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This Document Contains Chapters 23 to 24 Chapter 23: African Americans in the Twenty-First Century Multiple Choice Questions 1) Under what president did the poverty rate for blacks drop (between 1990 and 2000)? A) George H.W. Bush B) Bill Clinton C) George H. Bush D) Albert Gore Answer: B 2) How is Oprah Winfrey an example of black success in the twenty-first century? A) Her writing career has made her the most highly acclaimed writer in the world. B) Her acting career has made her the most highly acclaimed performer in the world. C) Her singing career has made her the most successful black musician in the world. D) Her media empire has made her the richest African-American woman in the world. Answer: D 3) How does the career of Reginald Lewis reflect the opportunities open to blacks in industry during the late twentieth century? A) He used a Yale business degree to sell diamond mines in Asia. B) He used a Stanford medical degree to expand health care in Africa. C) He used a Harvard law degree to help him buy big corporations. D) He used a UC Davis history degree to write books on black history. Answer: C 4) How did the economic situation for blacks change from the mid-twentieth century to the late-twentieth century? A) More black women were forced into domestic and food service jobs. B) Black family income increased dramatically. C) Elite black wealth declined compared with whites. D) Overall, economic opportunities for blacks dropped dramatically. Answer: B 5) What developments have occurred regarding school desegregation since 2005? A) The Supreme Court has argued that desegregation violates the Fourteenth Amendment. B) The Supreme Court has consistently upheld school plans to desegregate, seeing diversity as a positive good in American society. C) The Supreme Court has generally ignored all recent court cases regarding desegregation. D) The Supreme Court has supported southern plans to segregate its school systems again by beginning private schools. Answer: A 6) The high rate of black poverty disproportionately impacts which category of the black population? A) men B) women C) children D) senior citizens Answer: C 7) What city in the first decade of the twenty-first century serves as an example of the devastating impact of drugs and crime on African-American inner-city residents? A) Palo Alto B) Carmel C) Oakland D) Monterrey Answer: C 8) The death of what tennis star pushed the black community into action against the HIV/AIDS virus? A) Bjorn Borg B) Arthur Ashe C) Monica Sellers D) Serena Williams Answer: B 9) How did deindustrialization impact the black community in the late twentieth century? A) It made no impact on the black community. B) It produced many more industrial jobs in the U.S. for blacks. C) It produced some new industrial jobs for blacks. D) It led to a decrease in industrial jobs for blacks. Answer: D 10) Which of the following is true regarding African Americans and inner-city poverty? A) Inner cities are generally cut off from the rest of society in terms of access to social services. B) Inner cities have low rates of HIV infection and decreased levels of violence and crime. C) Poor black children are adversely affected because they often live only with their fathers, who have limited access to jobs and education to help them move out of poverty. D) Most African Americans have moved out of poverty in the inner cities. Answer: A 11) How did the recessions of 2001 and 2008 affect black women in particular? A) They actually made some gains, as they took jobs white women vacated. B) Black women began both recessions with much higher rates of unemployment than other ethnic groups. C) Black women were forced out of menial positions so that whites and Hispanics could have the jobs. D) Black women benefited because black men received more benefits from the government at this time. Answer: B 12) Regarding health in 2001, ______________. A) blacks continue to have lower infant mortality rates B) black life expectancy has declined slightly since the 1950s C) although many blacks are healthier, they often distrust the healthcare system D) skin cancer has become a leading problem among African Americans in many states Answer: C 13) Which of the following statements is true about African Americans and HIV/AIDS? A) African Americans account annually for very few new HIV/AIDS infections B) Some self-described straight African American men have sex with both men and women and spread the HIV/AIDS virus to their unsuspecting female partners. C) African-American women rarely seek testing for HIV/AIDS. D) Most African Americans acquire HIV through homosexual sex outside of the home. Answer: B 14) According to Figure 23-1, what ethnic group earned the highest median income over the past fifty years? A) whites B) blacks C) Hispanics D) Asians Answer: D 15) According to Table 23-1, what percentage of black children lived with their mothers in a single-parent household in 1960 compared to 2012? A) 60 percent compared to 30 percent B) 50 percent compared to 20 percent C) 30 percent compared to 50 percent D) 60 percent compared to 40 percent Answer: C 16) According to Figure 23-2, what ethnic group produced the highest percentage of children under 18 living with their mothers between 1968 and 2012? A) whites B) blacks C) Hispanics D) Asians Answer: B 17) Based on Table 23-3, what ethnic group trailed closely behind blacks in terms of highest rate of infection of HIV? A) Whites B) Hispanics C) Asians D) Native Americans Answer: A 18) Examine Table 23-2 regarding rates of black incarceration. What ethnic population had the highest ratio or percentage of incarceration per 100,000 inmates? A) White B) Black C) Hispanic D) Asian Answer: B 19) Alice Walker’s The Color Purple received which of the following prizes? A) the Bancroft Prize B) the Pulitzer Prize C) the African Prize D) the Nobel Prize Answer: B 20) How did the publication of Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon impact black literature? A) It produced a decline in black interest in general in black literature. B) It had a limited impact due to its focus on male subjects. C) It inspired other African-American women in the late 1970s to publish their work. D) It produced a backlash in the white community against any black literature by women. Answer: C 21) How was the cultural flowering of the 1980s and 1990s different from that in the 1960s and 1970s? A) The art included more political content than before. B) Literature was mainly aimed toward poetry in languages other than English. C) Film began to be used as a political tool and art form. D) The 1980s and 1990s included women, especially novelists. Answer: D 22) Why have some blacks criticized gangsta rap? A) It is generally too loud and damages the eardrums of children. B) Its lyrics are often anti-women, violent, and offensive. C) It advocates having blacks in subordinate positions in society. D) It is generally copies other musicians’ creative efforts. Answer: B 23) Grandmaster Flash is credited with creating what techniques in rap music? A) Flash was notorious for simply copying other rappers’ styles. B) Flash began the rap music tradition of using female backup singers. C) Flash began the use of “scratching” and manipulating turntable speeds. D) He is generally credited with beginning the inner city style known as “gangsta rap.” Answer: C 24) The impact of rap music popularized which musical term and genre? A) bebop B) hip-hop C) classical D) ragtime Answer: B 25) As the field of African-American studies has matured, what has happened in American society? A) Black women have begun to emphasize that women should be supreme over men. B) Some scholars criticized Afrocentricity for constructing a false “glorious past” for blacks. C) Black scholars have generally begun to accept an ideologically flexible approach regarding racial identity. D) Generally, schools have refused to adopt the curriculum, except at Temple University. Answer: C 26) Supporters of Afrocentricity argue that ______________. A) Europeans are actually the highest culture, and Africans should follow their lead. B) America is a melting pot, bringing together many cultures, including Africans. C) Africa should be only one of the main focal points of their study of history. D) European civilization came from African origins, especially from Egypt. Answer: D 27) What is the connection between black studies programs to American universities? A) American universities initially embraced black studies but now reject them. B) American universities never accepted black studies programs into curriculum. C) American universities initially rejected but now embrace black studies programs. D) American universities have always taught black studies programs from the start of college education in U.S. history. Answer: C 28) What is the connection between Molefi Kete Asante and Afrocentricity? A) Asante was a major critic of the movement and tried to stop it. B) Asante was a proponent of the movement and helped it spread. C) Asante had a minimal connection to the movement and made no