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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 01: Africa Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which desert covers the northern third of the African continent? A) Sonora B) Sahara C) Mojave D) Kalahari Answer: B 2) The origins of humanity lie in which of the following continents? A) Asia B) North America C) Africa D) Australia Answer: C 3) The concept or term habilis in anthropology refers to ______________. A) wearing a habit B) forming habits C) using tools D) living in a home Answer: C 4) The term homo sapiens refers to ______________. A) modern humans B) modern chimpanzees C) modern swine D) modern fish Answer: A 5) Based on the image in 1-1, which aspects of the drawing suggest it is a hominid with similarities to modern humans? A) diet and health B) clothing and shoes C) food and housing D) skeletal structures Answer: D 6) The kingdom of Kush was driven out of power by the ______________. A) Greeks B) French C) Persians D) Assyrians Answer: D 7) Which empire conquered Egypt in 30 BCE? A) Rome B) Great Britain C) Russia D) Ottoman Answer: A 8) Which of the following transitions did ancient peoples make that first ushered in “civilization?” A) fishing to hunting B) the destruction of cities C) hunting and gathering to agriculture D) immigration to other countries Answer: C 9) In which era did Egyptian leaders start using the title pharaoh? A) unification B) cultural decline C) expansion D) origin Answer: C 10) Egyptian culture was strongly defined by which of the following attributes? A) monotheism B) matriarchy C) patriarchy D) class equality Answer: C 11) Which statement best characterizes the power and status of women in ancient Egypt? A) Women served as the rulers of Egypt because it was a matriarchal society. B) Women were treated as property and were allowed no legal rights once married. C) Women held a relatively high status, could own property, and be public officials. D) Women lived in a separate society from men, rarely interacting with Egyptian society. Answer: C 12) Egyptian religion was characterized by ______________. A) monotheism B) no connections to the state C) matriarchal priesthood D) elites buried in royal tombs Answer: D 13) Ancient Egypt received which of the following influences from Nubia? A) grain production and the concept of monarchy B) naval warfare and the institution of slavery C) city and town formation and design D) highway and canal construction Answer: A 14) Ancient Egyptians ______________. A) regarded themselves as "white," but actually exhibited a mixture of racial features B) influenced the development and culture of Greece and later Western civilizations C) were dependent on the Amazon for agriculture, transportation and communications D) left very few remains of their civilization in any form Answer: B 15) How did Egypt and Nubia interact as civilizations during the second millennium BCE? A) They experienced peaceful coexistence and pacifism. B) Egypt colonized Nubia. C) They were allies in warfare. D) The nations were unknown to each other. Answer: B 16) In a situation similar to Egypt’s, ancient Mesopotamian civilization arose from which of the following natural forces? A) lightning strikes B) melting of the polar ice cap C) earthquakes D) river valley formation Answer: D 17) The nation of Axum is significant because its people ______________. A) overtook the Egyptians while the Great Pyramids were being built B) were Semitic and it became the first Christian state in sub-Saharan Africa C) became extremely wealthy through exploiting nearby iron resources D) enjoyed a success that rested entirely upon trade fell with the decline of Rome Answer: B 18) According to Map 1-2, in what ways did the Egyptians use the Nile River Valley for settlement? A) They settled along the river and at its mouth. B) They settled away from the river. C) They settled at the headwaters of the river. D) They settled on the river in floating cities. Answer: A 19) What aspects of the image in 1-3 suggest Egyptian influence on the city of Meroe? A) reddish sands B) pyramids and hieroglyphics C) hot temperatures and direct sunlight D) the mountains in the background Answer: B 20) The nation of Ghana imported a variety of items from North Africa, particularly ______________. A) pepper B) gold C) slaves D) salt Answer: D 21) Who were West Africa's chief trading partners in the trans-Sahara trade before the fifth century CE? A) the Greeks B) the Spanish and the French C) Roman merchants and the Berbers D) the Egyptians Answer: C 22) Ghana’s capital, Kumbi Saleh, included ______________. A) Islamic mosques, stone houses, and 20,000 people B) Jewish temples, straw buildings, and 50,000 people C) Christian churches, wood houses, and 100,000 people D) pagan prayer rooms, iron barracks, and 200,000 people Answer: A 23) Mansa Musa, a ruler of the Mali Empire in the fourteenth century, ______________. A) was known for his extreme cruelty to his slaves B) introduced Christianity to the West Sudan region C) was one of the wealthiest rulers the world has known D) was massacred by European armies after trying to stop the slave trade Answer: C 24) Which Songhai leader spread Islam in Africa and established the Sankore Mosque at Timbuktu? A) Sunni Ali B) Mansa Musa C) Sundiata Mali D) Askia Muhammad Toure Answer: D 25) African Americans come primarily from which region in Africa? A) north B) south C) east D) west Answer: D 26) The peoples of the forest regions of West Africa are important in the study of African-American history because they ______________. A) were the first region to trade with Egypt and other Mediterranean areas B) converted to Christianity in significant numbers C) played an important role in the slave trade as traders and victims D) were the first areas to receive colonists from the United States in the early 1800s Answer: C 27) What is the connection between camels and African trade in the first century CE? A) Camels had no role in shaping trade relations in the first century CE. B) Camels helped to end trade in the region in the first century CE. C) Camels facilitated long-distance trade in the first century CE. D) Camels died out in the desert in the first century CE. Answer: C 28) How did extensive trade in West Africa shape political history in the region over time? A) Arab merchants and the religion of Islam entered the region. B) Sudanese empires ignored trade opportunities and embraced European Christianity. C) The growth of cities declined in the region, leading to civilization collapse. D) Trade led to greater isolation of the region. Answer: A 29) How did the Oyo people impose political unity over the Yoruba during the seventeenth century? A) through free university education B) through the religion of Christianity C) with a well-trained cavalry D) through immigration bans Answer: C 30) What role did European firearms play in African history? A) Guns became a trade item that allowed the Akan states to expand. B) Guns played no role in African politics. C) Guns were used by Africans to take over the slave trade from Europeans. D) Guns were used by Africans to sell to Asian civilizations for help against Europeans. Answer: A 31) Examine the two images in Map 1-3. What major differences existed between the two empires over time? A) Mali expanded to the southern coast of Africa. B) Ghana expanded to the Atlantic Ocean. C) Mali and Ghana remained landlocked. D) Mali expanded more than did Ghana. Answer: D 32) Regarding Ghana’s decline, cities in ancient Africa were frequently impacted by ______________. A) floods B) earthquakes C) capture and destruction by foreign enemies D) Russian invasion Answer: C 33) Why were the kings of Ghana known to Europeans as some of the richest of monarchs? A) They had successfully invaded Europe to take Europeans as slaves. B) They controlled a vast trade network that dealt in many commodities. C) They sailed to the Americas and formed colonies. D) They possessed lucrative diamond mines. Answer: B 34) Map 1-4 compares Songhai, the Kongo, and the kingdoms of the West African forest region. In comparison to the other two, the Kongo ______________. A) lies the farthest south along the Atlantic coast B) lies exclusively in the interior of Africa C) lies in North Africa D) is the largest African empire Answer: A 35) Which of the following statements best describes the Akan states? A) The rulers gave land to settlers and asked nothing in return. B) The rulers refused to trade with Europeans. C) The rulers used guns to prevent the Akan states from expanding. D) The rulers used gold from mines to purchase slaves. Answer: D 36) Why did the kingdom of Benin eventually sell its own people into European slavery? A) Its prosperity came to depend on the slave trade. B) It desired access to Christianity. C) Europeans would not buy other African trade goods. D) It lacked access to European guns. Answer: A 37) According to Map 1-5, the routes of the trans-Saharan slave trade were characterized by ______________. A) extension to southern Africa B) connections to the ocean in North Africa and the West African forest region C) a wide geographical expansion across Saharan and North Africa D) a direct terminus along the Atlantic Ocean along the West African coast Answer: C 38) What did Kongo and Angola have in common with West Africa? A) They established colonies of people in the Americas. B) They escaped connection to the slave trade. C) Their people divided labor by gender and lived in villages of extended families. D) They were similar in size. Answer: C 39) West Africa’s indigenous religions remained strongest in the ______________. A) Saharan desert B) forest region C) Nile River valley D) Kongo Answer: B 40) West African artists