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Module 8—Hypnosis and Drugs
1. What do hypnosis and LSD have in common?
a. They were both discovered by accident by Sigmund Freud.
b. At one time, they were both illegal—now just LSD is.
c. Both have the ability to alter one’s consciousness.
d. Both of them can have therapeutic benefits such as losing weight.
Answer: C
2. What is the popular name of d-lysergic acid diethylamide?
a. LSD
b. cocaine
c. caffeine
d. magic mushrooms
Answer: A
3. Who discovered LSD in his laboratory?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Albert Hofmann
c. Anton Mesmer
d. Milton Erickson
Answer: B
4. Albert Hofmann’s strange bike ride was the result of:
a. a post hypnotic state
b. LSD
c. sleep deprivation
d. alcohol intoxication
Answer: B
5. If you had attended one of Anton Mesmer’s healings, what would you have heard him say
about how various symptoms were cured?
a. “I will give my specially formulated medicine to this patient.”
b. “Please tell me all that you remember about your dream.”
c. “Hypnosis will cure this patient’s problems; she will focus on my swinging watch.”

d. “I will pass a force called animal magnetism through my patient’s body.”
Answer: D
6. In the late 1700s, a force called “animal magnetism” (later called hypnosis) was introduced
a. Anton Mesmer
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Ernest Hilgard
d. Herman Von Hypnos
Answer: A
7. Jacques LeBeau lives in Paris in 1795. He has been suffering ulcers. He visits Anton
Mesmer to cure his ulcers. Which of the following treatments does Mesmer offer to Jacques?
a. systematic desensitization
b. the use of animal magnetism
c. an antibiotic
d. a prescription for cocaine
Answer: B
8. ____ is a situation or set of procedures in which one person suggests to another changes in
sensation, perception, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
a. Social influence
b. Hidden observer
c. Hypnosis
d. Conformity
Answer: C
9. Can everyone be easily hypnotized?
a. Yes—about 80% have high susceptibility
b. Yes—about 99% have high susceptibility
c. No—there are not enough high-quality hypnotists
d. No—only about 10–15% have high susceptibility
Answer: D
10. Eric is not easily hypnotized. How common is Eric’s low susceptibility?
a. About 20% of adults have low susceptibility.

b. About 30% of adults have low susceptibility.
c. About 40% of adults have low susceptibility.
d. About 50% of adults have low susceptibility.
Answer: A
11. Which of the following variables is related to susceptibility to hypnosis?
a. intelligence
b. gullibility
c. willpower
d. history of responding to imaginative suggestions
Answer: D
12. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale consists of:
a. a series of both simple and complex suggestions
b. several medical tests such as MRI
c. a number of survey items assessing a person’s beliefs in hypnosis
d. an intelligence test and a personality test
Answer: A
13. The best-known test for susceptibility to hypnosis is called the:
a. Stanford-Binet Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility
b. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale
c. Michigan Test of Hypnotic Persuadability
d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Answer: B
14. What happens to one’s susceptibility to hypnosis as they age?
a. It continues to change until late adulthood.
b. Susceptibility decreases through midlife and then it increases.
c. Remains stable across the lifetime.
d. Susceptibility increases through midlife and then it decreases.
Answer: C
15. One of the first challenges the hypnotist has in hypnotizing someone is to:
a. tell the individual to focus on an object

b. create an expectation that hypnosis is an interesting experience
c. suggest that the individual is feeling sleepy
d. create a sense of trust with the individual
Answer: D
16. The responsiveness of the subject undergoing hypnotic induction depends most on:
a. the specific method of induction
b. the hypnotist’s ability to put the subject to sleep
c. the subject’s susceptibility
d. the hypnotist’s interpersonal skill
Answer: C
17. You are watching a movie in which the main character agrees to be hypnotized. The
hypnotist suggests that the character focus on an object and then suggests that he is getting
sleepy. Then the character, while hypnotized, engages in a criminal act. What is your
educated response to this depiction of hypnosis?
a. People who are hypnotized keep to their standards of morality.
b. A hypnotist could force a person to become hypnotized.
c. Hypnosis can make people do things they consider wrong.
d. This Hollywood depiction of the dangers of hypnosis is accurate.
Answer: A
18. The theory of hypnosis, which states that the hypnotized individual is disconnected from
reality, is called:
a. altered state theory
b. sociocognitive theory
c. hypnotic analgesia theory
d. stimulus control theory
Answer: A
19. Michael Nash argues that hypnosis puts clients into a(n):
a. altered state
b. hidden observer frame of mind
c. unconscious-like state
d. trance-like state
Answer: A

20. You are writing a paper on the altered-state theory of hypnosis. As you are researching the
theory, you find a statement that doesn’t seem to fit your understanding of the theory. Which
of the following statements is inconsistent with the theory?
a. Hypnosis disconnects the person from reality.
b. The hypnotized person does things without conscious intent.
c. The hypnotized person is able to respond to suggestions.
d. The unhypnotized part of the brain does not receive any sensations or perceptions.
Answer: D
21. Imagine that you have observed a person being hypnotized. The hypnotist says that the
person can perform behaviors without conscious intent. The hypnotist adheres to the ____
theory of hypnosis.
a. behavioral
b. altered-state
c. psychodynamic
d. sociocognitive
Answer: B
22. The altered-state theory of hypnosis suggests that hypnosis:
a. is a stage of sleep
b. is a form of social behavior
c. results from a person’s disconnection from reality
d. results from a person’s imagination
Answer: C
23. Those who argue the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis believe that the behavior seen in
hypnotized people is due to:
a. the ability to respond to imaginative suggestion
b. a trance-like state
c. an altered state of consciousness
d. an unconscious desire to please
Answer: A
24. Brad attends a hypnosis show. He goes up on stage and performs many interesting
behaviors. Later he tells his friends that he was just going along with the hypnotist because he
felt social pressure. Brad’s experience supports the idea of hypnosis:
a. as an altered state of consciousness

