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Module 23—Psychological Disorders II
1. The example of Chuck Elliot in the textbook suggests that:
a. clozapine is effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder
b. mental disorders can affect anyone, regardless of their talents, education, and intelligence
c. schizophrenia runs in families
d. psychoactive drugs have undesirable side effects
Answer: B
2. Why does Chuck Elliot stop taking his medication for his manic episodes?
a. The medication slows him down.
b. The medication causes too much energy.
c. The medication leads to sleeplessness.
d. The medication gives him headaches.
Answer: A
3. When Michael McCabe was first diagnosed with schizophrenia, he:
a. attempted suicide
b. had many personalities
c. was having auditory hallucinations—he heard voices
d. was receiving electroconvulsive therapy
Answer: C
4. What has allowed Michael McCabe, who was diagnosed with schizophrenia, to be cared
for by his mother Marsha?
a. He snapped out of schizophrenia.
b. His mother received special sensitivity training.
c. He received a prefrontal lobotomy.
d. He was put on a new antipsychotic drug, clozapine.
Answer: D
5. The cases of Chuck Elliot and Michael McCabe presented in the module illustrate:
a. the role that genetics play in mental disorders
b. the failure of drug treatment of mental disorders
c. how mental disorders can be debilitating

d. how serious mental disorders can heighten one’s creativity
Answer: C
6. A prolonged and disturbed emotional state that impairs multiple aspects of a person’s
functioning is known as:
a. agoraphobia
b. a mood disorder
c. a somatization disorder
d. a conversion disorder
Answer: B
7. Hank suffers from a prolonged and disturbed emotional state. He could be diagnosed as
having a(n):
a. maladaptive disorder
b. stress disorder
c. schizophrenic disorder
d. mood disorder
Answer: D
8. The case of singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow illustrates that ____ can affect anyone,
regardless of fame or talent.
a. OCD
b. alcoholism
c. depression
d. anxiety
Answer: D
9. The most common forms of mood disorders are:
a. bipolar I disorder, schizophrenic disorder, minor depressive disorder
b. seasonal affective disorder, minor depressive disorder, postpartum depression
c. major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, bipolar I disorder
d. major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymic disorder
Answer: D
10. A loss of energy, lack of interest and pleasure in usual activities, negative self-concept,
and recurrent thoughts of death and suicide are common symptoms of:
a. major depression

b. schizophrenia disorder
c. somatization disorder
d. conversion disorder
Answer: A
11. After being rejected by all of the medical schools to which she applied, Melanie
developed a sad and dejected mood. She had difficulty sleeping, ate much less than normal,
no longer took interest in the hobbies and activities that once gave her pleasure, and felt that
she was worthless. Melanie would be diagnosed as suffering from:
a. bipolar I disorder
b. major depressive disorder
c. a manic episode
d. dissociative disorder
Answer: B
12. If you randomly meet 100 people today, how many will have a lifetime episode of major
a. 8
b. 16
c. 24
d. 32
Answer: B
13. What does the research say about the gender difference in major depressive disorder?
a. An equal percentage of males and females have major depressive disorder.
b. A higher percentage of males have major depressive disorder.
c. A higher percentage of females have major depressive disorder.
d. It is impossible to say, because gender data on major depressive disorder is not collected.
Answer: C
14. David has been in a bad mood for three weeks. He just stays in bed, doesn’t take care of
himself, has thoughts of suicide, and feels utterly useless. David’s parents can’t understand
why he just can’t snap out of it. David is experiencing:
a. obsessive-compulsive disorder
b. dysthymic disorder
c. major depressive disorder

d. bipolar I disorder
Answer: C
15. What disorder consists of fluctuations between episodes of depression and mania?
a. bipolar II disorder
b. major depression
c. dysthymia
d. bipolar I disorder
Answer: D
16. Exaggerated energy, enthusiasm, and elation are characteristic of:
a. dysthymia
b. mania
c. somatoform disorders
d. schizoid personality disorder
Answer: B
17. A psychologist is seeing a client who always talks fast, seems to have incredible energy,
makes grandiose plans that would be impossible to carry out, and seems to “bounce off the
walls.” If this person never shows signs of depression, he is likely to be suffering from:
a. bipolar I disorder
b. somatoform disorder
c. mania
d. hysteria
Answer: C
18. Of the following, which is the best way to describe bipolar I disorder?
a. “long plains and high peaks”
b. “different types of rocks with different shapes and colors, but still rocks”
c. “long plains followed by low valleys, followed by long plains”
d. “high peaks and low valleys, high peaks and low valleys”
Answer: D
19. Bipolar disorder differs from major depression in that:
a. bipolar disorder involves periods of mania
b. bipolar disorder involves depression caused by two distinct sources

c. major disorder is less common
d. bipolar disorder is often complicated by further emotions, such as guilt
Answer: A
20. A psychologist is working with a person who has been diagnosed as having major
depression. The person rarely talks during their sessions. Then, on one visit, the person
begins to talk very rapidly, describing, with great enthusiasm, elaborate plans that are not at
all realistic. It would be reasonable for the psychologist to conclude that the:
a. person is near recovery
b. depression was less severe than was originally diagnosed
c. person is actually suffering from schizophrenia
d. depression is actually bipolar disorder
Answer: D
21. Dysthymic disorder differs from major depression in that dysthymic disorder:
a. has a briefer duration
b. is associated with less serious symptoms
c. does not involve problems with sleep and appetite
d. is more intense and has a greater negative effect on normal functioning
Answer: B
22. A less serious form of major depression is called:
a. dysfunctional mood disorder
b. abbreviated mood disorder
c. dysthymic disorder
d. bipolar II disorder
Answer: C
23. Derek has complained that he is “down in the dumps.” Which of the following is Derek
most likely to suffer from?
a. dysthymic disorder
b. major depressive disorder
c. bipolar I disorder
d. somatization disorder
Answer: A

