He thought that the federal government should give each freed black “forty acres and a mule.” D) He was really not changing his mind at all and was always more concerned with the southern states than the black people in them. Answer: A 32) How do events in New Orleans in July 1866 reflect the tenor of race relations in southern cities at that time? A) Whites resisted the attempts of frustrated blacks to leave the South. B) Whites created integrated organizations to peacefully unite with freed slaves in churches. C) Whites resisted black efforts at gaining equality and resorted to mob action and murder. D) Whites wanted to assist blacks in gaining rights, but blacks resisted their efforts with violence. Answer: C 33) How is the Syracuse Convention an example of black self-help efforts during Reconstruction? A) Black leaders met and demanded that ex-slaves receive lands held by the former Confederacy. B) Black leaders met and proclaimed the right of blacks to participate in American politics. C) Black leaders met and proclaimed deference to southern whites on the issue of economic rights. D) Black leaders met and proclaimed deference to southern whites on the issue of political rights. Answer: B 34) Examine the image of a shackled black man standing in front of a courthouse that appears in Chapter 12. How does the scene recall the era of slavery? A) He is preaching a sermon to a group of whites interested in black culture and religion. B) He is being freed by his former master. C) He is waiting to be taken by Republicans to the northern states to freedom. D) He is being auctioned off to the highest bidder under terms of the black codes. Answer: D 35) Why was there so much violence in the South after Reconstruction? A) Blacks became increasingly frustrated with their lack of political rights and frequently resorted to violence. B) The federal government was angry at white southerners. C) White southerners were frustrated by their loss during the Civil War and resented blacks acquiring freedom and status. D) Confederates never officially disbanded their army, therefore southerners continued to fight against the North. Answer: C 36) Which black man was selected from South Carolina to participate in the 1864 Republican National Convention? A) Frederick Douglass B) Earl Little C) Robert Smalls D) Booker T. Washington Answer: C 37) What were the terms of Johnson's reconstruction plan? A) Johnson never came up with his own reconstruction plan and simply accepted the one offered by Congress. B) The Confederate states had to formally accept the Thirteenth Amendment and repudiate Confederate war debts. C) The Confederate states had to recognize civil and political rights for blacks. D) The South would pay reparations to the North and to each slave for his or her lifetime of labor. Answer: B 38) How did Andrew Johnson's becoming president affect blacks? A) It did not affect them. Johnson followed all of Lincoln's plans and initiated none of his own. B) Johnson felt that blacks should not vote or have a role in government and were vastly inferior to whites. He destroyed many of their hopes. C) Johnson felt that blacks were the social and political equals of whites and that they should be given the same rights as whites. D) Johnson was president only for a few months and therefore had little effect. Answer: B 39) How did Johnson treat the former Confederates? A) He granted blanket amnesty and pardons to former Confederates willing to swear allegiance to the United States. B) He treated them very harshly. C) He ignored them and hoped that blacks would gain political power in the South. D) He refused to pardon them but would allow them to vote if they swore allegiance to the United States. Answer: A 40) Which of the following was true of the “black codes”? A) They kept blacks from purchasing property and testifying in court. B) They denied blacks the right to serve on juries. C) They restricted black occupations and labor with employment contracts, corporal punishment, and high occupation fees. D) They gave blacks the right to vote. Answer: B 41) What types of arguments did blacks use at conventions to try to persuade whites to give them more rights? A) They reminded whites that blacks disdained America because of slavery. B) They asked for free land. C) They asked that whites live by the terms of the Declaration of Independence. D) They said they would be content with being subservient, but wanted freedom. Answer: C 42) Why did many blacks meet in conventions in 1865 and 1866 across the South? A) They met to elect black leaders and black political candidates. B) They convened in order to protest the black codes. C) Blacks were never allowed to meet in large groups anywhere in the South at that time. D) They met to organize trips to Africa to escape the harsh situation in America. Answer: B 43) Why did many northern congressmen oppose the land bill introduced by Thaddeus Stevens in Congress in late 1865? A) They thought that it was too mild a punishment for Confederate officers who had fought against the Union during the Civil War. B) They viewed the property rights of white southerners as more important than granting land to blacks. C) They felt that taking away land already owned by blacks was unfair. D) They did not want land taken away from their state park system. Answer: B 44) What did the Joint Committee on Reconstruction find? A) Blacks were grossly inferior to whites and should have remained as slaves. B) Southern states were carrying out reconstruction goals to the best of their ability despite federal policies. C) Blacks were being treated very