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Module 18—Adolescence and Adulthood
1. The time of life characterized by many biological, personality, cognitive, social, and
personality trait changes between the ages of 12 and 18 is called:
a. adolescence
b. senesce
c. transition
d. matriculation
Answer: A
2. Researchers now believe that most adolescents:
a. experience great psychological turmoil
b. successfully negotiate their teenage years
c. have many emotional problems
d. pass on to postconventional moral development
Answer: B
3. A new television show depicting an adolescent and his relationships with his family is
described as being life-like. The program displays the adolescent as having a poor sense of
self, aloof relationships with family members, and emotional problems. Being the welleducated psychology student that you are, your reaction to this program is that:
a. most adolescents have a good sense of identity, but that their relationships with family tend
to be poor
b. adolescence is the worst time in life, and this program describes it well
c. it does not portray the majority of teenagers
d. it does portray the majority of teenagers
Answer: C
4. Which statement most accurately describes the typical relationship between an adolescent
and her family?
a. Adolescents do not get along with their families, especially their parents.
b. Adolescents do not get along with their families, especially younger siblings.
c. Adolescents maintain close relationships with their families.
d. Most adolescents have distant relationships with their parents and siblings.
Answer: C

5. Puberty refers to:
a. the onset of formal operational thinking in adolescence
b. conventional moral development during adolescence
c. chronically low self-esteem, which occurs in adolescence
d. the biological changes that happen at the start of adolescence
Answer: D
6. After returning from summer vacation, Phil notices that his teenage neighbor, Alexander,
has begun to shave and his voice has become slightly deeper. Phil concludes that these
changes are most likely due to:
a. puberty
b. Turner’s syndrome
c. increased secretion of progesterone
d. increased secretion of estrogen
Answer: A
7. There is a sex difference between males and females as to when the biological changes of
puberty typically occur. Females typically experience the changes between ages ____ and
males between ages ____.
a. 9 and 13; 10 and 14
b. 10 and 14; 9 and 13
c. 7 and 9; 9 and 13
d. 13 and 16; 10 and 13
Answer: A
8. In girls, the growth spurt usually begins about ____ before the onset of breast
a. 1 month
b. 1–2 months
c. 3–6 months
d. 6–12 months
Answer: D
9. Kelley began menstruating when she was 12. This beginning is called:
a. menarche
b. estrogen

c. menopause
d. periodicity
Answer: A
10. The first menstrual period is menarche and is triggered by the:
a. limbic system
b. thymus
c. hypothalamus
d. hippocampus
Answer: C
11. What is the correct order of events for the ovaries to produce female hormones?
a. The hypothalamus releases kisspeptin, which stimulates the pituitary gland to stimulate the
ovaries to increase the production of female hormones.
b. The ovaries release kisspeptin, which stimulates the hypothalamus to produce female
c. The pituitary gland releases kisspeptin, which stimulates the hypothalamus to produce
female hormones.
d. The ovaries stimulate the thalamus to produce kisspeptin, which stimulates the pituitary
gland. This, in turn, stimulates the hypothalamus to produce female hormones.
Answer: A
12. The pituitary is stimulated to produce hormones by the:
a. brainstem
b. ovaries or testes
c. hormone kisspeptin
d. cerebral cortex
Answer: C
13. Sharon wonders what changes will occur in her daughter Nicole when she reaches
puberty. Of the following, Sharon can expect that Nicole will experience:
a. reduction in the size of the pituitary gland
b. an increase in the production of estrogen
c. subconscious homosexual tendencies
d. increased blood flow to the vagina
Answer: B

14. The most important hormone in the development of female sexual characteristics is:
a. estrogen
b. progesterone
c. testosterone
d. luteinizing hormone
Answer: A
15. The onset of secondary sex characteristics in girls begins at about:
a. 10 years
b. 10.5 years
c. 11 years
d. 11.5 years
Answer: B
16. Meg is an early maturing girl and has encountered some psychological problems. What
does the textbook offer as an explanation for Meg’s psychological problems?
a. She does not perceive herself to be attractive.
b. Her parents simply have not accepted the fact that she is growing up.
c. Her estrogen levels are too high, but will decrease once she becomes 15 or 16 years old.
d. She has not yet acquired adult personality traits and social skills.
Answer: D
17. In boys, the physical growth spurt begins at about ____ years old.
a. 10–11
b. 11–12
c. 13–14
d. 15–16
Answer: C
18. The production of sperm is triggered by the ____, which stimulates the ____.
a. hypothalamus; pituitary gland
b. pituitary gland; hypothalamus
c. testes; hypothalamus
d. testes; pituitary gland
Answer: A

19. Cal is anxious to grow in height so that he can be a better basketball player. He is 10 years
old. According to the average growth spurt, how much longer will Cal have to wait?
a. 1 year
b. 3 years
c. 6 years
d. 7 years
Answer: B
20. Stanley is 14 and has yet to reach puberty. When he does, we can expect he will
a. an increase in the production of testosterone
b. a reduction in the size of the pituitary gland
c. subconscious homosexual tendencies
d. reduced blood flow to the penis
Answer: A
21. The most important hormone in the development of male sexual characteristics is:
a. estrogen
b. progesterone
c. testosterone
d. luteinizing hormone
Answer: C
22. Which of the following is an example of a male secondary sex characteristic?
a. production of estrogen
b. the voice change
c. production of testosterone
d. production of sperm
Answer: B
23. Early-maturing boys have been found to have all of the following characteristics except:
a. greater dependence on parents
b. higher regard by peers
c. greater confidence
d. greater social responsibility

