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Module 19—Freudian and Humanistic Theories
1. If you study people’s long-lasting and distinctive behaviors, thoughts, motives, and
emotions that influence our reactions and adaptation, then you’re studying:
a. traits
b. motivation
c. personality
d. factor analysis
Answer: C
2. What is the main focus in the study of personality?
a. traits
b. id, ego, and superego
c. unconscious conflicts and self-actualization
d. behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions
Answer: D
3. What is defined as the combination of lasting and distinctive behaviors, thoughts, and
emotions that typify how we react and adapt to other people and situations?
a. personality
b. situational specificity
c. cognitive compliance
d. factor analysis
Answer: A
4. Your cousin Eddie claims he’s a so-called expert in describing and explaining people. His
description and explanations could be called a(n):
a. hypothetical construct
b. theory of personality
c. fixation
d. example of self-efficacy
Answer: B
5. The case of Greg Mathis, as described in Module 19’s introduction, best illustrates:
a. development of one’s full potential

b. the impact of the id on behavior
c. how racial discrimination affects people’s lives
d. development of conditional positive regard
Answer: A
6. What do theories of personality do?
a. They tell us how early childhood experiences affect our personality.
b. Theories of personality just describe why we are the way we are.
c. Theories attempt to describe and explain how personality develops and why personalities
d. They inform us of ways to modify personality.
Answer: C
7. What type of experience did Freud have that influenced his theory of human behavior?
a. He spent time in World War I, where he witnessed great suffering.
b. His study with B. F. Skinner taught him that unconscious conflicts shape personality.
c. His first wife died as she was giving birth to their second child.
d. He found that some of his patients’ symptoms had no observable physical or neurological
Answer: D
8. Dr. Khard is reading a paper on psychodynamic theory written by a student. She first looks
at the headings of each section. She is most surprised to find a heading that does not fit with
psychodynamic theory. Which of the following headings is most likely to have surprised Dr.
a. “Unconscious Motivation”
b. “The Importance of Self-Actualization”
c. “The Relationship Between Id, Ego, and Superego”
d. “The Role of Conflict in the Anal Stage”
Answer: B
9. If you argue that early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, and conflicts between
conscious and unconscious forces influence our thoughts and behaviors, then you subscribe
to the ____.
a. trait theory of personality
b. psychodynamic theory of personality
c. Big Five theory of personality

d. humanistic theory of personality
Answer: B
10. Which group of words is most appropriate for the psychodynamic theory of Freud?
a. unconscious, repressed thoughts, early childhood, conflict
b. potential, growth, freedom, self-actualization
c. cognitive, behavior, environment, locus of control
d. traits, factor analysis, the Big Five, consistency
Answer: A
11. Freud’s psychodynamic approach to personality emphasizes which of the following?
a. conscious thoughts, unconscious forces, and unconscious motivation
b. cognitive appraisals of one’s environment
c. the measurement of traits and their stability
d. self-actualization and personal freedom
Answer: A
12. If you have wishes, desires, or thoughts that you are aware of or can recall at any given
moment, you have experienced:
a. manifest thoughts
b. dynamic thoughts
c. conscious thoughts
d. fixated thoughts
Answer: C
13. “I don’t know why I did that!” Of the following concepts, which one best relates to that
a. real self
b. self-efficacy
c. conscious thoughts
d. unconscious motivation
Answer: D
14. During your job interview, you were asked to describe your accomplishments, education,
and how well you work with others. These are examples of:
a. manifest thoughts

b. unconscious thoughts
c. dynamic thoughts
d. conscious thoughts
Answer: D
15. “What did you have for supper last night?” “What is your name?” The answers to these
questions are examples of:
a. self-efficacy
b. unconscious thoughts
c. self-referenced thoughts
d. conscious thoughts
Answer: D
16. Jeff and Cindy are talking. Cindy says to Jeff, “I wish you would just ... go away!” Jeff
responds quickly, “What did you mean by that?” Cindy answers, “Well, I really don’t know, I
just said it. I didn’t mean it.” Freud might disagree and suggest that Cindy is not aware of
why she wants Jeff to leave her. Freud is referring to Cindy’s:
a. conscious forces
b. reality content
c. manifest content
d. unconscious forces
Answer: D
17. Freud believed that a person’s wishes, thoughts, and desires that one cannot voluntarily
access were represented by:
a. unconscious forces
b. conscious forces
c. manifest content
d. reality content
Answer: A
18. What concepts did Freud use to explain things we say or do that we cannot explain or
a. Freudian slips and fixation
b. unconscious forces and unconscious motivation
c. conscious forces and fixation

d. free association and unconscious motivation
Answer: B
19. A young student is listening to Freud give a lecture in Germany in the 1920s. Freud
claims that repressed thoughts can influence behaviors. The student raises his hand and asks
Freud, “Through what mechanism is this possible?” Freud replies:
a. “through fixation and conflict”
b. “behavior is influenced though the collective unconscious”
c. “through unconscious motivation”
d. “though conscious motivation”
Answer: C
20. The term ____ is a Freudian concept that explains how repressed, threatening thoughts
can impact our conscious thoughts and behaviors.
a. collective unconscious
b. unconscious motivation
c. manifest unconscious
d. cognitive unconscious
Answer: B
21. From a psychodynamic perspective, what may have made Ted Haggard feel anxious and
guilty following his admission of a homosexual relationship?
a. the inconsistency of his values and his sexual desires
b. the embarrassment associated with the admission
c. a loss of self-actualization
d. the conditional positive regard from his family
Answer: A
22. From a psychodynamic perspective, how did Ted Haggard cope with the inconsistency of
his values and his sexual desires?
a. through free association
b. by actively advocating for gay marriage
c. by acting out his sexual desires
d. by actively condemning gay marriage
Answer: D
23. Free association, dream interpretation, and Freudian slips are:

a. examples of how the real self and the ideal self conflict with each other
b. techniques to discover the extent of self-actualization
c. techniques to discover the unconscious
d. techniques to discover the conscious
Answer: C
24. During a session of therapy, Kyle’s therapist tells him to sit back and talk about whatever
thoughts enter his head. Kyle’s therapist is utilizing the Freudian technique of:
a. free association
b. dream interpretation
c. analysis of slips of the tongue
d. exploring manifest content
Answer: A
25. The technique of free association is based on the premise that:
a. uncensored material will provide clues to the unconscious
b. dreams always have hidden, sexual meanings which must be explored
c. moral values and standards can be applied to satisfying wishes
d. it is healthy to make up acceptable excuses for behaviors that make us feel anxious
Answer: A
26. From a Freudian perspective, dreams:
a. have no meaning
b. are actually by-products of random firing in the brainstem
c. contain underlying hidden meanings and symbols that provide clues to unconscious
thoughts and desires
d. contain meaning, but cannot be interpreted successfully
Answer: C
27. The manifest content of a dream is the:
a. hidden meaning behind the events
b. dream’s obvious story
c. source of sexual energy
d. unacceptable impulse, which is repressed
Answer: B

28. “I had a dream last night where I was flying through trees that seemed to sway with a
voice I heard near the ground.” What is the manifest content of this dream?
a. The trees refer to friends being persuaded by authority figures.
b. The voice is one’s sexual desire and trees are those that are sexually attracted.
c. Flying through trees suggests that one needs to escape the present and listen more to the
inner child.
d. Flying through trees that moved with a voice near the ground.
Answer: D
29. The hidden or disguised meaning of the events that occur in dreams are termed:
a. latent content
b. manifest content
c. the pleasure principle
d. the reality principle
Answer: A
30. Freudian slips are mistakes made in everyday speech that reflect:
a. the manifest content of dreams
b. cognitive processing errors
c. conscious desires and needs
d. unconscious thoughts or wishes
Answer: D
31. “Once I said, ‘I need to go to the mall to buy sex shirts ... I mean six shirts.’” What would
Freud say about this?
a. The manifest content suggests depression.
b. The slip of the tongue reflects a manifest content of dreams.
c. The slip of the tongue reflects unconscious desires.
d. Cognitive processing errors suggest that memories are stored in adjacent areas of the brain.
Answer: C
32. Consider this: You are an unconscious wish, desire, or thought. According to the
psychodynamic theory, which of the following would be a means by which you could sneak
a. through a polygraph test
b. through an eating disorder

c. through free association
d. through an internal locus of control
Answer: C
33. Free association, dream interpretation, and slips of the tongue are mental processes that
a. the least controlled by our conscious, rational, and logical minds
b. the most under the control of our conscious, rational, and logical minds
c. the best examples of techniques to explore the conscious mind
d. techniques used by Carl Rogers to explore self-actualization
Answer: A
34. The three divisions of the mind according to Freud’s theory are:
a. id, regulator, and conscious
b. inner, peripheral, and outer
c. pleasurer, governor, and regulator
d. id, ego, and superego
Answer: D
35. Freud defined the id as:
a. the conscience
b. the source of energy that contains the biological drives for sex and aggression
c. an unconscious desire to be like one’s father
d. the instinctual response to implied social demands
Answer: B
36. The goal of the id is to:
a. satisfy wishes through socially acceptable methods
b. push unacceptable biological drives into the unconscious
c. pursue pleasure and avoid pain
d. apply moral values in satisfying wishes
Answer: C
37. Which division of the mind would say, “I can do anything I want to do”?
a. ego
b. real self

c. superego
d. id
Answer: D
38. The id is believed to contain two biological drives. What are they?
a. hunger and aggression
b. safety and hunger
c. sex and safety
d. sex and aggression
Answer: D
39. Which Freudian term refers to the attempt to satisfy drives without concern for moral
restrictions or societal regulations?
a. the reality principle
b. the pleasure principle
c. the freedom principle
d. the superego principle
Answer: B
40. Gregory’s college roommate finds him very difficult to live with because Gregory is
extremely selfish and demands immediate gratification of all his needs and desires. From a
psychodynamic point of view, Gregory is still being controlled by the:
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. conscience
Answer: A
41. According to the reality principle, the purpose of the ego is to:
a. determine what actually happened in a given situation
b. search for socially acceptable outlets for the id’s desire
c. impose order on our perceptions
d. help us form workable judgments about other people
Answer: B
42. Infants discover restrictions to the pleasure principle and learn to control their wishes
through the development of the:

a. superego
b. Oedipus complex
c. collective unconscious
d. ego
Answer: D
43. Id is to ego as:
a. self is to other
b. trend is to desire
c. need is to drive
d. pleasure is to reality
Answer: D
44. The ego operates on the ____ principle.
a. desire
b. pleasure
c. reality
d. repression
Answer: C
45. Kevin and Michael were in a stereo store. Both saw a compact disc that they wanted
badly but did not have the money to purchase. Kevin decided to shoplift it, while Michael
figured out that if he did some extra chores at home he could save up enough money for it in
two weeks. Freud would say that Kevin is being governed by his ____ and Michael by his
a. superego; id
b. superego; ego
c. ego; id
d. id; ego
Answer: D
46. Freud assumed that the ____ was totally unconscious, and that the largest part of the ____
was conscious.
a. ego; superego
b. ego; id
c. id; ego