b. from a trance state perspective
c. as just a stage of sleep
d. from a sociocognitive perspective
Answer: D
25. The behaviors that are seen in hypnotized subjects are also seen in subjects not
hypnotized. This supports the ____ theory of hypnosis.
a. altered-state
b. trance state
c. sociocognitive
d. Freudian
Answer: C
26. The fact that hypnotic behavior can occur without being hypnotized supports the idea
a. the hypnotist has unexplainable power over the subject
b. hypnosis is due to the subject’s imaginative suggestibility
c. hypnosis occurs because of a hidden observer
d. hypnosis is a trance-like state where the subject has high suggestibility
Answer: B
27. You are watching a friend acting like a duck on stage at a hypnosis show. You lean over to
the person sitting next to you and say, “She feels social pressure from the audience and
hypnosis allows her to act like a duck.” Your statement best illustrates the ____ theory of
a. hidden observer
b. altered-state
c. sociocognitive
d. humanistic
Answer: C
28. A client who undergoes hypnosis for pain and reports a reduction in the unpleasant feeling
of pain has experienced:
a. hypnotic analgesia
b. imagined perception
c. posthypnotic amnesia

d. posthypnotic suggestion
Answer: A
29. Kris rids herself of headaches by hypnotic suggestions. Which of the following is she
a. age regression
b. posthypnotic amnesia
c. hypnotic analgesia
d. imagined perceptions
Answer: C
30. While subjects report a reduction in the unpleasant feelings of pain because of hypnosis,
a. later report the pain returning
b. still took pain medication
c. still had sensations of pain
d. still believed that hypnosis was not effective in pain management
Answer: C
31. As part of a hypnosis demonstration, Anthony is told that when he is awakened from the
hypnotic trance, he will have forgotten the number 7. When he is awakened and asked to
count from 1 to 10, he skips over 7. Anthony is exhibiting which of the following?
a. a posthypnotic suggestion
b. age regression
c. analgesia
d. an imagined perception
Answer: A
32. When given a cue, a subject who was recently hypnotized, performs a particular behavior.
The subject was given a(n):
a. hidden suggestion
b. imagined suggestion
c. hypnotic exhortation
d. posthypnotic suggestion
Answer: D
33. “I know I was hypnotized, but that’s all I can remember.” This could be an example of:

a. posthypnotic suggestion
b. posthypnotic amnesia
c. hypnotic sensation
d. imagined perception
Answer: B
34. Rachel was hypnotized and told that she would not remember what happened. But, you
don’t believe that she has really forgotten the experience. You press her and keep asking her
to remember. What is most likely to happen?
a. Rachel will remember everything about her experience.
b. She will start showing signs of age regression.
c. Rachel will remember some aspects of the experience.
d. Rachel will continue to say that she does not recall anything about the experience.
Answer: C
35. Carrie is watching a television show that claims people can go back and relive childhood
experiences through hypnosis. Carrie has just read Module Eight and correctly remembers
that these individuals are:
a. actually experiencing a posthypnotic suggestion
b. acting in ways they expect children to act
c. probably actually experiencing age regression
d. likely not to remember what happened during hypnosis because of posthypnotic amnesia
Answer: B
36. After reviewing many studies on age regression in hypnosis, one scientist concluded:
a. age regression is a viable technique for therapy
b. adults could in fact “go back” to their childhood
c. there was no evidence of subjects actually reliving childhood experiences
d. more research needed to be done
Answer: C
37. The effects of hypnosis are seen as demonstrating the subject’s:
a. lack of willpower to the commands of the hypnotist
b. gullibility
c. imaginative suggestibility
d. obedience to the hypnotist who is an authority figure

Answer: C
38. Lance has recently been hypnotized to manage his chronic back pain. The posthypnotic
suggestion to think about his pain as less unpleasant results in:
a. decreased activity in the frontal lobe
b. increased activity in the frontal lobe
c. reduced sensations of pain
d. increased perceptions of pain elsewhere in his body
Answer: B
39. Making the suggestion to subjects to think of pain as more or less unpleasant had no
effect on what brain area?
a. occipital lobe
b. temporal lobe
c. frontal lobe
d. parietal lobe
Answer: D
40. Hypnosis can modify:
a. a person’s perception of pain
b. the number of pain messages that reach the brain
c. pain receptors in the skin
d. the type of pain messages that reach the brain
Answer: A
41. Compared to nonhypnotized subjects, those hypnotized patients undergoing surgery:
a. require less pain mediation
b. require more pain mediation
c. had longer recovery periods
d. reported more anxiety after the surgery
Answer: A
42. On television you see an info-commercial selling a “hypnosis kit.” You hear the
announcer claim that hypnosis has been successfully used to reduce pain, decrease tension,
stop overeating, and quit smoking. It was also said that people who are highly susceptible to
hypnosis respond more favorably. What did the announcer say that you know to be false?
a. hypnosis is not at all successful at reducing pain

b. reduction in tension has not generally occurred with hypnosis
c. susceptibility only refers to the induction of hypnosis, not to benefiting from hypnosis
d. hypnosis has not had as much success in dealing with smoking and overeating as the other
Answer: D
43. Which of the following individuals is least likely to be effectively treated with hypnosis?
a. Will, who experiences anxiety and tension
b. Megan has asthma attacks
c. Levi, who wishes to lose some weight
d. Kali suffers from pain from an accident
Answer: C
44. Hypnosis tends to be more effective in addressing problems related to ____, but less
effective in problems related to ____.
a. self-control; mind-body interactions
b. mind-body interactions; self-control
c. mind-body interactions; psychosomatic symptoms
d. self-control; impulse control
Answer: B
45. Research concerning the use of hypnosis in therapeutic and behavioral change has
indicated that hypnosis:
a. is more effective than health education
b. is more effective than behavioral modification
c. is only effective in getting people to quit smoking
d. should be used in combination with other programs
Answer: D
46. In a recent study of college students, it was found that those who reported that they have
good or above-average emotional health is:
a. almost perfectly predicted by individual students’ college majors.
b. is higher than it has been in the last 30 years.
c. has rebounded after a decline in the 1990s.
d. at its lowest level in the last 25 years.
Answer: D