excelled in the medium of ______________. A) gold B) bronze C) silver D) marble Answer: B 41) West Africans used “fetishes” or figurines for rituals related to ______________. A) political changes in leadership B) trade relationships with African governments C) peace treaties with European governments D) coming-of-age ceremonies Answer: D 42) Which musical instrument now commonly used in the U.S. has an African predecessor? A) trumpet B) saxophone C) banjo D) violin Answer: C 43) In West African culture, poetry became part of ______________. A) an oral culture expressed by commoners and elites alike B) the forbidden culture controlled by women C) European additions to African culture D) an exclusively written culture Answer: A 44) How were West African prose tales significant for African-American history? A) The tales played no role in African-American history. B) The tales helped African Americans resign themselves to slavery. C) The tales became allegories for struggles against slavery. D) The tales helped African Americans become slave masters. Answer: C 45) Which of the following statements about the role of technology in West African culture is true? A) It played an insignificant role because West Africa had almost no technology. B) The use of silver to produce agricultural tools was common. C) West Africans used technology to end African culture. D) Iron refining and forging were common in the making of religious objects. Answer: D 46) Ancient African architecture received its greatest influence from the religion of ______________. A) Islam B) Christianity C) Buddhism D) Judaism Answer: A 47) Women in West African society ______________. A) had access to formal governmental offices and posts B) were considered to be free and independent individuals C) had more sexual freedom than women in Europe D) were responsible for nothing other than the care of children Answer: C 48) In the hierarchal society of West Africa, slavery ______________. A) had no place and never existed until Europeans introduced it B) was a permanent condition and the children of African slaves were always slaves C) functioned as a means of assimilation into West African societies D) was introduced by the Greeks and Romans Answer: C 49) In a matrilineal society, rank and power ______________. A) pass through the female line B) are not passed to future generations C) pass through the male line D) are controlled by foreign visitors Answer: A 50) How is power maintained in stateless societies like the Igbo in West Africa? A) Women maintained absolute power over villages. B) Foreigners held power over villages. C) Rulers prevented villagers from leaving. D) Families, rather than central authorities, ruled villages. Answer: D True/False Questions 51) Egyptian women never ruled Egypt as pharaohs. Answer: False 52) The first known kingdom in western Sudan was Ghana. Answer: True 53) A giant stele standing today in Ethiopia is testament to the spread of ancient Egyptian architecture. Answer: True 54) The people of Senegambia were politically united but did not speak closely related languages. Answer: False 55) A sizable minority of African Americans can trace their ancestry to Central Africa. Answer: True 56) Drought was an infrequent occurrence for African farmers on the savanna. Answer: False 57) In patrilineal societies, social rank and property is passed down in the female line from mothers to sons. Answer: False 58) A “call-and-response” style of singing played a vital role in West African rituals. Answer: True 59) Both court poets and griots were women in West African society. Answer: False 60) Africans possessed stringed instruments in the ancient era. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) A large ______________ stretches across Africa spanning Ethiopia to the Atlantic Ocean. Answer: grassland 62) From north to south, Africa is divided into a series of ______________ zones. Answer: climatic 63) Scientists who study the evolution and prehistory of humans are known as ______________. Answer: paleoanthropologists 64) Egypt began a long decline as a result of ______________ ’s invasion in 331 BCE. Answer: Alexander the Great 65) The ______________, Islamic Berbers from Morocco, captured Ghana in 1076 CE. Answer: Almoravids 66) The Egyptian religion included ______________, god of the Nile. Answer: Osiris 67) In 1591, the king of Morocco used Spanish ______________ to capture Gao, capital of Songhai. Answer: mercenaries 68) The Nok, one of the early peoples of the West African forest region, were known for their ______________ technology. Answer: ironworking 69) Mansa Musa’s connection to Mecca in 1324 entailed making a ______________. Answer: pilgrimage 70) The people known as the ______________ are an example of an Akan state. Answer: Ashantee Short Answer Questions 71) Examine Map 1-1. What aspects of African geography suggest limitations and possibilities for historical settlement? Answer: Map 1-1 highlights Africa's diverse geography, including vast deserts like the Sahara, which present significant barriers to settlement and movement. Conversely, the fertile Nile River valley and the Great Rift Valley offer rich agricultural opportunities and conducive environments for early civilizations. Additionally, the continent's extensive coastlines and navigable rivers facilitate trade and interaction, suggesting both limitations and possibilities for historical settlement. 72) Discuss the scholarly debate surrounding the race and extent of influence of the ancient Egyptians. Answer: The scholarly debate on the race and influence of the ancient Egyptians revolves around differing views on their ethnicity and cultural impact. Some scholars argue that ancient Egyptians were primarily of African descent, emphasizing the connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, while others highlight influences from the Near East and Mediterranean regions. The extent of their influence is debated in terms of their contributions to later civilizations, with evidence of their advances in writing, architecture, and governance shaping historical narratives about the interconnectedness of ancient cultures. 73) Why is the Nile river called a “gift” for ancient Egypt? Answer: The Nile River is called a "gift" for ancient Egypt because its predictable flooding provided fertile soil for agriculture, which sustained the civilization. The river's abundant water supply enabled the growth of crops, supported livestock, and facilitated trade and transportation, making it essential for the economic and cultural development of ancient Egyptian society. The Nile River is called a "gift" for ancient Egypt because its predictable flooding provided fertile soil for agriculture, which sustained the civilization. The river's abundant water supply enabled the growth of crops, supported livestock, and facilitated trade and transportation, making it essential for the economic and cultural development of ancient Egyptian society. 74) Based on the Voices segment of Al Bakri’s observations of Kumbi Saleh and Ghana’s royal court, explain the connection between physical display and authority within the political system of Ghana. Answer: Al Bakri's observations of Kumbi Saleh and Ghana's royal court highlight the connection between physical display and authority within Ghana's political system. The king's opulent attire, including gold adornments and luxurious fabrics, served to visually assert his wealth and power. The elaborate ceremonies and the display of regalia reinforced the king's status and authority, making physical display an integral part of legitimizing and maintaining political control. 75) Examine the Voices segment of a Dutch visitor to Benin City in 1602. How does the foreign visitor describe conditions in the city, and what cultural biases are evident in his description? Answer: In the Voices segment, the Dutch visitor to Benin City in 1602 describes the city as well-organized and clean, with wide streets and impressive buildings, noting the sophistication and complexity of its urban planning. However, cultural biases are evident in his surprise and condescension towards the achievements of a non-European society. He expresses astonishment at the city's advancements, implicitly comparing them to European standards, and may downplay the indigenous cultural and political systems by framing them as unexpected or anomalous for an African civilization. Essay Questions 76) Why do scholars generate an intense debate surrounding the ancient origin of human beings as explained in the chapter? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Outline the evolution of early hominids: Ardipithecines, Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus. 2. Outline the migration debate: Multiregional model: Modern humans evolved from regional Homo sapiens and archaic homo erectus populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe 3. Note that the Out of Africa model: Modern humans evolved 200,000 years ago in Africa and left 100,000 years ago, migrating to Asia and Europe and the Americas. 4. Conclude that both theories are consistent with archaeological evidence. Sample Answer: The debate surrounding the ancient origin of human beings is intense due to several reasons: 1. Interdisciplinary Nature: The study of human origins involves multiple disciplines such as anthropology, archaeology, genetics, and paleontology. Each discipline brings its own theories, methods, and evidence, leading to diverse interpretations and conclusions. 2. Fragmentary Evidence: The evidence for human origins is often incomplete and fragmented, consisting of fossils, artifacts, and genetic data that require interpretation. This leads to differing opinions on how to interpret the available evidence. 