d. superego; id
Answer: C
47. Freud defined the superego as:
a. the person we would be if we could act out all the id’s desires
b. the self that is formed when we act instinctually
c. the part of the mind containing moral standards
d. the part of the mind that allows us to manipulate social situations to our own ends
Answer: C
48. According to Freud, guilty feelings arise from the operation of the:
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. alter ego
Answer: C
49. When Rachel left for college, she promised her parents that she would not use any drugs.
At a party someone passed her some pot, which she decided to try. If her superego is
operating, this behavior will cause Rachel to feel:
a. pleasure
b. guilt
c. sadness
d. anger
Answer: B
50. How does the superego develop?
a. through interactions with parents or caregivers
b. it is innate
c. it develops when the ego realizes that it must be regulated
d. it comes forth from the id
Answer: A
51. According to Freud, the human mind develops in which of the following sequences?
a. id, ego, superego
b. superego, ego, id

c. ego, id, superego
d. superego, id, ego
Answer: A
52. According to Freud, could a person function without conflict or anxiety?
a. yes—when id, ego, and superego have the same goals
b. yes—if the superego maintains supreme control over the id and ego
c. yes—if the ego maintains supreme control over the id and superego
d. no—it’s impossible
Answer: A
53. Freud believed that an unconscious conflict is waged between the:
a. self and outside world
b. repressed memories and current values
c. id and superego
d. id and ego
Answer: C
54. Anxiety is created by the ego in response to:
a. the manifest content of dreams
b. Freudian slips
c. the collective unconscious
d. id-superego conflict
Answer: D
55. What do we call the unpleasant state that involves conflicts arising between the needs of
the id and the restrictions of the superego?
a. depression
b. anxiety
c. displacement
d. reaction formation
Answer: B
56. Defense mechanisms are Freudian processes designed to reduce:
a. the latent content of dreams
b. the ego

c. anxiety
d. self-actualization
Answer: C
57. If a defense mechanism is successful:
a. the id becomes stronger
b. unconscious motivation is increased
c. latency is increased
d. anxiety is reduced
Answer: D
58. Unconscious processes that utilize self-deception to reduce anxiety are called:
a. defense mechanisms
b. unconscious motivations
c. reality principles
d. free associations
Answer: A
59. Which defense mechanism involves making up excuses for behaviors that cause us to feel
a. denial
b. reaction formation
c. rationalization
d. repression
Answer: C
60. As Tad works on his income tax form, he makes the decision to not report some income.
He says, “Well, everybody cheats on their income tax and I need the money more than the
government.” Tad has just experienced:
a. denial
b. reaction formation
c. sublimation
d. rationalization
Answer: D
61. Barbara refuses to believe that drinking and driving is dangerous. Barbara seems to be
using the Freudian defense mechanism called:

a. reaction formation
b. sublimation
c. displacement
d. denial
Answer: D
62. Refusing to recognize some anxiety-provoking event or information is the Freudian
defense mechanism called:
a. denial
b. sublimation
c. rationalization
d. displacement
Answer: A
63. When a person pushes threatening feelings into the unconscious, they are engaging in:
a. repression
b. projection
c. denial
d. sublimation
Answer: A
64. Tara witnessed a terrible car accident, but now cannot remember any of it. Tara’s inability
to recall the event is most probably due to:
a. denial
b. projection
c. repression
d. sublimation
Answer: C
65. In repression, where do unacceptable or threatening feelings or impulses go?
a. into the manifest mind
b. into the ego
c. into the superego
d. into the unconscious
Answer: D

66. The defense mechanism of projection involves the unconscious transfer of:
a. threatening feelings into the unconscious
b. unacceptable wishes into acceptable behaviors
c. one’s own unacceptable traits onto other people
d. feelings from the true source to a more acceptable source
Answer: C
67. Which of the following is an example of projection?
a. A man is angry with his wife, so he yells at his employee.
b. A man denies that he is angry with his wife.
c. A man is angry with his wife, but says that she is the one who is angry.
d. A man makes up excuses for why he is angry with his wife.
Answer: C
68. To alleviate anxiety caused by a desire to be sexually promiscuous with women, John
decides to become a priest. Freud would say that John has used the defense mechanism of:
a. projection
b. reaction formation
c. displacement
d. rationalization
Answer: B
69. What defense mechanism involves turning unacceptable wishes into acceptable
a. projection
b. sublimation
c. displacement
d. rationalization
Answer: B
70. Which of the following is an example of displacement?
a. a man is angry with his wife, so he yells at his employee
b. a man denies that he is angry with his wife
c. a man is angry with his wife, but says that she is the one who is angry
d. a man makes up excuses for why he is angry with his wife

Answer: A
71. Bob is sexually attracted to his professor. To deal with these feelings, Bob channels his
energy into his homework and study habits. This is an example of the Freudian defense
mechanism called:
a. reaction formation
b. rationalization
c. sublimation
d. denial
Answer: C
72. The use of defense mechanisms is:
a. always harmful
b. at a conscious level
c. helpful as long as we work on the real causes of the anxiety
d. to reduce depression caused by the id-superego conflict
Answer: C
73. Do we know when we are using a defense mechanism?
a. yes—they are totally conscious
b. sometimes—when the defense mechanism comes from the ego
c. no—they are totally unconscious
d. no—they occur within the superego
Answer: C
74. Freud believed that personality development proceeded through a sequence of ____
a. cognitive
b. psychosexual
c. biological
d. psychosocial
Answer: B
75. Freud described his developmental stages as periods during which the individual:
a. seeks pleasure from different areas of the body
b. resolves psychosocial conflicts