poorly; southern whites were largely defiant. D) Blacks needed education to be able to gain political rights for themselves. Answer: C 45) How did radical Republicans respond to Andrew Johnson’s vetoes of Senator Lyman Trumbull's bills? A) They impeached him. B) They tried to remove him from office but the effort failed by one vote. C) They accepted his vetoes. D) They lacked the political power to do anything. Answer: A 46) What did the Fourteenth Amendment accomplish? A) It made all people born in the United States citizens. B) It pardoned many of the people Johnson had pardoned. C) It made the black codes constitutional. D) It explicitly gave black men the right to vote. Answer: A 47) How did women's suffragists view the Fourteenth Amendment? A) They enthusiastically supported the amendment because it offered gains for women. B) Because women could not vote, they had no opinion on the Fourteenth Amendment. C) They felt betrayed and angry because the Fourteenth Amendment included only men. D) They felt that working for black men should be their first priority, and they gladly accepted the terms of the amendment. Answer: C 48) How did the First Reconstruction Act impact black political power in the South? A) It stipulated that all adult males in former Confederate states were eligible to vote. B) It had no effect because it was a weak, ineffective piece of legislation. C) It took the vote away from many blacks because it required literacy in order to vote. D) It allowed all blacks to vote, giving them tremendous power in both houses of Congress. Answer: A 49) Why did Andrew Johnson veto the Freedmen's Bureau Bill? A) He did not think that it granted enough political rights to blacks. B) He felt it would increase the federal bureaucracy too much. C) He wanted Congress to expand the bureau. D) He though it did not provide enough free land for blacks. Answer: B 50) What was the significance of the Election of 1866? A) Republicans gained two-thirds majorities in both the House and Senate and could now override any presidential veto. B) Republicans gained simple majorities in both the House and Senate and could now override any presidential veto. C) Democrats gained strength because Americans saw the impeachment attempt of the president as a political sham. D) A new independent party, the National Democrats, gained significant power through the black vote. Answer: A True/False Questions 51) Following slavery, the church became the most important institution among African Americans other than the family because it filled spiritual needs and offered charity to those in need. Answer: True 52) The end of slavery created initial social opportunities for blacks to create segregated religious institutions. Answer: True 53) The operations of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church provide a poor example of black self-help efforts in the arena of religion during Reconstruction. Answer: False 54) Although freedmen appreciated the dedication of the black teachers affiliated with northern missionary societies, they usually preferred white teachers in their schools. Answer: False 55) Sometimes Freedmen’s School teachers, especially those who were white, became frustrated with recalcitrant students who did not readily absorb middle- class values. Answer: True 56) The Democrats broke with Johnson in 1866, defied him in 1867, and impeached him in 1868 (failing to remove him from office by only one vote in the Senate). Answer: False 57) Democrats swept the 1866 congressional elections and achieved two-thirds majorities in the House and Senate. Answer: False 58) In 1867 black longshoremen struck and walked off the job in New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, and Richmond. Answer: True 59) In 1869 a black Baltimore longshoreman, Isaac Myers, organized the National Colored Labor Union. Answer: True 60) The idea that blacks had no rights in the U.S., as declared in the Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case, was fully scuttled when Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) Special Field Order #15 was issued by General William T. ______________. Answer: Sherman 62) The full name of the Freedmen’s Bureau was the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and ______________ Lands Answer: Abandoned 63) Major Martin R. ______________ was a black military officer who worked with the freedmen in the South Carolina Sea Islands during Reconstruction. Answer: Delany 64) General Oliver ______________ was put in charge of the Freedmen’s Bureau when it was created in 1865. Answer: Howard 65) The concept or system of ______________ included no wages and emerged during Reconstruction as a compromise land and labor arrangement between southern whites and blacks. Answer: sharecropping 66) The issue of ______________ plagued the South during Reconstruction and caused its eventual demise as a set of federal policies to help black people. Answer: violence 67) The ______________ ______________ were social, fraternal, and patriotic groups that attracted black people in the late 1860s; they gave people an opportunity to sharpen leadership skills and gain a political education. Answer: Union Leagues 68) The concept of universal manhood ______________ resulted ironically in part from the obstructionism of President Andrew Johnson. Answer: suffrage 69) Senator Lyman Trumbull early 1866 proposal made citizens of all persons born in the United States, except ______________, and entitled them to rights protected by the U.S. government. Answer: Indians 70) The first ______________ ______________ ______________ in U.S. history was initiated by Senator Lyman Trumbull but failed to include Native American people under its provisions. Answer: Civil Rights Act Short Answer Questions 71) How are Abraham Lincoln’s aims and initial policies regarding Reconstruction related to President Andrew Johnson’s goals and policies on Reconstruction? Answer: Abraham Lincoln's aims for Reconstruction focused on reconciliation and restoring the Union with leniency towards the South. He proposed the Ten Percent Plan, which required 10% of voters in a state to pledge loyalty to the Union for readmission. Andrew Johnson, his successor, largely followed Lincoln's approach but was more lenient towards Confederate leaders, pardoning many and allowing them to participate in Reconstruction, which led to clashes with the Radical Republicans in Congress. 