47. Veronica practices a relaxation process that involves assuming a comfortable position,
closing her eyes, and focusing her attention on repeating words or sounds. She is practicing
a. hatha yoga
b. transcendental meditation
c. mindfulness meditation
d. bikram yoga
Answer: B
48. For those research participants who took part in a study on the stress-reducing effects of
transcendental meditation, a ____ reduction in stress was noted.
a. 12%
b. 24%
c. 36%
d. 48%
Answer: C
49. What is the name of the chemicals that alter our consciousness, awareness, sensations,
perceptions, mood, and cognitive processes?
a. psychosomatic drugs
b. psychoactive drugs
c. psychomedicinal drugs
d. illicit drugs
Answer: B
50. Which of the following is the best definition of a psychoactive drug?
a. a drug produced by the brain in order to stimulate sensory experiences in the visual system
b. any substance which has been declared illegal for use or for use without a prescription
c. chemicals which affect the nervous system, resulting in altered consciousness and
d. neurotransmitters which, when released, change the behavior of an individual
Answer: C
51. Once the individual has developed a behavioral pattern of drug abuse and an
overwhelming desire to get and use the drug, then we say that the individual has developed
a. withdrawal symptom

b. tolerance
c. addiction
d. psychological dependence
Answer: C
52. “I really want, need it. I am consumed by getting some of it. I quit, but relapsed again.”
This person is describing:
a. withdrawal symptom
b. tolerance
c. addiction
d. psychological dependence
Answer: C
53. According to Module Eight, which famous figure in psychology had a serious drug
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. B. F. Skinner
d. Sigmund Freud
Answer: D
54. When a person’s body builds up a resistance to a drug so that larger doses are needed to
produce the same effects, that person has developed:
a. withdrawal
b. tolerance
c. dependency
d. immunity
Answer: B
55. When I first started drinking, all I needed to get a buzz was two or three beers. Now it
takes me about six or seven. I must have developed:
a. withdrawal
b. tolerance
c. dependency
d. immunity
Answer: B

56. Laura is not worried about her marijuana use. She has been smoking marijuana for 10
years, and she says that one joint doesn’t even get her stoned anymore. Laura is experiencing:
a. an increased tolerance to marijuana
b. withdrawal symptoms
c. a decrease in her psychological dependency on marijuana
d. a physical need to smoke marijuana
Answer: A
57. If a person continues to take a drug to prevent withdrawal symptoms, the person is
a. tolerance
b. addiction
c. dependence
d. withdrawal
Answer: C
58. Karl continues to use a drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms from occurring. Karl shows:
a. tolerance
b. addiction
c. dependence
d. withdrawal
Answer: C
59. Physiological dependence refers to the strong need or desire to use a drug in order to:
a. cope with some situation or problem
b. prevent the onset of withdrawal symptoms
c. overcome tolerance effects
d. make the body function normally
Answer: B
60. Withdrawal symptoms occur when an addicted person:
a. uses a drug
b. overuses a drug
c. stops using a drug
d. recognizes that they are psychologically dependent

Answer: C
61. “After being addicted to soda—I drank at least six cans a day—I stopped. I got bad
headaches and felt so tired.” The headaches best describe:
a. tolerance
b. addiction
c. withdrawal symptoms
d. placebo effects
Answer: C
62. Vera is trying to quit using heroin. The first day without the drug, she experienced
incredible pain and felt like she was “going nuts.” Vera is experiencing:
a. an increase in tolerance
b. drug-induced analgesia
c. an imagined perception
d. withdrawal symptoms
Answer: D
63. Why do many health care professionals recommend spending more on drug education,
counseling, and treatment?
a. legalization is likely to increase use of illegal drugs
b. since these programs are covered by health care insurance, individuals who abuse drugs are
more likely to seek help
c. these programs cost less than imprisonment
d. job security for these professionals
Answer: C
64. What have researchers concluded about drug treatment?
a. drug treatment is highly cost-effective only for the treatment of stimulant abuse
b. drug treatment is more cost-effective than imprisonment
c. enforcement of drug laws is more effective than drug treatment
d. drug treatment using psychoanalysis is the most cost-effective treatment
Answer: B
65. According to Module Eight, because of the results of the government’s war on drugs,
some have suggested:
a. drug legalization or decriminalization

b. increasing the amount of money spent on law enforcement
c. requiring all tax payers to take drug tests
d. mandatory jail time even for minor drug infractions
Answer: A
66. Which of the following is not a mechanism by which drugs change behavior?
a. activating the brain’s reward/pleasure circuit
b. mimicking the action of neurotransmitters
c. blocking reuptake
d. decreasing the production of synaptic vesicles
Answer: D
67. You are writing a book on morphine. What should the title be of the chapter that describes
morphine’s effect on the nervous system?
a. “Clogging Receptors”
b. “The Great Imitator”
c. “Preventing Reuptake”
d. “Increasing the Release”
Answer: B
68. Morphine has its effects on the nervous system due to:
a. its similar chemical structure to endorphins
b. its effect on preventing reuptake
c. its similar chemical structure to dopamine
d. its effect on increasing reuptake
Answer: A
69. One way that cocaine produces its effects is to:
a. block the production of neurotransmitters
b. block reuptake of neurotransmitters
c. reduce the neuronal stimulation
d. stimulate pituitary and adrenal glands
Answer: B
70. If a drug chemically looks like a neurotransmitter, the drug can:
a. prevent the release of the neurotransmitter

b. cause reuptake to occur more readily
c. mimic the actions of the neurotransmitter
d. prevent reuptake
Answer: C
71. Which of the following stimulants is widely available on the black market?
a. mescaline
b. heroin
c. methamphetamine
d. morphine
Answer: C
72. Which of the following types of psychoactive drugs increase activity of the nervous
system, resulting in heightened alertness, arousal, and euphoria?
a. hallucinogens
b. opiates
c. stimulants
d. marijuana
Answer: C
73. You’re writing a paper on stimulants. You plan to write a section on each of the major
stimulants. Which of the following drugs is not a member of the stimulant class of drugs?
a. cocaine
b. nicotine
c. caffeine
d. alcohol
Answer: D
74. The federal government has made amphetamines illegal, except when prescribed for
narcolepsy and:
a. attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder
b. major depression
c. anxiety
d. nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Answer: A