24. “I’ve been feeling down for a long time now. I guess that’s just the way I am.” This
comment best illustrates:
a. bipolar I disorder
b. dysthymic disorder
c. major depression
d. seasonal affective disorder
Answer: B
25. A book entitled ____ focuses on the genetic, neurological, and physiological factors
related to mood disorders.
a. Failing to Self-Actualize: The Mood Disorders
b. Mood Disorders: The Biological Factors
c. Cognitive Theories of Mood Disorders
d. Unconscious Conflicts in Mood Disorders
Answer: B
26. A psychologist is working with a person who has been diagnosed as having bipolar I
disorder. When the psychologist looks at the clinical history of the blood relatives of this
person, she would not be surprised to find:
a. that there is evidence of similar symptoms being displayed in the person’s relatives
b. that there is no evidence whatsoever of depressive symptoms in the relatives
c. if there is evidence of depression or mania—it is no more likely to be found in blood
relatives than it is in close friends of the family
d. that there is evidence of other genetic problems, such as Down syndrome
Answer: A
27. Zach and Jack are identical twins. When examining depression rates, how much can each
twin’s susceptibility be explained by genetics?
a. less than 5%
b. 10%–15%
c. 40%–60%
d. 70%–80%
Answer: C
28. Recent research examining the role of mothers in their children’s susceptibility for
depression found that:
a. depressed mothers significantly increase their children’s risk

b. depressed mothers significantly increase their children’s risk only when the father is also
c. depressed mothers significantly decrease their children’s risk
d. mothers play no significant role
Answer: A
29. Zoe was adopted several years ago. Her adoptive mother was recently diagnosed with
depression. Knowing Zoe’s biological parents have no history of depression, what effect does
her adoptive mother’s diagnosis have on Zoe’s risk of developing depression?
a. Zoe’s risk does not change.
b. She is only at risk if her adoptive mother was diagnosed with bipolar depression.
c. Zoe is at increased risk
d. Zoe is at a decreased risk.
Answer: C
30. The genetics research on depression suggests that:
a. one gene is responsible for producing the risk for mood disorders
b. a combination of genes produces the risk for mood disorders
c. genetics play little, if any, role in mood disorders
d. environmental factors play little, if any, role in mood disorders
Answer: B
31. What group of neurotransmitters has been implicated in mood disorders, according to the
a. tetracyclics
b. phenothiazines
c. monoamines
d. biamines
Answer: C
32. When the anterior cingulate cortex becomes overactive, what then occurs in depressed
a. Negative emotions overwhelm thinking and emotion.
b. Phenothiazines are released in massive quantities in the brain.
c. Thinking becomes clearer.
d. Mood improves significantly.

Answer: A
33. What occurred when researchers electrically stimulated the brain of depressed people who
did not benefit from drugs or electroconvulsive therapy?
a. Their depression became more intense.
b. Their mood improved, but depressive thinking increased.
c. There was reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.
d. They became more suicidal.
Answer: C
34. You are a neuropsychologist studying depression. You are looking at the computerized
brain photos of depressed individuals. You conclude that a particular part of the brain of
depressed people is overactive. What is this brain part?
a. hypothalamus
b. anterior cingulate cortex
c. amygdala
d. cerebellum
Answer: B
35. A psychologist asks a depressed patient about his personality traits, ability to deal with
stress, and his social support. The psychologist is focusing on ____ factors in depression.
a. unconscious
b. psychodynamic
c. psychopathic
d. psychosocial
Answer: D
36. Why is there interest in the role psychosocial factors play in mood disorders?
a. Most federal research money is targeted for the study of psychosocial causes of mental
b. Studies have thoroughly concluded that biology only plays a very minor role.
c. Psychosocial factors interact with biological factors to create a predisposition for
developing mood disorders.
d. A great majority of bipolar patients do not respond at all to drug treatment.
Answer: C
37. Which of the following is best described by sayings like “making a mountain out of a
mole hill” and “crying over spilled milk” in explaining depression?

a. the role of monoamines
b. psychosocial factors
c. immaturity of the prefrontal cortex
d. socially dependent personality
Answer: B
38. Beck argues that depression results from:
a. negative ways of thinking
b. a chemical imbalance in the brain
c. unfulfilled self-actualization
d. unresolved unconscious conflicts regarding inappropriate sexual desires
Answer: A
39. With regard to mood disorders, personality traits play a significant role in determining:
a. the depth of depression
b. the height of mania
c. frequency of depression
d. one’s risk of becoming depressed
Answer: D
40. What kind of personality is more vulnerable to depression when a person loses a close
relationship or friendship?
a. a socially dependent personality
b. an achievement personality
c. a schizoid personality
d. an ego personality
Answer: A
41. Lyle is depressed because he ties his worth into what others think of him. Given the
research described in the textbook, what type of personality is Lyle likely to have?
a. ego personality
b. achievement personality
c. borderline personality
d. socially dependent personality
Answer: D

42. The majority of drugs used to treat depression act on:
a. dopamines
b. monoamines
c. benzodiazepines
d. phenothiazines
Answer: B
43. Most of the drugs used to treat depression are:
a. addictive
b. naturally occurring minerals such as lithium
c. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
d. tricylics
Answer: C
44. Anders is placed on an antidepressant drug. His psychiatrist says something about the
drug being some type of inhibitor. Anders looks up some information about the drug and
finds that it is a:
a. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
b. general acetylcholine enzyme inhibitor
c. benzodiazepine inhibitor
d. haldol inhibitor
Answer: A
45. Antidepressants can take up to ____ before they have the desired effect.
a. 3 days
b. 7 days
c. 8 weeks
d. 12 weeks
Answer: C
46. What effect do antidepressants have on the monoamines?
a. They increase the levels of monoamines.
b. They decrease the levels of monoamines.
c. They change the type of monoamines in the nervous system.
d. They destroy all traces of monoamines.