3. Evolutionary Theory: The concept of human evolution challenges religious beliefs and creation myths, leading to controversy and differing interpretations of scientific findings. 4. Ethical and Political Implications: Debates about human origins often intersect with issues of race, identity, and culture, leading to sensitive and sometimes contentious discussions. 5. New Discoveries and Technologies: Ongoing discoveries of new fossils, artifacts, and advancements in dating and genetic technologies continually reshape our understanding of human origins, leading to ongoing debates and revisions of theories. 6. Historical and Cultural Context: The study of human origins is influenced by historical and cultural factors, such as nationalism, colonialism, and cultural biases, which can shape interpretations and debates. In conclusion, the intense debate surrounding the ancient origin of human beings is driven by the interdisciplinary nature of the field, the fragmentary nature of the evidence, challenges to existing beliefs, ethical and political implications, ongoing discoveries and technologies, and historical and cultural contexts. 77) How did class, gender, and religion shape Egyptian life? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1) Describe the Afrocentric debate regarding the racial origins and impact of Egyptian culture on Greece and Rome: Egyptians may or may not have been “black” in skin color, however it is clear that the civilization influenced Greece and Rome in profound ways. 2) Discuss the patriarchal nature of ancient Egyptian culture and the role of women as having some control over earnings, family development, and political power. 3) Explain the role of religion within the Egyptian political and social system as having a central role in augmenting the political power of the pharaoh. 4) Conclude that ancient Egypt was a founding civilization of world history and continues to provide new clues to its existence through archaeological discoveries. Sample Answer: Class, gender, and religion played significant roles in shaping Egyptian life, particularly in the ancient context. These factors influenced various aspects of society, including social structure, daily life, and cultural practices: 1. Class: Egyptian society was hierarchically structured, with the pharaoh at the top, followed by the nobility, priests, scribes, artisans, and farmers. The ruling class, including the pharaoh and nobility, enjoyed privileges such as lavish lifestyles, education, and access to resources. The lower classes, such as farmers and artisans, had fewer privileges and often lived in simpler conditions. Social mobility was limited, with most individuals remaining in the class into which they were born. 2. Gender: Gender roles were clearly defined in ancient Egypt, with men typically holding positions of authority and responsibility, both in the household and in society. Men were expected to provide for their families and participate in religious and political activities. Women, on the other hand, were primarily responsible for domestic duties, such as managing the household and raising children. However, women could also hold positions of power, such as queens, priestesses, or wealthy landowners, though these were exceptions rather than the norm. 3. Religion: Religion permeated every aspect of Egyptian life, influencing beliefs, values, and practices. The Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses who controlled the forces of nature and the afterlife. The pharaoh was considered a divine ruler, the intermediary between the gods and the people. Religious rituals and ceremonies were central to Egyptian life, including the construction of temples, the performance of daily rituals, and the elaborate burial practices designed to ensure a successful journey to the afterlife. Overall, class, gender, and religion were intertwined in ancient Egyptian society, shaping social structure, cultural practices, and individual experiences. These factors influenced not only how people lived their lives but also how they understood their place in the world and their relationship to the divine. 78) What were the most important economic, political, and cultural aspects of West African society? In what ways did geography impact cultural differences among West African civilizations? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1) Describe the major West African kingdoms of the Sudan: Ghana, Mali, Songhai. All were politically competitive and involved in long distance trade relations. 2) Describe the major West African kingdoms of the forest region: Senegambia, Akan, Benin, Igboland. These all played major roles in the development of West African society through warfare, religious expansion, and trade. 3) Outline West African technology (iron production), religion (polytheism and Islam), trade systems based on iron, ivory, textiles; rigid class system, and family-based leadership systems. 4) Explain the role of the Sahara desert in creating North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa; the forests of West Africa provided many slaves to European colonies because of their close proximity to the coastline; the savanna or grasslands of central and southern Africa provided the home to large internal kingdoms involved in shaping West African national histories and the slave trade. 5) Conclude that geographical characteristics, primarily aridity, continue to shape modern African political and socioeconomic development. Sample Answer: West African society was characterized by several important economic, political, and cultural aspects that contributed to its richness and diversity: 1. Economic Aspects: West Africa was known for its thriving trade networks, including the trans-Saharan trade routes that connected the region to North Africa and the Mediterranean. The trade of gold, salt, ivory, and slaves was central to the region's economy. West African societies also engaged in agriculture, with crops such as millet, sorghum, and rice being staples. The use of iron tools and techniques contributed to agricultural productivity. 2. Political Aspects: West African societies were organized into various political structures, including kingdoms, empires, and city-states. These polities were often led by powerful rulers, such as the Mansa of Mali or the Oba of Benin, who controlled vast territories and wielded significant influence. Governance systems varied, with some societies having centralized authority, while others were more decentralized. 3. Cultural Aspects: West African civilizations were characterized by rich and diverse cultures. They developed sophisticated artistic traditions, including sculpture, pottery, weaving, and music. Oral traditions, including epic poems and storytelling, played a crucial role in preserving history and cultural values. Religion was also a significant aspect of West African culture, with societies practicing a mix of indigenous beliefs and Islam or Christianity, depending on the region and time period. Geography played a crucial role in shaping the cultural differences among West African civilizations. The region's diverse geography, including deserts, savannas, forests, and coastlines, influenced settlement patterns, economic activities, and cultural practices. For example: • Societies located along the coast, such as the Akan and Yoruba, had access to the sea and engaged in trade with European powers, leading to the development of cosmopolitan and urbanized centers. • In contrast, societies in the Sahel region, such as the Mali and Songhai empires, relied more on trans-Saharan trade and pastoralism, which shaped their economic and social structures. • The presence of natural barriers, such as rivers and mountains, contributed to the development of distinct cultural and linguistic groups, as these barriers limited interaction and cultural exchange between different regions. In conclusion, West African society was characterized by its economic prosperity, political complexity, and cultural diversity. Geography played a significant role in shaping these aspects, contributing to the unique cultural differences among West African civilizations. 79) Explain the role, status, and power of African women in ancient Africa. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1) Define “African” women as including North Africa and ancient Egyptian culture as well as West, Central, Southern, and Eastern African women. 2) Point out that women were often seen as the property of men, and men dominated African women to the point of widespread enslavement of women and polygamy. 3) Note that women did in some cultures have the right to own property, inherit property, control the income from property, and serve as government officials. 4) Note the irony that women who served as government officials were often slaves. 5) Provide an example of the power of African women: The Ashantee Queen held her own court to decide women’s affairs. 6) Conclude that women held considerable power over their sexuality; secret societies taught women to be virtuous. Sample Answer: In ancient Africa, women played crucial roles in society, although their status and power varied widely depending on the specific culture and time period. Some general patterns can be observed: 1. Economic Role: Women in many African societies were involved in agricultural activities, such as planting, harvesting, and processing crops. They also engaged in trade, either independently or as part of a family unit. In some matrilineal societies, women controlled land and property, giving them economic independence and power. 