Answer: A
24. Which of the following is generally found in late-maturing boys?
a. a sense of social responsibility
b. a general feeling of relaxation
c. greater popularity with peers
d. a lack of self-confidence
Answer: D
25. Larry reached puberty at a relatively early age. Brent, on the other hand, matured late. It
is likely that as a result of this difference:
a. Larry would be more self-confident than Brent during adolescence
b. Brent would be more self-confident than Larry during adolescence
c. Larry’s advantages would be maintained throughout adulthood
d. Larry would be less socially responsible than Brent
Answer: A
26. Bobby doesn’t go through puberty until age 16. We can expect that compared to other
boys his age, he will likely:
a. be more confident
b. have less self-esteem
c. feel less anxious
d. be more socially responsible
Answer: B
27. A sixth-grade teacher has some girls and boys who have reached puberty quite early.
According to research, the girls and boys would:
a. differ in that the girls would benefit psychologically from their early maturation, whereas
the boys would tend to suffer
b. differ in that the boys would benefit psychologically from their early maturation, whereas
the girls would tend to suffer
c. both benefit psychologically from their early maturation
d. both suffer psychologically from their early maturation
Answer: B
28. Studies that followed early and late maturers into adulthood have found:
a. the differences between early- and late-maturing boys and girls increase with age

b. the differences between early- and late-maturing boys increase with age, while the
differences between early- and late-maturing girls decrease with age
c. the differences between early- and late-maturing girls increase with age, while the
differences between early- and late-maturing boys decrease with age
d. the differences between early- and late-maturing boys and early- and late-maturing girls
both decrease with age
Answer: D
29. According to a survey on sexual activity among teenage girls, most teenagers have their
first sexual encounter:
a. earlier than what they consider to be the right time
b. later than what they consider to be the right time
c. close to what they consider to be the right time
d. using contraceptives
Answer: A
30. Which of the following is not among the reasons why teenagers have sex, according to a
survey cited in your textbook?
a. physically attracted to their partner
b. wanted to become pregnant so they would have someone to love
c. curiosity
d. knew that their friends were having sex
Answer: B
31. Your textbook describes a model which views adolescent development as a process that
involves sexual, cognitive, social, and personality changes which all influence each other.
This model is called the:
a. Psychosocial model
b. Psychosexual model
c. BioPsychoSocial model
d. Cognitive Learning model
Answer: C
32. According to the BioPsychoSocial model, sexuality:
a. must be discussed in the context of the cognitive, personality, and emotional changes of the
b. is purely biological

c. in adolescents is decreasing, because of the number of messages stressing abstinence
d. among teenagers is decreasing, since more is known about AIDS
Answer: A
33. A new sex education class discusses sexuality in the context of cognitive, personality, and
social changes. The class emphasizes the ____ model.
a. Kohlberg’s
b. social role
c. psychodynamic
d. BioPsychoSocial
Answer: D
34. Of the following ages, which one is the median age for first intercourse among girls?
a. 15.6
b. 16.1
c. 17.4
d. 18.3
Answer: C
35. How do most psychologists view adolescence?
a. as a time of long-lasting stress
b. adolescence is viewed as the most important time of life
c. this is a period of life where the individual has the poorest relationships to authority figures
d. a time for potential growth
Answer: D
36. The changes in your perception, thinking, and understanding of the world through
learning and genetic factors are called:
a. cognitive development
b. formal operations
c. operational development
d. postconventional moral reasoning
Answer: A
37. The stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development that starts in adolescence and goes
through adulthood is:

a. postconventional
b. accommodation
c. preconventional
d. formal operations
Answer: D
38. Formal operational thought is characterized by:
a. the ability to solve abstract problems
b. feelings of high self-esteem
c. conservation abilities
d. postconventional moral reasoning
Answer: A
39. Peter is about to enter formal operations, while his younger brother Bobby is in an earlier
stage of development. What will Bobby notice about his brother?
a. a lack of egocentric thinking
b. more sophisticated conversations of abstract and hypothetical concepts
c. care orientation
d. postconventional moral reasoning
Answer: B
40. Formal operations allow teenagers to:
a. critically consider their beliefs, attitudes, values, and a wide range of topics
b. become able to plan for their future
c. think independently of what others think
d. think rationally, without emotion clouding their reasoning
Answer: A
41. At the mall you overhear several 16-year-olds talk about how a friend is having a big
party with alcohol when their parents are gone for the weekend. You marvel at their
immaturity and wonder how anyone could be that “stupid.” What part of the adolescent’s
brain is still not fully developed and would account for making decisions and planning?
a. reticular formation
b. prefrontal cortex
c. cerebellum
d. hypothalamus

Answer: B
42. Given a teenager’s ability to make executive decisions, which of the following
expressions is the most accurate?
a. a teenager is like a person who does comparison shopping, being analytical and careful
b. a teenage is like a dog with a big bark, but no bite
c. a teenage is a canoe up stream with no paddle
d. a teenager is like a car with a good accelerator but a weak break
Answer: D
43. You are watching a reality TV show that depicts a teenager and her family. In one
episode, the teen is irritable, cranky, and argumentative with her parents. Which brain area is
most responsible for this type of behavior?
a. cerebellum
b. limbic system
c. brainstem
d. corpus callosum
Answer: B
44. Rachel is always having arguments with her parents over seemingly trivial matters. Her
parents view her as moody and quick to lose her composure. According to the textbook,
Rachel’s moodiness is the result of:
a. sex hormones
b. peer pressure
c. her parents’ permissiveness
d. the stresses of school
Answer: A
45. Larry’s teenage daughter Kate is very moody and impulsive. As a psychologist, Larry
understands that Kate’s behavior is due to:
a. immature corpus callosum
b. immature hippocampus
c. growth in her limbic system
d. her postconventional thinking
Answer: C
46. What part of the brain is in the process of development in the adolescent and is believed
to be responsible for risk taking and other poor decisions?