Answer: A
47. The most common category of medication prescribed in the United States is:
a. antidepressant drugs
b. antianxiety drugs
c. antipsychotic drugs
d. antibiotic drugs
Answer: A
48. If you randomly pick 100 people, how many are likely to be on some kind of
antidepressant medication?
a. .1
b. 5
c. 10
d. 18
Answer: C
49. Of all the medications for depression, which one is the most effective?
a. Prozac
b. Zoloft
c. no one antidepressant has been found to be the most effective at the group level
d. lithium
Answer: C
50. Ray is moderately depressed. Based on the research, his best choice of treatment is:
a. either psychotherapy or SSRI drugs, since both are equally effective
b. psychotherapy
c. SSRI drugs
d. lithium
Answer: A
51. Vernea is severely depressed. Her best option for treatment is
a. psychotherapy
b. a combination of psychotherapy and SSRI drugs
c. SSRI drugs
d. lithium

Answer: B
52. In treating depression, psychotherapy when compared to drugs:
a. reduces relapse
b. increases relapse
c. increases suicide risk
d. reduces mania
Answer: A
53. Steve has recovered from depression and discontinued his drug treatment. What are the
odds that he will relapse in the next 18 months?
a. 5%
b. 30%
c. 70%
d. 80%
Answer: C
54. One commonly used drug treatment for bipolar depression is:
a. Valium
b. tricyclic therapy
c. MAOIs
d. lithium
Answer: D
55. What action does lithium have on the nervous system in the treatment of bipolar I
a. prevents serotonin reuptake
b. increases serotonin reuptake
c. prevents neurons from becoming overstimulated
d. increases the production of serotonin
Answer: C
56. What percentage of patients with bipolar I disorder receive little or no help from taking
a. 20%
b. 30–60%

c. 70%
d. 80%
Answer: A
57. The primary disorder that is treated by electroconvulsive therapy is:
a. bipolar I disorder
b. social phobia
c. substance abuse
d. major depression
Answer: D
58. The proper name for the technique known as “shock treatment” is ____ therapy.
a. electroconvulsive
b. tricyclic antidepressant
c. catecholamine elevation
d. lithium
Answer: A
59. Bonnie, who is severely depressed, is scheduled to receive ECT. If hers is similar to
typical cases that call for the use of ECT, how many sessions per week can she expect?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven
Answer: B
60. A psychiatrist is seeing a person who is seriously depressed and has attempted suicide.
The person was taking antidepressant medication for months with no relief of the symptoms.
It is possible that the psychiatrist will consider which of the following as the next treatment?
a. cognitive-behavior therapy
b. electroconvulsive therapy
c. tricyclic therapy
d. interpersonal therapy
Answer: B
61. Electroconvulsive therapy has been effective in ____ of depressed patients.

a. 10–25%
b. 30–35%
c. 40–50%
d. 70–90%
Answer: D
62. Franklin has been treated with electroconvulsive therapy. What are the chances that he
will need additional antidepressant treatment?
a. less than 1%
b. 25%
c. 35%
d. 50%
Answer: D
63. One side effect of ECT is:
a. loss of personality
b. loss of emotional responses
c. an inability to learn new material
d. memory loss
Answer: D
64. Victor received ECT for his severe depression. He is experiencing memory loss for the
events before and after the treatment. What can be reasonably expected with regard to his loss
of memory?
a. Those memories are lost forever.
b. His memory will deteriorate with more treatments and the loss will be permanent.
c. It is not known what will happen, since Victor’s problem with memory loss is very rare.
d. He will show gradual improvement and his memory will likely return to normal.
Answer: D
65. Thelma has had severe depression for many years. She has used SSRI drugs, undergone
psychotherapy, and had ECT. But nothing has worked. What is the last option for Thelma that
holds the most promise?
a. removal of limbic system
b. endorphin treatment
c. transcranial magnetic stimulation

d. a radical cerebrectomy
Answer: C
66. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be preferred over ECT as a treatment for
depression since TMS:
a. does not require anesthesia
b. triggers seizures on only one side of the body
c. causes memory loss for only the moments before and after treatment
d. is likely to be covered by insurance
Answer: A
67. An individual with inflexible, longstanding, and maladaptive traits that cause significantly
impaired functioning in one’s personal and social life would be diagnosed with a:
a. somatoform disorder
b. schizophrenic disorder
c. personality disorder
d. conversion disorder
Answer: C
68. A person complains that he has few friends. It is discovered that this is because he is cold
and aloof in relationships, and takes criticism poorly. He has been this way for as long as he
or anyone he knows can remember. If this is diagnosed as being abnormal, the DSM-IV-TR
category would probably be a ____ disorder.
a. affective
b. schizophrenic
c. personality
d. dissociative
Answer: C
69. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a personality disorder?
a. being unpopular
b. maladaptiveness
c. inflexibility
d. impaired functioning
Answer: A

70. Jack feels discomfort in developing close relationships and is somewhat odd in his
behavior. If Jack has a mental disorder, it would probably be classified as:
a. schizophrenia
b. agoraphobia
c. bipolar I disorder
d. schizotypal personality disorder
Answer: D
71. If a person has an intense interest in order, achieving perfection, and having control, then
that individual might have:
a. schizophrenia
b. obsessive-compulsive disorder
c. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
d. schizotypal personality disorder
Answer: D
72. If you visit Laura, you will find a very clean organized house. Everything has its place,
and if you move an object, Laura will be distressed. She is rigid and tries to control
everything. Of the following personality disorders, which one best describes Laura?
a. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
b. dependent personality disorder
c. histrionic personality disorder
d. schizotypal personality disorder
Answer: A
73. Brihana lacks self-control and often finds herself in dangerous situations. She can have
intense and unpredictable bursts of emotion. She has even hurt herself by cutting. You would
be accurate if you suggested that Brihana shows the characteristics of:
a. histrionic personality disorder
b. schizotypal personality disorder
c. dependent personality disorder
d. borderline personality disorder
Answer: D
74. Jenna has had enough of Cory, her roommate. Cory seems to be able to be kind and mean
at the same time. Cory says that she is afraid of losing Jenna as a friend and then showers her
with praise and gifts. Cory seems to be showing the signs of a(n)____ personality disorder.

