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Chapter 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000–1300) MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following social groups emerged after the revival of towns in the eleventh century? A. the landed nobility B. the clergy C. the peasantry D. long-distance traders and merchants Answer: D 2. In the eighth century, wide use of what invention made the cavalry indispensable? A. collar harness B. horseshoe C. bit and bridle D. stirrups Answer: D 3. ____________ were the nobleman’s profession; ____________ was his sole occupation. A. Arms; warfare B. Horses; training them C. Castles; fortifying them D. Jousts; preparing for tournaments Answer: A 4. The ceremonial entrance into knighthood was known as ____________. A. chivalry B. initiation C. dubbing D. ordination Answer: C 5. Which of the following are the two basic types of clerical vocation? A. spiritual clergy and regular clergy B. regular clergy and aristocratic clergy C. regular clergy and secular clergy D. monastic clergy and regular clergy Answer: C 6. Which of the following is the correct order of the clergy, from the top down? A. bishops, cathedral canons, and poor parish priests B. cathedral canons, bishops, and poor parish priests C. cathedral canons, cardinals, and poor parish priests D. cathedral canons, archbishops, and urban priests Answer: A 7. Which of the following were least likely to be taxed by secular rulers? A. laity B. clergy C. theologians D. merchants Answer: B 8. Many peasants lived on ____________ run by medieval nobility. A. manors B. banalities C. coloni D. individual holdings Answer: A 9. Monopolies held by the landowners (and that tenants had to use) were known as ____________. A. manors B. banalities C. coloni D. tenancy Answer: B 10. Feudal lords supported towns by granting ____________ to those agreeing to live and work in them. A. banalities B. tenancies C. charters D. orders Answer: C 11. In the eleventh century, serfs ____________. A. tried to avoid living in chartered towns B. rebelled against their lords and bishops, refusing to perform skilled work on their behalf C. were prohibited from paying their manorial dues in manufactured goods D. gained relative freedom in towns Answer: D 12. Small artisans and craftspeople formed ____________, or protective associations, in towns. A. guilds B. coloni C. orders D. charters Answer: A 13. The church forbade Jews from hiring ____________ or having any public authority over them. A. merchants B. Muslims C. Christians D. serfs Answer: C 14. The first recognizable university in Europe was at ____________. A. Paris B. Oxford C. Berlin D. Bologna Answer: D 15. The University of ____________ became the model for the study of theology. A. Bologna B. Berlin C. Oxford D. Paris Answer: D 16. University students in the twelfth century were least likely to study by what method? A. lecture B. discussion C. drawing conclusions D. reading Answer: D 17. ____________ was possibly the brightest logician and dialectician of the High Middle Ages, but paid dearly for it, ending his life in a priory. A. Abelard B. Aquinas C. Peter the Lombard D. Ptolemy Answer: A 18. ____________ outlived Abelard by twenty years and devoted herself to reforming the rules of women’s cloisters. A. Eleanor B. Héloïse C. Sorbonne D. Louise Answer: B 19. In which of the following respects were medieval women treated as superior to men? A. physical prowess B. business acumen C. purity D. mental ability Answer: C 20. The nunnery was an option for single women from ____________. A. lower social classes B. higher social classes C. merchants and artisan families D. all social classes Answer: B 21. Most medieval women were ____________. A. workers like their husbands B. housewives C. nuns D. women of leisure Answer: A 22. Which of these careers was open to women? A. law B. medicine C. scholarship D. weaving Answer: D 23. Which of the following was True of attitudes toward childhood during the Middle Ages? A. Childhood was considered a unique stage of life. B. Parents could not bond with children because of high infant mortality. C. Children were viewed as unproductive members of society. D. Childhood was seen to extend to the late teens. Answer: A 24. The infanticide chronicled by the Roman historian ____________ continued to be practiced in the early Middle Ages. A. Socrates B. Aristotle C. Tacitus D. Spartacus Answer: C 25. Which of these is True of children in the Middle Ages? A. Toys were uncommon. B. Infanticide was practiced only by eastern Europeans. C. Parents preferred small families of two or three children. D. Children never went to school. Answer: D 26. By the late Middle Ages, the nobility ____________. A. had broken into two recognizable groups: higher and lower B. were moving toward becoming merchants and traders C. resorted to warfare only when they were attacked D. rejected the code of chivalry Answer: A 27. Which of the following caused grievances and revolts of the peasantry throughout the High and later Middle Ages? A. burdening taxes to support the lord’s castles B. attempts to rein in peasants who had found new opportunities C. merchants’ refusal to sell luxury items to the peasantry D. the poetry of courtly love Answer: B 28. Tournaments came to be viewed as problematic because ____________. A. even mock battles could be deadly B. fierce competition often ended in bitter feelings C. regional rivalries encouraged disunity D. they could be deadly Answer: D 29. The advent of “courtesy” was in part an effort to ____________. A. diminish philandering among the nobility B. improve the lot of serfs and peasants C. restore the power of secular clergy D. deal with overpopulation on the manor Answer: A 30. Heavier reliance on the infantry in the Hundred Years’ War was bad for ____________. A. urban nobles B. the peasantry C. the French D. the status of the nobility Answer: D 31. The Carthusians and Canons Regular were alike in both being ____________. A. cloistered B. devoted to poverty C. committed to a life of silence D. secular clergy Answer: B 32. The Canons Regular were innovative in combining ____________. A. the duties of bishops and priests B. devotion to a monastic life with commercial goals C. intellectual rigor with a commitment to poverty D. work in the world and an ascetic lifestyle Answer: D 33. What was the key difference between servile and free manors? A. Free manors were populated by clergy. B. Servile manors answered only to the king. C. The tenants of free manors had originally owned small plots of land. D. Coloni lived only on servile manors. Answer: C 34. When a lord charged a tenant for use of the lord’s oven, he was imposing ____________. A. a fief B. a banality C. a fine D. usufruct Answer: B 35. In the later Middle Ages, as compared to the earlier period, serfs were more likely to ____________. A. pay to use their lord’s mill B. make monetary payments to their lord C. be part of an extended family D. become less free Answer: B 36. The lords’ original purpose in granting charters to towns was to ____________. A. grant protection to the inhabitants B. assemble the citizenry for religious observances C. make agriculture more efficient D. concentrate skilled laborers who could manufacture finished goods Answer: D 37. The first merchants may well have been ____________. A. enterprising serfs B. disaffected clergy C. feuding nobles D. lesser royals Answer: A 38. Sumptuary laws were an example of efforts to ____________ in medieval towns. A. encourage manufacturing B. support commerce C. maintain the social order D. keep the peace Answer: C 39. A new alliance that emerged from the twelfth century was cooperation between ____________. A. landed and urban nobles B. nobles and monarchs C. towns and monarchs D. monarchs and the papacy Answer: C 40. Which of the following contributed to Christian envy, suspicion, and distrust toward the Jews? A. the separateness of the Jews B. lack of Jewish economic power C. rich Christian cultural strength D. the church’s laws forbidding Jews from hiring Christians Answer: A 41. In the northern European model, universities were unions of ____________. A. students B. professors C. merchants D. priests Answer: B 42. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the University of Paris in the 1200s? A. Professors ran their classrooms in an informal setting. B. Educators and university administrators only cared about the image of the university, not educational content. C. Education reform in the sciences was of the utmost importance. D. It was a collection of scholars, not buildings. Answer: D 43. Why were logic and dialectic the focus of a medieval university education? A. the price of textbooks B. the hostility of the clergy C. the cost of lodging D. the assumption that truth already existed Answer: D 44. Abelard is the preeminent example of which of these intellectual trends? A. the development of universities B. the popularity of courtly literature C. the application of reason to Christian writings D. the evolution of Scholasticism Answer: C 45. Drawing on excerpts from the Bible and classical medical, philosophical, and legal thinkers, Christian thinkers believed that ____________. A. the religious life was superior to marriage B. a woman’s only role was to produce children and then be a confined nun C. women were morally stronger than men D. virgins and celibate widows were seen as only half female Answer: A 46. Entrance to a monastic life and marriage were alike for women in the Middle Ages because both ____________. A. required a dowry B. could lead to divorce C. were available only to upper-class women D. were seen as preferable to the single life Answer: A 47. Which of the following was an advantage for a woman living in a nunnery? A. A woman could acquire the money saved from forgoing a wedding. B. A woman could rise to a position of leadership. C. A woman could speak publicly in worship and political events. D. A woman could get completely away from male authority. Answer: B 48. Which of the following evidence supports the idea that medieval society valued children? A. wergild rates B. the practice of infanticide C. high infant mortality D. the existence of toys Answer: D 49. For intellectuals of the Middle Ages, stages of childhood and adulthood were closely tied to ____________. A. verbal skills B. physical ability C. literacy D. earning potential Answer: A 50. The age of seven was important in medieval views of children because at that age children ____________. A. became fully responsible for all their sins B. left the home to pursue apprenticeships C. entered the fourth stage of life