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Module 21—Health, Stress, & Coping
1. Module 21 opens with a description of Luisa, who suffers from dizziness, shortness of
breath, and dreading going to public places. Luisa suffers from:
a. Type D syndrome
b. social phobia
c. exhaustion
d. panic disorder
Answer: D
2. During a visit to the local shopping mall, Kim suddenly found her heart pounding, had
trouble breathing, felt dizzy, started sweating, and felt as if she were going to die. She ran out
of the mall to her car, and started to feel better once she got into her car and sat still for a few
moments. Kim has experienced a:
a. phobia
b. conversion disorder
c. panic attack
d. somatoform disorder
Answer: C
3. In the lunchroom, George is describing an experience he had last week. He said that he
suddenly felt short of breath, a pounding heart, dizziness, and a sense of losing control.
George has confided in you that he now worries quite a bit that the attacks will happen again
and he feels a lot of stress about this possibility. George should seek help, since his symptoms
sound very much like:
a. obsessive-compulsive disorder
b. somatization disorder
c. generalized anxiety disorder
d. panic disorder
Answer: D
4. An increase in fear and heart rate, trembling, sweating, and dread characterize a(n):
a. panic attack
b. galvanic skin response
c. increase in parasympathetic activity
d. Type A person

Answer: A
5. When we interpret a situation as threatening and do not feel psychologically equipped to
handle the situation, we experience:
a. psychosis
b. stress
c. motivation
d. challenge
Answer: B
6. “I don’t think I have the resources to handle this situation.” This person is experiencing:
a. psychosis
b. anxiety
c. stress
d. challenge
Answer: C
7. “The situation I find myself in is very threatening. In other situations, I do okay, but in this
particular situation, I don’t think I can handle it.” Based upon this statement, this person is
most likely experiencing:
a. burnout
b. the fight-flight response
c. stress
d. a phobia
Answer: C
8. Plotnik and Kouyoumdjian use the case of Luisa, the 23-year-old sufferer of panic disorder,
to show that:
a. how we interpret or appraise a situation determines the stress it causes
b. a bad scare in childhood will stay with you for the rest of your life
c. everyone experiences stress in some situation
d. stress can kill
Answer: A
9. If you experience panic disorder, you might have had an initial interpretation of the
sweating, racing heart, and trembling:
a. as an internal locus of control

b. as hardiness
c. as parasympathetic symptoms
d. as signs of a heart attack
Answer: D
10. Lazarus has concluded that in stressful situations, our anxious feelings arise from:
a. the nature of the situation
b. our appraisal of the situation
c. the level of actual danger associated with the situation
d. the fight-or-flight response
Answer: B
11. Your initial, subjective evaluation of a situation is called:
a. metacognition
b. personal evaluation
c. primary appraisal
d. hardiness
Answer: C
12. At what point do we balance the demands of a potentially stressful situation with our
ability to meet those demands?
a. challenge stage
b. perception stage
c. secondary appraisal
d. primary appraisal
Answer: D
13. The three kinds of primary appraisals, according to Lazarus, are:
a. harm/loss, threat, and challenge
b. hypochondriac, psychosomatic, and physiological
c. irrelevant, positive, and stressful
d. alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Answer: A
14. A consequence of describing a primary appraisal as irrelevant, positive, or stressful is

a. stress can be better studied
b. a situation is perceived in similar ways by healthy individuals
c. normal stress reactions are caused by stressful situations
d. different people can appraise the same situation differently
Answer: D
15. Mia’s primary appraisal of a particular situation is that it is irrelevant. What effect will
this type of appraisal have on Mia?
a. She will experience much stress, since the situation is potentially damaging to her friends
and family.
b. Mia will experience a challenge if she remains in the situation.
c. The situation will probably lead to harm/loss.
d. The situation is probably nonstressful.
Answer: D
16. Cal flunked his final exam. You cannot understand why he just doesn’t care about it. It is
evident that Cal has made a(n) ____ primary appraisal.
a. irrelevant
b. negative
c. zero-sum
d. inconsequential
Answer: A
17. Aaron really wanted to go out with this very attractive woman, but he was turned down.
He feels totally rejected and depressed. Aaron is most likely to have experienced a:
a. negative appraisal
b. challenge appraisal
c. stressful primary appraisal
d. positive primary appraisal
Answer: C
18. According to Lazarus, if a person encounters a situation and makes a stressful primary
appraisal, the result will be one of three:
a. techniques: biofeedback, relaxation, or meditation
b. stages: alarm, resistance, or exhaustion
c. interpretations: harm/loss, threat, or challenge

d. symptoms: muscle pain, fatigue, or headaches
Answer: C
19. If we make a stressful primary appraisal, we then make interpretations of the situation as:
a. irrelevant and positive
b. harm/loss, threat, and challenge
c. dispositional
d. arousing
Answer: B
20. Appraising a situation as involving harm/loss means that:
a. the situation is potentially dangerous
b. you have already suffered damage or injury
c. you anticipate harm in the near future
d. the situation requires mobilization of resources
Answer: B
21. Imagine that you have been caught cheating on a test, and you feel your hands trembling.
Which appraisal are you most likely to make?
a. a harm/loss appraisal
b. a resistance appraisal
c. a challenge appraisal
d. an alarm appraisal
Answer: A
22. A stressful appraisal with a threat interpretation indicates that:
a. there is a psychosomatic symptom
b. there is potential for personal growth
c. you have experienced harm/loss
d. you are anticipating harm/loss
Answer: D
23. According to the discussion on appraisal, one reason why harm/loss appraisals are
stressful is that they:
a. elicit negative emotions
b. cause us to avoid stressful situations

c. elicit negative and positive emotions
d. cause physical damage
Answer: A
24. Thomas finds himself in a stressful situation. He says to himself, “I’m okay now, but
something bad is going to happen soon.” Thomas has probably made a ____ appraisal.
a. positive
b. harm/loss
c. threat
d. challenge
Answer: C
25. After spending the weekend at home, you find driving back to school very stressful. The
roads are very icy and there is snow blowing, reducing your visibility. Foremost in your mind
is the certainty of sliding into the ditch. You’re probably making a ____ appraisal.
a. positive
b. harm/loss
c. threat
d. challenge
Answer: C
26. Juan’s grades this semester are terrible. He runs the risk of being suspended from school.
Juan believes that it is just a matter of time before the suspension occurs. Juan has more than
likely made a ____ appraisal.
a. threat
b. challenge
c. positive
d. harm/loss
Answer: A
27. Which of the following situations would be most likely to elicit a threat appraisal?
a. being offered a better job in a new, exciting city
b. being trapped in a room without light and a fear of the dark
c. being in an auto accident and getting hurt
d. being able to rescue a stranded motorist and feeling proud
Answer: B