a. anxiety
b. borderline
c. dependent
d. traumatic
Answer: B
75. In studies examining the brains of individuals with borderline personality disorder, the
results indicate that the brain area known as the _____ is overactive.
a. hypothalamus
b. amygdala
c. hippocampus
d. thalamus
Answer: B
76. When studying the brains of individuals with borderline personality disorder, scans
indicate that the brain areas involved in ____ are underactive.
a. controlling emotional responses
b. organization
c. integrating visual information with touch
d. anger
Answer: A
77. A type of cognitive behavior therapy called ____ may be the most effective treatment for
borderline personality disorder.
a. dialogue behavior therapy
b. dialectical behavior therapy
c. rational emotive therapy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: B
78. What percentage of prisoners in the United States has an antisocial personality disorder?
a. 2%
b. 8–12%
c. 50–80%
d. 90–95%

Answer: C
79. On the surface, Chuck is a charming, intelligent, good-looking individual. Yet he
constantly lies, has no sense of responsibility, is reckless, feels no guilt when his actions harm
others, and never learns from his mistakes. If Chuck’s behavior is considered abnormal, he
would most likely be diagnosed as having a(n):
a. antisocial personality
b. narcissistic personality
c. dissociative disorder
d. schizoid disorder
Answer: A
80. A person with a personality disorder who is sometimes referred to as a psychopath can be
diagnosed with:
a. paranoid personality disorder
b. schizotypal personality disorder
c. antisocial personality disorder
d. histrionic personality disorder
Answer: C
81. A characteristic found in the background of many individuals with antisocial personality
disorders is:
a. that they often changed residences in childhood
b. that they came from a family with more than three siblings
c. that they exhibited serious behavioral problems in childhood
d. a death of a close family member or friend
Answer: C
82. Two psychosocial causes have been implicated in antisocial personality disorder. They
a. uncontrollable childhood behavior and physical or sexual abuse in childhood
b. being an only child and a lack of adequate interaction with peers
c. parent-child interaction and child-peer interaction
d. low socioeconomic status and overly trustful of others
Answer: A
83. According to researchers, ____ may play an important role in the development of
antisocial personality disorder.

a. poor academic performance in elementary school
b. childhood aggression that is hard for parents to control
c. low socioeconomic status
d. educational opportunity
Answer: B
84. A common psychosocial factor seen in antisocial personality disorder is:
a. shyness
b. Type D behavior
c. physical or sexual abuse in childhood
d. a passive personality trait
Answer: C
85. The fact that antisocial behavioral patterns appear at such an early age and are so difficult
to change lends support to the notion that an antisocial personality may be caused by:
a. behavioral factors
b. environmental factors
c. biological factors
d. cognitive factors
Answer: C
86. According to research cited in your textbook, what neurological factor may play a role in
antisocial personality disorder?
a. enlarged ventricles in the brain
b. abnormally low levels of serotonin
c. abnormally high levels of dopamine
d. smaller than normal prefrontal cortex
Answer: D
87. What part of the brain appears to be related to antisocial personality disorder?
a. amygdala
b. prefrontal cortex
c. pons
d. medulla
Answer: B

88. Research studying antisocial personality disorder has identified that there may be an
abnormality in the _______ of people diagnosed with this problem.
a. information processing system
b. sympathetic division
c. endocrine system
d. serotonin system
Answer: D
89. Some drugs may be effective in reducing aggressive behaviors in patients with antisocial
personality disorder. These drugs:
a. decrease levels of dopamine
b. raise levels of dopamine
c. decrease levels of serotonin
d. raise levels of serotonin
Answer: D
90. The treatment of antisocial personality disorder is:
a. usually quite successful
b. not very promising
c. successful if punishment is used
d. successful if the disorder is diagnosed in childhood
Answer: B
91. Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and decreased
emotional expression characterize:
a. schizophrenia
b. depression
c. somatoform disorders
d. generalized anxiety disorder
Answer: A
92. A person reports hearing voices at night that repeat his name. He has a very short
attention span and makes up words that have no meaning, so it is difficult to have a
conversation with him. How long would these symptoms have to be present before the
diagnosis of schizophrenia would be made?
a. 2 weeks

b. 1 month
c. 2 months
d. 6 months
Answer: D
93. What portion of the adult population in the United States does schizophrenia affect?
a. .1%
b. .2 to 2%
c. 5 to 6%
d. 11 to 12%
Answer: B
94. A psychologist working with schizophrenic individuals is likely to encounter all of the
following symptoms except:
a. compulsive focusing on the things happening around them
b. the formation of new words that don’t exist in the dictionary
c. strange bodily sensations
d. hearing voices
Answer: A
95. The type of schizophrenia that involves thoughts of being persecuted or thoughts of
grandeur is ____ schizophrenia.
a. catatonic
b. disorganized
c. paranoid
d. melancholic
Answer: C
96. A person who believes that strangers are plotting to kidnap him is suffering from what
form of schizophrenia?
a. catatonic
b. disorganized
c. paranoid
d. melancholic
Answer: C

97. A man sees someone using a phone booth and believes that the caller is reporting on the
man’s every move. The man would be diagnosed as having what type of schizophrenia?
a. melancholic
b. paranoid
c. disorganized
d. catatonic
Answer: B
98. Tony truly believes that the FBI and the CIA have implanted listening devices into his
eyeglasses. Tony appears to have:
a. paranoid schizophrenia
b. disorganized schizophrenia
c. catatonic schizophrenia
d. conversion schizophrenia
Answer: A
99. Which of the following best describes disorganized schizophrenia?
a. persecution and grandeur
b. bizarre and childish
c. immobility and excitement
d. anxious and obsessed
Answer: B
100. A person complains that her hair is gradually turning into wire and her bones are slowly
falling to her feet. While explaining this, she will sometimes laugh hysterically and at other
times cry. Which form of schizophrenia would be a likely diagnosis in this case?
a. paranoid
b. catatonic
c. melancholic
d. disorganized
Answer: D
101. Confused speech, bizarre ideas, and childish behavior are all symptoms of:
a. paranoid schizophrenia
b. disorganized schizophrenia
c. affective schizophrenia