c. deals with real-life problems
d. matures, eventually becoming self-actualized
Answer: A
76. Erogenous zones, according to Freud, describe areas of the:
a. brain where anxiety becomes repressed
b. body that are associated with sexual feelings
c. personality striving for personal growth
d. soul that are filled with positive regard
Answer: B
77. Freud believed that:
a. early childhood is very important in shaping personality
b. personality develops after puberty
c. the influence of early childhood experiences in the shaping of personality is greatly
d. one’s personality changes too often to be predicted or studied reliably
Answer: A
78. According to Freud, ____ represent the potential conflict between an individual’s id and
his or her parents.
a. defense mechanisms
b. erogenous zones
c. Freudian slips
d. psychosexual stages
Answer: D
79. You overhear a husband telling his wife who is breastfeeding their newborn, “Careful,
don’t give her too much!” Which of the following Freudian terms best illustrates the
husband’s concern?
a. projection
b. fixation
c. displacement
d. free association
Answer: B

80. If an individual’s wishes are overgratified or undergratified at any particular psychosexual
stage, Freud would argue that ____ will occur.
a. projection
b. fixation
c. displacement
d. Freudian slips
Answer: B
81. According to psychodynamic theory, fixation may occur:
a. in the oral, anal, or phallic stages
b. primarily in males growing up in single-parent households
c. when the ego realizes a defense mechanism is having little effect
d. primarily in first-born children
Answer: A
82. Which of the following is the correct order of developmental stages, according to the
psychodynamic theory?
a. anal, latency, genital, phallic
b. oral, phallic, genital, latency, self-actualization
c. phallic, anal, latency, belongingness, oral
d. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Answer: D
83. The first of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development is called the:
a. oral stage
b. anal stage
c. genital stage
d. undifferentiated stage
Answer: A
84. Oscar’s mother opted not to breastfeed him when he was an infant. Today, Oscar talks all
the time, chews pencils, and chain smokes. Freud would say that Oscar is:
a. fixated at the oral stage
b. utilizing the defense mechanism of rationalization
c. ignoring the needs of his id

d. overly dependent on the reality principle
Answer: A
85. Brad is a very sarcastic individual who eats to excess and is always chewing on gum or
his pencil. Freud would say that Brad is fixated at the ____ stage.
a. anal
b. oral
c. phallic
d. latency
Answer: B
86. The second of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development is called the:
a. anal stage
b. oral stage
c. genital stage
d. undifferentiated stage
Answer: A
87. Steven and Joe are very bad roommates. Steven is incredibly disorganized and messy
while Joe is compulsive in his work and insists that the room be completely tidy at all times.
According to Freud, it is possible that both Steven and Joe are fixated at the ____ stage.
a. oral
b. phallic
c. anal
d. latency
Answer: C
88. Tommy is a slob and messy. That is what his roommate says. How would Freud describe
a. Tommy has an anal expulsive fixation
b. Tommy has an oral fixation
c. Tommy has an anal compulsive fixation
d. Tommy is in the latency stage
Answer: A
89. “You are a neat freak. You are so tidy and clean.” Freud would be most likely to use the
term ___ to describe you.

a. ego fixated
b. orally fixated
c. anal retentive
d. anal expulsive
Answer: C
90. Cal is a carefree and generous person. His home is often a mess and his files at his office
are very disorganized. From Freud’s perspective, it is possible that Cal is fixated at the ____
a. oral
b. phallic
c. anal
d. latency
Answer: C
91. According to Freud, the third stage of psychosexual development is the _____ stage.
a. phallic
b. latency
c. genital
d. conventional
Answer: A
92. Which of the following is a major event that occurs during the phallic stage?
a. development of the Oedipus complex
b. toilet training
c. first crush on an opposite-sex child
d. teething
Answer: A
93. A little boy says, “When I grow up, I want to marry Mommy!” According to Freud, this
could be a manifestation of feelings that occur during which psychosexual stage?
a. genital
b. oral
c. phallic
d. anal

Answer: C
94. During the Oedipus complex, the little boy feels hatred and jealously toward:
a. his older brother(s)
b. his sister(s)
c. his mother
d. his father
Answer: D
95. Among little boys, fears of castration result from:
a. reaction formation
b. the Oedipus complex
c. penis envy
d. the latency stage
Answer: B
96. When a little girl experiences the Electra complex, which of the following results in her
turning against her mother and developing sexual desires for her father?
a. sublimation
b. rationalization
c. penis envy
d. the collective unconscious
Answer: C
97. When are a child’s sexual thoughts repressed? In the ____ stage.
a. oral
b. anal
c. phallic
d. latency
Answer: D
98. Seven-year-old Megan only plays with girls, thinks that boys are weird, and attends
second grade. She is most likely in which of Freud’s psychosexual stages?
a. oral
b. anal
c. phallic

d. latency
Answer: D
99. The final psychosexual stage, during which the adolescent experiences sexual feelings
towards others, is called the ____ stage.
a. genital
b. phallic
c. latency
d. oral
Answer: A
100. In what stage do sexual desires resurface and become renewed after an extended
a. genital
b. phallic
c. latency
d. oral
Answer: A
101. According to the textbook, what affects the success of someone meeting the conflicts of
the genital stage?
a. overall maturity level
b. presence of social support
c. how well the previous stages were resolved
d. how fast the individual was toilet trained
Answer: C
102. Who is not considered one of Freud’s former followers?
a. Carl Rogers
b. Carl Jung
c. Alfred Adler
d. Karen Horney
Answer: A
103. What would Carl Jung say to Sigmund Freud?
a. “I disagree with you Sigmund, the notion of a collective unconscious is ridiculous!”