28. Which type of appraisal elicits positive emotions, such as exhilaration?
a. a challenge appraisal
b. a fight appraisal
c. an arousal appraisal
d. a threat appraisal
Answer: A
29. You are taking a course in which the instructor keeps telling you that tests and quizzes are
opportunities to demonstrate your understanding of the material. The instructor is attempting
to elicit what kind of appraisal?
a. irrelevant appraisal
b. harm/loss appraisal
c. challenge appraisal
d. threat appraisal
Answer: C
30. Marie serves as a faculty advisor to freshmen at her college. Many of them find the first
semester of college overwhelming and stressful. She can best assist them by:
a. helping them see their classes as challenges that require direct action
b. sympathizing with them, because college is stressful for everyone
c. telling them to grow up; they’re not in high school any longer
d. threatening them with dismissal if they don’t do well in their classes
Answer: A
31. Sharon and Claire are watching a movie about an ill-fated love affair. Sharon has just
experienced the breakup of a long-term relationship and finds herself identifying with the
main character of the movie. Claire has had no serious relationships and watches the movie
for its artistic merit. According to Lazarus’s view on appraisal:
a. neither Sharon nor Claire should experience stress from the movie
b. both Sharon and Claire will find the movie stressful
c. Sharon will find the movie stressful, but Claire will not
d. Claire will find the movie stressful, but Sharon will not
Answer: C
32. You are a research subject in an experiment. A computer next to you measures your
physiological arousal. You notice that there is a sensor attached to your palm. What must this
computer be measuring?

a. palmar index
b. galvanic skin response
c. cephalopalmaric response
d. general adaptation response
Answer: B
33. In the power saw study described in Module 21, which group experienced more arousal
and why?
a. those that were told to think of ways that the accidents could have been prevented because
they made a challenge appraisal
b. those that were told to think of ways that the accidents could have been prevented because
they made a threat appraisal
c. those that were told to put themselves in the place of the accident victims because they
made a threat appraisal
d. those that were told to put themselves in the place of the accident victims because they
made a challenge appraisal
Answer: C
34. Ginger and Mary Ann are enrolled in a driver’s education class. One of the requirements
of the class is to watch a very graphic video of car accidents and victims. Ginger is having a
very hard time watching these videos, since she focuses on the agony and pain of the
suffering. Mary Ann tries to figure out how the accidents could have been avoided. Besides
their reaction to the videos, how else do Ginger and Mary Ann differ?
a. They differ in their experiences with car accidents.
b. Ginger makes a primary appraisal and Mary Ann makes a secondary appraisal.
c. Ginger makes a stressful appraisal and Mary Ann makes an arousal appraisal.
d. Ginger makes a threat appraisal and Mary Ann makes a challenge appraisal.
Answer: D
35. Based upon the textbook, which is the single most important variable in determining if a
particular situation is stressful for you?
a. how you appraise the situation
b. the length of time you are in the situation
c. the situation itself
d. how other people are reacting to the situation
Answer: A

36. According to Module 21, why might two people who are in the same situation have
different levels of stress?
a. one is experiencing sympathetic activation and the other is experiencing flight-fight
b. one experiences the fight-flight response, the other has an increase in sympathetic activity
c. one engages in primary appraisal, the other does not
d. differences in the kind of primary appraisal
Answer: D
37. What effect do harm/loss and threat appraisals have that challenge appraisals do not?
a. an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic division
b. lower physiological arousal
c. a triggering of physiological arousal
d. higher levels of negative emotion
Answer: D
38. In a novel you’re reading, the three main characters find themselves in a stressful
situation. Greg is experiencing a challenge appraisal, Peter a harm/loss appraisal, and Bobby
a threat appraisal. Which one of the characters is most likely to experience the least stress?
a. Greg
b. Peter
c. Bobby
d. there would be no differences
Answer: A
39. A threat appraisal automatically triggers:
a. parasympathetic division activity
b. frustration
c. posttraumatic stress disorder
d. the fight-flight response
Answer: D
40. If the resources in your body are being directed toward your muscles and brain in addition
to the other changes that prepare your body for action, you are experiencing the:
a. stress syndrome
b. fight-flight response

c. activation stage
d. automaton response
Answer: B
41. The fight-flight response results in:
a. cognitive coping devices
b. increased energy to deal with threatening situations
c. psychosomatic symptoms
d. reduction in corticoid levels
Answer: B
42. The part of the brain that is initially activated when a situation is appraised as threatening
is the:
a. hypothalamus
b. cerebellum
c. adrenal medulla
d. putamen
Answer: A
43. What role does the hypothalamus play in the activation of the fight-flight response?
a. It releases dopamine into the blood stream.
b. It transfers sensory information to the stress centers of the brain.
c. It triggers the pituitary gland to release a stress-fighting hormone.
d. It activates the parasympathetic division.
Answer: C
44. The stress-fighting hormone released from the pituitary gland is called:
a. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
b. acetylcholine
c. dopamine
d. serotonin
Answer: A
45. The physiological changes associated with the fight-flight response are caused by the
____ nervous system.
a. somatic

b. sympathetic
c. parasympathetic
d. central
Answer: B
46. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system:
a. calms the body down
b. aids in digestion
c. secretes a group of hormones called corticoids
d. prepares the body to deal with danger
Answer: D
47. What is responsible for calming the body down and returning it to a more relaxed state?
a. the endocrine system
b. the exhaustion stage
c. the parasympathetic division
d. the general adaptation syndrome
Answer: C
48. Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.
a. arousal; relaxation
b. relaxation; arousal
c. intellectual; emotional
d. mind; body
Answer: A
49. Brad is about to give his first piano recital. If his fight-flight response is activated, he will
experience all of the following except:
a. increased heart rate
b. increased release of ACTH
c. decreased blood pressure
d. decreased digestive system activity
Answer: C
50. The part of the body that releases ACTH in the fight-flight response is the:
a. liver

b. hypothalamus
c. pituitary gland
d. adrenal medulla
Answer: C
51. What part of the body releases glycogen (blood sugar) to provide a source of energy
during stress?
a. liver
b. hypothalamus
c. pituitary
d. adrenal medulla
Answer: A
52. The ____ releases epinephrine in the fight-flight response.
a. liver
b. hypothalamus
c. pituitary
d. adrenal medulla
Answer: D
53. During stress our pupils are:
a. constricted
b. dilated
c. bathed in ACTH
d. less aroused
Answer: B
54. When activated by the sympathetic division, the adrenal medulla produces:
a. glycogen and dopamine
b. adrenaline and norepinephrine
c. ACTH and dopamine
d. glucose and glycogen
Answer: B
55. A woman’s response to stress may be described as:
a. “fight and flee”