a. prefrontal cortex
b. hypothalamus
c. thalamus
d. corpus callosum
Answer: A
47. As the module describes, adolescents take risks. Why?
a. The executive control areas are underdeveloped.
b. Conventional thinking limits their judgment.
c. Postconventional thinking limits their judgment.
d. The ability to think in abstractions limits their judgment.
Answer: A
48. Gladys is 15 years old. She has just moved to a new high school. Someone dared her to
get her nose pierced, and Gladys did. When asked why, she said that she just had to because
of the dare. What is the best neurological explanation for her impulsiveness?
a. immature corpus callosum
b. immature reticular formation
c. her postconventional thinking
d. growth in her limbic system
Answer: D
49. The prefrontal cortex acts as a(n):
a. executive manager
b. initiator of emotion
c. estimator of risk
d. relay switch for sensory messages
Answer: A
50. Mike, at age 15, rides a dirt bike without a helmet. This thinking illustrates that:
a. he has not yet figured out what a risk is
b. he is in postconventional thinking
c. his prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped
d. he thinks in a self-centered way
Answer: C

51. The study of moral development is most associated with the work of:
a. Piaget
b. Erikson
c. Freud
d. Kohlberg
Answer: D
52. Kohlberg studied moral reasoning through the use of:
a. moral dilemmas
b. conservation tasks
c. telephone surveys
d. observations of parent-adolescent interactions
Answer: A
53. The correct order of the stages of moral reasoning according to Kohlberg is:
a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional
b. preconversational, conversational, postconversational
c. sensorimotor, concrete, formal
d. primary, secondary, tertiary
Answer: A
54. Sharon does not take a cookie out of Mom’s cookie jar because she knows Mom will
punish her if she does. Sharon is operating at which of Kohlberg’s levels of moral
a. preconventional
b. conventional
c. postconventional
d. anticonventional
Answer: A
55. Should you break the speed limit? Someone from level 1 of moral reasoning would say:
a. no, because it is against the law
b. no, because you might get caught and punished
c. no, because your parents and teachers taught you to obey the limit
d. maybe, because it depends on the situation

Answer: B
56. A major difference between stage 1 and stage 2 of moral development is that stage 2
focuses on:
a. punishment
b. reward
c. avoiding being caught
d. making a good bargain
Answer: D
57. Robert is Italian. Although he wants to date Karen he does not, because his parents want
him to date only Italian girls and Karen is Irish. At which of Kohlberg’s stages does Robert
appear to be operating?
a. stage 2
b. stage 3
c. stage 4
d. stage 5
Answer: B
58. Phil is driving his wife, who is in labor, to the hospital. While his wife is about to deliver
a baby, she yells to Phil to drive faster. Phil refuses and says, “It is against the law to speed.”
Phil is probably at what stage of moral reasoning?
a. stage 1
b. stage 2
c. stage 4
d. stage 5
Answer: C
59. Phil is driving his wife, who is in labor, to the hospital. While his wife is about to deliver
a baby, she yells to Phil to drive faster. Phil does and is pulled over by the police. Phil yells to
the officer, “It is more important to get my wife to hospital than to obey this law.” Phil is
probably at what stage of moral reasoning?
a. stage 1
b. stage 3
c. stage 4
d. stage 5
Answer: D

60. Tracy has just received her driver’s license. If she is at the postconventional level of
moral reasoning, she will obey the speed limit because:
a. she knows she will get caught and fined by the police if she speeds
b. reckless driving could endanger the safety of people, and that would be wrong
c. she wants to be seen as responsible by her parents
d. society expects drivers to obey the law
Answer: B
61. Aaron is against abortion because he feels life is sacred in any form, and the taking of life
is morally wrong, despite the fact that the law allows abortion. Aaron is operating at which
level of moral development?
a. preconventional
b. conventional
c. anticonventional
d. postconventional
Answer: D
62. The highest level of moral reasoning according to Kohlberg is:
a. postconventional
b. conventional
c. postformal
d. formal
Answer: A
63. Which of the following is true of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning?
a. Four distinct levels of moral reasoning are identified.
b. Different people progress through the levels in different orders.
c. The conventional level is the highest level of moral reasoning.
d. Not all people reach the higher levels of moral development.
Answer: D
64. Based on Kohlberg’s research, which of the following is an accurate evaluation of his
a. People from different cultures progress through the stages in different orders.
b. Moral reasoning is not always reflected in actual moral behavior.
c. Surveys indicate that college students rarely engage in blatantly immoral behaviors.

d. His data were based on research with male and female subjects.
Answer: B
65. Which of the following has been mentioned as a criticism of Kohlberg’s research on
moral development?
a. The levels seem to occur only in America.
b. Controlled research studies do not support the theory.
c. Most studies do not support Kohlberg’s claim that the stages are organized in a hierarchy.
d. His work does not take into account possible sex differences.
Answer: D
66. Marian says that she thinks about how her moral decisions will affect her relationships.
This is characteristic of:
a. the postconventional level
b. a personal orientation
c. the conventional level
d. a care orientation
Answer: D
67. “We ought to make the right decisions based on how those decisions will impact others.”
This person has a(n) ____ orientation.
a. care
b. relative
c. justice
d. externalizing
Answer: A
68. Gilligan pointed out that, in making moral decisions, the male subjects in Kohlberg’s
studies relied more on a:
a. justice orientation
b. conventional level
c. care orientation
d. postconventional level
Answer: A
69. Carol Gilligan’s theory of moral development suggested that in making moral decisions,
women generally adopt a(n):

a. care orientation
b. relative orientation
c. justice orientation
d. other orientation
Answer: A
70. A politician is running for office. He says that he will support the law, equality, and
individual rights. Carol Gilligan would say that the politician has a(n) ____ orientation.
a. care
b. relative
c. justice
d. other
Answer: C
71. Impersonal moral decisions is to memory as personal moral decisions is to:
a. retrieval
b. emotion
c. justice
d. care
Answer: B
72. “I found a 10 dollar bill on the sidewalk and I kept it.” This illustrates a(n):
a. personal moral decision
b. relative orientation
c. justice orientation
d. impersonal moral decision
Answer: D
73. Individuals who had damage to their prefrontal cortex in infancy:
a. show language deficits in adulthood
b. tend to have a justice orientation in adulthood
c. tend to have a care orientation in adulthood
d. have difficulty learning social and moral rules in childhood and adolescence
Answer: D