real impact. D) Asante founded Temple University on the theory of Afrocentricity and its centrality to white American culture. Answer: B 29) What institution continued to be at the center of black life during the late twentieth century? A) newspapers B) rap music C) churches D) the NAACP Answer: C 30) What is one source of tension within modern black church congregations? A) the expectation that children are subservient to adults B) the expectation that women are subservient to men C) the expectation that men are subservient to women D) the expectation that senior citizens are subservient to young adults Answer: B 31) What was the impact of September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the U.S. black Muslim community? A) The attacks made no discernible impact on African Muslims in the U.S. B) The attacks led to thousands of African Muslims being killed in the U.S. C) The attacks offered hope to African Muslims that the U.S. was a safe country D) The attacks have left African Muslims conflicted about the U.S. because of anti- Muslim discrimination Answer: D 32) What is the connection between the Vatican, slavery, and African-American history? A) No discernible connection exists. B) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in slavery. C) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in World War II. D) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in priest abuse of children. Answer: B 33) What statements made by Louis Farrakhan attracted national attention during and after the 1984 presidential campaign? A) He said that blacks are superior to whites. B) He said he hopes for a return to a segregated society where blacks are subordinate. C) He denounced rap music and called it “the music of the devil.” D) He made anti-Semitic comments, stating that Jewish people caused black problems. Answer: D 34) What was a culminating event of Farrakhan's leadership of the Nation of Islam? A) his trip to Mecca B) his denunciation of Jews C) the Million Man March D) his reaction to September 11 Answer: C 35) What types of goals did Farrakhan set for Nation of Islam members? A) He pushed aggressively for civil and political rights. B) He wanted women to be the social and political equals to men. C) He pressed for equal constitutional rights for children of any race. D) He thought they should help themselves by emulating Booker T. Washington. Answer: D 36) How did the Million Man March achieve symbolic success in the mainstream media and throughout the nation? A) Over 200,000 whites attended the march. B) Only black journalists covered the march. C) Louis Farrakhan was present at the march. D) Over 400,000 black men attended the march. Answer: D 37) How does the career of Louis Farrakhan symbolize the activities of the Nation of Islam during the 1980s? A) He became an outspoken proponent of Jewish expansion into Palestine. B) He became an outspoken critic of white discrimination against blacks. C) He became an outspoken advocate for the expansion of the U.S. prison system. D) He became an outspoken supporter of the war on drugs in the United States. Answer: B 38) How were Louis Farrakhan and Elijah Muhammad similar in their outlook on civil rights for blacks? A) They embraced a superior position for women over men in the Nation. B) They rejected a focus on achieving greater political rights for blacks. C) They denounced the teachings of Booker T. Washington as accommodation with whites. D) They championed the role of Jewish Americans in helping blacks gain greater civil rights. Answer: B 39) Why did Louis Farrakhan lose some support in the U.S. months after the Million Man March? A) He quit the Nation of Islam. B) He went to China and criticized communism. C) He went to Africa and met with a brutal dictator. D) He went to Europe and praised the British for ending the slave trade. Answer: C 40) What two areas have witnessed increased migration to the U.S. since the 1960s? A) the West Indies and Brazil B) Africa and the West Indies C) Brazil and Africa D) Cuba and Ethiopia Answer: B 41) What percentage of the U.S. population did blacks comprise, according to the U.S. census in 2000? A) 25 percent B) 20 percent C) 16 percent D) 12 percent Answer: D 42) Where did most blacks live in the U.S. in 2000? A) the northeastern states B) the midwestern states C) the southern states D) the western states Answer: C 43) What was unique about the 2000 census? A) It allowed respondents to opt out of participation. B) It allowed respondents to count undocumented immigrants. C) It allowed respondents to choose more than one racial designation. D) It allowed respondents to use census data for statistical reports on demographics. Answer: C 44) During the 1990s, voluntary immigration from what part of Africa increased dramatically? A) white Africans from former colonies of Europe B) white Africans from Europe C) black Africans from southern, western, and eastern Africa D) black Africans from North Africa, particularly Egypt Answer: D 45) In the Supreme Court case of Loving vs. Virginia (1967), the court struck down what category of law? A) antiabortion B) homosexual marriage C) hate-speech D) antimiscegenation Answer: D 46) What arguments have surfaced about racial statistics? A) They should never be used because they are always discriminatory. B) Without racial statistics, it is unclear if programs to change discrimination are necessary. C) Racial statistics stop miscegenation. D) These statistics should only be used at the state level, not the national level, to determine changes in society. Answer: B 47) Which of the following was an achievement of the women's movement of the 1970s? A) Women helped pass an amendment prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex. B) Women gained access to affirmative action programs in higher education. C) Women gained the right to one year of maternity leave for all jobs. D) Women secured the federal right to marry other women. Answer: B 48) Which of the following is true about homosexual African-Americans in the twenty-first century? A) Many African Americans have been openly hostile to gays and lesbians, even to the point of being instrumental in prohibiting gays the right to marry in California. B) Because African Americans have consistently been discriminated against themselves, they support the rights of others who have also been the victims of discrimination. C) Coretta Scott King and Jesse Jackson ignored gay rights in favor of working to end poverty. D) Homosexual African Americans were very open about their sexuality. Answer: A 49) Why did some African-American women become attracted to feminism? A) They hated men and hoped to be admitted into the military in combat roles. B) They wanted to reduce the birthrate in America. C) They became disillusioned with black male attitudes towards them. D) Few black women supported feminism. Answer: C 50) What has Coretta Scott King done in her career since the assassination of her husband, Martin, in 1968? A) She worked against minority rights. B) She ignored issues of minority struggle. C) She embraced activism on behalf of minority rights. D) She manipulated the civil rights struggle for personal gain. Answer: C True/False Questions 51) The decades after 1970 witnessed a consolidation of black economic, civic, and political progress and the expansion of a black middle and upper class of professionals, media celebrities, and business entrepreneurs. Answer: True 52) The decline in crime in inner-city communities throughout the 1980s and 1990s combined with a national shift toward aggressive policing and harsher sentencing to vastly increase the imprisonment rates of African-American boys and men. Answer: False 53) Beginning in the 1980s, cultural renaissances emerged in virtually every American community that had a substantial African-American presence. Answer: True 54) Russell Simmons saw the potential of rap street music in the mid-1970s and recognized that the mainstream entertainment industry was not aware of it; he became a concert promoter and encouraged early rap groups to stay close to the dress styles and language of the inner-city African-American community. Answer: True 55) Hip hop refers to the backup music for European classical music that is often composed of excerpts or “samples” from other songs. Answer: False 56) Kool Herc (aka Clive Campbell) is an example of an early rap music pioneer who began using simple raps to cover a mix of beats played from two turntables during the 1970s. Answer: True 57) Rap was the most commercially successful genre of black music to emerge in the late twentieth century and became emblematic of the post–civil rights and black power movement generations of African Americans. Answer: True 58) Religion has become peripheral to the African-American experience in the twenty-first century. Answer: False 59) After the Civil War an accurate count of slaves was important because they counted for three-fifths of a person in determining the representation of states in the House of Representatives. Answer: False 60) Because of immigration restrictions, few blacks, either from the Western Hemisphere or from Africa, immigrated to the United States before the 1970s. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) The results of the ______________ decision of 1954 to improve black student education by desegregating public education were only partially successful and remain unresolved in the modern era. Answer: Brown 62) The results of Supreme Court decisions in 2007 removed ______________ classification as a means to achieve racial diversity in public schools. Answer: racial 63) George C. ______________ is a playwright, director, and producer whose achievements helped demolish racial barriers in the theater. Answer: Wolfe 64) An example of a black female artist in theater during the modern era is Anna Deavere ______________, who pioneered new forms of theater with her powerful one- woman plays such as Fires in the Mirror. Answer: Smith 65) The rap artist ______________ ______________ emerged to counter the images of women presented by gangsta rap artists. Answer: Queen Latifah 66) The first commercial rap hit, “Rapper’s Delight” by the Sugar Hill ______________, came out in 1979 and popularized the term hip-hop. Answer: Gang 67) Rap bands such as ______________ - ______________, which dominated the charts in the mid-1980s, brought rap music to MTV and to a larger public. Answer: Run-DMC 68) Many black educators embraced Afrocentricity as a way to celebrate and reclaim a positive African identity and to unite the peoples of the African ______________. Answer: Diaspora 69) Afrocentrists rejected the idea of America as a melting ______________. Answer: pot 70) Although the African Methodist Episcopal church has ordained women since 1898, the number of women ministers has only recently become significant; now ______________ of the AME’s 8,000 ministers are female. Answer: 3,000 Short Answer Questions 71) What types of gender issues intersect with HIV and AIDS among the black community? Why are blacks more likely to have HIV/AIDS than any other group? Answer: Gender issues that intersect with HIV and AIDS among the black community include higher rates of infection among black women compared to men, often due to unequal power dynamics in relationships. Additionally, transgender individuals, particularly black transgender women, face increased vulnerability to HIV due to stigma, discrimination, and limited access to healthcare. Blacks are more likely to have HIV/AIDS than any other group due to a combination of factors including socioeconomic disparities, limited access to healthcare, higher rates of sexually transmitted infections, and stigma surrounding HIV testing and treatment. 72) How did rap music symbolize the struggles within the black community, especially during the Reagan years? Answer: Rap music during the Reagan years symbolized the struggles within the black community by addressing issues such as poverty, racism, and police brutality. Artists used their lyrics to express the harsh realities of inner-city life and to critique the Reagan administration's policies, which were often seen as exacerbating these issues through cuts to social programs and the War on Drugs. 73) How is “gangsta rap” symbolic of the changes impacting black music during the 1980s? Answer: "Gangsta rap" symbolizes the changes impacting black music during the 1980s by reflecting the shift towards a more confrontational and politically charged style. It emerged as a response to the social and economic challenges facing black communities, portraying the harsh realities of urban life, including violence, drug use, and poverty. Gangsta rap challenged mainstream perceptions and highlighted the need for social change. 74) How are gender and sexuality affecting black churches? How have different denominations approached these issues? Answer: Gender and sexuality are affecting black churches by challenging traditional views and sparking debates on inclusivity and acceptance. Different denominations have approached these issues differently: some are more conservative, upholding traditional teachings on gender roles and sexuality, while others are more progressive, advocating for LGBTQ+ inclusion and gender equality in leadership roles. 75) What accomplishments have black feminists made? Answer: Black feminists have made significant accomplishments in advancing intersectional feminism and addressing the unique challenges faced by black women. They have been instrumental in highlighting issues such as racial and gender discrimination, reproductive rights, and economic inequality. Black feminists have also played a key role in shaping feminist theory to be more inclusive and relevant to the experiences of women of color. Essay Questions 76) Why and how did life change for upper- and middle-class blacks in the late 1980s? What problems did many poor blacks continue to face? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that middle- and upper-class blacks gained in wealth during the 1980s and 1990s because civil rights laws improved job prospects, income, and education. 2. Point out that poor blacks who inhabited the inner city or rural conditions faced a decline in jobs, income and quality of life. Black men became stereotyped as criminals while the inner city continued to lose jobs and become infested with drugs and HIV/AIDS. 3. Conclude that black poverty and the plight of the inner city remains a major problem in American society. Sample Answer: In the late 1980s, life changed for upper- and middle-class blacks primarily due to economic and social shifts. Increased access to education and professional opportunities led to a growing black middle class, which experienced improved living standards, expanded career options, and greater social mobility. This period also saw a rise in black political representation and cultural visibility, with figures like Jesse Jackson and Oprah Winfrey gaining national prominence. However, many challenges persisted for poor blacks. Economic disparities remained stark, with high levels of unemployment and poverty disproportionately affecting black communities. Structural issues such as discrimination in housing, education, and employment continued to hinder progress for many. Additionally, the crack cocaine epidemic ravaged inner-city neighborhoods, exacerbating social problems like crime and drug addiction. Despite gains made by some in the black community, the late 1980s underscored the persistence of racial and economic inequalities, highlighting the need for continued efforts to address systemic issues and promote equality for all. 77) What is the status of education for blacks around the turn of the twenty-first century? How much progress has been made since the Brown decision in 1954? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the desegregation of public education has led to an increase in black graduation rates, yet many black young men continue to drop out of high school at alarming rates. The lack of affirmative action in higher education has meant that less numbers of blacks attend university undergraduate education than in years previously. 2. Point out that inner city schools experience a major challenge from a lack of resources, a problem augmented by competition from charter schools. 3. Conclude that although social progress has been made since the Brown decision of 1954, schools remain segregated, resource allocation favors wealthy over poorer schools, and the Leave No Child Behind Act punishes low-performing schools. Because many black families are poor, policies that impact the poor also impact blacks disproportionately. Sample Answer: Around the turn of the twenty-first century, the status of education for blacks showed both progress and ongoing challenges. Following the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, which declared segregated schools unconstitutional, significant strides were made in desegregating schools and expanding educational opportunities for black students. Many schools became more racially integrated, and educational attainment among blacks increased, with more black students graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. However, disparities persisted. Schools in predominantly black neighborhoods often faced resource shortages and lower-quality facilities compared to those in predominantly white areas. Achievement gaps between black and white students remained, with black students, on average, scoring lower on standardized tests and facing higher rates of disciplinary action. Additionally, the resegregation of schools in some areas and the persistence of economic disparities continued to hinder progress in achieving educational equity. Despite these challenges, there were positive signs. Initiatives aimed at closing the achievement gap, such as increased funding for schools serving low-income communities and the implementation of targeted educational programs, showed promise. The turn of the twenty-first century was marked by ongoing efforts to address these issues and improve educational outcomes for black students, highlighting the importance of continued commitment to achieving educational equity for all. 78) What were the various developments in black culture, the arts, and intellectual leanings during the 1980s and 1990s? Who were some of the major figures? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Describe the origin of rap music and the rise of gangsta rap which was critical of discrimination, unfair policing, and the general problems of the inner city. 2. Note that individuals such as Grandmaster Flash and Russell Simmons pioneered black participation in the recording of rap music, a departure from the days when whites owned the entire music recording industry. 3. Note the rise of Afrocentricity in higher education and the arts under pioneers like Moleki Kete Asante at Temple University. 4. Note that Toni Morrison and Alice Walker continued to write major works exploring black identity, history, and culture. 5. Note that black studies programs staffed by black professors serving as public intellectuals remains a visible component of black intellectual life. 6. Point out that immigration from the Caribbean, black feminism, and the black gay and lesbian movement added further diversity and cultural complexity to the African-American arts community and black culture. Sample Answer: The 1980s and 1990s were pivotal decades for black culture, arts, and intellectual thought, marked by a flourishing of creativity and a renaissance in various fields. One of the most significant developments was the rise of hip-hop music and culture, which emerged as a powerful form of expression for black youth, addressing issues of race, politics, and urban life. Artists like Public Enemy, N.W.A, and Tupac Shakur became iconic figures, using their music to critique social injustices and advocate for change. In literature, authors such as Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, and August Wilson gained widespread acclaim for their works, which explored the complexities of the black experience in America. Morrison's novel "Beloved" and Wilson's plays, including "Fences" and "The Piano Lesson," are considered masterpieces of African American literature, addressing themes of family, history, and identity. In the visual arts, artists like Jean-Michel Basquiat and Kara Walker challenged traditional notions of art and race, pushing boundaries and provoking thought with their bold and innovative works. Basquiat's graffiti-inspired paintings and Walker's provocative silhouette art are celebrated for their powerful messages and unique aesthetics. Intellectually, scholars like bell hooks, Cornel West, and Henry Louis Gates Jr. contributed to a reexamination of black history, culture, and identity. Their writings and teachings helped to shape new perspectives on race and society, challenging prevailing narratives and advocating for social justice. Overall, the 1980s and 1990s were a time of cultural vibrancy and intellectual ferment in the black community, with a diverse array of voices and perspectives contributing to a rich tapestry of creativity and thought. 79) Briefly discuss some of the literary achievements by African Americans in the late twentieth century. How are some of these works different from, or similar to, black literary works in other periods (the Chicago Renaissance or the 1960s, for example)? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the new cultural renaissance differed from the black arts movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The contemporary flowering was more inclusive and more appreciative of women artists. It also included the work of openly gay and lesbian artists, such as documentary filmmaker Marion Riggs, choreographer Bill T. Jones, and novelist E. Lynn Harris. 2. Note that whereas poets and dramatists dominated earlier movements, novelists took center stage in the 1980s. Much of the new work in all fields appeal as much to white audiences as to black, providing insights into the lives of people of African heritage in a predominantly Eurocentric society. 3. Point out that a new wave of African-American women novelists emerged as early as 1977 when Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon became a Book-of-the- Month-Club selection, the first by a black author since Richard Wright’s Native Son in 1940. 4. Note that Barbara Chase-Riboud made waves with Sally Hemings (1979), a fictional account of a real-life woman who was both slave to and mistress of President Thomas Jefferson. Then, in 1982, Alice Walker won the Pulitzer Prize and the American Book Award for The Color Purple. In 1993 Rita Dove became America’s poet laureate, and in the same year Toni Morrison became the first African American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. 5. Note that President Bill Clinton invited Maya Angelou to read one of her poems at his first inauguration. In 2009 President Obama invited Elizabeth Alexander to read a poem at his inauguration. 6. Conclude that in 1992 three African-American women novelists—Morrison, Walker, and Terry McMillan—made the New York Times best-seller list simultaneously. In 2001 the works of four African Americans made the Times best-seller list and revealed the growing appreciation of black literature, biography, and history across the racial spectrum. Sample Answer: In the late twentieth century, African American literature continued to flourish, with notable achievements that built upon and expanded the legacy of earlier periods such as the Harlem Renaissance and the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s. One significant development was the proliferation of diverse voices and perspectives within black literature, reflecting the complexities of the African American experience. Toni Morrison's novel "Beloved," published in 1987, is a prime example of this period's literary achievements. The novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, explores the legacy of slavery and its impact on individuals and communities. Morrison's use of magical realism and nonlinear narrative techniques set "Beloved" apart from earlier works, adding layers of complexity to its portrayal of history and memory. Another important work of the late twentieth century is Alice Walker's novel "The Color Purple" (1982). Like "Beloved," "The Color Purple" delves into themes of race, gender, and identity, but does so through the lens of a young black woman in the early twentieth century South. Walker's narrative style and her exploration of spirituality and female relationships distinguish "The Color Purple" from earlier works. These late twentieth-century works share similarities with earlier black literary works in their exploration of themes such as racism, identity, and community. However, they also differ in their narrative techniques and thematic concerns. While earlier works often focused on themes of protest and social change, late twentieth-century works tended to be more introspective and focused on personal and familial relationships. Overall, the literary achievements of African Americans in the late twentieth century reflect a continuation of earlier traditions while also showcasing new voices and approaches. These works continue to be celebrated for their contributions to American literature and their insights into the African American experience. 80) Discuss the issue of Afrocentricity. What supporting and opposing arguments to this philosophy have blacks advanced? How does this debate reveal the changing nature of the black community? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that in the 1980s and 1990s, a philosophy of culture referred to as Afrocentricity captured wide attention. Afrocentricity had been prominent in the political movement that created black studies, but Temple University professor Molefi Kete Asante gave it a presence and a personality. 2. Note that Asante argued that an African-centered perspective was needed to reorient African Americans from the Eurocentric periphery to the center of their own history. 3. Note that in its most extreme form, Afrocentrists argue that much of European civilization originated in Africa, particularly from the culture of ancient Egypt. Afrocentrists also point to evidence of advanced cultures in other parts of Africa to refute assertions of African cultural inferiority. 4. Point out that many black educators embraced Afrocentricity as a way to celebrate and reclaim a positive African identity and to unite the peoples of the African Diaspora. Afrocentrists rejected the idea of America as a melting pot. At the heart of this position is an indictment of American ideas and institutions for their complicity in the long oppression of black people. 