b. “use and peruse”
c. “tend and befriend”
d. “brief and debrief”
Answer: C
56. An explanation of gender differences in responding to stress is that:
a. women need to gather belongings while men need to fight
b. women need to nurture their children while men need to fight to protect their family
c. women need to share their feelings while men need to protect their family
d. women need to gather belongings while men need to share their feelings
Answer: B
57. Psychosomatic symptoms are:
a. real physical symptoms that are caused by psychological factors
b. imagined physical ailments
c. real physical symptoms that are caused by defense mechanisms
d. symptomatic of Type B personalities
Answer: A
58. Kevin is an emergency room nurse who experiences a great deal of stress. He has
developed stomach problems that cause him great pain. His doctor has diagnosed an ulcer. In
this example, the ulcer may be a:
a. hypochondriac symptom
b. psychosomatic symptom
c. resistance symptom
d. defense mechanism
Answer: B
59. You visit your family doctor, complaining of migraine headaches. The doctor says that
your headaches are psychosomatic. He further explains that that means your headaches are
just imagined and are not real. So he tells you to go home and stop worrying. Given your
knowledge of stress, you correctly conclude:
a. migraine headaches are only psychological
b. your doctor doesn’t know what he is talking about
c. your doctor is well-trained

d. your doctor’s definition of psychosomatic is correct, but he should have given you some
Answer: B
60. As a family practice physician, you estimate that about 70% of the patients you see at the
clinic have stress-related problems. Is your experience usual?
a. yes—about 25% of patients seen in general practice have stress-related problems
b. yes—less than 10% of patients seen in general practice have stress-related problems
c. no—about 85% to 95% of patients seen in general practice have stress-related problems
d. yes—about 60% to 90% of patients seen in general practice have stress-related problems
Answer: D
61. One of the most common psychosomatic symptoms is:
a. thinking you are ill when, in fact, you are not
b. fidgeting
c. hyperactivity
d. stomach problems
Answer: D
62. The development of psychosomatic symptoms depends on several factors. Which of the
following is not among the factors, as presented in the textbook?
a. having a genetic predisposition
b. having an unhealthy lifestyle
c. having a tendency to make threat appraisals
d. making a challenge appraisal
Answer: D
63. Research has found that people who were experiencing high stress and were presumably
in resistance and exhaustion stages were at increased risk for:
a. physical health problems
b. internal locus of control
c. hardiness
d. classical conditioning
Answer: A
64. Selye found that continuing stress affects the body:
a. by creating physical symptoms that are only in one’s “head” but still are painful

b. by reducing the effectiveness of the immune system
c. by creating imaginary symptoms
d. in the form of physical symptoms
Answer: D
65. The ____ describes the body’s reaction to stressful situations as a series of three stages.
a. global adaptation syndrome
b. general adaptation syndrome
c. mind-body connection model
d. locus of control model
Answer: B
66. The three parts of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome are:
a. perception, response, and recovery
b. perception, interpretation, and flight
c. alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
d. adaptation, modification, and adoption
Answer: C
67. According to the general adaptation syndrome, our initial reaction to stress with the fightflight response is called the ____ stage.
a. psychosomatic
b. alarm
c. primary
d. exhaustion
Answer: B
68. Just before her turn to play at a piano recital, Naomi feels her heart rate accelerating and
her face flushing. According to Selye, Naomi is in what stage of general adaptation to stress?
a. psychosomatic
b. alarm
c. resistance
d. exhaustion
Answer: B

69. Brad has been under a lot stress for a considerable amount of time. If Brad is in the
resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome, what should he be experiencing?
a. a slow draining of energy
b. serious psychosomatic symptoms
c. symptoms of hypochondriasis
d. nothing, Brad should feel healthy
Answer: A
70. During the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body is using large
amounts of energy.
a. resistance
b. alarm
c. primary
d. exhaustion
Answer: A
71. Trent is working on a major presentation for one of his company’s clients and is under a
lot of stress. He has been working late every night and eating poorly. At first, he experienced
a number of physical symptoms such as stomachaches and headaches, but in the last week the
symptoms have disappeared. Assuming that the stress is still present, Trent is probably in
what phase of general adaptation syndrome?
a. accommodation
b. alarm
c. resistance
d. exhaustion
Answer: C
72. Todd has been “stressed-out” for so long that he has developed an ulcer. Todd must be in
the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
a. resistance
b. exhaustion
c. alarm
d. degeneration
Answer: B
73. In what stage of the general adaptation syndrome is there a breakdown to internal organs
and/or weakening of the immune system?

a. resistance
b. exhaustion
c. alarm
d. degeneration
Answer: B
74. Danielle is a lawyer and has been in a very stressful trial for some time now. Following
her initial reaction to the trial, what do we know about Danielle’s physical health at this time?
a. Her heart rate has probably been below normal for almost two weeks.
b. Her epinephrine levels have probably been below normal for almost two weeks.
c. Her body’s energy stores have continued to be depleted for most of the trial.
d. She is unlikely to experience physical symptoms of stress in the near future.
Answer: C
75. Which of the following is characteristic of the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation
a. the weakening of the immune system
b. the activation of the fight-flight response
c. feeling healthy and energetic
d. the body returning to normal levels of functioning
Answer: A
76. Rick is about to be married. He knows he is doing the right thing, but he is very anxious
about meeting his fiancée’s parents and about his ability to be a good husband. This stress has
been continuing for a while. If Rick experiences the third stage of Selye’s general adaptation
syndrome, what may happen on his honeymoon?
a. Rick may experience a great emotional release.
b. Rick may get physically ill.
c. Rick may take out his pent-up frustrations on his new bride.
d. Rick may realize that all his anxiety was foolish and relax.
Answer: B
77. The idea that our thoughts, beliefs, and emotions can cause physiological changes is
a. psychosomatic association
b. associationism

c. mind-body connection
d. functionalism
Answer: C
78. Dee says to Maggie, “Don’t fret about losing that scholarship. If you worry about it, you
could make yourself sick.” This best illustrates the:
a. mind-body connection
b. unconscious motivation
c. psychosomatic association
d. psychodynamic thought
Answer: A
79. Research has found that people who were experiencing high stress and presumably in the
resistance and exhaustion stages were at increased risk for physical health problems. This
best demonstrates:
a. unconscious conflicts
b. classical conditioning
c. mind-body connection
d. unconscious motivation
Answer: C
80. Amanda has just received some terrible news. Now there is a surge of stress hormones in
her body, which is affecting the functioning of her heart. She has experienced what
researchers call:
a. Type D syndrome
b. alarm stage
c. broken heart syndrome
d. burnout
Answer: C
81. Broken heart syndrome best illustrates the connection between:
a. the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
b. mind and body
c. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
d. alarm and resistance stages
Answer: B

