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Module 14—Thought and Language
1. Module 14 starts off by describing a 14-month-old boy’s use of ____ to illustrate the
complexity of language.
a. surface structure
b. definitions
c. exclamations
d. single-word sentences
Answer: D
2. The case of Jay-Z (Shawn Carter) illustrates:
a. how creativity is dependent on formal schooling
b. how creativity can occur independent of formal schooling
c. language development
d. how problem solving is tied to language development
Answer: B
3. Which of the following best describes the background of Jay-Z (Shawn Carter)?
a. Jay-Z was born to an affluent family and attended the best schools.
b. He was born into a modest family and showed amazing creativity at a very young age.
c. He showed no signs of creativity at an earlier age, dropped out of high school, and shot his
d. Despite showing remarkable creativity as a child, he never succeeded academically and
dropped out of high school.
Answer: C
4. The areas of thinking and language are important topics to study in the ____ approach.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. humanistic
d. behavioral
Answer: A
5. Professor Synder studies how beliefs are changed when information that contradicts the
belief is presented. Professor Synder uses the:
a. humanistic approach

b. behavioral approach
c. cognitive approach
d. psychoanalytic approach
Answer: C
6. The term ____ refers to mental processes that we use to be creative, to form concepts, and
to solve problems.
a. information processing
b. remembering
c. cognitive
d. linguistic
Answer: B
7. When we use rules to form and manipulate symbols in order to communicate, we are
a. analogies
b. prototypes
c. language
d. concepts
Answer: C
8. A “concept” can best be defined as a(n):
a. object that fits a series of prescribed rules
b. idea regarding the solution to a problem
c. novel use for an object or tool
d. way to group items based upon common characteristics
Answer: D
9. A way we group or classify objects and events based on some shared characteristics is
called a(n) ____.
a. concept
b. cognition
c. heuristic
d. algorithm
Answer: A

10. When you are asked to indicate what Sigmund Freud, Albert Bandura, Abraham Maslow,
and Lewis Terman all have in common, you’re really being asked to form a(n):
a. concept
b. object rule
c. hierarchy
d. analogy
Answer: A
11. You overhear Brent talking with David. But the only thing you hear is David saying,
“They all have wings.” You ask Brent for a clarification and he says, “A bird, a plane, and a
butterfly.” Then you realize that they’re:
a. talking about transformational rules
b. grouping objects using some common property they all share
c. referring to telegraphic speech
d. overgeneralizing
Answer: B
12. According to the exemplar theory of concept formation, we list all of the essential
properties that define an object, event, or characteristic. When we encounter an event and
need to conceptualize it, we proceed to:
a. find the concept that fits all of the essential characteristics of that event
b. compare the selected concept to the prototype
c. use algorithms
d. use heuristics
Answer: A
13. You are playing a guessing game with a child and you want the child to guess “cat.” You
give clues that the animal has four legs, fur, and whiskers, but the child guesses wrong each
time. Then you give the hint that the animal purrs and the child correctly guesses “cat.” In
terms of concept formation, you supplied the child with a(n):
a. leading clue
b. essential characteristic
c. exemplar
d. prototype
Answer: B
14. Which of the following is a problem of the exemplar theory of forming concepts?

a. allows us to better store information in memory
b. allows us to identify things without relearning
c. exceptions never occur
d. listing all the defining properties of a concept is very difficult
Answer: D
15. A problem of the exemplar theory of concept formation is that:
a. our memory systems do not function in the way that exemplar theory predicts
b. our prototypes are based upon average features
c. we would have to list all the exceptions to the definition of an object
d. it takes longer to evaluate events that do not match the prototype
Answer: C
16. A mental image that is based on the average characteristics of an object is called a(n):
a. algorithm
b. heuristic
c. exemplar
d. prototype
Answer: D
17. An average bird has feathers, a bill, and wings. This is consistent with the:
a. set theory
b. heuristic theory
c. exemplar theory
d. prototype theory
Answer: D
18. Bill likes to invent. Today he is inventing a new car. He says to himself, “I can visualize
what this new car should look like. An average car has an engine, wheels, and so on.” His
approach to inventing uses the ____ theory of forming concepts.
a. surface
b. heuristic
c. prototype
d. set
Answer: C