5. Conclude that many black scholars insist that Afrocentricity is regressive and fosters self-segregation. White and black critics caution that the Afrocentrist desire to fabricate “a glorious past” for black people obscured the truth and fostered a narrow notion of race ill-suited for studying Africans in America. Sample Answer: Afrocentricity is a philosophy that emphasizes the centrality of African and African-descended peoples in history, culture, and thought. Proponents of Afrocentricity argue that traditional Eurocentric perspectives have marginalized and distorted the contributions of African civilizations and peoples. They advocate for a reexamination of history and culture from an African-centered perspective, celebrating the achievements and contributions of African peoples throughout history. Supporting arguments for Afrocentricity include the promotion of positive self-identity and cultural pride among black communities. By emphasizing the richness and complexity of African history and culture, Afrocentricity seeks to counter negative stereotypes and empower individuals within the black community. Proponents also argue that Afrocentric perspectives can provide a more accurate and inclusive understanding of history, highlighting the interconnectedness of different cultures and civilizations. Opponents of Afrocentricity, on the other hand, raise concerns about its potential for oversimplification and distortion of history. Critics argue that Afrocentric perspectives may overlook the diversity and complexity of African cultures and civilizations, presenting a monolithic and idealized view of African history. Some also raise questions about the validity of Afrocentric historical claims, arguing that they are not supported by mainstream scholarly research. The debate over Afrocentricity reflects the changing nature of the black community and its efforts to assert its identity and agency in the face of historical and ongoing marginalization. As black communities continue to navigate issues of identity, history, and culture, the debate over Afrocentricity serves as a reminder of the importance of diverse perspectives and ongoing dialogue in shaping a more inclusive and equitable society. Chapter 24: The Triumph of Black Politics: 1980 to the Present Multiple Choice Questions 1) Who received the Democratic nomination for president in 1984? A) Ronald Reagan B) Michael Dukakis C) Walter Mondale D) Geraldine Ferraro Answer: C 2) Who received the Democratic nomination for president in 1988? A) Walter Mondale B) David Dinkins C) George Bush D) Michael Dukakis Answer: D 3) Which of the following ideas was supported by Jesse Jackson in the 1984 presidential campaign? A) He wanted to push through more cuts in civil rights and welfare. B) He hoped to cut back the growth of government, business, and labor. C) He wanted to represent people who felt politically marginalized. D) He wanted to have a national holiday celebrating Malcolm X. Answer: C 4) What is the connection between Jesse Jackson and Robert Goodman? A) Goodman managed Jackson’s 1984 run for president. B) Goodman married Jackson’s daughter and served as his personal aide. C) Goodman was a U.S. Air Force pilot freed in part with Jackson’s help. D) Goodman attempted to assassinate Jackson at a campaign rally in Texas. Answer: C 5) Why was Geraldine Ferraro’s participation on the 1984 Democratic presidential ticket with Mondale significant in U.S. history? A) She was the first woman to appear on television at a major party rally. B) She was the first woman to be mentioned in a major campaign statement. C) She was the first woman on a major party’s presidential campaign ticket. D) She was the first woman nominated for president by a major political party. Answer: C 6) Why did Ronald Reagan win the 1984 presidential election? A) Most blacks voted for him. B) Most women voted for him. C) Most whites voted for him. D) Most poor people voted for him. Answer: C 7) Why was George H. W. Bush criticized by many blacks in the 1988 election campaign? A) African-American leaders said that Bush, if elected, would overturn many black gains in civil rights. B) Bush had accused Jesse Jackson of taking bribes and other types of corruption. C) Bush refused to renounce a very negative ad depicting Willie Horton, a black rapist. D) Bush had wrongly accused Jesse Jackson of sexual harassment and embezzlement. Answer: C 8) In what year did the U.S. begin to officially celebrate Martin Luther King Jr., day? A) 1988 B) 1987 C) 1986 D) 1985 Answer: D 9) What ethnic group occupied approximately half of the population of inner-city residents during the early 1980s? A) whites B) blacks C) Hispanics D) Native Americans Answer: B 10) What happened to the wealth of the upper-income holders, the highest paid one percent of the nation, during the 1980s? A) Their wealth remained relatively the same. B) Their wealth declined. C) Their wealth increased. D) No reliable data is available. Answer: C 11) What happened to the pace of affirmative action cases after Clarence Thomas took over as head of the EEOC? A) The backlog of cases decreased over time. B) New cases were processed at a faster pace. C) More legal staff were hired to help answer phone calls. D) The backlog of cases increased, as did the processing time for a case. Answer: D 12) How did Reagan's policies impact the EEOC and the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights? A) His actions made the groups far stronger in American society. B) He had no policies with respect to these agencies. C) Both were hampered in operations or reduced to insignificance. D) Reagan abolished both during his first few days in office. Answer: C 13) How did Ronald Reagan's presidency impact African Americans? A) Reagan worked for better opportunities for blacks and to expand civil rights. B) Reagan turned away from broadening government protections for civil rights. C) Reagan appointed some blacks to cabinet positions but was unwilling to risk losing support of southern whites. D) Reagan ignored all aspects of black civil rights, hoping to make the issue go away. Answer: B 14) Which interest group became part of the coalition that elected Ronald Reagan in 1980? A) white southerners happy with changes created by the civil rights movement B) western whites who supported women's rights, homosexuality, and abortion rights C) white northerners unhappy about busing and affirmative action programs D) white easterners who hoped to increase government spending on different programs Answer: C 15) What approach to social problems adopted by the Reagan and Bush (Sr.) administrations negatively impacted blacks? A) They cut funds for the redevelopment of inner cities. B) They favored the poor over the elite and middle class. C) They appointed many blacks to government posts from a diversity of viewpoints. D) They reoriented the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights by replacing all the previous members with whites. Answer: A 16) Why did many civil rights organizations protest Reagan's appointment of William Bell to lead the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission? A) Bell was an established politician with a reputation for corruption. B) Bell was well known as a racist white senator from Alabama. C) Bell was a conservative black man and had very few job qualifications. D) Bell was white and most of the people who headed the EEOC were black. Answer: C 17) Whom did the Republican Party elect to chair the party after the presidential election of Barak Obama in 2008? A) Colin Powell B) Jesse Jackson C) Michael Steele D) William Bell Answer: C 18) Why was Clarence Thomas's nomination to the Supreme Court strongly opposed by many Americans? A) Thomas had too much experience as a judge at the federal court level. B) Thomas was a black conservative who opposed affirmative action. C) Anita Hill came forward to accuse Thomas of murder and rape. D) Thomas was overtly favorable to homosexuals. Answer: B 19) Why did Anita Hill testify against Clarence Thomas before a congressional committee in 1991? A) She wanted to support his bid for Supreme Court justice. B) She agreed to testify after considerable pressure from the judiciary. C) She was forced to testify or remain in contempt of court and Congress. D) Her answers to confidential questions in a sexual harassment case were leaked to the press, so she agreed to appear before the committee. Answer: D 20) What did the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke involve? A) discrimination against a black student attempting to enroll in law school B) a white man who claimed that he was not allowed to vote with black students C) a white man who said that the University of California's admission requirements discriminated against him D) two groups of black and white students who refused to attend classes together Answer: C 21) What is affirmative action? A) policies promoting black people over white people in all instances B) policies seeking to remedy historic discrimination in employment and education for minorities C) policies to equalize voting opportunities for blacks D) policies to give blacks an annual income and free health care to equalize them with whites Answer: B 22) Which type of institution has occupied the center of the backlash against affirmative action? A) educational institutions B) restaurants and cafeterias C) businesses and places of work D) government jobs at the state level Answer: A 23) How has the percentage of African Americans in the University of California system been affected by the end of affirmative action policies? A) The percentage of blacks has