82. The body’s defense and surveillance network of cells and chemicals that fight off
bacteria, foreign toxins, and viruses is called the:
a. adrenal system
b. parasympathetic division
c. hypothalamus
d. immune system
Answer: D
83. Which of the following would be a good website address on psychoneuroimmunology to
illustrate an underlying assumption?
Answer: C
84. Stress weakens the immune system. How?
a. reduces the amount of stress hormones released
b. stress reduces the amount of the hormone ACTH
c. it reduces the number of natural killer cells
d. it increases parasympathetic activity
Answer: C
85. Grandma Grace recently lost her husband. With the stress of his death, she is experiencing
a(n) _____increased risk of dying herself within one month.
a. 3%–7%
b. 18%–21%
c. 27%–30%
d. 53%–61%
Answer: D
86. Leisal’s cognitive reactions to her stress-filled life have resulted in her central nervous
system slowing down her endocrine system. Which area of psychology would be most likely
to study Leisal’s condition?
a. psychoneuroimmunology
b. graphology

c. appraisal theory
d. psychoanalytic theory
Answer: A
87. Shirley has many allergies. She sleeps at a friend’s house under a bedspread that she
believes is filled with goose down. Her eyes and nose run so much that she can’t sleep until
she takes the bedspread out of the room. In the morning, the friend tells Shirley that the
bedspread is filled with a synthetic material that she could not be allergic to. The friend is:
a. obviously lying to Shirley
b. possibly correct, but the pillow must have been down-filled
c. unaware that allergic reactions can flare up without any apparent cause
d. probably telling the truth, since psychological factors can affect Shirley’s immune system
Answer: D
88. Michael is always on edge. He experiences prolonged stress as part of his job. His wife
complains that he always perceives his job as a threat to his health. What can we reasonably
expect from Michael?
a. eating problems that will lead to a dangerous gain of weight
b. bruxism
c. heightened physiological arousal that strains his immune system
d. depression and possible suicide if he remains in his current job
Answer: C
89. A man who had been married for 35 years loses his wife to cancer. The grief the man
a. may reduce his body’s defense against disease
b. is a natural reaction that does not affect the man’s physical health
c. provides an external release that will help maintain the man’s physical health
d. may make the man think that he is ill when, in fact, he is not
Answer: A
90. Marlene claims that her chronic allergy symptoms are caused by the fact that she is
stressed by her on-again off-again engagement to David. Marlene’s claim is:
a. supported by recent research on virus transmission
b. supported by psychoneuroimmunology
c. medically incorrect, but would be correct if Marlene had cancer instead of allergy

d. physiologically impossible
Answer: B
91. Stress can make you sick, since it suppresses:
a. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
b. the mind-and-body connection
c. the immune system
d. the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome
Answer: C
92. When we experience the fight-flight response, stress hormones are produced. Research in
psychoneuroimmunology indicates that these stress hormones:
a. lead to the production of antibodies
b. make us feel sick
c. cause dopamine to be released in the brain
d. suppress the immune system
Answer: D
93. The example of the woman experiencing severe allergic reactions to red roses illustrates
a. operant conditioning can affect the immune system
b. the immune system can be altered by psychological factors
c. the immune system functions independently of cognitive factors
d. the neutral stimulus never reliably predicts the conditioned stimulus
Answer: B
94. The case of the lady suffering allergic reactions to red roses shows that the functioning of
the immune system can be altered through:
a. behavior
b. trial-and-error learning
c. classical conditioning
d. operant conditioning
Answer: C
95. Attempts to classically condition the suppression of the immune response in rats have
demonstrated that:
a. conditioning may affect immunity, but this cannot be generalized to responses under stress

b. the immune system cannot be affected by purely psychological factors
c. our immune systems can be affected by psychological or cognitive stressors
d. experimental data derived from rats cannot be generalized to humans
Answer: C
96. Dr. Clark wishes to condition the immune system of a laboratory rat. Which of the
following is incorrect regarding the procedure?
a. The allergic reaction elicited by the injected substance is the unconditioned response.
b. The conditioned stimulus is the flashing light.
c. The conditioned stimulus is the allergy-producing substance.
d. The conditioned stimulus is the humming fan.
Answer: C
97. To condition the immune system of a rat, the CS would be ____ and UCS would be the
a. a flashing light and humming fan; allergy-producing substance
b. a flashing light and humming fan; allergic reaction
c. an allergic-producing substance; allergic reaction
d. an allergic-producing substance; salivation
Answer: A
98. In conditioning the immune system of a rat, the UCR would be the ____.
a. allergy-producing substance
b. allergic reaction
c. flashing light
d. salivation
Answer: B
99. The section on conditioning the immune system means that:
a. you can strengthen your immune system by diet and exercise
b. the immune system is influenced by viruses and bacteria
c. the immune system functions independently of psychological factors
d. you can learn to become sick
Answer: D
100. ____ are small, irritating, and frustrating events faced in daily life.

a. Hang-ups
b. Major life events
c. Avoiders
d. Hassles
Answer: D
101. Hassles are considered to be situations that:
a. have an insignificant impact on our lives
b. result from conditioned emotional responses
c. are small, irritating, and frustrating events faced in daily life
d. promote avoidance-avoidance conflict
Answer: C
102. Which of the following would be a hassle?
a. getting engaged
b. finding that a car has double-parked next to you when you have to get to an appointment
c. the death of a spouse
d. being put on academic probation the first semester you are in college
Answer: B
103. “In an average day, I have to take out the garbage, cook supper, deal with traffic delays,
and find a parking space at the college.” This person has cited a number of:
a. personal limitations
b. environmental limitations
c. conflicts
d. hassles
Answer: D
104. The opposite of a hassle is a(n) ____.
a. turn-up
b. provider
c. uplift
d. satisfier
Answer: C
105. Uplift is to ____ as hassle is to ____.

a. pleasant; unpleasant
b. inconsequential; consequential
c. small; large
d. internal; external
Answer: A
106. A potentially disturbing, troubling, or disruptive situation that we appraise as having
significant impact on our lives is termed a(n):
a. major life event
b. hassle
c. uplift
d. approach-approach conflict
Answer: A
107. Getting stuck in traffic is an example of ____, but being hospitalized after being hit by a
bus is an example of ____.
a. a hassle; a major life event
b. burnout; hardiness
c. an approach-approach conflict; a disease-prone personality
d. an internal locus of control; an external locus of control
Answer: A
108. The scale that measures life events by assigning them a value is called the:
a. Stress Impact Scale
b. Stressful Experiences Scale
c. Personal Stress Scale
d. Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Answer: D
109. When Jerry calculated his Social Readjustment Rating Scale, he found it to be quite
high. Jerry is likely to:
a. have a great deal of satisfaction in life
b. have an increased chance of illness
c. produce an excess of growth hormone
d. have a high need to achieve