19. A prototype for a car would include:
a. all the defining properties of a car
b. the average characteristics of all cars
c. a list of essential features
d. algorithms and heuristics
Answer: B
20. When someone says “bear,” you think of a grizzly rather than a koala. This is probably
because the grizzly bear:
a. has the most memorable teeth
b. is often the largest
c. often rears on its hind legs, reminiscent of humans
d. is a prototype for most North American bears
Answer: D
21. Which of the following is characteristic of prototype theory?
a. exceptions are not included in the list of defining properties
b. listing all of the essential features of an object or event
c. constructing a mental image and seeing if a new object matches this image
d. defining the concept through the use of language and heuristics
Answer: C
22. An advantage of the prototype theory is that it:
a. allows for quick recognition
b. allows for exceptions
c. explains babbling in infants
d. allows deductive reasoning
Answer: A
23. Tim is developing a concept of an “office.” According to ____ theory, Tim should list all
the essential features of an office. According to ____ theory, however, Tim should construct
an ideal office which is an average of all offices.
a. heuristic; semantic
b. exemplar; prototype
c. Chomsky’s; transformational

d. deep structure; surface structure
Answer: B
24. Exemplar theory is to ____ as prototype theory is to ____.
a. biological; psychological
b. primary; secondary
c. deep characteristics; surface characteristics
d. essential characteristics; average characteristics
Answer: D
25. Little 15-month-old Jeanie has already developed several concepts. Researchers have
found that Jeanie has formed concepts as a result of:
a. parental competence
b. genetic makeup
c. personality disposition
d. experience with objects and her growing ability to use language
Answer: D
26. Research has found that the processes of forming prototypes and matching things to
a. go on at a conscious level
b. go on at an unconscious level
c. are influenced by grades in school
d. are influenced by the proficiency of one’s memory system
Answer: B
27. According to the textbook, concepts are easily developed by children because:
a. the attention span for interesting things is much larger in children than in adults
b. parents provide much stimulation to children
c. the brain is innately wired to process different concepts in different locations
d. parents are so willing to name objects and events
Answer: C
28. One function of concepts is that they allow us to:
a. form heuristics
b. relearn new things

c. more accurately predict how other people will behave
d. group things into categories and then effectively organize them in memory
Answer: D
29. What would you see if you could “climb” inside a child’s brain as she learns about
different objects?
a. Objects are processed and stored according to the child’s exemplar of the object.
b. There is no pattern as to where different objects are stored.
c. All objects, regardless of type, are processed and stored in the same part of the brain, which
is the hippocampus.
d. Different objects are processed and stored in different parts of the brain.
Answer: D
30. You are watching your two-year-old nephew and are amazed how quickly he can learn
concepts and objects. According to Module 14, what accounts for this?
a. The brains of children have built-in exemplars of concepts and objects.
b. Children have brains that are already set up to quickly store things into categories.
c. Children use heuristics to learn concepts and objects.
d. The brains of children tend to ignore algorithms that can slow down learning, as is seen in
Answer: B
31. Once we have formed the concept for a car and encounter the car on another occasion,
a. do not have to relearn what a car is or what it does
b. can then form new heuristics
c. can refine the defining properties of car
d. do have to relearn what a car is and what it does
Answer: A
32. Does the brain have built-in categories for sorting and filing information?
a. No—the brain does not sort and file information based on categories
b. Yes—but the categories are developed through experience
c. Yes—but the brain doesn’t have specific parts for categories
d. Yes—the brain has different areas for different categories
Answer: D

33. Searching for some rule, plan, or strategy that leads to achieving a currently unavailable
goal is called:
a. problem solving
b. mental setting
c. an availability heuristic
d. divergent thinking
Answer: A
34. In problem solving, there are three states. Which of the following is not among the three
a. preparation state
b. initial state
c. operations state
d. goal state
Answer: A
35. “Which job offer should I take? Do I go to New York, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, Chicago,
or Dallas? I need to collect some information about each city with regard to health care,
recreation, crime, and housing.” This person is in what state of problem solving?
a. preparation state
b. initial state
c. operations state
d. goal state
Answer: B
36. “Which job offer should I take? I need to select a city that has good health care,
inexpensive housing, and a low crime rate. These are my reasons for selecting a city.” This
person is in what state of problem solving?
a. preparation state
b. initial state
c. operations state
d. goal state
Answer: C
37. The three states of initial, operations, and goal are involved in ____.
a. heuristics