74. A series of longitudinal studies of how different styles of parenting affect adolescent
development was conducted by:
a. Jean Piaget
b. Diana Baumrind
c. Carol Gilligan
d. Lawrence Kohlberg
Answer: B
75. Which of the following is not among the styles of parenting discussed in this module?
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. permissive
d. congenial
Answer: D
76. “My dad sets the rules and that’s it. There are no ifs, ands, or buts about it!” This parent
has a(n) ____ style.
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. disciplinarian
d. congenial
Answer: A
77. Theresa says that her parents are supportive and loving. In her family, rules are openly
discussed, and there is frequent give-and-take. It sounds as though Theresa’s parents are:
a. permissive
b. authoritative
c. authoritarian
d. overprotective
Answer: B
78. A parent who is supportive, loving, and encourages verbal give and take has a(n) ____
style of parenting.
a. permissive
b. overprotective
c. laissez-faire

d. authoritative
Answer: D
79. Authoritative parents:
a. use harsh punishment to enforce rules
b. are less controlling and accept their children’s actions
c. direct their children in logical and rational ways
d. make few demands and use reason rather than power
Answer: C
80. Boys and girls with ____ parents tend to be less achievement oriented.
a. authoritative
b. authoritarian
c. overprotective
d. permissive
Answer: D
81. “Hey dude. How’s it going? I can’t believe your mom and dad won’t let you go the party.
My folks ... they let me do anything I want to. They’re awesome.” This person’s parents have
a(n) ____ style of parenting.
a. authoritative
b. nondirective
c. overprotective
d. permissive
Answer: D
82. Compared to authoritarian and permissive parents, authoritative parents tend to have
adolescents who:
a. have more autonomy and greater self-esteem
b. have fewer behavioral problems
c. are more competent
d. are more conforming
Answer: C
83. “My parents talk to me about why we have family rules and why I have a curfew.” This
teenager’s parents are most likely to have the ____ style of parenting.
a. authoritative

b. permissive
c. authoritarian
d. stable
Answer: A
84. According to your textbook, what type of parenting tends to produce children who have
lower self-esteem?
a. dominating
b. authoritarian
c. authoritative
d. permissive
Answer: B
85. Twenty-year-old Miranda is friendly, cooperative, and has done very well in school.
Based on Module 18, what type of style would you expect to observe in her parents?
a. dominating
b. authoritarian
c. authoritative
d. permissive
Answer: C
86. Recent research suggests that ____ may have the strongest influence on our development.
a. parents
b. siblings
c. schools
d. peers
Answer: B
87. The way in which adolescents describe their values, goals, interests, and motivations is
a. self-esteem
b. menarche
c. a care orientation
d. personal identity
Answer: D

88. How much we like and value ourselves is referred to as:
a. identity
b. egocentric thought
c. self-esteem
d. conventional moral reasoning
Answer: C
89. What are the two factors that greatly influence self-esteem in adolescents?
a. their athleticism and social competence
b. their physical attractiveness and social competence
c. their clothes and cars
d. their personality and social competence
Answer: B
90. Zoann doesn’t like herself. She doesn’t feel competent or attractive. Zoann has low:
a. self-esteem
b. self-efficacy
c. self-concept
d. identity
Answer: A
91. You attend a workshop on adolescent development. The speaker says that most
adolescents have low self-esteem and we need to take drastic steps to boost their self-esteem.
Was the speaker correct? Do most adolescents have low self-esteem?
a. No—60% have high self-esteem
b. No—90% have high self-esteem
c. Yes—15% have high self-esteem
d. Yes—5% have high self-esteem
Answer: A
92. The majority of adolescents:
a. experience reversals in self-esteem
b. have chronically low self-esteem
c. show dramatic gains in self-esteem
d. maintain a strong sense of self-esteem

Answer: D
93. Which of the following is hypothesized to be a reason for reversals in self-esteem among
a. sexual behavior without contraception
b. changes in peer groups, attractiveness, or parental relationships
c. early development of secondary sex characteristics
d. egocentric thinking
Answer: B
94. About ____ of adolescents have high self-esteem, and about ____ have chronically low
a. 50%; 30%
b. 15%; 60%
c. 60%; 15%
d. 30%; 50%
Answer: C
95. “I’ve noticed a change in William,” says Rolanda. “Yeah, he used to be confident and
outgoing, and now he’s just the opposite,” replies Felicia. William appears to have
a. a reversal in role generativity
b. a reversal in self-esteem
c. a reversal in self-efficacy
d. role diffusion
Answer: B
96. In generally, high self-esteem is associated with ____, and low self-esteem is associated
with ____.
a. negative outcomes; positive outcomes
b. positive outcomes; neutral outcomes
c. positive outcomes; negative outcomes
d. positive outcomes; positive outcomes
Answer: C
97. In general, what do today’s teenagers think of themselves?
a. they think of themselves poorly

b. they think that they will achieve extraordinary success
c. they think that they will achieve some success, but mostly failure
d. they think that they will achieve moderate success
Answer: B
98. What happens in each of Erikson’s eight stages?
a. growth in moral reasoning
b. advancement in cognitive reasoning
c. sexual pleasure moves from one body area to another
d. a unique psychosocial conflict
Answer: D
99. Betsy, age 17, runs away from home and joins the circus. According to Erikson, she is
most likely experiencing which psychosocial conflict?
a. generativity vs. stagnation
b. integrity vs. despair
c. intimacy vs. isolation
d. identity vs. role confusion
Answer: D
100. According to Erikson, an adolescent who fails to develop more purposeful, responsible,
adult-like behaviors will experience:
a. role confusion
b. egocentric thinking
c. a justice orientation
d. postconventional moral reasoning
Answer: A
101. According to Erikson, an individual who successfully resolves the conflict during
adolescence will achieve a sense of:
a. identity
b. intimacy
c. generativity
d. integrity
Answer: A