b. “Analytical psychology is impractical and hogwash!”
c. “Your emphasis on the human sex drive in personality is incorrect!”
d. “You should place even more emphasis on the human sex drive in personality!”
Answer: C
104. Which of the following is true of Carl Jung?
a. He remained devoted to Freud until his death.
b. His theory influenced current psychology more than art, literature, and philosophy.
c. He believed that penis envy was passed on at birth to people of all cultural backgrounds.
d. His theory was based on his conception of the collective unconscious.
Answer: D
105. Your professor explains that the reason a fear of snakes and a fear of the dark are found
in so many cultures is that these fears are embedded in the ____. He is expressing an idea
first put forth by ____.
a. id; Sigmund Freud
b. self-efficacy; Karen Horney
c. collective unconscious: Carl Jung
d. inferiority complex; Alfred Adler
Answer: C
106. Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were critical of Freud’s:
a. emphasis on unconscious processes
b. reluctance to recognize the role of biological drives
c. use of hypnosis
d. emphasis on sexuality
Answer: D
107. Adler disagreed with Freud by proposing that humans are governed by ____ urges.
a. sexual
b. aggressive
c. unconscious
d. social
Answer: D

108. Dr. Katmeh agrees with Alfred Adler on the major influences in a child’s development.
On what do Dr. Katmeh and Adler agree?
a. sibling influences and child-rearing practices
b. unconscious conflicts
c. collective unconscious
d. drive for self-actualization
Answer: A
109. Which of the following personality theorists had views of women that would be most
disputed today?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Karen Horney
c. Carl Jung
d. Alfred Adler
Answer: A
110. Your friend argues that negative characteristics associated with women, such as
passivity, are due not to biology, but to child-parent social interactions. Which theorist does
your friend agree with?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Karen Horney
c. Erik Erikson
d. Carl Jung
Answer: B
111. Which of the following titles would be most likely be given to a book written by Karen
a. Our Lives In Child-Parent Interactions
b. The Collective Unconscious: Messages and Symbols
c. The Importance of Biology: Why Freud Was Right
d. Our Journey Through Psychosocial Stages
Answer: A
112. Which of the following titles would most likely be given to a book written by Erik
a. Our Lives In Child-Parent Interactions

b. The Collective Unconscious: Messages and Symbols
c. The Importance of Biology: Why Freud Was Right
d. Our Journey Through Psychosocial Stages
Answer: D
113. The major weakness of Freud’s theory of personality is that it:
a. treats males and females equally
b. does not emphasize biological drives
c. can explain almost any behavior
d. lends itself well to scientific experimentation
Answer: C
114. Critics charged that Freud’s theory of personality is not very useful in:
a. treating males and females equally
b. explaining biological drives
c. understanding how personality develops
d. making predictions
Answer: D
115. Freud’s theory of personality has been criticized on a number of grounds, including:
a. it is too limited in scope
b. its emphasis on psychological and social influences
c. the difficulty in testing Freudian concepts
d. its ability to interpret behavior
Answer: C
116. Freud’s ideas such as id, the Oedipus complex, and the basic drives of sex and
a. are very difficult to demonstrate experimentally or verify
b. have been proven in several studies
c. were actually developed by Carl Jung
d. are assumed to be incorrect by most psychoanalytical theorists
Answer: A
117. Regarding Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, research:
a. confirms that the genital stage is most important

b. has established the existence of the Oedipus complex
c. is currently considering the importance of the anal stage
d. indicates that personality continues to develop beyond the first five years of life
Answer: D
118. How does the existence of resilient children impact Freud’s theory of psychosexual
a. They support the theory, since the children often experience denial.
b. They support the theory, since the children often become adults with serious psychological
c. Resilient children support the theory, since they may develop fixation in the psychosexual
d. Resilient children question the theory, since many develop into healthy adults.
Answer: D
119. Which term refers to learning that is out of our awareness, but influences conscious
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?
a. implicit or nondeclarative memory
b. defense mechanisms
c. explicit memory
d. collective unconscious
Answer: A
120. What would be an example of an implicit memory?
a. juggling three balls while singing a song
b. walking
c. learning a foreign language
d. giving a speech before a large audience
Answer: B
121. Carmen is about to reach for either a glass or book, but has not yet done so. If we could
scan Carmen’s brain we would find:
a. a certain pattern of brain activity that reflects his ultimate choice, and he would be aware of
this brain activity
b. increasing activity in the brain areas involved in memory
c. a certain pattern of brain activity that reflects his ultimate choice before he is even aware of
it himself

d. increasing activity in the brain areas associated with language
Answer: C
122. Lydia has a spider phobia. Based on research cited in Module 19, should she participate
in a treatment that subliminally presents spider images?
a. Yes—even when images are presented below awareness, the unconscious mind can react to
b. Yes—she will know that something is helping her because of the fact that she is
participating in therapy.
c. No—phobias don’t go away, so it would be a waste of time and money.
d. No—she can’t even see the image, so there is no use in doing it.
Answer: A
123. Which approach to personality stresses the achievement of human potential and personal
a. social-cognitive
b. humanistic
c. psychodynamic
d. trait
Answer: B
124. From the humanistic perspective, why did Greg Mathis experience success as a judge?
a. He believed in his ability and that became his reality.
b. He was able to overcome unconscious forces of doubt.
c. He became fixated in the anal stage, which led to his obsession with the law.
d. His superego was able to control his id.
Answer: A
125. The capacity for growth, the development of our maximum potential, and the freedom to
choose our destiny are all characteristic of:
a. psychoanalytic theories
b. cognitive theories
c. humanistic theories
d. social cognitive theories
Answer: C