75. Methamphetamine is ____ and causes ____.
a. taken in pill form; a sudden “crash”
b. smoked; intense visions or hallucinations
c. taken in pill form; depression
d. smoked or snorted; a near instantaneous high
Answer: D
76. The most popular illegal drug in Japan is:
a. methamphetamine
b. cocaine
c. LSD
d. peyote
Answer: A
77. In the nervous system, amphetamines change the way we feel, think, and act by:
a. increasing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine
b. increasing the rate of reuptake
c. mimicking the effects of melatonin
d. destroying vesicles in the terminal button
Answer: A
78. Methamphetamine’s effects of enhanced mood, alertness, and energy is due to its ability
a. block the receptor sites of dopamine
b. mimic dopamine
c. decrease the release of dopamine
d. increase the release of dopamine
Answer: D
79. Bobby is a heavy user of methamphetamine. He is addicted to it and has developed
paranoid feelings about others trying to “get” him. What other signs of Bobby’s addiction
might be present?
a. heart irregularities
b. he suffers from insomnia
c. depression, agitation, and insomnia

d. difficulty in concentrating
Answer: C
80. Methamphetamine users have fewer ____ receptors.
a. dopamine
b. acetylcholine
c. serotonin
Answer: A
81. What was the negative consequence of the government’s crackdown in the 1970s on
a. less research on developing antidotes for amphetamine overdose
b. reduced funding of drug treatment programs
c. increased use of amphetamines
d. increased use of cocaine
Answer: D
82. What contributed to the increased popularity of cocaine in the 1970s?
a. the crackdown on amphetamine usage
b. development of a new safer form of cocaine
c. the crackdown on marijuana
d. lower price
Answer: A
83. Typically, those present-day Andean Indians of Peru who use coca leaves, which contain
cocaine, show:
a. severe addiction problems
b. psychological dependency
c. few problems with addiction
d. increase in crime, violence, and mental disorders
Answer: C
84. In the late 1980s, a “cocaine epidemic” was evident in the United States. Since that time,
what has happened to cocaine usage?
a. cocaine usage has remained stable

b. the use of cocaine in the United States has increased 20-25%
c. cocaine usage has decreased by 50-60%
d. it has remained a very large problem, with about 1.5 million users
Answer: D
85. ____ is produced from the leaves of the coca plant.
a. heroin
b. caffeine
c. cocaine
d. opium
Answer: C
86. Jared is a drug user. He can sniff or snort his drug, or smoke or inject it if it comes in a
highly concentrated form. To what drug Jared is addicted?
a. caffeine
b. cocaine
c. endorphin
d. LSD
Answer: B
87. Cocaine’s effects on the nervous system center around its ability to:
a. decrease the amount of neurotransmitters available in the nervous system
b. block reuptake
c. increase reuptake in the synapse
d. decrease the sensitivity of receptors to norepinephrine
Answer: B
88. When the effects of cocaine wear off, users often report feelings of:
a. extreme fatigue
b. general well-being
c. mellowness
d. depression
Answer: D
89. The only legal use of cocaine is:
a. the treatment of leprosy

b. as a treatment for severe anorexia nervosa
c. to block muscles from having spasms
d. as a local anesthetic
Answer: D
90. Brian is a heavy cocaine user. What is occurring in his brain because of his use of
a. There is an increase in the amount of dopamine produced in the brain.
b. Cocaine stimulates the growth of dendrites.
c. There is a reduction in the number of dopamine receptors in the areas of his brain involved
in reward and pleasure.
d. There is a reduction in the number of acetylcholine receptors in the areas of his brain
involved in memory.
Answer: C
91. Today, the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world is:
a. alcohol
b. marijuana
c. nicotine
d. caffeine
Answer: D
92. Which of the following contains the highest concentration of caffeine?
a. one cup of regular coffee
b. one cup of regular tea
c. one diet cola
d. one chocolate bar
Answer: A
93. What effect is seen after a moderate dose of caffeine?
a. a paradoxical sense of relaxation
b. increased reaction time on complex tasks
c. improved performance in sleep-deprived drivers
d. reduced motor impairment from alcohol
Answer: C

94. After drinking too much alcohol, Lance drinks some coffee to reduce the motor
impairment of the alcohol. What is the most likely outcome of drinking some coffee?
a. The coffee will only improve fine motor skills.
b. It will have significant effect only if he drank wine.
c. It may have significant effect depending on how much alcohol he drank.
d. It will have little effect.
Answer: D
95. Caffeine belongs to the group of chemicals called:
a. xanthines
b. opiates
c. hallucinogens
d. amphetamines
Answer: A
96. Caffeine’s characteristic effects are due to its:
a. blocking adenosine receptors in the brain
b. decreasing the production of norepinephrine in the dendrite
c. interfering with the production of norepinephrine in the terminal button
d. increasing reuptake rates in the neuron
Answer: A
97. Which of the following statements about caffeine is incorrect?
a. once caffeine reaches the brain, it results in stimulation and mild arousal
b. caffeine can cause addiction
c. caffeine can cause psychological dependency similar to alcohol
d. five cups of coffee a day can result in addiction
Answer: D
98. Peter realizes that he drinks too many energy drinks a day. He decides to abruptly stop
consuming any caffeine. What can Peter expect?
a. Peter will have a slight craving for caffeine.
b. He will experience decreased fatigue.
c. Peter will go through withdrawal and experience headaches, fatigue, and nausea.
d. Withdrawal symptoms will not be likely since Peter is stopping abruptly.