102. Erikson’s psychosocial stage, which corresponds to young adulthood, is called:
a. generativity versus stagnation
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. industry versus inferiority
d. integrity versus despair
Answer: B
103. While most of his friends have steady girlfriends, Gilbert doesn’t date anyone while he
is in graduate school. According to Erikson, Gilbert is having a negative resolution of which
a. integrity vs. despair
b. intimacy vs. isolation
c. generativity vs. stagnation
d. identity vs. role confusion
Answer: B
104. Erikson believed that people in middle adulthood could achieve generativity through:
a. personal success
b. developing a healthy identity
c. industrious behavior
d. raising their own children
Answer: D
105. Although Richard maintains a close relationship with his nieces and nephews, he has no
children of his own. According to Erikson, Richard will likely develop:
a. stagnation
b. generativity
c. isolation
d. despair
Answer: B
106. In order to achieve integrity during late adulthood, Erikson argues that one must:
a. find intimacy in caring relationships
b. raise children
c. feel content about past accomplishments

d. continue to be industrious and refuse to retire from work
Answer: C
107. Len’s grandmother feels she has wasted her life and wishes she had pursued a career as a
teacher rather than being a housewife. According to Erikson, Len’s grandmother is
a. role conflict
b. isolation
c. stagnation
d. despair
Answer: D
108. The positive resolution of the conflict of old age as described by Erikson is known as:
a. integrity
b. generativity
c. intimacy
d. identity
Answer: A
109. Personality changes seen from the end of adolescence through middle adulthood involve
a. less authoritative
b. more trusting and intimate
c. more introverted
d. less tolerant
Answer: B
110. Gender roles refer to:
a. the belief that one is male or female
b. one’s biological sex
c. behaving in expected ways because one is male or female
d. a preference for desired traits in opposite-sex partners
Answer: C
111. Joy is an auto mechanic. People describe her as strong, aggressive, and independent. Joy
behaves in ways which are contrary to:
a. androgyny

b. her gender role
c. her biological sex
d. a care orientation
Answer: B
112. College students were asked to describe the traits of a typical female and typical male.
Their descriptions:
a. were very similar to traditional, stereotypic gender roles
b. were very different from traditional, stereotypic gender roles
c. were very similar to the traditional gender role for males, but not for females
d. were very similar to the traditional gender role for females, but not for males
Answer: A
113. Which trait does not match the traditional stereotypic gender role of females?
a. concern
b. nurturing
c. sensitive
d. dominant
Answer: D
114. A magazine is publishing an article about recent trends in gender roles. What is the most
accurate title for the article, based on recent research?
a. “Most Agree: Women Should Stay at Home”
b. “More Fathers Focused on Career than Family”
c. “Shifts in Gender Roles Appearing in Early Adulthood”
d. “Traditional Gender Roles Becoming Less Important”
Answer: D
115. Which father is most descriptive of today’s gender role for men?
a. Rick; he plays an active and involved role with his children
b. Derrick; he goes to work and spends a limited amount of time with his children
c. Reggie; he thinks the children need to spend more time with their mother
d. Jack; he thinks children should be primarily raised by their siblings
Answer: A

116. If you argue that men need to be dominant and women need to be caring for survival,
then you are arguing for the:
a. cognitive developmental theory
b. psychosexual theory
c. evolutionary theory
d. social role theory
Answer: C
117. Gender differences are based upon traditional divisions of labor according to the:
a. cognitive developmental theory
b. psychosexual theory
c. evolutionary theory
d. social role theory
Answer: D
118. According to evolutionary theory, men increase their chances for reproduction by being:
a. dominant
b. caring
c. sensitive
d. nurturing
Answer: A
119. According to evolutionary theory, women increase their chances for reproduction by
a. controlling
b. dominant
c. caring
d. aggressive
Answer: C
120. Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of love divides love into three components:
a. masculine, feminine, and androgynous
b. infatuation, attraction, and arousal
c. passion, intimacy, and commitment
d. companionship, romance, and fidelity

Answer: C
121. Georgia thinks her classmate Tony is a “real hunk” and hopes he asks her out on a date.
According to Sternberg’s theory of love, she is experiencing:
a. intimacy
b. activation
c. initiation
d. passion
Answer: D
122. Feeling close or connected to someone is characteristic of which component of
Sternberg’s theory of love?
a. compassion
b. commitment
c. intimacy
d. passion
Answer: C
123. Paul is surprised when Marie tells him that she and Gerry are getting engaged and will
be married in January. Paul is surprised because he hadn’t realized that the relationship had
reached the ____ component of Sternberg’s theory of love.
a. compassion
b. commitment
c. intimacy
d. passion
Answer: B
124. All of the following are components of Sternberg’s triangular theory of love except:
a. compassion
b. commitment
c. intimacy
d. passion
Answer: A
125. Rhonda goes to the beach, sees Hud the lifeguard for the first time, and says to her
friend Catherine, “I think I’m in love with that hunk.” Robert Sternberg would characterize
Rhonda’s feelings about Hud as ____ love.

a. romantic
b. Hollywood
c. companionate
d. infatuated
Answer: D
126. According to Robert Sternberg, Hollywood love results from a combination of:
a. passion and commitment without intimacy
b. passion and intimacy with affection
c. intimacy and passion without commitment
d. intimacy and commitment without passion
Answer: A
127. Gladys still feels very much in love with Elmer after 30 years of marriage, even though
they only have sexual intercourse on their anniversary day and Elmer’s birthday. Her feelings
toward Elmer are best characterized as ____ love.
a. romantic
b. Hollywood
c. intimate
d. companionate
Answer: D
128. According to Robert Sternberg, the combination of intimacy and passion without any
commitment is characteristic of ____ love.
a. romantic
b. Hollywood
c. companionate
d. infatuated
Answer: A
129. Which of the following is the best example of Sternberg’s “romantic love”?
a. a marriage that last 50 years
b. a “one-night stand” between people who meet in a bar
c. a 10-week affair between students attending a summer seminar
d. an engagement that occurs a month after a couple meets