D. could reason and begin to learn vocational skills Answer: D 51. Refer to the image of “The Joys and Pains of the Medieval Joust” on page 236. Based on this image, what could one most accurately deduce? A. Jousting provided revenue and tourism to the local areas and neighboring towns. B. Jousting had an important social function. C. Jousting was an act of payback and revenge. D. All jousters were considered heroes. Answer: B 52. Refer to the image of the peasantry on page 241. Which of the following statements is most accurate based on the image provided? A. Peasants sometimes hunted with falcons. B. Peasants spent much of their time at skilled trades. C. Peasants spent the majority of their time working with animals. D. Peasants were identified solely with agricultural work. Answer: D 53. Refer to Map 8-1 on page 244. Based on this map, which of the following statements is most accurate? A. In the Middle Ages all of continental Europe was linked by trade networks. B. Russia remained outside of European trade networks. C. Trade routes on land took more time than trade routes via water. D. Trade routes via water were restricted to the Mediterranean. Answer: A 54. Which of the following is most accurate based solely on the image from the Hebrew Torah and the caption provided on page 247? A. The seas in Jonah’s time were more dangerous than the seas of today. B. Judaism had spread to Portugal by the thirteenth century. C. The Portuguese had good ships in the thirteenth century. D. Jonah is a Jewish hero. Answer: B 55. Why was the official Carolingian marriage policy entirely positive for women? A. They lost their legal rights during the transition. B. They gained greater dignity. C. Their labor as household manager and child bearer greatly increased. D. They were now forced to take multiple husbands. Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. Only the nobility were legally allowed to _____________ , but over time uncommon wealth enabled a persistent commoner to qualify. Answer: joust 57. In the twelfth century, knighthood was legally restricted to men of ____________. Answer: high birth 58. The one social group that was open to all, regardless of birth or military skill, was the ____________. Answer: clergy 59. The largest and lowest social group in medieval society was the one on whose labor the welfare of all the others depended: the agrarian ____________. Answer: peasantry 60. Unlike the pure serfdom of the servile manors, whose tenants had no original claim to be part of the land, the tenancy obligations on free manors tended to be ____________, and the tenants’ rights more carefully defined. Answer: limited 61. In the later Middle Ages, serfs started paying their dues in ____________ payments. Answer: money 62. As towns grew, their populations swelled with ____________ moving there from the countryside. Answer: serfs 63. Small artisans and craftspeople slowly developed their own protective associations, or _____________ , and began to gain a voice in government. Answer: guilds 64. The first important Western university, established by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, was in ____________. Answer: Bologna 65. Bologna was famous for its university, which was a union of ____________. Answer: students 66. With the appearance of cathedral schools, the ____________ began to lose its monopoly on higher education. Answer: church 67. Scholars wrote commentaries on authoritative texts, especially those of Aristotle and the Church Fathers, in a method based on logic and dialectic known as ____________. Answer: Scholasticism 68. Germanic law treated women better than ____________ law had done, recognizing basic rights that forbade their treatment as chattel. Answer: Roman 69. Until recently, historians were inclined to believe that parents were emotionally _____________ from their children during the Middle Ages. Answer: distant 70. Wergild payments can be used as evidence of ____________. Answer: social status ESSAY 71. The nobility relished war, despite facing the constant threat of death, while the peasantry ran and hid. Is this statement accurate? Why or why not? What sentiments did the nobility have toward the peasants? Considering the economic advantages of the nobility, was theirs a fair assessment? Why did the nobleman so dislike times of peace? Answer: The statement that "the nobility relished war, despite facing the constant threat of death, while the peasantry ran and hid" is a generalization that does not accurately capture the complexities of medieval society. While it is true that warfare was often glorified among the nobility, not all nobles relished war, and many faced the same fears and dangers as the peasantry. Additionally, the idea that the peasantry universally "ran and hid" is a stereotype that overlooks the diverse experiences and responses of rural communities to conflict. Sentiments of the nobility toward the peasantry varied widely depending on factors such as social class, economic interests, and cultural attitudes. While some nobles may have viewed peasants with disdain or indifference, others recognized the importance of peasant labor and cooperation for maintaining their estates and wealth. Economic advantages often shaped the attitudes of the nobility toward the peasantry, with some nobles exploiting and oppressing peasants for personal gain, while others sought to maintain social stability and order through paternalistic relationships. The notion that nobles disliked times of peace can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, warfare provided opportunities for advancement, glory, and prestige for the nobility, as well as opportunities for plunder and expansion of territory. Additionally, periods of peace often meant a loss of purpose and identity for the warrior class, who found validation and meaning in martial pursuits. Moreover, the feudal economy relied heavily on warfare and plunder as means of redistributing wealth and resources, making peace less economically advantageous for some nobles. 