b. concept and prototype formation
c. functional fixedness
d. problem solving
Answer: D
38. Which definition of a problem-solving state is incorrect?
a. initial state—contemplating the unsolved problem
b. operations state—trying various operations or strategies to solve the problem
c. initial state—formulating alternative methods to perceive the problem
d. goal state—solving the problem
Answer: C
39. According to the textbook, which of the following is the correct order of the states of
problem solving?
a. realization state, operations state, culmination state
b. operations state, review state, decision state, goal state
c. goal state, operations state, review state, decision state
d. initial state, operations state, goal state
Answer: D
40. You’re watching your four-year-old niece trying to solve some problem she has
encountered in an art project. She tries a number of different techniques and methods to solve
the problem. Your niece is in the:
a. realization state
b. operations state
c. goal state
d. initial state
Answer: B
41. One difference research has revealed between expert and novice computer programmers
is that the expert:
a. uses less insight
b. has more functional fixedness
c. starts with the specifics and works up to the big picture; the novice starts with the big

d. starts with the broad picture and works down to specific solutions; the novice starts with
Answer: D
42. Steve is playing a chess game online against an expert. Even though he is a novice at
chess, he is doing well until he’s put in a difficult situation. Since Steve is a novice, according
to Module 14 his most likely strategy is to:
a. spend lots of time examining strategies and many future moves
b. focus on just a few strategies that are the most effective
c. use the wrong algorithm to analyze the situation
d. focus on a few strategies, but be indecisive about which one to take
Answer: A
43. You are an intern at a giant computer software company. Today you are sitting in a
meeting with novice and expert computer programmers discussing the latest project. The
project is on writing a program to allow easier Internet surfing. Which of the following are
you most likely to hear?
a. Tom (expert)—“Let’s start with the overall goal and work backwards.”
b. Jan (expert)—“We should discuss how the program will look.”
c. Stuart (expert)—“A good starting point is to brainstorm marketing strategies.”
d. Modine (novice)—“Let’s be clear on the objective of the program first.”
Answer: A
44. Rules that will eventually lead to a solution if followed correctly are called:
a. algorithms
b. availability heuristics
c. representative heuristics
d. brainstorming
Answer: A
45. You must calculate your income tax. You carefully follow the instructions to ultimately
determine the amount. The instructions act as a(n):
a. representative heuristic
b. artificial rule
c. algorithm
d. availability heuristic
Answer: C

46. As you review the recipe for chocolate chip cookies, you realize that the recipe is a(n):
a. representative heuristic
b. artificial rule
c. algorithm
d. availability heuristic
Answer: C
47. A computer program in 2006 beat chess master Vladimir Kramnik in four out of six
games (and tied the other two) by using:
a. algorithms
b. availability heuristics
c. representative heuristics
d. brainstorming
Answer: A
48. “Rules of thumb” or mental shortcuts are known as:
a. framings
b. heuristics
c. brainstorming
d. prototypes
Answer: B
49. Travis has developed shortcuts to solving algebraic equations. These shortcuts allow
Travis to identify a limited number of calculations and examine them in great depth. Travis is
a. algorithms
b. semantics
c. heuristics
d. insight
Answer: C
50. When asked to think about the movie he saw last night, Mel reports that he remembers
the car chases because he liked those the most, yet he has forgotten about the poor dialogue
and plot. For Mel, the car chases represent a(n):
a. availability heuristic
b. algorithm

c. representative prototype
d. analogy
Answer: A
51. Every night Donna asks Larry how his day went. She figures he must hate his job because
he does nothing but complain about terrible things that happened during the day. When she
attends an office party with him, Donna is surprised to find that Larry’s coworkers are
pleasant and fun and that Larry seems to enjoy what he does. The fact that Larry remembers
the negative aspects of his job more than the positive ones is an example of:
a. framing
b. the representativeness heuristic
c. the availability heuristic
d. brainstorming
Answer: C
52. Kal thinks that if a person colors their hair pink, they must be strange and maladjusted.
This illustrates that Kal is using a(n):
a. heuristic
b. definition
c. algorithm
d. psychometric
Answer: A
53. Why are we more likely to remember the airplane crash that killed 143 people, but tend to
forget the hundreds of people killed in car accidents last month in the United States?
a. representative heuristic
b. framing
c. algorithm bias
d. availability heuristic
Answer: D
54. Grandma Grace is terrified of flying in an airplane. On her first flight, she kept talking
about crashing. Grandma said that the same thing that happened to those 150 victims of that
airplane crash was going to happen to her. She demands that next time, she’ll drive a car.
Grandma Grace’s decision making is influenced by:
a. the availability heuristic
b. the algorithms of flying
c. overregularization