72) Why did the church become such an important institution for blacks? Answer: The church became a crucial institution for blacks due to its role as a center of community life, providing spiritual support, social organization, and a platform for political activism. It also served as a refuge from racial discrimination and a place to preserve cultural identity and heritage. 73) Why did southern whites use violence to suppress the efforts of southern blacks to achieve equality with whites during Reconstruction? Answer: Why did southern whites use violence to suppress the efforts of southern blacks to achieve equality with whites during Reconstruction? 74) In what ways did black sit-ins and strikes reflect black attitudes about rights during Reconstruction? Answer: Black sit-ins and strikes during Reconstruction reflected their strong attitudes about rights by demonstrating their determination to challenge segregation and demand equal treatment. These actions were part of a broader effort by African Americans to assert their civil rights and push back against discriminatory practices, showing their commitment to achieving full citizenship and equality. 75) How did white Southerners react to Radical Reconstruction? Answer: White Southerners reacted to Radical Reconstruction with hostility and resistance. They viewed it as an infringement on their way of life and resented the political and social changes imposed by the federal government. This resistance led to the rise of groups like the Ku Klux Klan and widespread violence and intimidation against African Americans and their supporters. Essay Questions 76) What were some characteristics of sharecropping agreements? How were they fashioned in a particular manner to benefit white land owners? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that whites wanted to secure black labor as cheaply as possible while blacks wanted to obtain the most money they could for their labor. 2. Note that blacks during slavery worked in gangs for no money; they wanted more independence now that they were free. 3. Note that some blacks returned to former masters and were willing to work in exchange for food, but not according to the gang system of labor. 4. Note that the laborers reached agreements with white landowners and worked as families on plantations. They worked independently and not under white supervision. The white landowner provided tools, seeds, and other items for farming. 5. Note that they did not receive wages but one-third of the crop at harvest. 6. Explain that blacks lacked land and were often cheated by land owners. Sample Answer: 1. Economic Exploitation: Landowners could extract a significant portion of the crop from tenant farmers, often leaving them with just enough to survive, maximizing profits for landowners. 2. Control and Power: Landowners maintained control over the land and supplies, exerting power over tenant farmers who were dependent on them for survival. This control extended to social and political spheres, reinforcing existing power dynamics. 3. Maintenance of Status Quo: Sharecropping helped maintain the social and economic hierarchy of the South, with white landowners at the top and Black tenant farmers at the bottom, perpetuating racial inequality and limiting upward mobility for Black Americans. 4. Legal Protections: Sharecropping agreements were often supported by legal mechanisms that favored landowners, making it challenging for tenant farmers to challenge unfair practices or seek redress for grievances. Overall, sharecropping agreements were structured to benefit white landowners by allowing them to economically exploit tenant farmers, maintain control and power, perpetuate social and economic inequality, and enjoy legal protections. 77) Who were the radical Republicans? What made them different from most white people? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the radical Republicans as members of both houses of Congress, many of them abolitionists before the Civil War, and military officers during the war, who wanted to punish the South for murder, treason, slavery and rebellion. 2. Define most white American men, in particular, as political and racist; many thought that blacks should remain as second class servants to whites in the U.S. forever. They also believed that God made blacks inferior to whites. 