d. catatonic schizophrenia
Answer: B
102. A patient with schizophrenia alternates between periods of wild excitement and periods
of prolonged immobility. Her diagnosis would be ____ schizophrenia.
a. paranoid
b. catatonic
c. melancholic
d. disorganized
Answer: B
103. Janet maintains the same position for hours. However, on rare occasions, she will
suddenly become excited and run around the room in circles, only to return to her frozen
position. Janet appears to have:
a. paranoid schizophrenia
b. disorganized schizophrenia
c. affective schizophrenia
d. catatonic schizophrenia
Answer: D
104. Type I schizophrenia involves ____ symptoms and has a ____ chance of recovery.
a. negative; good
b. negative; poor
c. positive; good
d. positive; poor
Answer: C
105. Harold suffers from schizophrenia and has hallucinations and delusions. Harold does not
have any intellectual impairment. Harold could be described as having:
a. Type I schizophrenia
b. Type II schizophrenia
c. Type III schizophrenia
d. unipolar schizophrenia
Answer: A
106. Jennifer has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She has experienced negative
symptoms. Her psychiatrist believes she has little chance of recovery. Jennifer must have:

a. Type I schizophrenia
b. Type II schizophrenia
c. Type III schizophrenia
d. unipolar schizophrenia
Answer: B
107. Type II schizophrenia involves ____ symptoms and has a ____ chance of recovery.
a. negative; good
b. negative; poor
c. positive; good
d. positive; poor
Answer: B
108. Steve has been diagnosed as suffering from Type I schizophrenia; Ryan received the
diagnosis of Type II schizophrenia. Which of these patients has the better chance of recovery?
a. Both have excellent chances of returning to a normal state within six months.
b. Steve
c. Ryan
d. It is impossible to predict because the course of schizophrenia is so variable
Answer: B
109. The best predictor of a recovery from schizophrenia is the patient’s:
a. gender
b. level of social support
c. age
d. symptoms
Answer: D
110. Of the following patients with schizophrenia, who has the best chance of recovery?
a. Chuck—he displays dulled emotions
b. Steven—he has negative symptoms
c. Michael—he suffers from hallucinations and delusions
d. Darin—he experiences intellectual impairment
Answer: C
111. Delusions are:

a. irrational beliefs
b. new, made-up words
c. sensory experiences
d. false perceptions
Answer: A
112. In your psychology course, you are watching a video on schizophrenia. One of the
patients portrayed in the video is asked a question about her hobbies. She responds with an
answer that consists of new words. This is an example of:
a. neuroleptic behavior
b. flat affect
c. a hallucination
d. a neologism
Answer: D
113. Which of the following is an example of perceptual symptom that affects people
suffering from schizophrenia?
a. delusions
b. neologisms
c. hallucinations
d. flat affect
Answer: C
114. A hallucination is:
a. an inability to focus on a single chain of events
b. a belief that an auditory stimulus is a message from God
c. a sensory experience without environmental stimulation
d. composed of incoherent thoughts with no emotional affect
Answer: C
115. When a schizophrenic person hears voices or feels bugs crawling under their skin, they
are experiencing disorders of perception known as:
a. illusions
b. neologisms
c. delusions
d. hallucinations

Answer: D
116. Marilyn, who suffers from schizophrenia, demonstrates no emotional reaction
whatsoever when told that her home and all her personal belongings were destroyed in a fire.
Marilyn is displaying:
a. a neologism
b. a delusion
c. a hallucination
d. flat affect
Answer: D
117. What is so unusual about the Genain quadruplets?
a. They were the first quadruplets born in the United States in a family with parents
diagnosed with schizophrenia.
b. They were the first test cases of a new drug for bipolar I disorder.
c. They all developed schizophrenia.
d. They all studied the biological causes of schizophrenia.
Answer: C
118. Genetic factors for schizophrenia are supported by:
a. studies of twins with schizophrenia
b. brain deficits among schizophrenics
c. the dopamine theory of schizophrenia
d. the diathesis stress theory of schizophrenia
Answer: A
119. Twin studies of schizophrenia suggest that:
a. the brains of schizophrenics are different from the brains of those with other mental
b. a person may inherit a predisposition for schizophrenia
c. abnormalities in the dopamine system are involved in producing symptoms of
d. the ventricles of schizophrenics are smaller than those of normal people
Answer: B
120. The strongest research support for the existence of a genetic component to schizophrenia
is that:

a. children whose adoptive parents are schizophrenic also tend to be schizophrenic
b. non-identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than identical twins
c. identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than non-identical twins
d. a chromosome abnormality has been found in many diagnosed schizophrenics
Answer: C
121. If one member of a pair of identical twins develops schizophrenia, the other member has
about a ____ chance of also developing the disorder.
a. 10–17%
b. 29–33%
c. 48–83%
d. 100%
Answer: C
122. In non-twin siblings, what is the chance that if one has schizophrenia, the other will have
it also?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 100%
Answer: A
123. One of the strongest predictors of the likelihood that an individual will develop
schizophrenia is if:
a. an identical twin has schizophrenia
b. a fraternal twin has schizophrenia
c. a parent has schizophrenia
d. the person already suffers from major depression
Answer: A
124. A ____ refers to an identifiable gene or number of genes or a specific segment of a
chromosome that is directly linked to some trait or disease.
a. diathesis marker
b. predisposition
c. genetic marker
d. genetic landmark

Answer: C
125. When a pregnant mother has the flu, she is more likely to have a child who will develop:
a. a phobia
b. schizophrenia
c. depression
d. dissociative identity disorder
Answer: B
126. Recent research on genetic markers suggests that:
a. specific genes have been linked to schizophrenia
b. schizophrenia has no such marker
c. the neurotransmitter dopamine plays little if any role in schizophrenia
d. a disruption in a gene can cause neurons that are supposed to go to the hippocampus to go
Answer: D
127. Research on schizophrenia described in Module 23 suggests that a gene may be causing
an elevation of ____ in the ____ of the brain.
a. serotonin; ventricles
b. serotonin; hypothalamus
c. protein; prefrontal cortex
d. dopamine; amygdala
Answer: C
128. In comparison to normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia have (a) relatively larger:
a. ventricles
b. frontal lobe
c. receptors
d. corpus callosum
Answer: A
129. Which of the following structures of the brain may be abnormally larger in people
suffering from schizophrenia?
a. hypothalamus
b. medulla