Answer: C
99. Rose claims that cocaine is the most dangerous drug in terms of the number of deaths
caused each year. Her belief is:
a. correct
b. incorrect; nicotine causes far more deaths
c. incorrect; alcohol causes far more deaths
d. incorrect; heroin causes far more deaths
Answer: B
100. What is the safe level of second-hand smoke exposure?
a. 10–12 cigarettes per day
b. 4–6 cigarettes per day
c. 1–3 cigarettes per day
d. there is no safe level
Answer: D
101. What did the United State Surgeon General say about cigarette smoking?
a. There is a safe level of smoking—about 1–2 cigarettes a day.
b. Nicotine is less addictive than caffeine.
c. A healthier cigarette should be developed.
d. Smoking is the most important health issue of our time.
Answer: D
102. LeRoy is excited that finally he has a real chance to quit smoking. He will be using the
nicotine patch. What is the likelihood that he will not be smoking one year later?
a. great—about 1% of smokers who quit smoking relapse within one year
b. good—about 5% of smokers who quit smoking relapse within one year
c. not good—about 75-90% of smokers who quit smoking relapse within one year
d. okay—about 35% of smokers who quit smoking relapse within one year
Answer: C
103. Nicotine is classified as a(n):
a. opiate
b. hallucinogen
c. stimulant

d. depressant
Answer: C
104. In the brain, nicotine:
a. stimulates the production of dopamine
b. interferes with the reuptake of dopamine
c. binds to serotonin receptors
d. stimulates the production of receptors
Answer: A
105. Why does nicotine produce a pleasurable feeling?
a. It increases dopamine in the brain’s pleasure center.
b. It interferes with the reuptake of dopamine.
c. It binds to serotonin receptors.
d. It blocks adenosine receptors in the limbic system.
Answer: A
106. The overall effect of nicotine is that it:
a. reduces pain
b. depresses the nervous system
c. creates strong euphoria
d. produces a long-lasting pleasant feeling
Answer: D
107. When Gloria lights up a cigarette, the nicotine functions as a(n) ____.
a. amphetamine
b. stimulant
c. opiate
d. depressant
Answer: B
108. According to the textbook, the oldest drug made by humans is:
a. mescaline
b. psilocybin
c. alcohol

d. nicotine
Answer: C
109. Harvey and Matt are debating whether the alcohol in beer, wine, and liquor is different.
Harvey says that all contain ethyl alcohol. Matt says that each contains a different type of
alcohol. Who is right?
a. Harvey is partially right, since beer does not contain ethyl alcohol, but wine and liquor do.
b. Matt is right. Each drink contains different types of alcohol.
c. Harvey is partially right. Beer and wine, but not liquor, contain ethyl alcohol.
d. Harvey is right. Beer, wine, and liquor contain ethyl alcohol.
Answer: D
110. Alcohol is classified as a(n):
a. amphetamine
b. stimulant
c. opiate
d. depressant
Answer: D
111. Alcohol’s effects appear to be due to its ability to:
a. stimulate GABA receptors and impair the anterior cingulate cortex
b. prevent reuptake of GABA
c. increase the production of acetylcholine
d. increase the production of dopamine
Answer: A
112. What is the best evidence that alcohol impairs the anterior cingulate cortex?
a. Alcohol acts as a stimulant.
b. When drinking, people feel less anxious.
c. People who drink may not notice that their motor performance is affected.
d. The brain stem functions are depressed.
Answer: C
113. For the last few days, Patrick has stopped abusing alcohol. He is presently enduring
serious withdrawal symptoms. The presence of withdrawal symptoms most strongly suggests
that Patrick:
a. is experiencing a hangover

b. has an addiction to alcohol
c. has serious liver damage
d. has a genetic basis to his alcoholism
Answer: B
114. What would you expect to observe in a person with a BAC level of .02?
a. friendliness and loss of inhibitions
b. impaired judgment
c. slurred speech
d. impaired reaction time
Answer: A
115. “When I stop drinking, I start feeling sick and I get the shakes.” This best describes:
a. addiction
b. dependency
c. a habit
d. binge drinking
Answer: B
116. “If I want the same buzz, I’ll have to drink more.” This person is describing:
a. addiction
b. dependency
c. tolerance
d. the effects of GABA stimulation
Answer: C
117. How might you tell if a person is experiencing withdrawal symptoms following heavy
a. The person is experiencing short bursts of energy and alertness.
b. You notice the person has reduced inhibitions.
c. The person needs to drink more and more alcohol.
d. The person experiences shakes, nausea, and anxiety.
Answer: D

118. Juan attended a party last night, but really can’t remember what happened. All that he
recalls is drinking a lot of beer. His friends claim that he was obnoxious and rude, but Juan
can’t remember. This is not the first time for this experience. Last night, Juan had a(n):
a. allergic reaction
b. hangover
c. seizure
d. blackout
Answer: D
119. A memory lapse associated with drinking is called a:
a. blackout
b. mnemonic
c. hangover
d. seizure
Answer: A
120. The best way to think about risk factors for abusing alcohol is that:
a. they do not include genetic factors
b. risk factors have not been identified by scientific research
c. they increase the chances that a person will develop alcoholism
d. they guarantee that a person will develop alcoholism
Answer: C
121. Examples of psychological risk factors cited in your textbook include:
a. whether the parent was physically abused as a child
b. the quality of attachment between child and parent
c. how parents respond effectively to stressful situations
d. engaging in risk-taking behaviors
Answer: D
122. Sue’s biological parents did not drink. She was adopted at the age of three, and her
adoptive parents both suffered from alcoholism. While in college, Sue developed a drinking
problem. Her drinking problem may have been a result of ____ risk factors.
a. blood alcohol level
b. psychological
c. genetic