d. morphemes
Answer: A
55. Algorithm is to ____ as heuristic is to ____.
a. language; thinking
b. rule; mental shortcut
c. mental shortcut; rule
d. general; specific
Answer: B
56. Algorithm is to ____ as heuristic is to ____.
a. language; thinking
b. rule; mental shortcut
c. mental shortcut; rule
d. general; specific
Answer: B
57. The ____ heuristic says that we have a tendency to assume that an object or event belongs
in a particular category based on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that category.
a. algorithm
b. availability
c. exemplar
d. representative
Answer: D
58. The inability to see atypical and uncommon uses for an object is:
a. functional fixedness
b. interference
c. divergent thinking
d. braindrumming
Answer: A
59. Functional fixedness is defined as:
a. the ability to transfer old learning to new situations
b. a rule that can be used to solve new problems
c. the inability to see an object as having a use different from its usual one.

d. the inability to use heuristics or algorithms
Answer: C
60. Tom and Allison want to build a play fort. Unfortunately, there is no available lumber to
build with. The two think about their problem. Suddenly Tom says, “Let’s use the large box
that the new refrigerator came in.” Allison (who appears confused) argues, “You can’t do
that! A box isn’t a fort.” Tom demonstrates ____ while Allison shows ____.
a. convergent thinking; divergent thinking
b. functional fixedness; analogical thinking
c. insight; functional fixedness
d. anterograde problem-solving; divergent thinking
Answer: C
61. Stan does not realize that his stapler can be used as a paper weight. This is an example of:
a. interference
b. convergent thinking
c. linguistic relativity
d. functional fixedness
Answer: D
62. “A toothpick is a toothpick. It can’t be used for anything except to pick your teeth.” This
person is experiencing:
a. interference
b. convergent thinking
c. functional fixedness
d. an availability heuristic
Answer: C
63. After spending hours trying to fix a bug in his computer program, Chris suddenly realizes
the solution by remembering steps his mother took to can beets. This is an example of:
a. functional fixedness
b. convergent thinking
c. using an analogy
d. overgeneralization
Answer: C

64. A person who solves problems by finding a similarity between a new situation and an old
situation is utilizing:
a. insight
b. an analogy
c. a deep structure
d. transformational rules
Answer: B
65. One reason why businesses like to hire people with experience is that these individuals
are more likely to draw ____ to solve problems.
a. insight
b. transformational rules
c. functional fixedness
d. analogies
Answer: D
66. What’s the problem-solving strategy that breaks down the overall problem into separate
a. forming ill-defined goals
b. forming subgoals
c. forming secondary problems
d. forming heuristics
Answer: B
67. You’ve accepted a new job that will start in two months, but you have to move to a new
city. The idea of moving doesn’t appeal to you, since it is a very big task. A useful strategy is
to break up the task into:
a. general problems
b. subgoals
c. secondary problems
d. phonemes
Answer: B
68. When doing a research paper, you break up the assignment into the steps of doing library
research, taking notes, making a detailed outline, and writing the paper. This strategy uses:
a. functional fixedness

b. transformational rules
c. an analogy
d. subgoals
Answer: D
69. The kids have messed up the living room. There are toys and paper all over the floor. The
father tells the kids to clean up. When realizing the large mess they made, the kids start to
complain. Then the father suggests breaking down the task into smaller parts, and the kids
agree. The father has used the strategy of forming:
a. subgoals
b. an analogy
c. insight
d. functional fixedness
Answer: A
70. A combination of flexibility in thinking and reorganization in understanding to produce
innovative ideas is important in:
a. creative thinking
b. semantics
c. definitional theory
d. concept formation
Answer: A
71. The professor wrote on Quan’s paper, “I am impressed with your creative thinking on this
issue.” Quan was most likely demonstrating:
a. functional fixedness
b. the creation of average characteristics of an object
c. flexibility in thinking and reorganization in understanding
d. the use of rules called algorithms
Answer: C
72. This individual you know solves problems on a regular basis in very innovative ways that
influence other people. This person is:
a. divergent
b. convergent
c. creative