126. If you are doing a computerized literature search on humanistic theory, which group of
words would be most appropriate to use?
a. situation, observation, modeling
b. environment, reinforcement, Big Five
c. unconscious, childhood, anxiety
d. personal growth, potential, self-actualization
Answer: D
127. Which statement does not describe the humanistic theory?
a. We have an inherent tendency to develop and reach our true potential.
b. Personality is more than the sum of its individual parts.
c. Personality is influenced by language, observational learning, purposeful behavior, and
d. How you perceive the world becomes your reality.
Answer: C
128. “You are who you are because the various parts of you combine to form a unique and
total entity that functions as a unit.” This is a good example of:
a. the holistic view
b. the reality principle
c. locus of control
d. self-actualization
Answer: A
129. Which individual best exemplifies the idea of self-actualization?
a. Mary—she feels as if her talents are going to be wasted in life
b. Larry—he wants to own his business but is unwilling to take the risk
c. Gary—he fulfilled his dreams of being an educator and now can retire knowing that he put
all of his skills and talents to use
d. Terry—he sees himself moving up the ladder in his position at the factory
Answer: C
130. Which theorist started his career as a behaviorist and later developed a theory that
arranged human needs into a hierarchy of needs?
a. Freud
b. Maslow

c. Bandura
d. Adler
Answer: B
131. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggests that:
a. biological needs must be satisfied before personal and social needs
b. regardless of the status of basic needs, the needs for sex and aggression must be fulfilled
c. unless self-actualization has occurred, basic needs are meaningless
d. rewards and punishment are the keys to achieving personal satisfaction and happiness
Answer: A
132. According to Maslow, which of the following needs must be satisfied first?
a. need for love
b. need for self-actualization
c. need for high self-esteem
d. need for sleep
Answer: D
133. What is the correct order of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
a. love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization, physiological, safety
b. physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
c. safety, love and belongingness, physiological esteem, self-actualization
d. safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization, physiological
Answer: B
134. Needs that we try to first fulfill are called ____, while needs at a higher level are termed
a. fulfillment needs; higher needs
b. deficiency needs; growth needs
c. primary needs; secondary needs
d. elementary needs; secondary needs
Answer: B
135. The desire for truth, goodness, beauty, and justice are examples of:
a. deficiency needs

b. growth needs
c. actualization needs
d. regard needs
Answer: B
136. Maslow believed that everyone is motivated by:
a. sexual desires
b. aggressive tendencies
c. a self-actualizing tendency
d. personality traits
Answer: C
137. Which of the following phrases best illustrates self-actualization?
a. “You Deserve A Break Today”
b. “Be All That You Can Be”
c. “Be True to Yourself”
d. “Here Today Gone Tomorrow”
Answer: B
138. Maslow developed his idea of self-actualization by studying:
a. productive, exceptional people
b. psychologically disturbed patients
c. college students
d. laboratory animals
Answer: A
139. Which of the following is not a characteristic of self-actualized persons?
a. perception of reality in an accurate fashion
b. independence
c. deep, loving relationships with many people
d. peak experiences
Answer: C
140. Which individual is most associated with self theory?
a. Jung

b. Maslow
c. Rogers
d. Adler
Answer: C
141. In Carl Rogers’ humanistic theory, he emphasizes two assumptions. These assumptions
a. a need for locus of control and conscious motivation
b. achievement and recognition
c. the real self and ideal self
d. a self-actualizing tendency and personal need for positive regard
Answer: D
142. Self-actualization for Rogers refers to one’s need to:
a. fulfill our biological needs
b. develop our capacities in ways that are best for one’s life
c. maintain control over our lives
d. overcome a sense of inferiority
Answer: B
143. At Gwen’s 20th high school reunion, she visited with some people who made many
wrong choices throughout their lives, resulting in negative and harmful behaviors. Carl
Rogers would say that these people’s ____ was dysfunctional.
a. self-actualizing tendency
b. locus of control
c. ego
d. defense mechanism
Answer: A
144. According to Carl Rogers, the characteristics you see yourself as having constitute the:
a. self
b. ego
c. id
d. cognitive whole
Answer: A

145. Self-concept plays an important role in personality because it influences:
a. the id
b. behaviors, feelings, and thoughts
c. the collective unconscious
d. fixation during the oral stage
Answer: B
146. “I see myself as shy and people tend to go out of their way to make me feel
comfortable.” This person has described her:
a. phenomenological self
b. reveal self
c. real self
d. actual self
Answer: C
147. ____ refers to our hopes and wishes and reflects how we would like to see ourselves.
a. Phenomenological self
b. Ideal self
c. Real self
d. Actual self
Answer: B
148. According to Carl Rogers, contradictions between ____ and ____ may result in
personality problems.
a. the internal locus of control; the external locus of control
b. the real self; the ideal self
c. unconscious forces; conscious forces
d. deficiency needs; growth needs
Answer: B
149. The idea of positive regard refers to:
a. our need to feel good about our accomplishments
b. our subjective belief that we can succeed in doing something
c. influencing other people’s lives in healthy and positive ways
d. the love, acceptance, and respect that we need from those people who are important to us