d. depressant
Answer: B
123. Psychological risk factors may increase one’s risk of alcoholism by:
a. modifying genetic risk
b. changing one’s physiological risk
c. teaching the individual how to inappropriately deal with personal, social, or work-related
d. increasing one’s sensitivity to alcohol
Answer: C
124. Research has indicated that sensitivity to alcohol is a genetic risk for alcoholism.
Specifically, what kind of sensitivity has the research identified as a risk for developing
a. lower
b. higher
c. the research has not identified the degree of sensitivity
d. lower or higher—it doesn’t matter, as long as it is an abnormal degree of sensitivity
Answer: A
125. Bill and Bob are 22-year-old identical twins. Bill suffers from alcoholism. Using the
data cited in your textbook, what are the chances that Bob also struggles with this problem?
a. 6%
b. 16%
c. 39%
d. 99%
Answer: C
126. Genetic factors contribute about ____ to the development of alcoholism.
a. 3-5%
b. 30-40%
c. 50-60%
d. around 99%
Answer: C
127. Research on alcoholism has demonstrated that the development of alcoholism is
associated with:

a. psychological factors
b. genetic factors
c. both psychological and genetic factors
d. neither psychological nor genetic factors
Answer: C
128. Kari is considered “at risk” for alcoholism. This means that:
a. both her parents are alcoholics
b. she will definitely develop alcoholism during adulthood
c. only genetic factors will influence her actual experiences with alcohol
d. her chances of developing alcoholism are increased but the outcome is not definite
Answer: D
129. The family that lives down the street from Lance has several members who struggle with
alcoholism. Lance thinks that the family must have the “alcoholic gene.” Is Lance right?
a. The “alcoholic gene” has been found on the sex chromosome.
b. There are no genetic factors associated with alcoholism.
c. There are probably several “alcoholic genes” that interact with the environment.
d. There are probably several “alcoholic genes” that influence us independent of the
Answer: C
130. Which of the following is not a characteristic of alcoholism?
a. addiction to alcohol
b. facial flushing
c. dependency on alcohol
d. continued use of alcohol despite problems
Answer: B
131. What happens if you lack a particular liver enzyme involved in metabolizing alcohol?
a. develop liver damage
b. display confabulation
c. shakes
d. facial flushing
Answer: D

132. Compared to Koreans, those Asians who experience significant ____ are likely to drink
less and have ____ rates of alcoholism according to your textbook.
a. facial flushing; higher
b. idiosyncratic alcohol intoxication; higher
c. facial flushing; lower
d. metabolic slow-down; higher
Answer: C
133. Scott abuses alcohol even though he has paid thousands of dollars in fines, been fired
three times, has been divorced, and was advised by his doctor to quit drinking because of
possible liver damage. Scott has had several drinks a day for the last three years. Scott:
a. suffers from alcoholism
b. is a problem drinker
c. is likely to be Japanese
d. suffers from alcohol intoxication
Answer: A
134. Of the following cultures, which has the highest rates of alcoholism?
a. Germans
b. Americans
c. Taiwanese
d. Koreans
Answer: D
135. The high rate of alcoholism among Korean men is attributable to:
a. genetic factors
b. cultural pressure to drink heavily in some social situations
c. lack of an liver enzyme involved in metabolizing alcohol
d. stress of living in an industrialized country
Answer: B
136. According to the textbook, the Confucian moral ethic appears to have influenced the
____, where there are cultural taboos against drinking or being intoxicated in public.
a. Indonesians
b. Buddhist monks
c. Taiwanese

d. Koreans
Answer: C
137. As your textbook shows, cultural factors are an important factor in explaining
differences in the rate of alcoholism. However, culture seems to have little influence on:
a. development of alcoholism
b. types of alcoholism
c. drunk driving rates
d. outcomes of alcoholism
Answer: A
138. Jack is taking a psychoactive drug. He reports having perceptual, sensory, and cognitive
experiences that are out of the ordinary; but he understands that these experiences are not
real. The drug he is most likely taking is one of the ____ drugs.
a. anti-psychotic
b. stimulant
c. hallucinogenic
d. amphetamine
Answer: C
139. At a party, a number of people are claiming to have weird sensory and perceptual
experiences because of some psychoactive drug. Which of the following drugs is probably
not the drug taken at this party by these people?
a. LSD
b. psilocybin
c. mescaline
d. methamphetamine
Answer: D
140. Billy takes a drug that causes him to see strange things. For example, he reports that the
refrigerator has grown arms and is trying to grab him. What type of drug has he most likely
a. hallucinogen
b. stimulant
c. anti-psychotic
d. depressant
Answer: A

141. LSD’s effect is due to its similarity to:
a. heroin
b. dopamine
c. caffeine
d. serotonin
Answer: D
142. Use of lysergic acid diethylamide is
a. likely to increase the odds of overdosing
b. tied to experiencing frightening flashbacks for no apparent reason
c. linked to the many cases of death from overdose
d. likely to cause physical addiction
Answer: B
143. You’ve just read a paper on LSD written by a classmate. In the paper, you read that LSD
causes physical addiction. What is your learned reaction?
a. It is widely known that LSD causes physical addiction.
b. Physical addiction to LSD depends on several factors such as age of user.
c. There have been no reports of physical addiction to LSD.
d. LSD does not cause physical addiction or tolerance.
Answer: C
144. The active ingredient in “magic mushrooms” is:
a. psilocybin
b. mescaline
c. cocaine
d. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
Answer: A
145. Psilocybin’s effects on the nervous system are due to its:
a. excitatory influence on serotonin receptors
b. inhibitory action on dopamine receptors
c. similarity to cocaine with regard to chemical makeup
d. chemical structure resembling LSD
Answer: D