3. Explain that a minority of whites, such as radical Republicans, believed that blacks should become citizens and receive political equality. Even smaller numbers felt that social equality should be accorded to blacks. Sample Answer: The Radical Republicans were a faction of the Republican Party during and after the American Civil War. They were characterized by their strong opposition to slavery and their commitment to civil rights and reconstruction efforts in the South. The Radical Republicans advocated for a more aggressive approach towards Reconstruction, including the protection of freedmen's rights, the punishment of Confederate leaders, and the transformation of Southern society. What made the Radical Republicans different from most white people, particularly in the context of the time, were their progressive views on race and equality. Unlike many white Americans of the era who either supported slavery or were indifferent to the plight of African Americans, the Radical Republicans believed in the inherent equality of all people, regardless of race. They pushed for measures such as the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which granted citizenship and equal rights to all people born in the United States, including former slaves. Furthermore, the Radical Republicans were willing to use federal power to enforce these beliefs, even in the face of strong opposition from Southern states and more moderate factions within their own party. They supported the use of military force to protect the rights of African Americans in the South, leading to policies such as Reconstruction Acts, which divided the South into military districts and required Southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment in order to be readmitted to the Union. Overall, the Radical Republicans' commitment to racial equality and their willingness to use federal power to achieve it set them apart from most white people of their time, making them a key force in shaping the post-Civil War era and advancing the cause of civil rights in America. 78) What is the connection between the Thirteenth Amendment and Reconstruction? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Thirteenth Amendment as the amendment that banned slavery under the U.S. Constitution. 2. Define Reconstruction as a set of federal economic development and social welfare policies applied to the South over a particular time period: 1863-1877. 3. Explain that the Thirteenth Amendment ending slavery is considered to be the first of three “Reconstruction amendments” passed by congressional Republicans during the era. 4. Indicate that the amendment helped to start the reconstruction of the South by freeing 4 million African American people, and workers, from slavery. 5. Conclude that southern whites were psychologically and historically unprepared to adjust to the end of slavery, and so resisted the course of Reconstruction vehemently. Sample Answer: The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865, abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. This amendment played a crucial role in shaping the Reconstruction era that followed the American Civil War. The connection between the Thirteenth Amendment and Reconstruction is profound and multifaceted. Here are several key aspects of this connection: 1. Legal and Constitutional Foundation: The Thirteenth Amendment provided the legal and constitutional foundation for the Reconstruction era. By abolishing slavery, it fundamentally altered the social, economic, and political landscape of the United States. 2. Emancipation and Freedom: The Thirteenth Amendment was instrumental in emancipating millions of enslaved African Americans. It marked the end of the institution of slavery in the United States and affirmed the principle of freedom for all individuals. 3. Reconstruction Policies: The Thirteenth Amendment influenced the development of Reconstruction policies and legislation. It set the stage for efforts to rebuild the South and integrate newly freed African Americans into society. 4. Civil Rights and Citizenship: The Thirteenth Amendment paved the way for subsequent amendments, including the Fourteenth Amendment, which granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited the denial of voting rights based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. These amendments were key components of the Reconstruction amendments, aimed at ensuring the civil rights and political participation of African Americans. 5. Federal Authority: The Thirteenth Amendment expanded the scope of federal authority over issues of civil rights and equality. It empowered the federal government to intervene in matters related to slavery and its aftermath, leading to the passage of civil rights legislation and the enforcement of constitutional protections for African Americans. In conclusion, the Thirteenth Amendment and Reconstruction are deeply intertwined, with the amendment serving as a foundational element of the Reconstruction era and shaping the course of American history in profound ways. 79) In what ways is the passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill and the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 linked to President Andrew Johnson? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define Johnson’s negative reaction to the bills as expanding the federal bureaucracy and black rights too far at the expense of the liberties and rights of southern white people. 2. Point out that Johnson vetoed both bills because he was racist conservative disdainful of blacks and Republicans in Congress. 3. Explain that Johnson actually motivated Republicans to band together and support the freedmen instead of him. Johnson had effectively lost his entire Congress. 4. Conclude that Johnson was later impeached and nearly removed from office for violating the confidence of Congress through his vetoes of these acts. Sample Answer: The passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill and the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 is closely linked to President Andrew Johnson, particularly in terms of his relationship with Congress and his approach to Reconstruction. 