c. thalamus
d. ventricles
Answer: D
130. What is the best argument that environmental factors play some role in schizophrenia?
a. The risk for development of schizophrenia in identical twins is less than 100%.
b. The risk for development of schizophrenia in fraternal twins is less than 100%.
c. Drug treatments are effective in reducing positive symptoms.
d. Schizophrenia appears to run in families.
Answer: A
131. Diathesis refers to a person’s:
a. balance of positive to negative symptoms
b. genetic predisposition
c. reactions to neuroleptic drugs
d. level of dopamine in the nervous system
Answer: B
132. Disorganized thinking in schizophrenia may be related to:
a. smaller than normal ventricles
b. over-activation of the prefrontal cortex
c. excessive neuron wiring
d. decreased prefrontal lobe activity
Answer: D
133. The current view on the development of schizophrenia is that it is primarily:
a. an inherited disorder
b. due to abnormal levels of neurotransmitters
c. a reaction to the stress of modern life
d. a combination of inherited predispositions that are triggered by environmental stress
Answer: D
134. The notion that schizophrenic persons have a genetic predisposition that interacts with
life stressors to cause the development of schizophrenia is called the:
a. diathesis stress theory of schizophrenia
b. dopamine theory of schizophrenia

c. concordance theory of schizophrenia
d. cognitive-behavior theory of schizophrenia
Answer: A
135. A patient with schizophrenia displays delusions, hallucinations, and very distorted
speech. These symptoms are examples of:
a. positive symptoms
b. negative symptoms
c. level 1 symptoms
d. level 2 symptoms
Answer: A
136. A patient with schizophrenia shows a loss of normal function, such as emotional
problems and decreased ability to express thoughts. These symptoms are examples of:
a. positive symptoms
b. negative symptoms
c. level 1 symptoms
d. level 2 symptoms
Answer: B
137. As Laura is preparing for the exam, she keeps in mind that positive symptoms of
schizophrenia refer to ____, while negative symptoms refer to ____.
a. environmental causes; biological causes
b. biological causes; environmental causes
c. loss of normal functions; distortion of normal functions
d. distortion of normal functions; loss of normal functions
Answer: D
138. If Dr. Beenken wishes to reduce the positive symptoms in her patients with
schizophrenia, she should prescribe:
a. dopamine
b. a benzodiazepine
c. a typical neuroleptic drug
d. lithium
Answer: C

139. William has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. His doctor wishes to reduce both the
positive and negative symptoms that William displays. What type of drug should be
prescribed for William?
a. Thorazine
b. haloperidol
c. lithium
d. an atypical neuroleptic drug
Answer: D
140. To reduce the level of dopamine activity so that hallucinations and delusions are
decreased, psychiatrists may prescribe:
a. lithium
b. benzodiazepines
c. antidepressants
d. typical antipsychotic drugs
Answer: D
141. Typical neuroleptic drugs work by:
a. increasing the level of dopamine
b. decreasing the level of dopamine
c. changing the genetic structure responsible for schizophrenia
d. increasing neural activity throughout the brain
Answer: B
142. During an internship at a mental health clinic, you hear a psychiatrist say, “We need to
put Mrs. Smith on a typical neuroleptic drug.” You know that this type of drug will:
a. alter the size of her ventricles in the brain
b. reduce serotonin activity in the nervous system
c. increase dopamine activity in the nervous system
d. reduce dopamine activity in the nervous system
Answer: D
143. ____ will likely reduce positive symptoms, but will probably have little or no effect on
negative symptoms.
a. Benzamides
b. Clozapine

c. Typical neuroleptic drugs
d. Atypical neuroleptic drugs
Answer: C
144. Kari has been prescribed a typical neuroleptic drug. What part of Kari’s brain will be
significantly affected by the drug?
a. corpus callosum
b. thalamus
c. basal ganglia
d. hypothalamus
Answer: C
145. Out of 100 patients with schizophrenia, about how many will not respond to typical
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
Answer: B
146. If Dr. Price wishes to reduce the serotonin in her patients with schizophrenia, she should
a. dopamine
b. an atypical neuroleptic drug
c. a typical neuroleptic drug
d. lithium
Answer: B
147. The atypical neuroleptic drugs have significant effects on:
a. dopamine and serotonin
b. acetylcholine and phenothiazines
c. benzamides and thorazine
d. butrophenones
Answer: A
148. Which statement is true of the use of antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia?

a. They do not provide support for the dopamine hypothesis.
b. They bring about a rapid cure for schizophrenics.
c. They make psychotherapy difficult, because the patient becomes confused.
d. They may produce serious long-term side effects.
Answer: D
149. A woman on a typical neuroleptic for schizophrenia for a long period of time is likely to
a. tardive dyskinesia
b. skin irritation in the sun
c. lower blood pressure
d. grogginess
Answer: A
150. A schizophrenic individual has taken phenothiazines for a long period of time and has
developed tardive dyskinesia. This side effect is manifested by:
a. extreme changes in mood
b. constant agitation
c. uncontrollable movements of the mouth, lips, and limbs
d. hallucinations and delusions
Answer: C
151. Dixon has been taking a phenothiazine since he was first diagnosed with schizophrenia
10 years ago. What are the chances that he will develop tardive dyskinesia?
a. 5% chance that he will
b. 25% chance that he will
c. 40% chance that he will
d. 65% chance that he will
Answer: C
152. In the long-run, the typical neuroleptics significantly helped about ____ of patients with
a. 5–15%
b. 20–30%
c. 50–60%
d. 80–90%