Answer: D
150. “As long as you carry your own weight, make contributions to this organization, and
make your sales quota, you will be accepted. If you do not, you will be fired.” This statement
best illustrates:
a. unconditional positive regard
b. conditional positive regard
c. conditioned response
d. self-efficacy
Answer: B
151. What would Rogers say to the notion of allowing hospital patients to have their pets visit
a. He would support it, since pets can help patients deal with maladaptive defense
b. It is a good idea, since pets can provide positive regard.
c. No. Pets are unclean.
d. Rogers would not support it, since he would argue that pets would stress the superego and
cause conflict with the ego.
Answer: B
152. Rogers postulated that children would develop a negative self-concept if they:
a. received primarily conditional positive regard
b. ignored the influence of their cognitive unconscious
c. utilized defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety
d. operated under an internal locus of control
Answer: A
153. Rudy has a negative self-concept. How would Rogers be most likely to explain Rudy’s
negative self-concept?
a. Rudy tends to focus on his external locus of control.
b. His ego is too powerful.
c. His parents and others around him probably gave him conditional positive regard.
d. He consistently uses defense mechanisms.
Answer: C
154. Fay knows that, no matter how much trouble she gets in at school, her parents will
always accept and love her. Carl Rogers would call this:

a. unconditional positive regard
b. conditional positive regard
c. emotional support
d. parental blindness
Answer: A
155. Positive regard that is given because the person is valued as a human being is called:
a. a cognition
b. parental blindness
c. unconditional positive regard
d. conditional positive regard
Answer: C
156. Craig’s father says, “I’ll really love you if you get A’s in all your subjects at school.”
According to Carl Rogers, this statement would be an example of:
a. a cognition
b. parental blindness
c. unconditional positive regard
d. conditional positive regard
Answer: D
157. In what way do the humanistic theories of personality differ from almost every other
a. The humanistic theories believe that people are basically good.
b. The humanistic theories believe that people are basically bad.
c. The humanistic theories believe that people are governed by their unconscious mind.
d. People are motivated to get as much pleasure as they possibly can.
Answer: A
158. Erin Gruwell has applied many humanistic ideas to help ____ who are now known as
“Freedom Writers.”
a. delinquent males
b. unteachable, at-risk students
c. homesick college students
d. shy teenagers

Answer: B
159. Erin Gruwell was able to help at-risk students by applying the humanistic concept
known as ____.
a. unconditional positive regard
b. unconscious motivation
c. free association
d. fixation
Answer: A
160. The program developed for the groups of students known as “Freedom Writers”
a. getting in touch with id-superego conflicts
b. free association and dream interpretation
c. developing and reaching their own potentials
d. psychodynamic techniques
Answer: C
161. Critics argue that the humanistic theories ____ rather than ____ behavior.
a. describe; explain
b. predict, explain
c. study; change
d. correlate; explain
Answer: A
162. There are many critics who argue that the humanistic approach is more of a ____ than a
a. scientific explanation of personality development; philosophy of life
b. scientifically proven fact; hypothetical model
c. theory of well-being; theory of abnormality
d. philosophy of life; scientific explanation of personality development
Answer: D
163. One concern about the humanistic theories of personality presented in the textbook is:
a. there is little evidence to support the notion of positive regard
b. concepts in this perspective are difficult to study or verify

c. personality is not completely formed during the first five years of life
d. that there is too much emphasis on explaining behavior
Answer: B
164. With the growth of positive psychology, more and more attention is being given to
a. humanistic ideas
b. Freudian ideas
c. social cognitive ideas
d. behavioral ideas
Answer: A
165. Academic success among Indo-Chinese children is primarily due to:
a. genetic differences
b. low rates of poverty among Indo-Chinese refugees
c. high percentages of Indo-Chinese adults with college degrees
d. cultural and personal values taught by the family
Answer: D
166. Which of the following is not among the primary values held by Indo-Chinese families
with high-achieving children?
a. mutual respect
b. valuing leisure time
c. cooperation
d. commitment to accomplishment
Answer: B
167. A recent study reports that Indo-Chinese have a higher commitment to accomplishment
than American students; Indo-Chinese spend an average of ____ hours a night studying;
American children spend an average of ____ hours.
a. 3; 1 1/2
b. 1 1/2; 1/2
c. 5; 2
d. 6; 3
Answer: A

168. ____ is a feeling of distress that comes from being tense, stressed, or awkward in social
situations and from worrying about and fearing being rejected.
a. Fear
b. Anxiety
c. Shyness
d. Phobia
Answer: C
169. Shyness, from the psychodynamic approach, is seen as resulting from:
a. unresolved unconscious feelings of anxiety and fear
b. cognitive factors
c. genetic influences
d. physiological overresponsiveness
Answer: A
170. From the psychodynamic approach, how do people with shyness deal with this
a. experience manifest content
b. shift from internal to external locus of control
c. self-actualize
d. use defense mechanisms
Answer: D
171. Which approach breaks shyness down into three measurable components?
a. the psychodynamic approach
b. the humanistic approach
c. the phenomenological approach
d. the social cognitive approach
Answer: D
172. When studying shyness, social cognitive theorists argue that it can be best understood
a. examining the interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental components
b. early childhood experiences
c. the difference between the real self and ideal self

d. dream interpretation and cognitive factors
Answer: A
173. According to the social cognitive approach, when the behavior of shy people is studied,
it is found that they have:
a. higher rates of nonverbal cues
b. more intense irrational thoughts
c. too few social and communication skills
d. a more internal locus of control
Answer: C
174. You are reviewing your class notes, and come to the bottom of the page, where you see
the heading, “Disadvantages of the Social Cognitive Theory.” Before you turn to the next
page, you review these criticisms, and one is:
a. ignoring cognitive factors
b. not using experimental studies to answer questions
c. overlooking the role of brain processes
d. the failure to development treatments based on social cognitive theory
Answer: C
175. Cal is preparing for a blind date with Stephanie. He is nervous and wishes he knew more
about her. In fact, ____ would reveal her characteristics, traits, and abilities.
a. neurological testing
b. psychological assessment
c. unconditional positive regard
d. validity and reliability
Answer: B
176. ____ measure(s) observable and unobservable characteristics. Achievement tests,
aptitude tests, and intelligence tests are examples of ____.
a. Ability tests; graphological tests
b. Dream interpretation; personality tests
c. Personality tests; ability tests
d. Self-report tests; projective tests
Answer: C