72. Compare the functions and status of the nobility and clergy in medieval society. Were the two comparable? Answer: In medieval society, the nobility and clergy occupied distinct social roles and statuses, each with its own functions and privileges. While there were some similarities between the two estates, they were not directly comparable due to differences in their origins, responsibilities, and sources of authority. The nobility, comprised of aristocratic families and landed gentry, held political and military power as well as vast landholdings. They served as the ruling class and provided military service to the monarch in exchange for land grants and privileges. The nobility controlled local governance, administered justice, and maintained social order within their domains. Their status and wealth were primarily derived from landownership and feudal obligations, and they often engaged in warfare, diplomacy, and courtly pursuits to maintain their positions of influence. On the other hand, the clergy, consisting of ordained priests, bishops, and abbots, held religious authority and spiritual leadership within the church hierarchy. They were responsible for administering the sacraments, providing pastoral care, and preserving religious doctrine and tradition. The clergy also wielded significant political and economic power through their control of church lands, revenues, and institutions. Their status and authority were derived from their religious offices and their role as mediators between God and humanity. While both the nobility and clergy held privileged positions in medieval society, their functions and roles were distinct and complementary. The nobility exercised secular power and authority, while the clergy wielded spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. Despite occasional conflicts over jurisdiction and influence, the nobility and clergy often cooperated to maintain social stability and uphold the traditional order of medieval society. 73. Refer to “The Joys and Pains of the Medieval Joust” and “Encountering the Past: Children’s Games, Warrior Games.” Why did the medieval nobility play warlike games? How did medieval women and children participate in these pastimes? Answer: The medieval nobility played warlike games for several reasons, reflecting the values, culture, and social norms of their time. Warlike games served as a form of training and preparation for combat, allowing knights and warriors to hone their skills in horsemanship, fencing, and military tactics. These games also provided opportunities for social bonding, camaraderie, and competition among the nobility, reinforcing their status and identity as warriors and defenders of the realm. Medieval women and children participated in warlike games in various ways, although their involvement was often limited by social norms and gender roles. Women of the nobility might observe or participate in tournaments and jousts as spectators or participants in ceremonial roles, such as presenting prizes or bestowing favors on victorious knights. Children, both boys and girls, might engage in mock battles, horseback riding, archery, and other martial exercises as part of their education and upbringing, learning the values of courage, chivalry, and honor associated with knighthood and noble status. 74. Compare the significant events in the rise of merchants with those involved in the downfall of feudal society. Explain how the growth of towns played a role in these trends. What is the relationship between these events? Answer: The rise of merchants and the downfall of feudal society were significant events that transformed the economic, social, and political landscape of medieval Europe. The growth of towns played a central role in both trends, facilitating the expansion of trade, commerce, and urbanization while undermining the traditional feudal order based on landownership and agricultural production. The rise of merchants was fueled by factors such as the revival of long-distance trade, technological innovations in transportation and banking, and the emergence of commercial centers and market towns. Merchants played a crucial role in linking distant regions, stimulating economic growth, and challenging the dominance of the landed nobility. The rise of merchant guilds and urban charters provided merchants with legal protections, economic privileges, and political influence, further accelerating their rise to prominence in medieval society. Conversely, the downfall of feudal society was precipitated by factors such as demographic changes, social upheaval, and economic