Answer: B
153. A patient, who has taken typical neuroleptic drugs for schizophrenia, develops tardive
dyskinesia. He is taken off the drug. What are the odds that he will continue to experience
tardive dyskinesia?
a. 5% chance that he will
b. 25% chance that he will
c. 50% chance that he will
d. 70% chance that he will
Answer: D
154. What advantage do the atypical neuroleptic drugs have over the typical neuroleptic
a. Only about 25% of patients on atypical neuroleptic drugs develop tardive dyskinesia.
b. Only about 5% of patients on atypical neuroleptic drugs develop tardive dyskinesia.
c. Only about 5% of patients on atypical neuroleptic drugs experience a loss of infectionfighting white blood cells.
d. Only about 5% of patients on atypical neuroleptic drugs develop seizures.
Answer: B
155. In attempting to develop new treatments for schizophrenia, researchers have recently
begun to examine drugs based on ______.
a. dopamine
b. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c. acetylcholine
d. glutamate
Answer: D
156. Why should typical neuroleptics be allowed to remain available to patients with
a. Health insurance covers them.
b. There are other less expensive drugs that are much more effective.
c. A significant portion of those patients receiving it show good improvement.
d. Up to 90% of patients who receive the drug are cured of schizophrenia.
Answer: C
157. A split or breakdown in a person’s normally integrated consciousness or identity is
indicative of a:

a. schizophrenic disorder
b. dissociative disorder
c. conversion disorder
d. depressive disorder
Answer: B
158. The case in your textbook of “Jeffrey Ingram,” the man who went missing three times,
a. dissociative fugue
b. dissociative amnesia
c. dissociative identity disorder
d. depersonalization disorder
Answer: A
159. Norm has been diagnosed with one of the dissociative disorders. Although we don’t
know the exact diagnosis, we can assume that Norm has experienced:
a. an irrational fear of an object or situation
b. fluctuations between episodes of mania and depression
c. disturbances of thought, attention, motor movements, and perceptions
d. some type of disruption in his consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
Answer: D
160. Jared suffered through dissociative amnesia. What does this mean?
a. He has enlarged ventricles.
b. His loss of personal information was due to some stressful event.
c. He suddenly left town and adopted a new identity.
d. He forgot some important personal information from drug addiction.
Answer: B
161. The disorder that involves an inability to recall personal information or events is called:
a. dissociative memory
b. dissociative fugue
c. dissociative amnesia
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
Answer: C

162. Following sexual abuse at the age of 15, Lynn forgets her name and identity, and runs
away from home, assuming a new identity. This is an example of:
a. dissociative amnesia
b. dissociative fugue
c. dissociative identity disorder
d. catatonic schizophrenia
Answer: B
163. To make a diagnosis of dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue:
a. the subject must be committed to a psychiatric hospital
b. the forgotten information must be at least 10 years old
c. physicians should rule out physical reasons for the loss of personal information
d. by law, psychologists must administer the Thematic Apperception Test to the subject
Answer: C
164. Which of the following disorders involves the presence of two or more distinct identities
or personality states?
a. depersonalization
b. dissociative identity
c. dissociative fugue
d. multiple trait
Answer: B
165. According to his therapist, why did Herschel Walker developed dissociative identity
a. to help him deal with unresolved unconscious conflicts
b. to help him deal with abuse and other challenges in his life
c. to be able to impress other people
d. it enabled him to gain sympathy from others
Answer: B
166. If you were to investigate the case studies of a number of people with dissociative
identity disorder, you would probably find that these people:
a. usually demonstrate personalities that are very different from each other
b. usually demonstrate only two personalities
c. are very aware at all times of the various personalities they have

d. often demonstrate personalities that all have a common trait, such as religious fervor
Answer: A
167. With regard to the number of worldwide cases of dissociative identity disorder:
a. it has remained relatively stable for the past 100 years
b. the United States has experienced a dramatic decrease compared to other countries
c. Japan is the only industrialized country that has seen an increase in the number of cases
d. an upsurge in the number of reported cases has been seen in the last 30 years
Answer: D
168. Before 1970, how many worldwide cases of dissociative identity disorder were
a. 36
b. 109
c. 589
d. 12,562
Answer: A
169. Which of the following cases is most typical of dissociative identity disorder?
a. DeeDee—she has a history of generalized anxiety disorder
b. Ralph—the father of three children
c. Hope—she has had a number of chronic psychiatric problems before the diagnosis and a
history of being abused as a child
d. Harvey—he was sentenced to life for first-degree murder
Answer: C
170. According to one perspective, people develop dissociative identity disorder:
a. rapidly, in a matter of seconds, following trauma
b. as a way to cope and defend against the trauma of abuse
c. to create cognitive dissonance
d. only in childhood
Answer: B
171. You are conducting research on dissociative identity disorder. You have reviewed many,
many cases of the disorder. You note a strong commonality among those women with
dissociative identity disorder. What is it?
a. They come from middle- to upper-class families.

b. They were the middle child.
c. They dropped out of high school.
d. They were physically or sexually abused during childhood.
Answer: D
172. Treatment of dissociative identity disorder involves:
a. integration of the various personalities into one unified self
b. ECT
c. age regression therapy
d. atypical neuroleptic drugs
Answer: A
173. Among patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, what factor was associated
with the greatest improvement after two years of therapy?
a. the degree to which the different selves were integrated
b. the type of drug used
c. how many dreams of the different selves were analyzed
d. the frequency of ECT sessions
Answer: A
174. Latah, Bibloqtoq, Windigo, and Koro illustrate the role of ____ in mental disorders.
a. culture
b. disease
c. diet
d. formal education
Answer: A
175. A mental disorder found in places like Greenland that is characterized by an urge to go
outside in cold weather and take one’s clothes off is called _____.
a. Latah
b. Bibloqtoq
c. Koro
d. Susto
Answer: B