dropped slightly overall. B) The percentage of blacks has fallen dramatically overall. C) The percentage of blacks has risen slightly overall D) The percentage of blacks has risen dramatically overall. Answer: A 24) Which country in the 1980s attracted the focus of many African Americans? A) Yugoslavia B) Zimbabwe C) South Africa D) Great Britain Answer: C 25) Which Democratic Congressmen introduced a bill in every session of Congress since 1993 to establish a federal commission to investigate slavery and the legacy of racial discrimination? A) Jessie Jackson B) Colin Powell C) Barak Obama D) John Conyers Answer: D 26) What did the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988 accomplish? A) Although it would have made significant gains for blacks, Reagan vetoed it. B) It helped black women gain jobs in federal employment. C) It negated affirmative action programs in higher education and within the federal government. D) It withheld federal funds if an institution discriminated against women or racial minorities. Answer: D 27) What is the concept of apartheid? A) another term for the industrialization of modern nations B) a system of racial discrimination, glorifying white supremacy C) a type of African music that gained popularity among blacks in the 1980s D) a type of international foreign policy, where some governments are set "a part" because of race Answer: B 28) How does the black community view the idea of reparations for blacks to compensate for slavery? A) Opinion is divided over reparations. B) The black community is solidly behind the idea. C) The black community is solidly against the idea. D) Elite blacks seem to favor it, while poor blacks seem to be against it. Answer: A 29) Who became president of South Africa in part because of the antiapartheid movement in the United States? A) F.W. de Klerk B) W.E.B. Du Bois C) Nelson Mandela D) François Mitterrand Answer: C 30) Why did black leaders protest in front of the South African embassy in Washington D.C. in 1984? A) They were angry about South Africa’s boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics. B) They were proud of South African’s election of Nelson Mandela as president. C) They were attempting to stop South Africa from oppressing black political prisoners. D) They wanted the South African government to pay reparations for slavery. Answer: C 31) What did the report published by Amnesty International in 1998 demonstrate? A) Middle Eastern countries were by far the most common human rights offenders. B) American police officers violated many international laws; most of their victims were minorities. C) Americans enjoyed more economic and social benefits than people in other countries. D) The U.S. government was the top nation in the world in stopping human rights abuses. Answer: B 32) The general white perception of black men as embodying what element in society actually increased following George H.W. Bush’s election? A) educators B) policemen C) construction workers D) criminals Answer: D 33) How did the Rodney King verdict reveal differences between whites and blacks regarding American justice? A) Blacks and whites came together to support the verdict. B) Blacks saw the acquittal of the police officers as an example of injustice while whites saw it as preserving law and order. C) Blacks and whites came together to oppose the verdict. D) Blacks saw the fact that Rodney King was released as evidence that the American court system favored rich people while whites saw it as injustice. Answer: B 34) Who was the first American president to visit sub-Saharan Africa? A) Harry Truman B) George W. Bush C) Bill Clinton D) Ronald Reagan Answer: C 35) What did the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 accomplish? A) It ended guarantees of federal aid to poor children. B) It continued welfare benefits to legal immigrants. C) It ended the welfare system in the U.S. D) It provided more years of benefit for all families. Answer: A 36) What problems were reported with election results in Florida in the 2000 election? A) The election included announcements by police of road blocks in white neighborhoods. B) In many cases, whites were denied the right to vote by blacks and Hispanics. C) Areas with high percentages of blacks were least likely to have modern voting equipment. D) The problems in Florida were purely political—the Democrats in power refused to allow Republicans to vote at most polling stations. Answer: C 37) How did blacks view President Clinton? A) They refused to support him at first, but later reluctantly did after he cut welfare. B) They thought he was the best president since Lyndon Johnson regarding black rights. C) They never supported him or any of his polices because of his lack of support of Africa. D) They supported him at first but then later voted against him because of public scandals. Answer: B 38) What economic policy did Clinton support that was a departure from his predecessors' economic policies? A) He lowered taxes for all Americans, making him very popular. B) He tried to get America out of a recession but never succeeded. C) He decided to raise taxes on higher-income Americans to generate revenue. D) He reduced taxes for all minority groups to compensate for past discrimination. Answer: C 39) What was the relationship between Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky? A) She married Clinton during his second term in office. B) She served as chief investigator in the Justice Department. C) She served as deputy chief of staff for both of Clinton’s presidential terms. D) She had a sexual affair with Clinton during his second term in office. Answer: D 40) What was the relationship between the Clintons and Whitewater? A) The Clintons went whitewater rafting without federal permission. B) The Clintons journeyed to Whitewater, Wisconsin, without security. C) The Clintons went on an international trip that became a national scandal. D) The Clintons entered into a land development deal in Arkansas that became a national investigation. Answer: D 41) Why did President Clinton reduce funding for the social welfare program Aid to Families of Dependent Children in 1996? A) He thought it violated freedom of speech. B) He thought it interfered with integration. C) He thought it did little to reduce poverty. D) He thought black women would work less if the act was passed. Answer: C 42) What was different from previous administrations regarding Clinton's appointment of black people to administrative positions? A) He appointed fewer blacks than Ronald Reagan. B) He failed to appoint any blacks to administrative positions. C) He appointed blacks to positions that often had nothing to do with race. D) Blacks refused to support his appointments, because he picked unqualified people. Answer: C 43) Which city was devastated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005? A) Miami B) Houston C) Galveston D) New Orleans Answer: D 44) What is true about George W. Bush's appointments of African Americans in his administration? A) He refused to appoint blacks as cabinet level advisers. B) He generally followed Reagan's policy of appointing token blacks only to insignificant positions. C) He appointed blacks to key posts, including Colin Powell as secretary of state and Condoleezza Rice as national security adviser. D) He was the first president to have a majority of black advisers on his staff. Answer: C 45) What events countered President George W. Bush's assertion that Iraq War was proceeding smoothly? A) Saddam Hussein was ousted from power. B) Saddam Hussein was captured and executed. C) Iraqi insurgents made key gains in Afghanistan. D) Over 3,500 U.S. troops and thousands of Iraqis were killed in the summer of 2007. Answer: D 46) What is the connection between Barak Obama and the 2004 Democratic Party presidential primary? A) He was elected chairman of the party. B) He failed to attend the entire convention. C) He gave an inspiring speech at the convention. D) He was nominated for President of the United States. Answer: C 47) Why did President George W. Bush's popularity plummet after the 2004 election? A) Voters disagreed with his decision to appoint Rice as secretary of state. B) Voters were angry about the way he handled the war in Iraq and Hurricane Katrina. C) Voters opposed his economic policies and the number of people in poverty skyrocketed. D) Voters disagreed with his personal life and family scandals that were uncovered during his first administration. Answer: B 48) What was the connection between Obama’s presidential victory and the use of popular music entertainers during the 2012 election? A) Popular entertainers voted for Romney for president. B) Popular entertainers refused to work for the Obama administration. C) Popular entertainers who played for the Romney campaign violated decency laws. D) Popular entertainers attracted black support and white working class support for Obama. Answer: D 49) According to Map 24-1, what parts of the nation did Obama win in 2008? A) the West only B) the West and Northeast only C) the West, Alaska, and the Deep South D) the West, Northeast, and