crises. The growth of towns and the rise of a prosperous urban middle class challenged the feudal system by providing alternative opportunities for employment, social mobility, and political participation. The decline of feudalism was hastened by events such as the Black Death, which devastated rural communities and weakened the power of feudal lords, as well as peasant uprisings and revolts that challenged feudal authority and demanded greater rights and freedoms. The relationship between the rise of merchants and the downfall of feudal society is one of cause and effect, as the expansion of trade and urbanization undermined the traditional agrarian economy and social hierarchy of feudalism. The rise of towns provided a fertile ground for the growth of merchant capitalism and the emergence of a new social order based on commerce, industry, and urban life, marking the transition from feudalism to early modern capitalism in medieval Europe. 75. What factors help explain the surge in anti-Jewish persecution between the late twelfth and fourteenth centuries? Answer: Several factors contributed to the surge in anti-Jewish persecution between the late twelfth and fourteenth centuries: 1. Religious Intolerance: Anti-Jewish sentiment was fueled by religious prejudices and misconceptions, as Christian authorities portrayed Jews as "Christ killers" and enemies of Christianity. The Crusades and the expansion of Christian Europe into formerly Muslim territories heightened religious tensions and fostered hostility toward non-Christians, including Jews. 2. Economic Competition: Jews were often involved in moneylending, trade, and financial activities that were essential for medieval economies but were resented by Christians who viewed such practices as usury and exploitation. Economic competition between Jews and Christians, coupled with periods of economic hardship and inflation, led to scapegoating and accusations of Jewish economic manipulation and exploitation. 3. Political Instability: Periods of political turmoil, social upheaval, and economic crises exacerbated anti-Jewish sentiment as rulers and elites sought to deflect blame and maintain social cohesion by targeting marginalized groups, including Jews. Anti-Jewish violence and persecution were often fueled by political opportunism and the manipulation of popular fears and grievances. 4. Religious Authority: The influence of the church and religious authorities played a significant role in promoting anti-Jewish persecution through the propagation of anti-Semitic teachings, the enforcement of discriminatory laws and policies, and the incitement of anti-Jewish violence. Papal decrees, ecclesiastical councils, and sermons preached by clergy demonized Jews and legitimized their persecution as a form of religious duty and Christian piety. 5. Cultural Stereotypes: Negative stereotypes and myths about Jews, such as accusations of ritual murder, blood libel, and desecration of the Eucharist, were widespread in medieval Christian society and fueled anti-Jewish attitudes and violence. These cultural prejudices and misconceptions contributed to the dehumanization and marginalization of Jews, making them vulnerable to persecution and discrimination. Overall, the surge in anti-Jewish persecution during the late twelfth to fourteenth centuries was driven by a combination of religious, economic, political, and cultural factors that converged to create a climate of hostility, intolerance, and violence toward Jewish communities across Europe. 76. When and where was the liberal arts curriculum developed? What did it consist of? How has the liberal arts curriculum changed between its inception and the present? Answer: The liberal arts curriculum was developed during the classical antiquity period in ancient Greece and Rome. It consisted of a broad education in subjects considered essential for a free citizen (hence "liberal") to participate fully in civic life and intellectual discourse. The curriculum typically included seven liberal arts divided into two categories: - Trivium: This comprised the three language-based subjects: grammar, rhetoric, and logic. Grammar focused on language structure and literature, rhetoric on persuasive communication and public speaking, and logic on reasoning and critical thinking. - Quadrivium: This encompassed the four mathematical subjects: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Arithmetic and geometry dealt with numerical and spatial concepts, music with harmonics and proportions, and astronomy with celestial phenomena. Since its inception, the liberal arts curriculum has evolved significantly. During the medieval period, the focus shifted towards theological and scholastic studies, integrating religious teachings with classical learning. The Renaissance witnessed a revival of interest in classical texts and humanistic studies, leading to a resurgence of the liberal arts tradition. In the modern era, the liberal arts curriculum expanded to include natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, reflecting advancements in knowledge and changes in societal needs. Today, liberal arts education emphasizes interdisciplinary learning, critical thinking, creativity, and adaptability, preparing students for diverse careers and lifelong learning in a rapidly changing world. 