Answer: C
130. With regard to the areas of the brain activated, what is the difference between infatuated
love and committed love?
a. Infatuated love activates the emotion areas while committed love activates the
reward/pleasure center.
b. Infatuated love activates the reward/pleasure center; committed love activates the emotion
c. Infatuated love stimulates the prefrontal cortex, but committed love activates the thalamus.
d. Infatuated love activates the thalamus, and committed love stimulates the emotion areas.
Answer: B
131. Rob and Janel have been happily married for 25 years. Based on scans of their brains,
we would find that they have:
a. more calmness than anxiety about their love
b. increased anxiety about the marriage breaking up
c. more activity in areas of the brain that are involved in pleasure
d. more activity in areas of the brain that are involved in negative emotion
Answer: A
132. Dan and Katelyn, both 17 years old, are experiencing infatuated loved for each other.
Would what brain scans reveal?
a. their reward/pleasure centers are activated; those that are involved in reason and judgment
show reduced activity
b. brain areas involved in emotion are highly activated
c. increased activation in cerebral cortex
d. decreased activation of the reward/pleasure centers and more activation in the areas that
govern negative emotion
Answer: A
133. Jocelyn and Jed recently got married, and their new marriage reflects committed love.
Brain scans would reveal activation in:
a. areas associated with pleasure
b. areas associated with emotion
c. areas associated with calmness
d. areas associated with language
Answer: B

134. Most people choose a partner for a long-term relationship by finding someone who:
a. has good earning potential
b. is physically attractive
c. has similar values
d. matches our ideal-partner schema
Answer: D
135. Tom and Cathy are college students who have begun thinking about marriage. In
selecting his potential wife, Tom is likely to be more concerned about his future mate’s ____
than Cathy is concerned about it in her potential future mate.
a. intelligence
b. physical attractiveness
c. earning capacity
d. creativity
Answer: B
136. The two variables that males and females place different weights on in their idealpartner schema are:
a. intelligence and height
b. education level and physical attractiveness
c. physical attractiveness and good earning capacity
d. social skill and good earning capacity
Answer: C
137. What do researchers believe is the main reason for the increase in the number of
unmarried couples living together?
a. high housing costs
b. wanting to spend more time together
c. experiencing a “test marriage” to see if they are compatible
d. intimacy without commitment is appealing to some
Answer: B
138. Which of the following characteristics do subjects consider the most desirable in a
potential mate?
a. intelligence
b. exciting personality

c. physical attractiveness
d. kindness and understanding
Answer: D
139. Karen and Pete want to live together. The most important reason they give is to “test the
waters” and to see if they are compatible. Does the research support this as the most
important reason for cohabitation?
a. no; the most important reason is to spend more time with each other
b. no; research has found the most important reason is that it is cheaper to live together
c. yes; the issue of compatibility is the most important reason
d. for males it is the most important reason; for females it is a matter of economics
Answer: A
140. Research has indicated that in marriages that fail, couples deal with marital conflict by:
a. venting their anger and frustration
b. confronting disagreements in an open way
c. being straightforward about their problems
d. criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling
Answer: D
141. Your grandfather and grandmother, who have been married 60 years, are giving you
advice for a happy marriage. Their advice is consistent with the results of a study of happy
marriages presented in your textbook. The piece of advice is:
a. “Show how angry you are so you are taken seriously.”
b. “Try to see the other person’s point of view—that way you feel sympathy.”
c. “Stay calm so you’re able to sit down and talk things through.”
d. “When fighting, always repeat your position several times in different ways.”
Answer: C
142. In Gottman’s Love Lab, what responses are being measured?
a. pupil size, facial, and perspiration responses
b. facial and physiological responses
c. alpha brain waves and facial responses
d. breathing, heart rate, and perspiration responses
Answer: B
143. Which husband is most likely to have a happy marriage?

a. Paul—he expects his wife to understand that he works long hours at the shop
b. Nick—he makes sure that his wife knows his expectations
c. Mark—he always finds something reasonable in the advice given to him by his wife
d. Michael—he tries to repeat what his wife says in his own words to show that he is paying
Answer: C
144. Which wife is most likely to have a happy marriage?
a. Pauline—she expects her husband to provide for the family
b. Nicole—she lays down her expectations for her husband in a clear way
c. Mary—she expresses complaints constructively so that they don’t come across as attacks
d. Michelle—she tries to repeat what her husband says in her own words to show that she is
paying attention
Answer: C
145. Cross-cultural research that examined desirable traits of partners found numerous
similarities between male and female lists. This is indicative of:
a. the powerful influence of culture
b. the great effect of gender on mate preference
c. traditional gender roles
d. companionate love
Answer: A
146. In cross-cultural research, the most desirable trait in a partner is:
a. kind and understanding
b. good looks
c. reciprocal love
d. dependable character
Answer: A
147. Cross-cultural research for mate preferences found that:
a. education and intelligence was ranked highest by most cultures
b. good looks were ranked equally by males and females
c. on average, kindness and understanding were rated highest
d. there were many differences among the different cultures