2. Social Status: The social status of women varied across different African cultures. In some societies, women held significant social and political power, often serving as queen mothers or leaders of female councils. In others, their status was more restricted, with societal norms dictating their roles and behaviors. 3. Political Power: Women in ancient Africa could wield political power in various ways. In matrilineal societies, women often played key roles in decision-making and governance. Even in patrilineal societies, women could influence political affairs through their relationships with male leaders or by holding positions of authority within female organizations. 4. Religious and Spiritual Roles: Women played important roles in religious and spiritual practices in many African societies. They served as priestesses, healers, and custodians of religious knowledge. Their roles in religious ceremonies and rituals often gave them a significant amount of influence and respect within their communities. 5. Family and Community: Women were central to the family structure and community cohesion in ancient Africa. They were responsible for raising children, maintaining the household, and preserving cultural traditions. Women's roles in these areas contributed to their overall status and influence within society. Overall, the role, status, and power of African women in ancient times were diverse and complex, reflecting the rich cultural diversity of the continent. While women's roles were often defined by cultural norms and traditions, they were also active participants in economic, social, political, and religious spheres, contributing significantly to the fabric of ancient African societies. 80) In what ways did Islam influence ancient African political, economic, and cultural development prior to European arrival? How does that impact manifest itself today? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1) Define Muslim countries in ancient sub-Saharan Africa as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Islam arrived from North Africa by Arab merchants who also brought Arabic culture. 2) Explain that Arabs replaced Romans as the major foreign traders in Africa by the ninth century, leading to the conversion of African leaders to Islam. 3) Note that in Ghana, Arab Muslims dominated the monarchy and introduced writing into the culture. 4) Explain that Islam shaped African slavery. In Islamic regions of West Africa, masters had obligations to their slaves similar to those of a guardian for a ward. 5) Point out that Islam in many areas particularly of North and West Africa influenced African religion and African culture, including architecture, family life, and the roles of men and women in society. 6) Conclude that in modern Africa, the historical imprint of Islam remains strong in cultural, political, and religious influences that define modern national development in a time of expanding democracy. Sample Answer: Islam had a profound influence on ancient African political, economic, and cultural development prior to European arrival, and its impact continues to manifest today in various ways: 1. Political Influence: Islam brought new political ideas and structures to Africa. Muslim rulers established empires and states, such as the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, which were organized around Islamic principles of governance. Islamic law, or Sharia, influenced legal systems and governance structures in many African societies, shaping the development of political institutions. 2. Economic Influence: Islamic trade networks connected Africa to the wider Muslim world, facilitating the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies. Trade routes such as the Trans-Saharan trade route brought wealth and prosperity to West African societies. The introduction of Islamic banking and commercial practices also had a significant impact on African economies. 3. Cultural Influence: Islam had a profound impact on African cultures, influencing art, architecture, literature, and education. Islamic scholars and teachers spread knowledge and literacy, contributing to the development of intellectual and cultural life in Africa. Arabic became a language of learning and trade in many parts of Africa, influencing local languages and cultures. 4. Social Influence: Islam brought changes to social structures and practices in Africa. Islamic teachings emphasized the equality of all believers, which sometimes led to the abolition of slavery and the improvement of the status of women. Islamic education also played a role in shaping social values and norms. 5. Continued Impact: The influence of Islam continues to manifest in Africa today. Many African countries have large Muslim populations, and Islam plays a significant role in shaping their societies and cultures. Islamic law continues to influence legal systems in some African countries, and Islamic education remains important in many communities. Additionally, the influence of Arabic and Islamic cultural practices can be seen in African art, architecture, and literature. In conclusion, Islam had a profound influence on ancient African political, economic, and cultural development, shaping the continent in ways that continue to be felt today. Its impact can be seen in the political structures, economic systems, cultural practices, and social values of many African societies. Chapter 02: Middle Passage Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which European country took the lead in the exploration and colonization of Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the early 1400s? A) Portugal B) France C) England D) Switzerland Answer: A 2) Which accomplishment did the Portuguese achieve before other European nations? A) rounding the Cape of Good Hope B) sailing around Alaska C) the discovery of the New World D) reaching Antarctica Answer: C 3) Why did Europeans need labor from Africa for their colonies in the Americas? A) Native Americans quickly began to die in huge numbers from European diseases. B) Native Americans refused to be captured or work as slaves in fields or mines. C) Europeans avoided Native American people and did not seek their labor. D) Native Americans relocated to Europe for survival. Answer: A 4) Which of the following is an example of the accomplishments of Christopher Columbus in the late 1400s? A) Columbus reached India and Japan. B) Columbus successfully sailed east to reach China. C) Columbus proved that the earth was much smaller than its actual size. D) Columbus made navigation mistakes that led to his accidental landfall in the Americas. Answer: D 5) Which of the following groups conducted the Islamic slave trade? A) Chinese sailors B) English farmers C) Sudanese horsemen D) Russian soldiers Answer: C 6) Which statement about the nature of the Islamic slave trade prior to European entry is true? A) The Islamic slave trade did not exist in Africa prior to European entry. B) The Islamic slave trade was not based primarily on race. C) The Islamic slave trade mainly captured adult males for agricultural labor. D) Slavery and the slave trade under Islamic society were as harsh as the European version in the Americas. Answer: B 7) Examine the late-sixteenth/early-seventeenth century Benin bronze relief sculpture shown in Chapter 2.2. What aspects of the image indicate that the individuals are European? A) European livestock is shown in the image. B) European cities are shown in the image. C) European clothing styles are depicted in the image. D) European languages are shown in the image. Answer: C 8) Examine Figure 2-1 and compare the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the number of West African slaves shipped to the Americas. Which of the following statements is true? A) The number of African slave exports declined from the 1500s through the 1700s. B) The peak amount of African slave exports occurred in 1600. C) African slaves from the Western Coast represented the greatest share of exports in 1700. D) Approximately 37,000 African slaves were imported to the Americas in 1700. Answer: D 9) Examine Figure 2-1 and compare the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the number of West African slaves shipped to the Americas. Which of the following statements is true? A) The highest number of slaves was shipped from the Western Coast. B) The lowest number of slaves was shipped from the West Central Coast. C) The lowest number of slaves was shipped from the Gulf of Guinea. D) The highest number of slaves was shipped from the Gulf of Guinea. Answer: D 10) Who was the first known Portuguese merchant to begin to formally trade for slaves with the Africans? A) Antam Goncalvez B) Oba Dahomey C) Ruy do Siqueira D) Bartolomeu Dias Answer: C 11) After arriving off the Guinea Coast, Portuguese captains traded with African leaders for which of the following items? A) jade B) hemp C) ivory D) salt Answer: C 12) How did the early Europeans usually obtain their supply of African slaves? A) They raided along the west coast of Africa, forcibly capturing large families. B) Arabs brought slaves up to the coastal cities in Europe and Europeans bought them. C) Europeans captured large land areas through warfare, and subjugated entire groups of people into slavery. D) They obtained their slaves through trade with native African tribes, primarily in West Africa. Answer: D 13) In what form did the Portuguese use captured slaves until the early sixteenth century? A) as domestic servants B) as labor in the sugar cane fields of North America C) as soldiers in some of the Europeans' wars of the era D) as teachers of African culture and language for wealthy, young Portuguese children Answer: A 14) Why did Africans enslave other Africans and sell them to Europeans? A) Africans viewed other Africans in terms of racial solidarity and wanted to help them. B) Warfare among African tribes led to selling