177. “I want to find out about your intelligence, what you have learned, and your potential for
learning. To do these, I would use ____.”
a. neurological tests
b. psychological assessment
c. ability tests
d. personality tests
Answer: C
178. Tests that provide ambiguous or unstructured stimuli are called:
a. unreliable
b. invalid
c. open-ended
d. projective
Answer: D
179. Children like to pour ink on one side of a piece of paper, fold the paper, and then figure
out what the resulting shape looks like. This activity is most like which of the following
personality measures?
a. Rorschach test
b. MMPI-2
c. TAT
d. California Personality Inventory
Answer: A
180. Rorshach is to TAT as ____ is to ____.
a. Freud; Skinner
b. inkblots; pictures
c. unconscious; conscious
d. neurological; psychological
Answer: B
181. A psychologist wishes to determine the personality of one of her adolescent clients. She
also wants to avoid responses that are given just because the client thinks they are what the
psychologist wants to hear. If she chooses a test that involves showing the client a series of
pictures, it is likely that she is using the:

b. MMPI-2
c. TAT
d. California Personality Inventory
Answer: C
182. Using handwriting analysis to describe an individual’s personality:
a. is becoming a more widely accepted measure
b. lacks validity
c. is a valid approach to personality measurement
d. shows one’s strengths and weaknesses
Answer: B
183. Tests of personality must have two characteristics, and they are:
a. standardization and validity
b. correlation and standardization
c. reliability and validity
d. standardization and reliability
Answer: C
184. If a test measures what it is supposed to be measuring, then we can say that the test is:
a. reliable
b. consistent
c. valid
d. conceptualized
Answer: C
185. The game clock in the basketball game actually measures how much time is left in the
game. Therefore, the game clock is a ____ measure.
a. psychometric
b. distributed
c. correlational
d. valid
Answer: D

186. A psychology professor is about to test her students’ understanding of the Freudian and
Humanistic theories. The test she develops just has questions on it that measure the students’
understanding of social cognitive and trait theories. The test lacks:
a. validity
b. reliability
c. practical nature
d. clarity
Answer: A
187. Based on the definition presented in your text, reliability means the same thing as:
a. a correlation
b. standardization
c. consistency
d. validity
Answer: C
188. One advantage of the Rorschach Inkblot test is that:
a. it yields responses that are easy to interpret
b. it prevents the respondent from faking answers
c. responses tend to be reliable
d. the scoring system is free of cultural bias
Answer: B
189. The interpretation of a client’s response to a projective test reflects:
a. the client’s personality
b. the biases of the clinician
c. the unconscious motives of the client
d. maybe both the client’s personality and the clinician’s biases
Answer: D
190. One of the disadvantages of projective tests is that they:
a. take a long time to administer
b. have to be made up by the psychologist in advance
c. tend to be low in reliability and validity
d. are rarely used by clinical psychologists

Answer: C
191. Using a psychodynamic perspective, a reason for Peter Herida’s “super massive morbid
obesity” would be:
a. an internal locus of control
b. an excess of unconditional positive regard
c. a lack of conditional positive regard
d. fixation at the oral stage
Answer: D
192. A humanist might explain Peter Herida’s “super massive morbid obesity” by examining
the role of:
a. an internal locus of control
b. unresolved unconscious conflicts
c. a lack of unconditional positive regard
d. fixation at the oral stage
Answer: C
1. Freud emphasized the influence of conscious forces on behavior.
Answer: False
2. In free association, the client is encouraged to talk in a free-flowing way.
Answer: True
3. The id follows the reality principle.
Answer: False
4. Repression means the person is transferring feelings from one person to another person.
Answer: False
5. Fixation only occurs at the anal stage.
Answer: False
6. In the phallic stage, the Oedipus complex can occur.
Answer: True
7. The collective unconscious refers to memories and symbols shared by all cultures.
Answer: True
8. Research supports how unconscious forces affect us.

Answer: True
9. The phenomenological perspective’s emphasis is on how you perceive the world.
Answer: True
10. The correct level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are physiological, self-actualization,
safety needs, esteem needs, love and belongingness, and unconscious needs.
Answer: False
11. Deficiency needs are at the highest levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Answer: False
12. In self-actualization, the person reaches fulfillment of potential.
Answer: True
13. When there is a contradiction between ideal and real self, personality problems can occur.
Answer: True
14. The ideal self is an important Freudian term.
Answer: False
15. Positive regard refers to love, sympathy, acceptance, and warmth.
Answer: True
16. In unconditional positive regard, an individual is accepted no matter what.
Answer: True
17. Erin Gruwell was able to help a group of at-risk students by helping them resolve
unconscious conflicts through dream interpretation.
Answer: False
18. The humanistic theory focuses on unconscious conflicts and early childhood experiences.
Answer: False
19. The humanistic approach is more of a philosophy of life than a scientific theory.
Answer: True
20. In studying shyness, social cognitive theory focuses on defense mechanisms.
Answer: False
21. Genetics do not play a role in shyness.
Answer: False
22. The Rorschach test is an example of a projective test.
Answer: True

23. Validity refers to a test measuring what it intends to measure.
Answer: True
24. Projective tests are valid and reliable measures.
Answer: False
25. One of the effects of losing weight for Peter Herida was an increase in self-esteem.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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