Answer: C
148. Of the following countries, where is love most valued as a reason to marry?
a. China
b. United States
c. Iran
d. Nigeria
Answer: B
149. Cross-cultural research indicates that the most common reason men use to dissolve
marriages is:
a. disrespect
b. personality quirks
c. unfaithfulness
d. infertility
Answer: D
150. Herb continues jogging well into his 60s. His speed has slowed over the years, but he
still jogs 5 miles a day. Herb’s decline in speed is an example of:
a. sensory decline
b. normal aging
c. senility
d. pathological aging
Answer: B
151. Based on normal aging, which person is most likely to be in middle adulthood?
a. Jim, who has experienced a slight decrease in lung capacity and eyesight
b. Sarah, who has had a gradual decrease in her height
c. Enzo, who has a 35% reduction in blood flow though the coronary arteries
d. Carmella; her muscle fibers are decreasing in diameter
Answer: A
152. A 2011 study by the Centers for Disease control found that life expectancy in the US has
set a record of ___ years.
a. 73
b. 76

c. 78
d. 82
Answer: C
153. Julio’s grandmother has Alzheimer’s disease and has trouble remembering things. A
psychologist would describe her as experiencing:
a. pathological aging
b. geriatric decline
c. genetic senility
d. normal aging
Answer: A
154. The separation of the causes of normal aging versus pathological aging is a goal of:
a. the wear-and tear-theory
b. the biological limit theory
c. androgyny
d. gerontology
Answer: D
155. What role do free radicals play in aging?
a. They damage body organs and DNA.
b. They can reduce the impact of proteins on body organs and DNA.
c. They cause Alzheimer’s disease.
d. They cause anti-oxidants to be produced.
Answer: A
156. The maximum lifespan for humans appears to be about:
a. 115 years
b. 120 years
c. 130 years
d. 140 years
Answer: C
157. In our early to middle ____, our immune system, senses, physiological responses, and
mental skills are most efficient.
a. 20s

b. 30s
c. 40s
d. 50s
Answer: A
158. As the editor of a popular psychology magazine, you must write the titles for its articles.
One article is on the cognitive changes associated with aging in adulthood. Which of the
following titles would most accurately represent these changes?
a. “Stability from 20 through 40 Years”
b. “Any Change in Cognitive Skills Due to Alzheimer’s”
c. “After 30 Years, It’s Downhill!”
d. “Declines in Cognitive Abilities Are Irreversible”
Answer: A
159. ____ is the rate at which information is encoded and retrieved from memory.
a. Sorting speed
b. Cognitive manipulation
c. Processing speed
d. Reaction speed
Answer: C
160. “What is that thing out there on the street?” The rate at which one can identify the
stimulus is called:
a. processing speed
b. cognitive rate
c. perceptual speed
d. estimation rate
Answer: C
161. Changes in memory in older adults are most likely due to:
a. loss of brain cells in the prefrontal lobe
b. brain disease
c. decline in attention
d. visual problems
Answer: A

162. In your volunteer work, you spend time with older adults at the senior citizens center.
You notice that these adults show a decline in memory function. Specifically, what type of
decline do you notice in these healthy older adults?
a. in memorizing a list of words
b. recalling specific information
c. encoding information
d. all of these
Answer: D
163. George, who is in his 50s, has committed himself to physical and cognitive exercise.
Based on research, his memory can improve ______.
a. 5–8%
b. 20–25%
c. 30%–40%
d. 50%–65%
Answer: C
164. Researchers have found that declines in speed of performance are due to:
a. disuse
b. Alzheimer’s
c. high blood pressure
d. the slowing down in mental processing
Answer: D
165. Compared to older adults, younger adults are better at:
a. interpreting the significance of information
b. recalling many details
c. extracting the meaning of information
d. using prior information to understand new information
Answer: B
166. Compared to younger adults, older adults are better at:
a. interpreting information and underlying meaning
b. recalling many details
c. memorizing long lists of words

d. perceptual speed
Answer: A
167. What piece of advice would you give young adults about what they can expect in the
future regarding cognitive skills?
a. “live a full life now, you’ll be over the hill soon”
b. “any changes in reaction time are due to decreased motor and sensory abilities”
c. “if you live to be 85 years old, you won’t notice any change”
d. “you’ll probably forget unimportant information, but you’ll get the big picture”
Answer: D
168. What was the result of research examining the effects of ginkgo biloba on memory?
a. It did not improve memory in healthy adults.
b. Ginkgo biloba improved memory in subjects.
c. It improved only declarative memory.
d. It was found to be effective in improving memory, but only in young adults.
Answer: A
169. Grandmother forgets a name and worries that she is “losing it”—you should reassure her
a. there are normal changes in cognitive speed and memory
b. her memory may be slipping, but her reaction time will speed up
c. if she lives long enough, it is likely she will get Alzheimer’s disease
d. daily intake of the supplement ginkgo biloba should improve her memory
Answer: A
170. A 20-year-old and a 50-year-old are discussing various topics, including growing old.
What advice does the 50-year-old correctly tell the 20-year-old to help with age-related
memory changes?
a. take ginkgo biloba
b. “There’s nothing you can do, so just accept it.”
c. “Get physical and mental exercise.”
d. “Focus on the big picture and ignore the details, and that will help your memory.”
Answer: C
171. One of the downsides to aging is loss of processing speed, but on the other hand:
a. ginkgo biloba is now available

b. “There’s nothing you can do, so just accept it.”
c. the left and right hemispheres become better integrated
d. there is an increase in perceptual speed that offsets the loss in processing speed
Answer: C
172. Grandpa Percy is trying to remember the details of a newspaper article he read recently.
Grandpa Reggie is trying to remember the same article. Grandpa Percy is using both brain
hemispheres to remember the details and this will lead to:
a. poor recall of the article
b. better recall of the article
c. slower and less accurate recall
d. faster but less accurate recall
Answer: B
173. Your grandmother pays less attention to negative information and more attention to
positive information. What is this called?
a. positivity bias
b. optimistic bias
c. resiliency
d. processing speed
Answer: A
174. Your great Aunt Lorelii says to always focus on the good things about a person. This
best illustrates:
a. conventional bias
b. postconventional thinking
c. positivity bias
d. resiliency
Answer: C
175. Why aren’t people in late adulthood often included in surveys of sexual behavior?
a. the common stereotype that they no longer have any interest in sexual activity
b. it is commonly known that these people do not have sex
c. most older people prefer not to participate in these types of surveys
d. most older people have such poor memories, so they cannot remember
Answer: A