176. There is a mental disorder found in Malaysia called Koro. This disorder involves fear of
one’s ____ retracting into the body.
a. finger
b. penis
c. nose
d. ear
Answer: B
177. A cultural variable that may explain the differences in the percentages of men and
women reporting depression is:
a. educational opportunities
b. fear of failure
c. gender roles
d. the use of sexist language
Answer: C
178. The stereotypic gender role for women may be related to an increased risk for
depression because:
a. the roles stress independence and assertiveness
b. women are more likely to be the head of single-parent families
c. the roles reinforce dependence, not having control, and being helpless
d. women are taught to be tough, forceful, and to demand loyalty
Answer: C
179. Toni has been in a bad mood for two weeks, having no interest in anything, problems
with sleep, and difficulty with concentrating. Toni also doesn’t like doing activities that she
used to find fun. Toni most likely has:
a. major depression disorder
b. seasonal affective disorder
c. dysthymic disorder
d. cyclothymic disorder
Answer: A
180. In the study on the effects of exercise on depression, which of the following was not a
level of treatment?
a. 30 minutes of exercise

b. taking an antidepressant
c. meditation
d. a combination of exercise and taking an antidepressant
Answer: C
181. Based on the study on the effects of exercise, what would be the most effective
treatment for depression?
a. reducing carbohydrates from one’s diet
b. exercise
c. an antidepressant
d. There were no significant differences between the treatments.
Answer: D
182. In the study that examined the effectiveness of exercise and drugs on depression, which
group experienced the least relapse?
a. exercise
b. antidepressant
c. exercise and antidepressant
d. meditation
Answer: A
183. As a person who struggles with depression, Lilah often goes out for a walk. She notices
that her mood improves. Based on research cited in Module 23, for how long is Lilah’s mood
a. as long as 12 hours
b. about a day
c. several days
d. about one week
Answer: A
184. According to some researchers, the mild depression often experienced by college
students is:
a. likely to last for less than a month
b. related more to meeting the expectations of other people than the student’s own
c. related more to general distress than major depression

d. likely to be eliminated with time management training
Answer: C
185. One of the factors that increase a college student’s vulnerability for developing
depression is negative life events. What is another risk factor?
a. a predisposition to internalize criticism
b. poor social skills
c. unrealistically high expectations for academic performance
d. facing new challenges and threatening situations, events, and feelings
Answer: D
186. Because depression is experienced differently by different people, depression as a
disorder is best understood as a(n):
a. disease
b. continuum
c. temporary setback
d. challenge
Answer: B
187. In addition to challenges and negative life events, what is a third factor that increases
depression among college students?
a. hormones
b. the transition into adulthood
c. peer relationships
d. pattern of thinking
Answer: D
188. If you were to randomly select 100 college students, how many would say they’ve been
depressed to the point that they had difficulty functioning?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
Answer: C
189. Beck argues that depression results from:
a. negative thoughts that distort our perceptions and interpretations

b. a chemical imbalance in the brain
c. unresolved conflicts between people
d. unresolved unconscious conflicts regarding inappropriate sexual desires
Answer: A
190. “Everything I touch I ruin. I am good at nothing. I am an utter failure.” This person has
failed to consider the successes in her life and all the good things that have happened to her.
From Aaron Beck’s perspective, this person’s thinking best represents:
a. repression
b. sublimation
c. selective attention
d. neologism
Answer: C
191. A therapist tells a mildly depressed individual to work on identifying her negative,
maladaptive thoughts if she wishes to feel better. This therapist’s approach is most associated
a. Freud’s psychoanalysis
b. Beck’s cognitive theory of depression
c. Rogers’ client-centered therapy
d. a medical approach
Answer: B
192. A goal in working with a mildly depressed individual would be to:
a. learn to prevent unconscious thoughts from entering consciousness
b. learn how to relax by reducing physical activity
c. focus on increasing negative thoughts, because these are more realistic than positive
d. break the cycle of being depressed, because of poor social skills and others not wishing to
be around this individual
Answer: D
193. Depressed people often elicit negative reactions from people. Therefore, one solution
presented in the textbook is to:
a. ask a psychiatrist for an antidepressant
b. remind other people that depression can alter one’s behavior

c. replace negative thoughts with positive thoughts of accomplishment, so that his/her selfesteem increases making him/her more attractive to others
d. inform those individuals of the depression
Answer: C
194. Besides committing murder, Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Rader have what characteristic
in common?
a. superficially charming and self-centered
b. suffering from schizophrenia and depression
c. high self-esteem
d. high autonomic arousal
Answer: A
195. In an ironic twist, psychopaths:
a. experience high stress when exposed to stress
b. can be successfully treated as long as they are identified and helped in early childhood
c. have high self-esteem
d. can love family members
Answer: D
196. In the brains of many psychopaths, there is a disruption in the communication between
the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, which leads to:
a. hallucinations
b. lack of control
c. high autonomic arousal
d. problems with recalling personal information
Answer: B
1. Schizophrenia involves fluctuations of depression and mania.
Answer: False
2. Electrically stimulating the brain can reduce activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.
Answer: True
3. Dysthymic disorder refers to a mood disorder where the person feels “down in the dumps.”
Answer: True

4. Monoamines are neurotransmitters involved in mood disorders.
Answer: True
5. Many patients with bipolar disorder stop taking their medication, which can lead to a reemergence of their symptoms.
Answer: True
6. Electroconvulsive therapy is considered a last-resort treatment for schizophrenia.
Answer: False
7. Antisocial personality disorder tends to be very responsive to treatment.
Answer: False
8. People with antisocial personality disorder show no signs of remorse.
Answer: True
9. Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by periods of wild excitement and immobility.
Answer: True
10. Type I schizophrenia includes having negative symptoms.
Answer: False
11. There appears to be a strong genetic basis to schizophrenia.
Answer: True
12. The diathesis stress theory illustrates the primary role that genetics play in schizophrenia.
Answer: False
13. Schizophrenia is associated with an increased size of the ventricles in the brain.
Answer: True
14. One positive symptom of schizophrenia is distorted thinking.
Answer: True
15. Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of treating schizophrenia with typical neuroleptics.
Answer: True
16. In comparison to typical narcoleptics, atypical narcoleptics are usually considered more
effective in reducing negative symptoms.
Answer: True
17. The dissociative disorders involve hallucinations and delusions.
Answer: False
18. In dissociative amnesia, the individual travels away from home.

Answer: False
19. A common factor in many cases of dissociative identity disorder is childhood abuse.
Answer: True
20. Culture has little influence on mental disorders.
Answer: False
21. Beck’s treatment of depression is based on the idea that depression is related to serotonin.
Answer: False
22. Psychopaths have higher autonomic arousal.
Answer: False
23. People with psychopathy, like Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Rader, are incapable of loving
their family members.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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