146. The effects of psilocybin’s effects are due to its ability to:
a. increase the release of dopamine
b. release endorphins in the visual cortex of the brain
c. bind to serotonin receptors
d. prevent reuptake from occurring
Answer: C
147. Peyote cactus contains the psychoactive drug:
b. mescaline
c. psilocybin
d. opium
Answer: B
148. Which of the following statements about mescaline is true?
a. It only takes very, very small amounts of mescaline to produce hallucinations.
b. It is significantly more potent than LSD.
c. The parasympathetic division is activated by mescaline.
d. Mescaline does not impair intellect or cloud consciousness.
Answer: D
149. The effects of mescaline are caused by increasing the activity of:
a. serotonin and endorphin
b. norepinephrine and dopamine
c. dopamine and serotonin
d. MDMA and morphine
Answer: B
150. At high doses, mescaline typically causes:
a. a temporary reduction of problem solving skills
b. disorientation
c. clear and vivid hallucinations
d. confusion
Answer: C

151. Bud has manufactured a quantity of MDMA in a lab in his garage. Bud has made a(n):
a. depressant
b. opiate
c. designer drug
d. stimulant
Answer: C
152. The street name of MDMA is:
a. “ecstasy”
b. “ice”
c. “slam”
d. “crack”
Answer: A
153. Which of the following best illustrates the effects of MDMA?
a. depressant + hallucinogenic
b. hallucinogenic + stimulant
c. stimulant + analgesia
d. euphoria + analgesia
Answer: B
154. MDMA creates a euphoric rush and warmth by:
a. releasing large amounts of endorphins
b. releasing large amounts of serotonin and dopamine and they stimulate the brain’s pleasure
c. blocking the reuptake of endorphins
d. blocking adenosine receptors
Answer: B
155. Where does marijuana stand in popularity of use in the United States with cocaine,
heroin, and ecstasy?
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

Answer: A
156. When comparing the amount of cancer-causing substances, one joint of marijuana is
equivalent to ____ cigarettes:
a. 0.5
b. 2
c. 5
d. 10
Answer: C
157. The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is:
a. methamphetamine
b. opium
c. cocaine
d. marijuana
Answer: D
158. The gateway effect refers to:
a. the use of marijuana leading to use of harder drugs
b. the effects of marijuana on critical thinking
c. the medicinal uses of marijuana
d. THC’s effect on the reticular formation
Answer: A
159. The active ingredient in marijuana is called ____ and is found in ____.
a. xanthine; cannabis roots
b. anandamide; cannabis leaves
c. THC; cannabis leaves
d. xanthine; cannabis leaves
Answer: C
160. Low doses of marijuana cause ____, whereas high doses cause ____.
a. elevated blood pressure; heart failure
b. time distortions; cognitive dementia
c. mild euphoria; delusions
d. distortions of body image; increases in reaction time

Answer: C
161. The effects of marijuana on a person depends upon:
a. the supply of dopamine in the brain
b. the user’s state of mind
c. its effect on the reuptake of dopamine
d. the amount of dopamine found in the marijuana joint
Answer: B
162. A newly discovered substance in the brain has a chemical structure similar to the active
ingredient in marijuana. This neurotransmitter is:
a. anandamide
b. dopamine
c. serotonin
d. epinephrine
Answer: A
163. Mary and Jane are arguing about the relative carcinogenic content of marijuana smoke
and tobacco smoke. Mary says that marijuana smoke is more dangerous to one’s health than
tobacco smoke. Based upon the research, Mary is:
a. wrong, since the difference between the two is insignificant
b. erong, because marijuana smoke has half the carcinogenic content of tobacco smoke
c. right, because THC increases the body’s susceptibility to carcinogens
d. right, because marijuana smoke has about 50 percent greater carcinogenic content than
tobacco smoke
Answer: D
164. Which of the following is not a danger of marijuana according to the textbook?
a. permanent brain damage
b. toxic psychosis
c. impaired ability to drive
d. mild withdrawal symptoms
Answer: A
165. The opiates are said to cause three primary effects. Which of the following is not among
the effects?
a. analgesia

b. opiate euphoria
c. constipation
d. hallucinations
Answer: D
166. Ruby, who is addicted to opiates, sits in her apartment and takes heroin. She says that
within moments she’ll feel the rush. What method did Ruby use to put the heroin into her
body and quickly feel the rush?
a. she injected heroin
b. the heroin was smoked
c. heroin, no matter how it gets in the body, does not produce a quick rush
d. either injection or smoking heroin will cause a quick rush
Answer: A
167. The body is capable of producing its own opiate-like chemicals in the form of:
a. endorphins
b. dopamine
c. thoraxine
d. adrenaline
Answer: A
168. A new drug has been used to treat heroin addiction by blocking the craving for it. What
is this new drug?
a. endorphin
b. buprenorphine
c. methadone
d. psilocybin
Answer: B
169. What happens to the brain of an opiate user following several weeks of regular use?
a. Endorphin receptors become more sensitive.
b. Endorphin receptors become less sensitive.
c. The brain will produce less of its own endorphins.
d. The brain will produce more of its own endorphins.
Answer: C

170. The newest treatment for heroin addiction is:
a. a drug that blocks the craving for heroin
b. acupuncture
c. methadone
d. self-help programs
Answer: A
171. A long-term study of those addicted to heroin found that if users do not quit by age ____,
they are unlikely to ever stop.
a. 25
b. 30
c. 40
d. 45
Answer: B
172. The most common treatment for heroin addiction is:
a. methadone
b. detoxification
c. imprisonment
d. antidepressants
Answer: A
173. ____ is defined as a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant
problems because of continued usage.
a. Psychological addiction
b. Substance dependency
c. Substance addiction
d. Substance abuse
Answer: D
174. The Minnesota model of treatment emphasizes that:
a. the abuser has lost control over the drug
b. the individual can learn how to moderate the intake of the drug
c. individuals working alone are in the best position to solve their drug problem
d. patients can acquire the skills to not abuse alcohol and to become only social drinkers