1. Veto of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill: President Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which was intended to assist newly freed African Americans and poor whites in the South by providing food, housing, and medical aid, as well as establishing schools and legal assistance. Johnson argued that the bill was unconstitutional and would create a culture of dependency. However, Congress overrode his veto, marking the first time in history that Congress had overridden a presidential veto on a major piece of legislation. 2. Veto of the Civil Rights Bill: President Johnson also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, which aimed to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens were equally protected by the law. Johnson argued that the bill interfered with states' rights and was unconstitutional. Again, Congress overrode his veto, enacting the bill into law. 3. Reconstruction Policies: President Johnson's approach to Reconstruction was lenient towards the Southern states and former Confederates, which clashed with the more radical views of Congress. Johnson's policies favored quick restoration of the Southern states to the Union with few conditions, which led to tensions between the executive and legislative branches of government. 4. Congressional Response: The passage of these bills, despite Johnson's opposition, reflected Congress's determination to assert its authority over Reconstruction policies. The conflict between Johnson and Congress over these bills foreshadowed the larger power struggle between the executive and legislative branches during Reconstruction. 5. Impact on Reconstruction: The passage of these bills marked important milestones in the Reconstruction era. The Freedmen's Bureau played a crucial role in providing assistance to newly freed African Americans, while the Civil Rights Bill established important principles of equality and citizenship. These laws laid the groundwork for the Reconstruction amendments, including the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution. In summary, the passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill and the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was linked to President Andrew Johnson through his veto of these bills and his broader approach to Reconstruction, which differed from that of Congress. These events highlighted the tensions between the executive and legislative branches over the direction of Reconstruction policies and the protection of civil rights for African Americans. 80) Why were the black codes passed? What rights or limitations did they grant? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the black codes as southern state policies formed in the aftermath of the Civil War by former Confederate leaders placed back into political office by the lenient policies of President Andrew Johnson. 2. Explain that the codes were designed to provide southern whites with a cheap and ready supply of black labor for agricultural purposes. 3. Note that blacks could not sit on juries nor vote, could not use alcohol or guns, could not loiter, fish, or graze livestock. 4. Note that black children could be apprenticed until the age of 21 to white land owners. Sample Answer: The Black Codes were a series of laws passed by Southern states in the United States after the Civil War. They were designed to regulate the behavior of newly freed African Americans and ensure the continued availability of cheap labor. The main reasons for the passage of the Black Codes were: 1. Maintaining a Stable Labor Force: Southern states relied heavily on agriculture, particularly cotton production, which required a large and stable labor force. The Black Codes were intended to ensure that African Americans remained available for work by restricting their movement and job options. 2. Preserving White Supremacy: The Black Codes were also aimed at preserving white supremacy and the social hierarchy of the antebellum South. They sought to limit the rights and freedoms of African Americans to maintain white control over society. 3. Economic Control: By limiting the economic opportunities available to African Americans, the Black Codes ensured that they remained economically dependent on white landowners and employers. 4. Political Control: The Black Codes also sought to limit the political power of African Americans by denying them the right to vote, serve on juries, or hold public office. The Black Codes granted certain rights to African Americans, such as the right to marry, own property, and sue in court. However, these rights were often limited and subject to strict regulations. For example, African Americans were required to enter into annual labor contracts and could be arrested for vagrancy if they were unemployed. The Black Codes also imposed harsh penalties on African Americans for minor infractions, such as loitering or insulting gestures, and allowed for the apprenticeship of African American children if their parents were deemed unfit. Overall, the Black Codes were a means of maintaining white control over African Americans and ensuring the continued economic and social dominance of the white population in the South. They were a precursor to the Jim Crow laws that would further entrench racial segregation and discrimination in the years following Reconstruction. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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