Answer: B
110. One shortcoming of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is that it:
a. fails to correlate with the development of psychosomatic problems
b. lists only a small number of major life events
c. makes no distinction between the appraisal of positive and negative events
d. has not been normed with college students
Answer: C
111. Mara’s husband died 12 months ago. She is still having a hard time with his death. Mara
is anxious and depressed. She also avoids contact with family and friends. Her performance
at work has seen a decline in quality. Mara is most likely suffering from:
a. eustress disorder
b. adjustment disorder
c. avoidance-avoidance disorder
d. anxiety disorder
Answer: B
112. When our reaction to a life stressor lasts for many months and interferes with our daily
functioning, a diagnosis of _____ may be appropriate.
a. burnout
b. psychosomatic disorder
c. adjustment disorder
d. anxiety disorder
Answer: C
113. In addition to behavioral symptoms such as avoiding social interaction and poor
school/work performance, adjustment disorder also involves:
a. hardiness
b. unpleasant emotional reactions
c. eustress
d. approach-approach conflict
Answer: B
114. We experience ____ when we try to reach some goal, but our efforts are blocked because
of personal, social, or environmental limitations.
a. frustration

b. anxiety
c. burnout
d. avoidance
Answer: A
115. “Every time I move closer to my goals, something stops me.” This person is
experiencing ____ as a situational stressor.
a. avoidance
b. anger
c. burnout
d. frustration
Answer: D
116. You made a number of dumb mistakes on an exam. Your goal of an “A” is blocked and
you experience frustration because of:
a. personal limitations
b. social limitations
c. environmental limitations
d. burnout
Answer: A
117. “Paperwork and more paperwork; regulations and more regulations. I wish the
government wouldn’t require so much. I don’t qualify for a loan, so I won’t be able to start
my own business—thanks to the bureaucrats!” This individual is experiencing ____ because
of ____.
a. frustration; personal limitations
b. burnout; social or personal limitations
c. frustration; social or environmental limitations
d. burnout; internal locus of control
Answer: C
118. Tina is feeling worn out and exhausted at work. Her friends notice she is becoming
detached from them, family, school, and her job. She is experiencing what kind of situational
a. frustration
b. cultural stress
c. burnout

d. conflict
Answer: C
119. Jackie was recently in a serious car accident. Even though she is recovering, she is
showing PTSD. How common is PTSD following a serious car accident?
a. found in about 5% of cases
b. found in about 20% of cases
c. found in about 50% of cases
d. PTSD cannot be diagnosed as a result of a car accident
Answer: B
120. “The wind was very strong, and it destroyed everything that I own. I never want to
experience another tornado again. It’s left me with sleeping problems, and a feeling of
helplessness and fear.” This narrative best describes:
a. burnout
b. posttraumatic stress disorder
c. depression
d. delayed stress reaction disorder
Answer: B
121. Which of the following is not among the goals to deal with posttraumatic stress disorder,
as presented in your textbook?
a. provide emotional support
b. relive the experience through journaling
c. bring out the details of the experience
d. build a sense of courage to go on with life
Answer: B
122. Treating PTSD with ____ shows positive long-term effectiveness when compared to
a. hypnosis
b. biofeedback
c. dream interpretation
d. cognitive-behavior therapy
Answer: D

123. Terrifying flashbacks, avoiding similar situations, and experiencing an event that
involves actual or threatened death or injury refers to a condition known as:
a. burnout
b. generalized anxiety disorder
c. posttraumatic stress disorder
d. hardiness
Answer: C
124. When we must choose between two incompatible options, we experience:
a. motivation
b. hardiness
c. conflict
d. physical illness
Answer: C
125. Situations involving conflict trigger feelings of stress, because:
a. the situation is appraised as challenging
b. only people with an external locus of control experience conflict
c. one choice or goal must be given up
d. they are usually accompanied by many major life changes
Answer: C
126. An approach-approach conflict involves:
a. a single situation with both negative and positive aspects
b. choosing between positive and negative situations
c. choosing between two positive situations
d. a single situation without any pleasurable consequences
Answer: C
127. “I just can’t decide. Do I want to vacation in the Caribbean or Hawaii? Both are great
places.” This person is experiencing an:
a. approach-approach conflict
b. active-active conflict
c. affect-effect conflict
d. approach-avoidance conflict

Answer: A
128. Why might approach-approach conflict be the most stressful kind of conflict?
a. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place.
b. We must be willing to take the option that is the least pleasant.
c. We must learn how to make decisions that are not always popular.
d. We must give up a pleasurable consequence no matter what we choose.
Answer: D
129. Your gruesome, beastly jailer walks in and offers you the choice of being whipped or
clubbed as your punishment of the day. Assuming that neither alternative appeals to you, we
could assume that you are experiencing:
a. approach-approach conflict
b. avoidance-avoidance conflict
c. approach-avoidance conflict
d. double conflict
Answer: B
130. When faced with an avoidance-avoidance conflict, we:
a. usually wait until the last minute to make a decision
b. usually make a decision early in the process
c. experience a decrease in frustration
d. experience a reduction in stress
Answer: A
131. Bethany must do her chores. Her dad lets her decide which one to do, either rake leaves
or water the trees. She doesn’t like to do either of the chores. Bethany faces a(n):
a. approach-avoidance conflict
b. avoidance-avoidance conflict
c. double conflict
d. effect-affect conflict
Answer: B
132. An approach-avoidance conflict involves:
a. two options, neither of which are pleasurable
b. two options, one positive and one negative

c. one situation that has both pleasurable and disagreeable aspects
d. one situation that does not cause stress
Answer: C
133. A man who is on a diet loves desserts. When offered a dessert, the man will probably
experience an ____ conflict.
a. approach-approach
b. approach-avoidance
c. avoidance-avoidance
d. ambivalent-frustration
Answer: B
134. In the ____ style of dealing with conflict, the person gives in to make the conflict go
away, while someone with a(n) ____ style goes to any lengths to win.
a. accommodation; domination
b. domination; active
c. compromise; integration
d. integration; domination
Answer: A
135. Three friends are having a conflict. Isaac tries to resolve conflicts by finding solutions to
please everyone. Jacob avoids the conflict, and Joseph tends to give in to any conflict. Which
of these friends has the integration style of dealing with conflict?
a. Joseph
b. Jacob
c. Isaac
d. Joseph and Jacob
Answer: C
136. Which of the following is true regarding conditioned emotional responses?
a. They are triggered slowly and deliberately.
b. They are highly resistant to extinction.
c. They result from observational learning.
d. They result in the use of sublimation.
Answer: B