defeated tribes to make money and to get rid of opponents. C) African leaders were forced by their own people under threat of annihilation to sell other Africans to the Europeans. D) Africans wanted to move to Europe and create colonies. Answer: B 15) Which nation ended Spanish and Portuguese domination of the slave trade in the early-seventeenth century? A) Holland B) England C) France D) Germany Answer: A 16) In what century did the Atlantic slave trade reach similar proportions to the Muslim trans-Sahara slave trade? A) 1600s B) 1700s C) 1800s D) 1900s Answer: A 17) Which of the following statements best describes the triangular trade system produced by the Atlantic slave trade? A) one part of the system entailed traders carrying African goods to Europe in exchange for slaves, ivory, precious gemstones, and art works B) the middle part of the trade included traders carrying African slaves to the West Indies and exchanging slaves for sugar C) Sugar was exported to Australia on the third leg of the triangle D) White Americans from Britain’s New England colonies were not involved in the trade. Answer: B 18) According to Map 2-2, most African slaves in the Caribbean in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries lived on which of the following islands? A) Cuba and Aruba B) The Bahamas C) Jamaica and Hispaniola D) Puerto Rico and the Leeward islands Answer: C 19) Why did the British want to take over the slave trade in the late-seventeenth century? A) Their ongoing war with France demanded a supply of soldiers. B) They needed labor for tobacco and sugar cultivation in North America and the Caribbean. C) The availability of Native American labor was dwindling. D) They had begun to establish cotton plantations in Brazil and needed labor. Answer: B 20) By 1510 most of the slaves in the Americas were men and boys who served as agricultural laborers, rather than soldiers or domestic servants, in part because ______________. A) Europeans believed men and boys preferred to do domestic chores B) Europeans believed men and boys were stronger laborers than women and girls C) men and boys refused to become the chattel of their masters D) men and boys willingly gave up their customary rights as human beings Answer: B 21) Examine the eighteenth-century print of Luanda that appears in Chapter 2. What aspects of the Atlantic slave trade surface in the image? A) The city possesses a harbor. B) African people are shown at work in the image. C) European kings line the streets of the city in royal procession. D) European armies fight in the distance over the slave trade. Answer: D 22) What steps did the Europeans take to reduce the risk of rebellion at the slave factories in Africa? A) Slaves were kept drugged. B) Families and ethnic groups were separated. C) Men and women were confined in the same rooms. D) Europeans did not really have to take many steps, as the completely overwhelmed Africans often submitted to the process. Answer: B 23) Which of the following was true of African health care aboard slave ships? A) Some physicians aboard slave ships were frauds. B) Generally, ship doctors used a primitive form of inoculation to prevent the worst diseases. C) Slave ships had adequate and highly sanitary ways of disposing of human waste. D) Slavers allowed their captives to avoid eating food. Answer: B 24) Which of the following diseases vied with dysentery to kill the most slaves while aboard slave ships? A) typhoid B) measles C) smallpox D) influenza Answer: C 25) Which of the following is true about the use of medical remedies by doctors aboard slave ships? A) Many collected African herbs and foods along the Guinea Coast to help treat illnesses at sea. B) Since slavers wanted to keep as many slaves alive as possible, ships' doctors had an unusually sophisticated knowledge of medicine at the time. C) Doctors lacked any medicine to keep slaves alive on the voyage. D) Doctors relied upon Russian cures to keep slaves alive. Answer: A 26) Regarding provisions on slave ships, which of the following was eaten by a slave ship’s crew? A) caviar B) yams C) cheese D) rice Answer: C 27) Grog, the favorite drink of European sailors in the Atlantic slave trade, was a mixture of which of the following items? A) wine and beer B) water and rum C) whiskey and milk D) fruit juice and water Answer: B 28) How would an African most likely become a slave? A) European armies raided the interior of Africa for people. B) Thinking they would have a better life in the Americas, many sold themselves voluntarily. C) Their town or village was conquered by another African army. D) They were members of a very poor tribe that frequently sold children to make money. Answer: C 29) According to the Voices excerpt titled “The Journal of a Dutch Slaver,” what were the major challenges experienced by the Dutch slaver? A) Native Americans attacked the vessel. B) Too much food was given to the African slaves aboard the ship, leading to illness. C) Pirates raided the West African slaves at the end of the journey D) The ship’s surgeon died of dysentery. Answer: D 30) Which of the following was a common way for slaves to rebel or resist their imprisonment while at sea? A) stealing life boats and rowing back to Africa B) bribing the European crew with money C) attacking other African slaves D) refusing to eat Answer: D 31) Which of the following is true about the path a slave—once captured—took to the market in Africa? A) Generally, the captured slaves thought they would be treated fairly and submitted to the long stages of travel. B) The trips to the coast were generally brief, as most Africans traded as slaves lived near that area. C) African tribes denied the slaves access to food and water because they wanted as many as possible to die along the way. D) The slaves were tied together with ropes, or had "yokes" around their necks, during the journey. Answer: D 32) The account of Dr. Alexander Falconbridge in the second Voices section of the textbook discusses which of the following diseases as the primary problem for African slaves aboard slave ships? A) sea sickness B) measles C) influenza D) dysentery Answer: D 33) Which of the following statements best describes the slave ship Brookes? A) The Brookes was an exceptionally small ship for its time. B) The Brookes sailed from Paris, France, in the late 1700s. C) The Brookes weighed 300 tons. D) The Brookes lacked the capacity to pack slaves tightly together below decks. Answer: C 34) What was a common characteristic of a typical slave ship? A) Slaves were separated by class position to prevent rebellion. B) Slave captains packed their ships as tightly as possible to maximize profit. C) Mortality rates were very low due to the presence of many Africans. D) Slave ships were generally poorly constructed, and were more likely to fall apart at sea. Answer: B 35) What is the connection between piracy and the Atlantic slave trade? A) As the Atlantic slave trade increased, piracy increased in the Caribbean. B) As the Atlantic slave trade increased, piracy slowed in the Caribbean. C) As the Atlantic slave trade increased, piracy remained the same in the Caribbean. D) As the Atlantic slave trade increased, piracy disappeared entirely in the Caribbean. Answer: A 36) What does the story by Olaudah Equiano, a former slave, reveal about the Atlantic slave trade? A) Some slaves were treated with kindness and empathy by their initial captors. B) The middle passage was an incredibly difficult experience for Africans. C) Because of their advantage in numbers, some slaves succeeded in rebelling against their captors, seizing control of the slave ships and returning to Africa. D) Slaves usually failed to resist the process of slavery. Answer: B 37) What is the relationship between bathroom facilities and slave ships? A) Three or four toilet tubs were provided below decks for the slaves to use during the Middle Passage. B) Children had a relatively easy time of using the tubs due to adult assistance. C) Africans who could not physically use the toilet were assisted by the ship’s crew. D) No major diseases surfaced from the bathroom facility arrangement. Answer: A 38) What does the story of John Newton, a British slave-ship captain, indicate about the Atlantic slave trade? A) Christians did not participate in the Atlantic slave trade. B) Christians loved African people. C) Ships' captains filled their ships with slaves quickly, usually in one stop at an African trading center. D) Christians could be cruel, harsh slavers. Answer: D 39) Examine the nineteenth-century engraving on page 33 of the textbook. What clues emerge that reveal the interior stage of the Atlantic slave trade? A) A coastal factory is shown on the ocean horizon. B) Africans are shown chained together marching through grasslands. C) Europeans are shown buying African slaves from other Africans. D) Africans are shown on board a slave ship. Answer: B 40) Take a closer look at the plan of the British slave ship Brookes shown in Chapter 2. Which of the following statements best demonstrates the use of control by the ship’s crew as revealed in the image of the Brookes? A) Africans are shown walking about the ship. B) Africans are shown to have ample room in which to situate themselves. C) The slave ship appears tightly packed with Africans. D) Africans are shown negotiating for their own purchase price. Answer: C 41) How did African women's experiences differ from African men's experiences on slave ships? A) Crews isolated African women in separate slave ships. B) African women experienced sexual violence from the crew. C) African women controlled African men during the Middle Passage. D) African women were spared psychological and physical punishment. Answer: B 42) French slave traders rested their