parts of the South Answer: D 50) What is true about the differences between McCain and Obama during the election of 2008? A) Obama declared himself a "maverick" within the political process. B) The Republicans defended McCain from accusations that he was not a strong leader. C) McCain picked a far more experienced political leader for his vice-presidential candidate than Obama did. D) After the economic recession hit, Obama appeared more calm and reliable to voters than McCain did. Answer: D True/False Questions 51) From 1981 to 1992, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush increased federal grants to cities. Answer: False 52) Ronald Reagan’s defeat of Jimmy Carter in 1980 paved the way for the dominance of the New Left. Answer: False 53) One of the New Right’s chief goals was to expand the social welfare programs created during and after the New Deal and Johnson’s Great Society. Answer: False 54) In 1996 Clinton became the first Republican president to win a second term since Franklin Roosevelt. Answer: False 55) When Clinton left office in 2001, the country had the lowest poverty rate in 20 years. Answer: True 56) Massachusetts Senator John F. Kerry won the Democratic Party’s nomination for president in 2004. Answer: True 57) The impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 included the highest storm surge in U.S. history. Answer: True 58) The response of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and its head Michael Brown to the Hurricane Katrina disaster was chaotic and ineffective. Answer: True 59) Anti-Bush comments made by rapper Kanye West became an “Emmett Till” moment for the hip-hop generation in 2005. Answer: True 60) The actions of Jesse Jackson in transporting thousands of Hurricane Katrina survivors to Chicago is an example of black self-help efforts when the federal government was unable to meet the needs of black people. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) President Lyndon Johnson had first used the term ______________ ______________ in a 1965 executive order that required federal contractors to guarantee equal treatment of all job seekers and employees. Answer: affirmative action 62) In 1969 Arthur A. Fletcher, a black assistant secretary of labor in the Nixon administration, developed the “______________ Plan,” in which firms with federal construction contracts were obligated to meet hiring goals for blacks or be penalized. Answer: Philadelphia 63) By the 1990s African Americans had become an indispensable base of the ______________ Party. Answer: Democratic 64) The Supreme Court case of ______________ v. ______________ decided to stop the recount of Florida votes and gave the 2000 election to George Bush. Answer: Bush v. Gore 65) In the 2008 campaign Obama was helped by the support of his wife ______________, who become an exceptionally popular and revered First Lady. Answer: Michelle 66) The most important factors in producing victory for Barak Obama in 2008 and 2012 were his skilled, dedicated, and cohesive staff and a mastery of ______________ technology. Answer: computer 67) The results of Republican efforts at the state and federal level to enact voter ______________ laws failed to meaningfully reduce the ethnic minority vote in the 2012 election. Answer: identification 68) The impact of Hurricane ______________ on the 2012 election included public praise for President Obama’s response to the natural disaster. Answer: Sandy 69) In the 2008 presidential election, Sarah ______________ was John McCain’s running mate; she detracted from his bid for president. Answer: Palin 70) According to Table 24-1, a strong correlation existed between women and the ______________ Party in the 2012 election. Answer: Democratic Short Answer Questions 71) How did the Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill controversy reveal tensions within black society? Answer: The Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill controversy revealed tensions within black society over issues such as gender dynamics, respectability politics, and the complexities of navigating racial and gender discrimination. Anita Hill's accusations against Thomas sparked debates about race loyalty, the role of black women in challenging sexual harassment, and the challenges of addressing intra-racial issues in a public forum. 72) How did the case of Regents of University of California v. Bakke foreshadow changes in civil rights policies in the arena of education during the 1980s? Answer: The case of Regents of University of California v. Bakke foreshadowed changes in civil rights policies in education during the 1980s by highlighting the shift towards a more conservative approach, particularly regarding affirmative action. The Supreme Court's ruling in Bakke, while upholding affirmative action, also set limits on the use of racial quotas, indicating a trend towards more nuanced and limited approaches to addressing racial disparities in education. 73) What is the debate regarding reparations for slavery for blacks, and why are African Americans divided over the issue? Answer: The debate regarding reparations for slavery for blacks centers on whether the descendants of enslaved Africans should receive compensation for the injustices suffered by their ancestors. African Americans are divided over the issue due to differing perspectives on the effectiveness of reparations in addressing historical injustices, concerns about the feasibility of implementing such a program, and varying views on whether reparations would promote healing and reconciliation. 74) What was the relationship between black people and Bill Clinton during his presidency? Answer: During his presidency, Bill Clinton had a complex relationship with the black community. While he enjoyed strong support from many black voters, particularly during his re-election in 1996, his policies, such as welfare reform and crime legislation, were criticized for disproportionately affecting African Americans. Clinton also faced scrutiny over his handling of issues like racial profiling and affirmative action, leading to some tensions in his relationship with the black community. 75) Why did an impeachment campaign arise against President Clinton during his second term in office? Answer: An impeachment campaign arose against President Clinton during his second term in office primarily due to his extramarital affair with Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern, and his subsequent actions to conceal the affair, including lying under oath. These actions led to allegations of perjury and obstruction of justice, which ultimately led to his impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1998. Essay Questions 76) What was the relationship between “old” civil rights issues and “new” civil rights issues within the Reagan and Bush administrations of the 1980s and early 1990s? Why did they make this distinction? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define the Reagan and Bush administrations in how they distinguished between what might be called the “old civil rights law,” which they claimed to support, and the “new civil rights law,” which they opposed. 2. Point out that old civil rights laws developed between the Brown decision in 1954 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. They prohibited intentional discrimination, be it legal segregation in the schools, informal discrimination in the workplace, or racial restrictions on voting. 3. Note that the new civil rights law was concerned with discriminatory outcomes, as measured by statistical disparities, rather than with discriminatory intent. 4. Conclude that both conservative presidents Reagan and Bush championed old civil rights laws and worked against new civil rights laws to the dismay of progressives and African Americans. They made this distinction in order to roll back civil rights gains for ethnic minorities. Sample Answer: During the Reagan and Bush administrations of the 1980s and early 1990s, there was a distinction made between "old" civil rights issues, which primarily focused on issues of racial discrimination and segregation, and "new" civil rights issues, which encompassed broader concerns such as affirmative action, voting rights, and economic equality. The administrations often prioritized "old" civil rights issues, such as combating racial discrimination, through measures like supporting the extension of the Voting Rights Act and promoting equal opportunity in housing and education. However, they took a more conservative stance on "new" civil rights issues, arguing that affirmative action policies and other measures aimed at addressing systemic inequalities were unnecessary or even harmful. This distinction was made because the Reagan and Bush administrations sought to shift the focus away from government intervention and towards individual responsibility and market-based solutions. They believed that addressing "old" civil rights issues was a necessary step towards achieving equality, but that further government intervention in "new" civil rights issues could lead to unintended consequences and infringe upon individual liberties. 