137. Josey hated to go to the dentist as a child, because he always filled her cavities without
giving her any anesthesia. Her dentist had an old radio in his office that always played staticfilled classical music. Now, when she hears classical music on a radio that isn’t well tuned,
she feels anxious. Josey is experiencing:
a. vicarious learning
b. a conditioned emotional response
c. an unconscious conflict
d. an avoidance-avoidance conflict
Answer: B
138. The acquisition of a behavior through first watching and then modeling other people is
a. observational learning
b. direct learning
c. classical conditioning
d. operant conditioning
Answer: A
139. Freud claimed that anxiety stems from:
a. things we learn about negative experiences
b. unconscious conflicts that arise between the id and superego with the ego in the middle
c. discrepancies between the way the world is and the way we want it to be
d. the subconscious belief that good things cannot last forever, but bad things can
Answer: B
140. According to Freud, how might we try to decrease anxiety?
a. seek out social support
b. develop a sense of hardiness
c. use a defense mechanism
d. engage in primary appraisal
Answer: C
141. If we use defense mechanisms as our primary means of coping with anxiety, then:
a. we will save ourselves a great deal of undue psychological harm
b. our social relationships will improve
c. we will not have to rely on machines and medication to help us cope

d. we are preventing ourselves from confronting and working on our problems
Answer: D
142. Rhea thinks about her upcoming job interview, “I’m really excited about it. I’ve
prepared for it and really want to do well with it!” Rhea is experiencing:
a. an external locus of control
b. eustress
c. emotional focused coping
d. panic
Answer: B
143. Rhea thinks about her upcoming job interview, “I’m really excited about it. I’ve
prepared for it and really want to do well with it!” Which of the following best describes
a. She has an external locus of control.
b. She has a conditioned emotional response.
c. She is experiencing Type D behavior.
d. She has an internal locus of control.
Answer: D
144. A person whose control, commitment, and challenge enable him or her to handle
stressful situations would be considered to possess the stress-reduction trait of:
a. external locus of control
b. hardiness
c. frustration-aggression
d. approach-avoidance
Answer: B
145. With only a minute left in today’s class, Professor Shepard is previewing tomorrow’s
lecture on hardiness. She says, “We’ll look at the 3Cs of hardiness at our next class meeting.”
To what “3Cs” is Professor Shepard referring?
a. control, coping, and competence
b. commitment, congruency, and consistency
c. control, commitment, and challenge
d. consistency, control, and competency
Answer: C

146. Barb teaches second grade in an inner-city school. Despite the fact that most of her
students are already two years behind other children their age, Barb views her job as a
challenge. She is constantly looking for new and different methods to interest her students
and feels that she has a direct positive effect on their lives. Barb manages her stressful life
without experiencing psychosomatic problems because she possesses the trait of:
a. hardiness
b. external locus of control
c. frustration avoidance
d. approach-avoidance
Answer: A
147. LeRoy is listening to a story about a great American hero. This hero went through
incredible odds and endured tremendous stress. Knowing what you do about stress, what
personality trait did this hero undoubtedly possess that protected him from the harmful effects
of stress?
a. autonomy
b. extroversion
c. external locus of control
d. hardiness
Answer: D
148. “I know that if I work hard and follow through on my duties, I can control what happens
to me.” Another person says, “It doesn’t matter; whatever I do has no effect.” These two
individuals differ in regard to their:
a. locus of control
b. affect
c. coping strategies
d. secondary appraisal
Answer: A
149. A person who believes that chance and luck are major factors in our lives is probably:
a. less stressed than someone who doesn’t think this way
b. exhibiting an external locus of control
c. exhibiting an internal locus of control
d. a hardy person
Answer: B

150. Maria believes that everything good and bad that happens to her is the result of fate,
luck, or other people’s desires. Maria’s belief illustrates the concept of:
a. hardiness
b. conflict
c. an internal locus of control
d. an external locus of control
Answer: D
151. With which of the following statements would a person with an external locus of control
a. People who can’t get others to like them don’t understand how to get along with others.
b. We can have an effect on our external world.
c. I don’t vote in elections because my vote won’t change things.
d. It is of the utmost importance to establish one’s power in interpersonal relationships.
Answer: C
152. Jerry is fond of saying, “I am the master of my own destiny. My future is what I choose
it to be.” Jerry’s statement illustrates the concept of:
a. hardiness
b. conflict
c. an internal locus of control
d. an external locus of control
Answer: C
153. Compared to people with an external locus of control, people with an internal locus of
control tend to:
a. develop fewer psychosomatic symptoms
b. think the world is a hostile place that one must learn to escape from internally
c. believe more that fate plays a bigger role in their lives
d. be Type A people
Answer: A
154. Compared to those with an external locus of control, individuals with an internal locus
of control are more likely to:
a. use threat appraisals
b. use emotion-focused coping

c. experience more positive emotions
d. experience greater levels of stress
Answer: C
155. Psychosomatic symptoms, higher levels of stress, and the use of threat appraisals are
symptoms associated with:
a. hardiness
b. an external locus of control
c. reaction formation
d. a Type B personality
Answer: B
156. You are able to engage in positive reappraisal, and can see the potential for growth even
in the most difficult of situations. You are probably:
a. an optimist
b. a female
c. a Type D person
d. have an external locus of control
Answer: A
157. John is an optimist. Which of the following characteristics is most likely to be true of
a. He deals with stress by simply ignoring it.
b. He has a sense of being in control.
c. He shows a Type D personality profile.
d. He successfully represses negative emotions.
Answer: B
158. Dr. Stearns is studying positive psychology. Of the following, which is probably not an
area of study for him?
a. institutions
b. individual traits
c. emotions
d. unconscious motives
Answer: D

159. A chronic and continuing struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time is
characteristic of:
a. an internal locus of control
b. an external locus of control
c. Type B behavior
d. Type A behavior
Answer: D
160. “Come on! I don’t have all day to wait around for you to answer this question.” This is
most characteristic of:
a. an internal locus of control
b. an external locus of control
c. Type B behavior
d. Type A behavior
Answer: D
161. A person who often expresses negative emotions, is aggressively competitive, and is
easily frustrated, would be exhibiting:
a. hardiness
b. an external locus of control
c. Type B behavior
d. Type A behavior
Answer: D
162. What happened to the definition of Type A behavior during the 1980s?
a. impatience and workaholic were dropped
b. impatience and workaholic were added
c. it was confirmed by research studying its relationship to heart disease
d. it was divided into Type A-1 and Type A-2
Answer: A
163. Research in the 1990s on the relationship between Type A and heart disease have found
that heart disease is related to:
a. a large number of traits, most of which are related to negative affect
b. impatience expressed publicly
c. hostility and anger

d. anxiety, frustration, anger, depression, and hardiness
Answer: C
164. Why has the definition of Type A behavior changed since the 1970s?
a. Politics have influenced how Type A behavior is defined.
b. Research has led to the changes.
c. The scientists researching this issue have a hard time making decisions.
d. Those subjects with heart disease now have very different personalities than those of the
1970s and 1980s.
Answer: B
165. Michael’s friends describe him as a worrier who tends to focus on doom and gloom. He
also tends to be shy around people. Michael is best described as displaying:
a. emotion-focused coping
b. Type B behavior
c. Type D behavior
d. an internal locus of control
Answer: C
166. If you are creating a website on Type D behavior, what would be the most appropriate
web address?
Answer: C
167. Raj’s family is worried. He is showing all the signs of Type D behavior. They say he is
acting like he is worried all the time and focuses on doom and gloom. What other emotional
state would most certainly indicate Raj is showing Type D behavior?
a. internal locus of control
b. social inhibition
c. eustress
d. hardiness
Answer: B