slave passengers on which of the following Caribbean islands? A) Barbados B) Martinique C) Cuba D) Aruba Answer: B 43) What was typical of the slave-selling process in the West Indies? A) Slavers allowed the slaves some time to rest and recuperate before sale. B) Slavers adhered to a scrupulous code of ethics and refused to sell a sick or injured slave. C) The sale process was very quick once the slaves reached the West Indies. D) New owners were given detailed, written histories of their slaves, including accurate medical information. Answer: A 44) How did “the scramble” operate aboard slave ships? A) The captain allowed the buyer to set the price of a slave. B) The captain set standard prices and then allowed the buyers to grab their slaves. C) The captain allowed African slaves to determine their own purchase price and bargain with the potential buyer. D) The captain transferred the slaves to a third-party for official sale. Answer: B 45) The time period of “seasoning” a slave in the Americas lasted no more than how many years? A) 8 years B) 6 years C) 4 years D) 2 years Answer: D 46) How was work divided among slaves during the seasoning process in the West Indies? A) Children worked alongside their parents, sharing work hours and tasks. B) Masters generally divided the slaves into several gangs. C) Creoles never worked in the fields. D) Most of the slaves were chosen for skilled tasks, such as carpentry and bricklaying. Answer: B 47) How were the lives of Creole slaves different from other slaves? A) Creoles were generally more familiar with European languages. B) Creoles never became accustomed to the diseases and new climate of North America. C) Creoles refused to help train new arrivals. D) Creoles were considered less valuable than other Africans. Answer: A 48) How did a planter decide if a slave had been “seasoned”? A) The slave began to long for Africa. B) The slave began to speak Spanish, French or English fluently. C) The slave seemed psychologically stable and not suicidal. D) The slave settled down, married, and produced children. Answer: C 49) Why did the African kingdoms of Guinea and western Central Africa fight fiercely to continue participation in the slave trade? A) The kingdoms had developed a religious dedication to the slave trade. B) Tribal women wanted the slave trade continued. C) The kingdoms were economically dependent on the slave trade. D) The British government forced Africans to continue the slave trade. Answer: C 50) Which of the following was the most important reason that the British abolished the Atlantic slave trade in 1807? A) The British had begun to believe that racism was scientifically incorrect. B) The British had begun to view the slave trade as violating their religious beliefs. C) Many stories had been spread in Europe about the benefits of the slave trade. D) The British economy was less dependent on agriculture by the late 1700s. Answer: D True/False Questions 51) The origins of the Atlantic slave trade stemmed from Western Europe’s expansion during the fifteenth century. Answer: True 52) Slavery and slave trading have historically existed in all cultures for thousands of years. Answer: True 53) Columbus’s voyages had little effect on the slave trade. Answer: False 54) Prior to the early-sixteenth century, Portuguese seafarers conducted the Atlantic slave trade on an enormous scale to satisfy a limitless market for domestic servants. Answer: False 55) Around 1710, Spain joined Portugal in the Atlantic slave trade, and a new, harsher form of slavery appeared in the Americas. Answer: False 56) As early as the 1580s, English pirates attacked Spanish ships to steal their human cargo. Answer: True 57) Slave ship captains used hot coals or a metal device called a speculum oris to force Africans to open their mouths for feeding. Answer: True 58) Mortality rates for Africans on slave ships were high because the crowded, unsanitary conditions encouraged seaboard epidemics. Answer: True 59) African women caught in the Atlantic slave trade were worth twice the price of African men in Caribbean markets; as a result, captains took large numbers of women on board their vessels. Answer: False 60) Most African slave rebellions at sea took place while a ship prepared to set sail, the African coast was in sight, and the slaves could still hope to return home. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 61) As early as 1502, African slaves lived on the island of ______________ Answer: Hispaniola 62) The English by 1674 had driven the ______________ out of the Atlantic slave trade. Answer: Dutch 63) The cultivation of rice, ______________, and tobacco increased British importation of African slave labor into North America. Answer: indigo 64) British slavers after crossing the Atlantic frequently rested their slaves in ______________. Answer: Barbados 65) In preparation for sale, slaves were required to ______________ their bodies to conceal blemishes, rashes, and bruises. Answer: oil 66) An example of cruelty aboard slave ships was the use of ______________ by ship’s surgeons to plug the anuses of African slaves suffering from dysentery. Answer: hemp 67) Slaves born in the Americas were known as ______________. Answer: Creoles 68) During seasoning, masters or overseers broke slaves into plantation work by assigning them to work ______________. Answer: gangs 69) Slave masters assigned ______________ to supervise slave labor on plantations, an example of the many layers of control within the system of slavery in the Americas. Answer: drivers 70) Britain abolished the Atlantic slave trade in the year ______________ and tried to enforce that abolition on other nations through a naval patrol off the African coast. Answer: 1807 Short Answer Questions 71) Explain the connection between the Atlantic slave trade and the Industrial Revolution. Answer: The Atlantic slave trade and the Industrial Revolution are connected through the economic benefits that slavery provided to European nations, fueling industrial growth. The profits from the slave trade and slave-produced goods, such as cotton, sugar, and tobacco, provided significant capital that was invested in industrial enterprises. Moreover, the availability of cheap raw materials from slave labor in the colonies allowed for the mass production of goods in Europe, driving technological advancements and economic expansion during the Industrial Revolution. This symbiotic relationship between the exploitation of enslaved labor and industrial development highlights the intertwined nature of global economic systems during this period. 72) Why did slavery in the Americas develop along different lines than slavery in Africa? Answer: Slavery in the Americas developed along different lines than slavery in Africa due to differing economic structures, labor demands, and social systems. In the Americas, slavery was primarily driven by the demand for labor on large plantations growing cash crops like sugar, tobacco, and cotton, leading to the establishment of a brutal, racially-based system of chattel slavery where enslaved individuals were considered property. In contrast, slavery in Africa was often integrated into existing social and kinship systems, with enslaved individuals sometimes able to achieve social mobility, marry, and own property. Additionally, African slavery was less industrialized and more varied, including domestic servitude, military service, and agricultural work, rather than the extensive plantation-based system seen in the Americas. 73) How did food supplies vary between captors and slaves on the slave ships? Answer: Food supplies on slave ships were vastly different for captors and enslaved individuals. Captors, including the ship's crew, typically had access to better quality and more plentiful food, often consisting of preserved meats, biscuits, and other provisions suitable for long voyages. In contrast, enslaved individuals were given meager, poor-quality rations, usually consisting of beans, rice, millet, or yams, often insufficient in quantity and lacking nutritional value. This disparity contributed to the high mortality rates among enslaved individuals during the Middle Passage. 74) Explain the connection between African slave levels of resistance and African attitudes toward enslavement. What does the level of resistance tell you about Africans' attitudes toward enslavement? Answer: The level of resistance among African slaves can be seen as a reflection of African attitudes toward enslavement. Resistance, whether through acts of rebellion, escape, or sabotage, indicates a strong desire for freedom and a rejection of the institution of slavery. This suggests that many Africans did not passively accept their enslavement but actively resisted it, highlighting a deep-seated opposition to being enslaved. The fact that resistance was common among African slaves indicates that many Africans viewed enslavement as an unacceptable and oppressive condition, contrary to the idea that slavery was accepted or normalized in African societies. 75) Differentiate among the four factors for successful seasoning of slaves in the Americas. Why was each important? Answer: 1. Acclimatization: • Importance: Allowed slaves to adapt to the new climate and diseases of the Americas. 2. Discipline: • Importance: Maintained control over the enslaved population, preventing resistance and ensuring obedience. 3. Work routines: • Importance: Organized labor for maximum productivity, ensuring efficient use of enslaved labor. 4. Socialization: • Importance: Integrated slaves into plantation society, erasing African cultural identities and justifying slavery ideologically. Essay Questions 76) How did European and African policies and beliefs regarding slavery differ over time during the Atlantic slave trade? What factors contributed to these differences? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that both peoples viewed slavery as an economic institution. 2. Explain that Africans, unlike Europeans, did not view slavery as a racial institution. 3. Point out that neither Africans nor Europeans possessed the concept of racial solidarity. Africans remained the primary sellers of slaves to Europeans, and obtained Africans for sale either through village raids or the kidnapping of families and individuals. 4. Note that Africans initially resisted selling other Africans as slaves to Europeans but did not at first believe that it was wrong to do so. Sample Answer: During the Atlantic slave trade, European and African policies and beliefs regarding slavery differed over time due to a variety of factors: 1. European Policies and Beliefs: Initially, European involvement in the slave trade was driven by a desire for cheap labor for their colonies in the Americas. European powers enacted policies that promoted the capture and sale of Africans as slaves, leading to the establishment of the transatlantic slave trade. Over time, European attitudes towards slavery evolved, with some countries eventually abolishing the slave trade and slavery itself due to changing moral, economic, and political factors. 2. African Policies and Beliefs: In Africa, slavery existed prior to the arrival of Europeans, but it took different forms than the chattel slavery practiced in the Americas. In many African societies, slavery was more akin to indentured servitude, with slaves having certain rights and the possibility of gaining freedom. However, as the demand for slaves from Europe increased, some African societies began to engage in slave raiding and trading to meet this demand. Despite this, many African societies did not view slavery in the same dehumanizing way as Europeans did, leading to differing policies and beliefs regarding the institution. 3. Factors Contributing to Differences: Several factors contributed to the differences in European and African policies and beliefs regarding slavery over time. These include: • Economic Factors: The profitability of the slave trade influenced European policies, with some countries continuing to participate in the trade even as others began to abolish it due to economic interests. In Africa, the desire for European goods, such as firearms and textiles, led to increased participation in the slave trade. • Religious and Moral Factors: European attitudes towards slavery were influenced by religious and moral beliefs, with some European countries eventually coming to see slavery as morally wrong and incompatible with Christian values. In contrast, African religious beliefs and cultural practices often allowed for the existence of slavery, albeit in a different form than European chattel slavery. • Political Factors: Changes in political power and the rise of abolitionist movements in Europe also influenced policies towards slavery. As European countries began to abolish slavery, they exerted pressure on African societies to do the same, leading to changes in African policies towards slavery. In conclusion, European and African policies and beliefs regarding slavery during the Atlantic slave trade differed over time due to a variety of factors, including economic interests, religious and moral beliefs, and political developments. These differences contributed to the complex and evolving nature of the transatlantic slave trade and its impact on both European and African societies. 77) Trace the life of a West African slave through the major turning points of the Atlantic slave trade starting with capture in Africa. What stages would a typical slave experience as he or she awaited shipment to the colonies of the Americas? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that West Africans were captured as slaves by other Africans through wars and village raids. Slaves were marched from the interior to the coast and held in factories awaiting sale. Some Africans were also kidnapped by Europeans. 2. Point out that slaves were loaded aboard European slave ships for shipment to the Americas. 3. Note that the crossing or Middle Passage varied from 40 days to several months. 4. Conclude that many Africans were seasoned in the Caribbean before being shipped elsewhere or put to work on sugar plantations. Sample Answer: The life of a West African slave during the Atlantic slave trade involved several major turning points, starting with capture in Africa. Here is a typical journey that a slave might experience as they awaited shipment to the colonies of the Americas: 1. Capture in Africa: The slave trade often began with raids or warfare in West Africa, where Africans were captured by African or European slave traders. Some slaves were also captured through debt bondage, punishment for crimes, or being sold by local leaders. 2. March to the Coast: After capture, slaves were often forced to march long distances to the coast, where they would be held in slave forts or barracoons. This march was known as the "middle passage" of the slave trade and was marked by brutal conditions, including lack of food, water, and shelter, as well as physical abuse by slave traders. 3. Detainment in Slave Forts: Once at the coast, slaves were held in slave forts or barracoons, where they awaited shipment to the Americas. Conditions in these forts were often overcrowded and unsanitary, leading to disease and death among the captive population. 4. Sale to European Traders: Slaves were then sold to European traders, who transported them across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. The sale process was dehumanizing, with slaves often being inspected and examined like livestock. 5. Middle Passage: The middle passage refers to the journey across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Americas. This journey was marked by horrific conditions, including overcrowding, disease, and abuse. Many slaves died during the middle passage, and those who survived often faced a life of servitude and hardship in the Americas. 6. Arrival in the Americas: Upon arrival in the Americas, slaves were sold at auction to plantation owners and other buyers. They were then put to work on plantations, in mines, or in other labor-intensive industries, where they faced harsh working conditions and brutal treatment. 7. Life in Bondage: Slaves in the Americas lived under the constant threat of punishment and violence. They were subjected to harsh working conditions, inadequate food and shelter, and the constant fear of being sold away from their families. 8. Resistance and Rebellion: Despite the hardships they faced, many slaves resisted their enslavement through acts of rebellion, escape, or sabotage. These acts of resistance were often met with brutal reprisals from slave owners and overseers. 9. Abolition and Emancipation: The transatlantic slave trade eventually came to an end due to the efforts of abolitionists and changing economic and political conditions. Slavery was formally abolished in the Americas in the 19th century, leading to the emancipation of millions of enslaved Africans. Overall, the life of a West African slave during the Atlantic slave trade was marked by extreme hardship, suffering, and dehumanization. The slave trade had a profound impact on African societies and continues to have lasting effects on the descendants of those who were enslaved. 78) Explain the technology of a slave ship in terms transporting African slaves. How did Europeans use technology to outfit slave ships for transporting Africans across the Atlantic to the colonies of the Americas? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Define that slave ships (called slavers) varied in size but grew larger over the centuries. A ship’s tonnage determined how many slaves it could carry, with the formula being two slaves per ton. A ship of 200 tons might therefore carry 400 slaves. 2. Note that captains often ignored the formula and kept their human cargo light, calculating that smaller loads lowered mortality and made revolt less likely. 3. Point out that most captains were “tight packers” who squeezed human beings together hoping that large numbers would offset increased deaths. 4. Explain that the slavers’ cargo space was generally only five feet high. Ships’ carpenters halved this vertical space by building shelves, so slaves might be packed above and below on planks that measured only 5.5 feet long and 1.3 feet wide. Consequently, slaves had only about 20 to 25 inches of headroom. 5. Conclude that to add to the discomfort, the crews chained male slaves together in pairs to help prevent rebellion and lodged them away from women and children. Crewmen often strung nets along the sides of the ship to prevent African suicide attempts. Sample Answer: The technology of a slave ship during the Atlantic slave trade was specifically designed for the efficient and profitable transportation of African slaves to the colonies of the Americas. Europeans used advanced maritime technology to outfit slave ships, including the following key features: 1. Ship Design: Slave ships were typically large, sturdy vessels with a design optimized for carrying large numbers of enslaved Africans. They were often equipped with multiple decks to accommodate as many slaves as possible. 2. Shackles and Chains: Slaves were restrained with iron shackles and chains to prevent them from escaping or rebelling during the voyage. These shackles were often attached to fixed points on the ship's decks. 3. Ventilation and Sanitation: To prevent disease and maintain a relatively healthy environment for the slaves, slave ships were equipped with ventilation systems to circulate fresh air. However, conditions below decks were often cramped and unsanitary, leading to the spread of diseases such as dysentery and smallpox. 