Answer: A
175. The most commonly used inpatient drug treatment model is the:
a. motivational model
b. Michigan model
c. Minnesota model
d. Alcoholics Anonymous model
Answer: C
176. Bart is an abuser of alcohol. Kent suffers from depression. Based upon the textbook, one
important difference between these two individuals is:
a. Bart is far more likely to seek treatment on his own than Kent
b. depression is more difficult to treat, because with alcohol one can remain totally isolated
from it, whereas depression is part of living
c. Bart probably doesn’t recognize his need for treatment, while Kent likely seeks treatment
d. there is a more negative social stigma associated with treatment for depression, so Kent is
likely to get treatment
Answer: C
177. Larry is addicted to heroin. The first step to successful treatment of his problem
a. admitting to himself that he has a problem
b. detoxification
c. aversive conditioning
d. family therapy
Answer: A
178. Substance abuse often worsens because:
a. the person becomes more sensitive to stress because the drugs change the brain
b. family and friends are enablers
c. health deteriorates and the immune system becomes weaker
d. the cost of the drug habit increases as tolerance sets in
Answer: A
179. What percentage of people suffering from alcoholism are treated in clinics as

a. 5%
b. 7%
c. 85%
d. 97%
Answer: C
180. The most important goal of a drug treatment program may be for the individual to:
a. face up to the drug problem
b. detoxify
c. to form new nondrinking friends
d. overcome psychological risk factors
Answer: D
181. Mike is in treatment for alcohol abuse and is working on eliminating maladaptive
negative thought patterns. His program uses the technique of:
a. mental rebuilding
b. abstinence
c. free association
d. cognitive-behavioral therapy
Answer: D
182. As part of a drug treatment program, the subject may experience a spiritual awakening.
This therapy is known as:
a. the 12-step approach
b. relapse prevention
c. motivational therapy
d. cognitive-behavioral therapy
Answer: A
183. As a way of stopping her nicotine habit, Elyce is taught how to use her own personal
resources and to take personal responsibility to abstain. This is ____ therapy.
a. the 12-step approach
b. relapse prevention
c. motivational
d. cognitive-behavioral

Answer: C
184. What popular aftercare program for recovering alcoholics emphasizes a 12-step
approach as they recover?
a. Alcoholics United
b. Alcoholics Anonymous
c. Working Through groups
Answer: B
185. Lynn is attending Alcoholics Anonymous and has been doing so for two years. What is
Lynn not likely to hear being taught at a meeting of AA?
a. “Total abstinence is the only hope for alcoholics.”
b. “You must put trust in a Power greater than yourself.”
c. “You can learn how to control your drinking.”
d. “Alcoholics must learn how to rebuild their character.”
Answer: C
186. Of the therapies for drug treatment described in your textbook, which one was found to
be most effective in reducing drinking?
a. cognitive-behavioral therapy
b. motivational therapy
c. the 12-step approach
d. they are equally effective
Answer: D
187. The goal of most drug treatment programs is:
a. controlled drug use
b. continued use, but only if it causes no problems
c. complete abstinence
d. reducing withdrawal symptoms
Answer: C
188. About ____ of all drug abusers relapse.
a. 55–70%
b. 40–45%

c. 30–35%
d. 10–15%
Answer: A
189. In a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, subjects who took caffeine compared to
placebo control groups:
a. showed an increase in the release of dopamine
b. became more susceptible to hypnosis
c. showed an increased in MDMA production
d. showed increased activity in brain areas involved in attention and memory
Answer: D
190. A friend tells you that drinking two cups of coffee a day will make you smarter. What’s
your educated response?
a. No. The coffee can increase attention and energy, but not intelligence.
b. Two cups of coffee probably won’t increase intelligence, but four cups will increase
c. Yes. Caffeine does improve decision making and other cognitive abilities.
d. Maybe. The caffeine can improve intelligence only if the individual is intellectually
Answer: A
1. Most people are highly susceptible to hypnosis.
Answer: False
2. When people are hypnotized, they actually are sleeping.
Answer: False
3. Hypnosis allows a person to perform behaviors without conscious intent, according to the
altered-state theory of hypnosis.
Answer: True
4. Behaviors observed in hypnotized subjects have been observed in nonhypnotized subjects.
Answer: True
5. People who show age regression following hypnotism are usually faking.
Answer: False
6. In hypnotic analgesia, one’s perception of pain sensations is reduced.

Answer: True
7. Hypnotic suggestions to think of pain as less unpleasant leads to decreased activity in the
frontal lobe.
Answer: False
8. Hypnosis is most effective in helping people with self-control problems such as smoking
and excessive drinking.
Answer: False
9. When the pleasure centers of the brain rely on outside drugs, addiction and dependency
Answer: True
10. Psychological dependency to a drug occurs when the person takes the drug to avoid
Answer: False
11. Some drugs mimic the functions of naturally occurring neurotransmitters.
Answer: T
12. If a drug prevents reuptake, the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse.
Answer: True
13. Addiction occurs when the brain’s reward/pleasure center becomes dependent on outside
Answer: True
14. Nicotine is a stimulant.
Answer: True
15. There has been an increase in the use of methamphetamine.
Answer: True
16. Opiates provide euphoria and analgesia by its effect on receptors.
Answer: True
17. LSD can produce hallucinations at very low doses.
Answer: True
18. Psilocybin is a drug used in religious ceremonies by the Native American Church.
Answer: False
19. MDMA may be useful in some types of therapy.
Answer: True

20. Alcohol is a depressant.
Answer: True
21. Chinese have higher rates of alcoholism than Caucasians.
Answer: False
22. The Minnesota model of treatment for drug abuse strives for total abstinence.
Answer: True
23. Most drinkers tend to relapse following treatment.
Answer: True
24. Drinking caffeine can actually make you smarter.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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