168. Deciding the type of coping strategies one will use to deal with a problem is ______
a. primary
b. secondary
c. threat
d. challenge
Answer: B
169. Orlando is in a bad situation and has made a threat appraisal. What will he do next?
a. make a secondary appraisal
b. try to increase his sympathetic response
c. decide to escape from the situation
d. make a challenge appraisal
Answer: A
170. Melanie is going to the dentist. Her decision that the dentist will hurt her is a ____,
whereas her deciding to smoke a cigarette before going into the dentist’s office is a ____.
a. secondary appraisal; coping appraisal
b. harm/loss appraisal; challenge appraisal
c. challenge appraisal; primary appraisal
d. primary appraisal; secondary appraisal
Answer: D
171. Problem-focused coping is to ____ as emotion-focused coping is to ____.
a. behavior; feelings
b. feelings; affect
c. primary; secondary
d. passive; active
Answer: A
172. Problem-focused coping primarily involves:
a. taking whatever action is needed
b. directing our attention to something else
c. changing how we think about the situation
d. denying that there is a problem

Answer: A
173. Both Ann and her roommate, Cheryl, like to study in their room. Ann likes complete
quiet, while Cheryl insists on blaring music. If Ann arrives after Cheryl and asks her to turn
the music down, Cheryl will claim that she was there first and can do what she wants. If Ann
uses problem-focused coping, she can best handle the situation by:
a. playing her own stereo even louder till Cheryl turns her stereo down
b. screaming at Cheryl that she is selfish
c. refusing to speak to Cheryl until she compromises
d. working out a schedule with Cheryl so that they both can have some study time in the
Answer: D
174. Lauren deals with the stress of psychology class by joining a study group. The others in
the group help her to learn the content of the class. This is an example of:
a. an external locus of control
b. problem-focused coping
c. a defense mechanism
d. reaction formation
Answer: B
175. Emotion-focused coping involves:
a. using the process of extinction
b. changing our own behavior to solve the problem
c. seeking information about what needs to be done
d. dealing with our distress
Answer: D
176. A person who avoids thinking about their problems—or directs their attention to
something else—is using:
a. problem-focused coping
b. an internal locus of control
c. emotion-focused coping
d. an external locus of control
Answer: C
177. The major factor that determines which type of coping we use is:

a. our current level of anxiety
b. how much control we believe we have over the situation
c. whether the situation is threatening
d. frustration with the situation
Answer: B
178. Brenda and Krista have both just lost their jobs. Brenda says, “Let’s go shopping” and
Krista agrees. This best illustrates:
a. dispositional coping
b. emotion-focused coping
c. metacognitive coping
d. problem-focused coping
Answer: B
179. When is problem-focused coping most appropriate?
a. when your frustration levels are just starting to peak
b. in stressful situations that are familiar to you
c. when you lack control over the situation
d. when you have control over the situation
Answer: D
180. You really wanted that job, but didn’t get it. It would have been perfect—you could’ve
studied when you weren’t busy and the pay was great. You’re feeling down. What type of
coping might be most beneficial for you?
a. emotion-focused coping
b. problem-focused coping
c. metacognitive coping
d. structural coping
Answer: A
181. Mary and Harry are both experiencing financial crises in their lives. Based upon the
discussion of gender differences in coping, what approach are they most likely to take?
a. Mary will tend to use emotion-focused coping; Harry will use problem-focused coping
b. Harry will tend to use emotion-focused coping; Mary will use problem-focused coping
c. Harry is likely to deal with the distress of the crisis, while Mary will try to take
constructive action.

d. Mary will do primary appraisal, and Harry will do secondary appraisal.
Answer: A
182. “I’m really frustrated with this situation, because the conflict between this person and
me has gotten worse.” What strategy should this person use to cope with this situation?
a. emotion-focused and metacognitive coping
b. problem-focused coping
c. emotion- and problem-focused coping
d. structural coping
Answer: C
183. A psychology professor is considered an expert in positive psychology. She is always
being asked to give speeches and interviews, and has written articles for the local newspaper.
Why is there such interest in her research?
a. Research in this area is heavily funded by the federal government.
b. Health insurance companies are more likely to pay for our attempts to remain healthy than
to treat illness.
c. Psychology generally focuses on problems and weaknesses, so positive psychology
represents a significant change.
d. It provides insight into how we react to stressors that may cause depression and anxiety.
Answer: C
184. If you are taking a class that focuses on optimal human functioning, human strength, and
fulfillment, you are most likely taking a class called:
a. Positive Psychology
b. Behavior Modification
c. Personality Psychology
d. Psychoanalytic Psychology
Answer: A
185. Module 21 describes an exercise that can result in improved mood among college
students. What is the exercise?
a. recording one’s dreams
b. any type of creative writing
c. writing about positive experiences
d. autobiographical exercise
Answer: C

186. As you look for journal articles for a research paper, you notice more and more
information on the topic of positive psychology. Why is positive psychology such a change
from traditional psychological research?
a. There is much more financial support for research in positive psychology.
b. Traditional research in psychology focuses on problems or weaknesses like depression or
c. Positive psychology tends to use case studies; traditional psychology uses the method of
d. Minorities tend to be more involved in conducting research in positive psychology
compared to traditional research.
Answer: B
187. Conducting an experiment allows us to identify:
a. important information about behavior in natural settings
b. unique or unusual behavior
c. cause-and-effect relationships
d. correlations between variables
Answer: C
188. If you collect a great deal of information regarding the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and
behaviors of an individual person, you are conducting a(n):
a. survey questionnaire
b. case study
c. experiment
d. standardized test
Answer: B
189. A common disorder that is characterized by feelings of worry, dizziness, chest pain, and
dread is called:
a. schizophrenia
b. bipolar disorder
c. survivor guilt
d. panic disorder
Answer: D
190. Your friend suffers from panic disorder. Based on your understanding of Module 21,
what is the best advice you can give her regarding effective long-term treatment?

a. to seek out cognitive behavioral treatment
b. she should find a therapist who specializes in hypnosis
c. antianxiety drugs are most effective in the long run
d. antidepressant drugs are most effective in the long run
Answer: A
191. In psychology class, you’re watching a video of a treatment session. You notice that the
therapist keeps referring to how the patient’s arousal increases because she expects it to
intensify. What is the treatment called?
a. hypnosis
b. biofeedback
c. cognitive behavioral therapy
d. psychoanalysis
Answer: C
192. Through the use of meditation, Tibetan monks have learned how to exert control over
a. hypothalamus
b. pituitary gland
c. adrenal medulla
d. autonomic nervous system
Answer: D
193. Researchers believe that Tibetan monks are capable of raising hand temperatures by:
a. activating their parasympathetic division
b. controlling psychosomatic responses
c. activating their autonomic nervous system
d. focusing the winds in the consciousness into a central channel
Answer: A
194. Stress management programs attempt to change what aspects of our lives?
a. physiological responses and emotions
b. perceptions and behaviors
c. thoughts, behaviors, and physiological responses
d. thoughts and emotions