176. About when does menopause occur in most women?
a. 40 years of age
b. 45 years of age
c. 50 years of age
d. 55 years of age
Answer: C
177. Regarding the effect of aging on sexual activity, it is the case that:
a. interest in sexual activity declines because of significant hormonal changes
b. there is no decrease in sexual responsiveness, but there is in activity
c. there is a decrease in sexual responsiveness, but it need not interfere with sexual activity
d. there is a decrease in sexual activity, but not in sexual responsiveness
Answer: C
178. Hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness are symptomatic of:
a. menopause
b. androgyny
c. a midlife crisis
d. progeria
Answer: A
179. Carmen is at the age where she is likely to experience menopause. What variable is
likely to greatly affect her experiences with menopause?
a. her access to social support from other women going through menopause
b. her level of exercise
c. her health
d. her expectations
Answer: D
180. Men reaching late adulthood generally experience:
a. infertility around age 50
b. a decrease in hormone secretion
c. a decrease in sexual responsiveness
d. an inability to maintain an erection and orgasm
Answer: C

181. Micah, who is in his 40s, is thinking about how late adulthood will affect his sexuality.
Which of the following is not likely to happen to him as long as he remains in good health?
a. requiring more time to reach orgasm
b. difficulty in becoming sexually aroused
c. he’ll need more time to get an erection
d. a reduction in the amount of fluid he discharges at ejaculation
Answer: B
182. What can we conclude about sexual behavior in adulthood?
a. Men become infertile around age 50.
b. The vast majority of married couples over 60 years are not satisfied with their sex lives.
c. As we mature, we must learn to be more sensitive to our partner’s needs.
d. Few women actually experience physical symptoms of menopause.
Answer: C
183. The highest rate of suicide is among:
a. people over 65 years of age
b. females
c. adolescents
d. young adults
Answer: A
184. Which of the following is not accurate regarding adolescents who attempt or commit
a. They often express the wish to die or threaten suicide.
b. There are often precipitants of suicide.
c. They make a threat to commit suicide.
d. They show no signs of behavioral or psychological problems.
Answer: D
185. As Karl looks back, he tries to think of what signs his cousin might have shown before
he committed suicide. Which of the following is a common behavioral symptom?
a. a sense of resolve
b. social isolation and withdrawal
c. a peace about things coming to an end

d. talking about the future
Answer: B
186. A short-term treatment plan following the identification of someone at risk for suicide
would include:
a. therapy to deal with the depression
b. psychiatric medication
c. a program to help improve the individual’s self-image
d. a contract with the person not to hurt themselves
Answer: D
187. The one variable that appears to have the most significant effect on committing suicide
among the elderly is:
a. depression
b. loss of a loved one
c. psychological problems
d. prescription-drug related
Answer: A
188. A review of Oregon’s assisted suicide law found that:
a. suicide rates among the mentally ill have increased
b. suicide rates actually decreased
c. an increase in elder abuse occurred
d. there had been no abuse or problems anticipated by opponents
Answer: D
189. What is the number one cause of death among teenagers?
a. suicide
b. car accidents
c. homicides
d. cancer
Answer: B
190. The highest risk of having a car crash is among ____.
a. 15-year-olds
b. 16-year-olds

c. 17-year-olds
d. 18-year-olds
Answer: B
191. What accounts for the increased risk of having car accidents in teenagers?
a. peer pressure
b. the brain area involved in attention and perception is not fully developed
c. the brains of teenagers are more sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine
d. the areas of the brain that are responsible for judgments and controlling impulses are not
fully developed
Answer: D
192. In addition to the underdeveloped executive branch of the brain and the rush of
hormones, teen drivers are at additional risk because:
a. of their lack of understanding of other well-established risks, such as using a cell phone
while driving
b. their cars tend to be poorly maintained
c. of busy schedules
d. their cars tend to be old and lack modern safety features
Answer: A
1. Boys who mature early tend to be less confident and shyer.
Answer: False
2. Sexual abstinence has decreased among teenagers.
Answer: False
3. Cognitive development refers to changes in perception, thinking, and understanding of the
Answer: True
4. The ability to think about abstract and hypothetical concepts takes place in concrete
Answer: False
5. The adolescent’s prefrontal cortex is fully developed.
Answer: False
6. Siblings may have a stronger influence on identity development than parents.

Answer: True
7. As we grow into middle adulthood, we become more trusting.
Answer: True
8. In late adulthood, individuals try to achieve generativity by helping the younger
Answer: False
9. Young adults tend to focus on positive information and ignore negative information.
Answer: False
10. The social role theory argues that social roles developed out of different divisions of
Answer: True
11. Infatuated love stimulates the brain’s reward/pleasure center.
Answer: True
12. Passionate love involves having trusting and tender feelings for another.
Answer: False
13. In selecting the ideal partner, males rank physical attractiveness higher than do females.
Answer: True
14. In successful marriages, partners learn to be constructive rather than attacking when
offering criticism.
Answer: True
15. There is no difference between males and females with regard to the desirability of
physical attractiveness in marriage partners.
Answer: False
16. In the United States, physical attractiveness is ranked as the most important factor in
choosing a spouse.
Answer: False
17. Stress can result in the faster aging of DNA.
Answer: True
18. The effects of menopause on sexuality are influenced by sexuality prior to menopause.
Answer: True
19. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s model of the stages of dying suggests that Anger is predictably
the first reaction one will have after learning that they are going to die.

Answer: F
20. The rate of suicide among the elderly is the highest among any age group.
Answer: True
21. An argument against doctor-assisted suicide is that persons contemplating suicide may not
have the ability to make a rational decision.
Answer: True
22. The rate of murder-suicide among the elderly is decreasing.
Answer: False
23. The most common cause of death among teenagers is car crashes.
Answer: True
24. Poor driving skills in teenagers are related to underdeveloped brain areas for evaluating
risks and judgment.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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