77. What were the key tenets of Abelard’s teachings? Why did they get him into trouble? How did his perspective change in later life? Answer: Abelard, a prominent medieval philosopher, was known for his rationalistic approach to theology and philosophy. He emphasized the importance of reason and critical thinking in understanding religious doctrines, challenging traditional authorities. His key tenets included questioning orthodox beliefs, advocating for dialectical inquiry, and prioritizing individual intellectual autonomy. These teachings got him into trouble because they challenged the authority of the church and traditional scholasticism, leading to accusations of heresy. Abelard's perspective changed in later life as he became more contemplative and focused on religious devotion, particularly after his castration and subsequent entry into monastic life. He shifted towards a more humble and contemplative stance, emphasizing the importance of faith alongside reason. 78. Compare and contrast the treatment of women under Roman and German law. What legal rights, work opportunities, and life choices did these legal systems offer women? Answer: Under Roman law, women had limited legal rights compared to men. They were considered under the guardianship of male relatives, such as fathers or husbands, and had restricted access to property ownership and inheritance. However, Roman women could engage in business, own property, and pursue certain professions, albeit within societal constraints. In contrast, Germanic law provided women with more autonomy and legal rights. They could inherit property, divorce their husbands, and even participate in political and legal matters in some Germanic tribes. Women in Germanic societies had greater freedom in choosing their spouses and could exercise more control over their personal affairs compared to their Roman counterparts. In terms of work opportunities, both Roman and Germanic women typically engaged in domestic tasks, such as managing households and raising children. However, Roman women from privileged backgrounds could also participate in trade and business ventures, while Germanic women often contributed to agricultural work alongside men. Overall, while both legal systems constrained women's rights to varying degrees, Germanic law generally offered women more autonomy and legal agency compared to Roman law. 79. Assess medieval views and treatment of children. Were children treated merely as “little adults,” with little emotional attachment from their parents, or were they cherished by their parents and thought of as emotionally and physically quite distinct from adults? What evidence supports each position? Answer: Medieval views and treatment of children varied depending on social class, cultural norms, and regional differences. In some contexts, children were indeed regarded as "little adults," expected to contribute to household labor and often treated with little emotional attachment from their parents. This perspective is supported by historical records detailing child labor, early apprenticeships, and the prevalence of corporal punishment as disciplinary measures. However, there is also evidence to suggest that medieval parents did cherish their children and viewed them as emotionally and physically distinct from adults. This can be seen in the literature of the time, such as medieval poetry and religious texts, which often idealized childhood innocence and depicted parental affection towards children. Additionally, archaeological evidence, such as toys and other artifacts associated with children, indicates that they were valued members of society rather than simply miniature adults. Overall, while some aspects of medieval society may have treated children as "little adults," there is ample evidence to suggest that they were also cherished by their parents and recognized as unique individuals with their own needs and vulnerabilities. 80. How did economic and intellectual change introduce challenges to the traditional concept of medieval society? How did elites respond to these challenges? Answer: Economic and intellectual changes during the medieval period, such as the rise of trade and commerce, the growth of urban centers, and the revival of learning and scholarship, introduced challenges to the traditional hierarchical structure of medieval society. These changes disrupted existing power dynamics, challenged established norms, and created opportunities for social mobility. Elites responded to these challenges in various ways. Some embraced economic and intellectual changes, adapting their strategies to maintain or increase their influence. They invested in trade and commerce, patronized the arts and sciences, and sought alliances with emerging urban elites to consolidate their power. Others, however, resisted change, clinging to traditional privileges and attempting to preserve the feudal order through legislation, coercion, and social control. Overall, the response of elites to economic and intellectual change in medieval society was multifaceted, ranging from adaptation and innovation to resistance and conservatism. Their actions shaped the trajectory of medieval society and influenced the course of European history. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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