4. Food and Water: Slave ships carried provisions of food and water to sustain the enslaved Africans during the voyage. However, these provisions were often inadequate and of poor quality, leading to malnutrition and disease among the captive population. 5. Navigational Instruments: European navigators used advanced navigational instruments such as the compass, sextant, and chronometer to accurately navigate the Atlantic Ocean and ensure the safe arrival of the slave ship at its destination. 6. Armaments: Slave ships were often equipped with cannons and other weapons to defend against attacks by pirates or rival European powers. These armaments also served to maintain control over the enslaved Africans during the voyage. 7. Organization and Discipline: European crews were trained in the organization and discipline necessary to manage large numbers of enslaved Africans during the voyage. Crew members were often armed and tasked with maintaining order and quelling any potential rebellions. Overall, European use of technology in outfitting slave ships played a crucial role in the success of the Atlantic slave trade. However, it also contributed to the dehumanizing and brutal conditions endured by the enslaved Africans during their journey across the Atlantic. 79) Discuss the concept of “cruelty” as it applied to the treatment of African slaves during the Middle Passage segment of the Atlantic slave trade. Is it possible to use modern moral arguments to understand European and African participation in the Atlantic slave trade? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that historians debate how much cruelty slave ship crews inflicted on African slaves. The goal of captain and crew was to deliver as many live African slaves as possible. 2. Point out that the slave trade required extremely large amounts of investment capital in ships, supplies, and crewmen. 3. Note that some historians argue that the ordeal of slaves on ship was similar to the challenges experienced by indentured servants. 4. Explain that the lack of freshwater, adequate food, overcrowding, and extreme weather combined to inflict suffering on all passengers at sea during the colonial period. 6. Conclude that African women were sexually exploited during the Middle Passage, and this experience sets off the ordeal as unique compared to indentured servitude. 7. Conclude that cruelty and suffering are historically relative in that practices acceptable in the past are now considered inhumane. Cultures distinguish between what constitutes acceptable behavior to their own people on the one hand and to strangers on the other. Sample Answer: The concept of "cruelty" is central to understanding the treatment of African slaves during the Middle Passage segment of the Atlantic slave trade. The Middle Passage refers to the journey across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Americas, during which enslaved Africans endured unimaginable suffering and hardship. The conditions on slave ships during the Middle Passage were deplorable. Slaves were packed tightly into the holds of ships, often in chains, with little room to move or even lie down. The lack of sanitation and ventilation led to the spread of diseases such as dysentery, smallpox, and cholera. Many slaves died during the voyage, and those who survived often suffered from malnutrition, dehydration, and physical abuse. The treatment of African slaves during the Middle Passage can be described as cruel by any moral standard. Slaves were treated as commodities, with little regard for their humanity or well-being. They were subjected to inhumane conditions and extreme suffering for the financial gain of slave traders and plantation owners. Using modern moral arguments, we can understand European and African participation in the Atlantic slave trade as a grave violation of human rights. The trade in human beings and the brutal treatment of slaves were not only morally wrong but also indefensible from a modern ethical standpoint. The exploitation of African slaves for economic gain reflects a disregard for the fundamental principles of human dignity and equality. It is important to recognize, however, that the moral standards of the past were different from those of today. Slavery was widely practiced and accepted in both European and African societies during the time of the Atlantic slave trade. Economic interests, cultural beliefs, and political power dynamics all contributed to the perpetuation of slavery and the dehumanization of African slaves. In conclusion, the concept of "cruelty" is integral to understanding the treatment of African slaves during the Middle Passage. While it is possible to use modern moral arguments to condemn the Atlantic slave trade, we must also recognize the historical context in which it occurred and strive to learn from the mistakes of the past to build a more just and equitable future. 80) How did the Atlantic slave trade end? What major political figures were involved in the process? Why did slavery continue in the Americas into the mid-1800s? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should: 1. Explain that the cruelties associated with the Atlantic slave trade helped to end the system as did the rise of the Industrial Revolution in England. 2. Note that in the late 1700s, British politicians such as William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp, and Thomas Clarkson began a religiously based moral crusade against slavery and the slave trade. 3. Point out that Britain’s antipathy to the slave trade helped abolition because the British dominated the trade. 4. Explain that the English realized that industry and trade rather than plantation slave-based agriculture provided the most profits during the 1800s. 5. Note that Britain banned the slave trade in 1807. The U.S. followed suit in 1808. But American, Brazilian, and Spanish slavers defied abolition of the slave trade for decades. 6. Conclude that slavery continued in the Americas because of the high demand for cotton and sugar for factory development and elite market sale. Sample Answer: The Atlantic slave trade came to an end primarily through a combination of political, economic, and social factors. The major steps leading to its end included: 1. Abolitionist Movements: Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, abolitionist movements in Europe and the Americas gained momentum. These movements were driven by moral and humanitarian concerns, as well as by the efforts of former slaves and free people of African descent to end the institution of slavery. 2. Legislation: Several European countries, including Britain, France, and Spain, passed laws abolishing the slave trade. The British Parliament, in particular, passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807, which banned the slave trade throughout the British Empire. Other countries followed suit, leading to a gradual decline in the Atlantic slave trade. 3. Enforcement: The enforcement of anti-slave trade laws by naval patrols, such as the British Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron, played a crucial role in suppressing the slave trade. These patrols intercepted slave ships and liberated enslaved Africans, contributing to the decline of the trade. 4. Economic Changes: The rise of industrialization and the shift towards wage labor in Europe and the Americas reduced the economic viability of slavery. Plantation owners increasingly turned to paid laborers to work their fields, rather than relying on enslaved Africans. 5. Emancipation: The emancipation of slaves in various countries, such as the British Empire's Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, marked the formal end of slavery in many parts of the Americas. However, slavery persisted in some regions, such as the United States, Brazil, and Cuba, until the mid-1800s. Major political figures involved in the process of ending the Atlantic slave trade and slavery included: • William Wilberforce: A British politician and leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade in the British Empire. • Thomas Jefferson: An American statesman and founding father who advocated for the abolition of the slave trade in the United States. • Abraham Lincoln: The 16th President of the United States, whose Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were to be set free, paving the way for the abolition of slavery in the United States. Slavery continued in the Americas into the mid-1800s for several reasons: • Economic Interests: Many plantation owners and businessmen in the Americas had vested economic interests in maintaining slavery, as it was a source of cheap labor that was crucial to their economic success. • Social Attitudes: Racial prejudice and the belief in the inferiority of Africans and people of African descent were deeply ingrained in many societies, making it difficult to abolish slavery. • Political Resistance: In some regions, there was strong political resistance to abolition, particularly in the southern United States, where slavery was deeply entrenched in the plantation economy. In conclusion, the end of the Atlantic slave trade and slavery in the Americas was the result of a complex interplay of political, economic, and social factors, as well as the efforts of abolitionist movements and key political figures. Despite its formal abolition, the legacy of slavery continues to impact societies in the Americas and beyond to this day. Test Bank for The African-American Odyssey Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold 9780205962181, 9780134485355

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