77) What was the Rodney King incident? How did the event and trial impact the nation? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that King was a convicted felon who was pulled over for driving under the influence and then beaten mercilessly when he attempted to resist police abuse. 2. Note that the policemen went on trial for beating King and were acquitted, sparking a city-wide riot in Los Angeles. 3. Conclude that the event produced a riot that revealed the nation continued to have problems of racial discrimination and violence. Sample Answer: The Rodney King incident refers to a violent confrontation between Rodney King, a black motorist, and Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers on March 3, 1991. The officers, caught on video by a civilian bystander, were seen using excessive force, including baton strikes and kicks, against King, who was unarmed and appeared to be complying with police orders. The video sparked outrage across the nation and around the world. Following the incident, four officers were charged with assault and use of excessive force. However, in April 1992, a predominantly white jury acquitted three of the officers and failed to reach a verdict for the fourth, leading to widespread protests and civil unrest in Los Angeles. The riots lasted for six days, resulting in 63 deaths, thousands of injuries, and over $1 billion in property damage. The Rodney King incident and subsequent trial highlighted deep-rooted issues of racial discrimination and police brutality in the United States. It sparked national debates about race relations, the criminal justice system, and the use of force by law enforcement. The event also led to calls for police reform and greater accountability, as well as efforts to address underlying socioeconomic inequalities that contribute to tensions between law enforcement and minority communities. 78) How did the events of September 11, 2001, and the war in Iraq affect America, and especially black Americans? Were black reactions different from, or similar to, reactions to other wars? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the 2001 attacks and the Iraq war increased U.S. imperialism abroad, reduced civil liberties at home, sullied national reputation at home and abroad, killed thousands of U.S. troops and Iraqi civilians, and produced a long-term decline in the U.S. economy. 2. Note that blacks were particularly impacted by the attack in terms of a downturn in the economy and as soldiers sent to war in Iraq. 3. Note that blacks were shocked by the attack but many joined massive urban protests against the war in Iraq undertaken by the Bush administration. Some also served as soldiers in the war because as inner city or rural impoverished people, joining the army appeared the logical choice. 4. Conclude that the black response to the war was similar to World Wars I and II, in that urban protests took place to protest racism and other issues while many blacks also served patriotically. The black response to the Vietnam War is comparable to the Iraq War in high black numbers in the military and black protest at home. Sample Answer: The events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent war in Iraq had profound effects on America, including its black population. Initially, there was a sense of national unity and support for the government's response to the attacks. However, as the war in Iraq continued and evolved into a prolonged conflict, public opinion, including within the black community, became more divided. Black Americans, like the rest of the country, experienced the impacts of the 9/11 attacks and the war in Iraq, including heightened security measures, economic changes, and the loss of lives both at home and abroad. The war also raised questions about the disproportionate representation of minorities, including African Americans, in the military and the toll of combat on minority communities. Black reactions to these events were diverse. Some supported the military actions as a response to terrorism and a defense of American values, while others questioned the motives behind the war and its impact on marginalized communities. Additionally, there were concerns within the black community about civil liberties, racial profiling, and the treatment of Muslims and Arabs in the aftermath of 9/11. Overall, the reactions of black Americans to the events of September 11 and the war in Iraq were similar in some ways to those of other Americans, reflecting a mix of patriotism, skepticism, and concern for the consequences of war. However, there were also unique perspectives within the black community, shaped by historical experiences of discrimination and inequality, that influenced how individuals and communities responded to these events. 79) Why did America get involved in a war in Iraq in 2003? What was the impact of the war on the Iraqi people? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the Bush administration lied to the American public about Saddam Hussein possessing weapons of mass destruction. Secretary of State Colin Powell went to the United Nations and claimed war was also necessary to stop terrorism. 2. Point out that the war devastated the urban infrastructure of Iraq, leading to years of unstable social services. The war also led to a civil war and a war against the U.S. simultaneously between Sunni and Shiite Iraqis. 3. Conclude that the lack of evidence of weapons of mass destruction led to a decline in international cooperation and the U.S. reputation, particularly with U.N. member nations. The lack of a coherent peace plan lowered U.S. credibility. 4. Conclude that the war also strengthened terrorism abroad and at home. Sample Answer: America became involved in a war in Iraq in 2003 primarily due to the belief that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and posed a threat to the United States and its allies. The Bush administration argued that removing Saddam Hussein from power and eliminating Iraq's alleged WMDs would promote democracy and stability in the Middle East. The impact of the war on the Iraqi people was profound and multifaceted. The initial military intervention led to widespread destruction of infrastructure, loss of life, and displacement of civilians. The subsequent insurgency and sectarian violence further destabilized the country, leading to thousands of additional deaths and creating a humanitarian crisis. The war also had long-lasting consequences for Iraq, including political instability, the rise of extremist groups like ISIS, and deepening sectarian divisions. The country's infrastructure, economy, and social fabric were severely damaged, with lasting impacts on the Iraqi people's well-being and prospects for the future. 80) Why did the federal government respond poorly to the Hurricane Katrina disaster? Did race play a role in the response of the federal, state, and local governments to this disaster? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that racial politics in New Orleans, a city in the Deep South where blacks are poor and disempowered, was a major factor in the slow and ineffective federal and state response to the disaster. 2. Point out that the mayor supported white real estate interests over those of poor black neighborhoods while F.E.M.A was slow to provide evacuation and emergency relief. 3. Conclude that President Bush compounded the problem by championing the leader of F.E.M.A. and avoiding a visit to New Orleans. Sample Answer: The federal government's poor response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was attributed to a combination of factors, including inadequate preparedness, ineffective coordination between federal, state, and local agencies, and a delayed and insufficient deployment of resources. The slow and disorganized response resulted in widespread suffering and loss of life, particularly in New Orleans. Race played a significant role in the response to Hurricane Katrina. The storm disproportionately affected African American communities, many of which were located in low-lying areas prone to flooding. The delayed and inadequate response from the government was seen as reflective of broader racial disparities and systemic issues, including socioeconomic inequality and inadequate infrastructure in minority communities. Critics argued that the government's response to Katrina highlighted underlying racial biases and inequalities in the United States. The slow evacuation and rescue efforts, as well as the inadequate provision of food, water, and medical care to affected communities, were seen as indicative of a lack of concern for the predominantly black population of New Orleans. Overall, the response to Hurricane Katrina underscored the importance of addressing racial disparities and improving disaster preparedness and response efforts to ensure that all communities, regardless of race or socioeconomic status, receive timely and effective assistance during times of crisis. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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