Answer: C
195. A successful stress management program should try to:
a. encourage participants to appraise stressful situations as challenges
b. point out that many of the things we worry about are things we can do nothing about,
c. get people to reduce the number of challenges in their lives
d. convince people to be less committed
Answer: A
196. Research has shown that people who make challenge appraisals tend to:
a. use more problem-focused coping techniques
b. report more overall stress
c. experience more feelings of anxiety and fear
d. have an external locus of control
Answer: A
197. A high school teacher is stressed by her work. She feels that her students are deliberately
trying to upset her. Which of the following would represent a constructive change in the
teacher’s appraisal?
a. to stop caring so much about her students
b. to tell herself that that the students’ behavior is just normal adolescence, and not an attack
on her
c. to try to ignore the students’ behavior
d. to accept the fact that she is not a particularly good disciplinarian
Answer: B
198. Based upon research findings, which is the best way to cope with an upcoming exam?
a. using emotion-focused coping
b. “I wish I could have had more study time.”
c. “There’s not much I can do about my grade, so why worry?”
d. “I can demonstrate to my professor that I really do know this material.”
Answer: D
199. Why is it important to avoid making negative self-statements?
a. because they will lead to making challenge appraisals
b. others will think you are immature

c. they elicit negative emotions
d. they tend to cause an internal locus of control
Answer: C
200. An important step in reducing stress is to monitor one’s behavior. The purpose of this
observation is to:
a. identify stress-reducing and stress-increasing behaviors
b. learn which situations are stressful
c. determine how much stress the individual is experiencing
d. learn emotion-focused coping
Answer: A
201. Walter is wearing a blood pressure measuring device. He is told the green light in front
of him will come on when his blood pressure drops, and further, that he should try to keep the
light on. Walter is being treated with:
a. mechanized relaxation training
b. biofeedback training
c. coping strategy training
d. self-stimulation training
Answer: B
202. Why can meditation be helpful in managing stress?
a. It involves removing bothersome thoughts and replacing them with positive ones.
b. Since it is often done in groups, it can help facilitate social interaction.
c. By displaying our physiological responses on a computer, we can learn to control them.
d. It helps us make threat appraisals.
Answer: A
203. Biofeedback trains people to:
a. lower the level of epinephrine in their blood stream
b. use emotion-focused coping
c. exert more control over their autonomic nervous system
d. make effective use of defense mechanisms
Answer: C
204. Teaching a person how to tense and relax the major muscle groups at will to produce
relaxation is the procedure known as:

a. transcendental meditation
b. progressive relaxation
c. biofeedback
d. appraisal counseling
Answer: B
205. To cope with stress, Chuck finds a quiet place, closes his eyes, and tries to clear his mind
by concentrating on a sound. Chuck is using:
a. transcendental meditation
b. progressive relaxation
c. biofeedback
d. appraisal counseling
Answer: A
206. Why did the small town of Roseto, Pennsylvania have an increase in heart attacks,
especially among younger men?
a. The townsfolk bought a large number of televisions and became couch potatoes.
b. Most of the factories that once supported most families closed down.
c. People had fewer social supports.
d. A large bacon factory moved to town, offering free bacon to its employees.
Answer: C
207. Of the following, which is not a factor in social support, according to the textbook?
a. individuals who can provide social attachments
b. providing feedback to us about what is appropriate coping
c. being able to exchange helpful resources
d. making appraisals that there are supportive relationships and behaviors
Answer: B
208. Social support helps us to ____ in order to minimize the effects of stress.
a. develop hardiness
b. use sublimation
c. embrace Type D coping skills
d. exchange helpful resources
Answer: D

209. Lisa and Jenny are both 14 years old. Lisa’s parents are very busy with their careers and,
while providing the material necessities, give her little of their time. Jenny’s mother has
trouble supporting the two of them with her job, but they are very close and spend all their
free time together. Regarding the social support offered by the parents of these two girls, it is
probable that:
a. Jenny benefits more from social support
b. Lisa benefits more from social support, because two parents provide a larger social
grouping than one
c. both would have about the same social support from their families
d. both girls would have to go outside the family for the majority of their social support
Answer: A
210. Jerome has a large circle of acquaintances, but no close friends. Mary, his wife, has a
few very close friends. Everything else being equal, if Jerome and Mary experience marital
difficulties, who would have less trouble dealing with the stressful situation?
a. Jerome would, because he has many people to tell his troubles to.
b. Mary would, because the social support of close friends aids in coping with stressful
c. It is impossible to tell, because friends do not affect one’s ability to cope with stress.
d. They should experience about the same level of stress, because friends of any degree of
intimacy provide social support.
Answer: B
211. What advantage might the Internet have for people as they try to manage their stress
according to Module 21?
a. access to virtual support groups
b. keep updated on the news
c. read funny blogs
d. able to watch TV shows and movies
Answer: A
1. A person with panic disorder appraises the physical symptoms of an attack as serious.
Answer: True
2. Stress is always harmful.
Answer: False
3. Primary appraisal refers to how we evaluate or interpret a situation.

Answer: True
4. Threat appraisals increase levels of stress.
Answer: True
5. The pituitary gland signals the hypothalamus to release ACTH.
Answer: False
6. Psychosomatic symptoms are not really physical, only psychological.
Answer: False
7. In the resistance stage, the body is saving large amounts of energy.
Answer: False
8. Broken heart syndrome shows that the mind and body are connected.
Answer: True
9. The functioning of the immune system can be affected by stress.
Answer: True
10. An external locus of control is more common among cultures that emphasize autonomy
and personal accomplishment.
Answer: False
11. There is a strong correlation between major life events and the development of
psychosomatic symptoms.
Answer: False
12. The most common types of hassles are the death of a close friend, marriage, and trouble
with a boss.
Answer: False
13. Frustration is the experience we have when our movement to a goal is blocked.
Answer: True
14. An avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when we must choose between two unpleasant
Answer: True
15. People who use integration to deal with conflict go to any lengths to win.
Answer: False
16. In problem-focused coping, one may seek information to resolve the difficulty.
Answer: True
17. Females tend to use emotion-focused coping.

Answer: True
18. A Type D person experiences chronic distress through negative emotions and social
Answer: True
19. The best long-term treatment for panic disorder is medication.
Answer: False
20. Tibetan monks have developed the ability to warm their hands by controlling the
sympathetic division.
Answer: False
21. Stress management programs focus on appraisals, behaviors, and emotional responses.
Answer: True
22. Students who make challenge appraisals are more likely to use emotion-focused coping.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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