d. transformational
Answer: C
73. Which is not an approach to measuring creativity?
a. linguistic
b. case study
c. psychometric
d. cognitive
Answer: A
74. If you study creativity using the psychometric approach, you focus on:
a. relative linguistics
b. functional fixedness and insight
c. convergent and divergent thinking
d. divergent thinking and overgeneralization
Answer: C
75. Frank claims that when he is confronted with a problem, he likes to come up with one
correct solution. Frank practices:
a. convergent thinking
b. semantic problem solving
c. divergent thinking
d. creative thinking
Answer: A
76. “There is only one right answer to this exercise,” the professor says as the class is
reviewing a problem. What type of thinking is the professor describing?
a. divergent thinking
b. convergent thinking
c. heuristics
d. brainstorming
Answer: B
77. On the first day of a business class, the professor talked about how there might be more
than one way to create a business organization. This illustrates what kind of thinking?
a. convergent thinking

b. semantic problem solving
c. divergent thinking
d. operations
Answer: C
78. In your philosophy class one day, the professor asks, “What is the best-tasting food?” You
think to yourself that the answer depends on the person. You suddenly realize that the
question requires:
a. convergent thinking
b. semantic problem solving
c. divergent thinking
d. operations
Answer: C
79. The definition of creativity involving divergent thinking differs from other definitions in
that it:
a. defines creativity in terms of the extent to which a person’s thoughts differ from the norm
b. defines creativity in terms of the extent to which a person’s thoughts produce socially
valued products
c. measures creativity in terms of the speed at which problems are solved
d. measures creativity by the number of possible answers a person can come up with to a
single question
Answer: D
80. When you begin with a problem and devise many solutions, it is called ____, but if you
come up with the one correct solution, it is called ____.
a. semantics; insight
b. phonology; morphology
c. brainstorming; analogous
d. divergent thinking; convergent thinking
Answer: D
81. If we give a very creative person a test of divergent thinking, what would we probably
find out?
a. She does not necessarily score high on the test.
b. Since she is very creative, she will score very high.
c. Divergent thinking cannot be tested.

d. Tests of divergent thinking have not been created.
Answer: A
82. A method of study that examines a creative person in great depth is called a(n):
a. insight study
b. biography
c. case study
d. sociopsychological study
Answer: C
83. A common finding in case studies of creative people is:
a. an unwillingness to take risks
b. a history of abuse in childhood
c. they tend to be creative in some areas and poor in others
d. a lack of desire to be creative
Answer: C
84. For her research paper on creativity, Shyla has decided to conduct a highly detailed study
of her cousin, the creator of a famous computer program. What approach to the measurement
of creativity is Shyla pursuing?
a. a case-study approach
b. a psychometric approach
c. a longitudinal approach
d. a behavioral approach
Answer: A
85. Howard Gardner’s case study of Sigmund Freud revealed that Freud was very poor in:
a. language
b. social competence
c. linguistics
d. musical and spatial ability
Answer: D
86. You are studying Albert Einstein and learn that he was very good at thinking in visualspatial terms. You reason that his creativity was due to this ability. The approach you are
taking in studying creativity is the ____ approach.
a. psychometric

b. cognitive
c. psychodynamic
d. nature-nurture
Answer: B
87. The cognitive approach to creativity focuses on the:
a. convergent thinking of creative people
b. personal histories of creative individuals
c. differences between creative thinkers
d. tools of creative thinking, such as mental imagery
Answer: D
88. What term is given to an autistic person who shows some incredible memory, music, or
drawing talent?
a. creative
b. gifted
c. genius
d. savant
Answer: D
89. What is the best example of the poor correlation between IQ and creativity?
a. Albert Einstein
b. savants
c. Mark Twain
d. Edgar Allan Poe
Answer: B
90. Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between creativity and IQ?
a. Creative people have the same IQ scores as the general population.
b. Those with the highest IQ scores are the most creative.
c. There is rather little correlation between creativity and IQ among creative people.
d. Creative people actually have slightly lower IQ scores than the general population.
Answer: C
91. Which word describes creative people with regard to their abilities?
a. diverse

b. generalists
c. specialists
d. many
Answer: C
92. If you were to examine the personalities of creative people, you would find them to:
a. be risk takers
b. have doubts about their work
c. be modest
d. be sensitive to the needs of others
Answer: A
93. If you were to examine the personalities of creative people, you would find one of the
negative characteristics to be:
a. high levels of frustration
b. insensitivity to the needs of others
c. setting unrealistic goals
d. poor time management
Answer: B
94. Creative people are driven by:
a. extrinsic motivation
b. fame and fortune
c. intrinsic motivation
d. competition with other creative people
Answer: C
95. Which of the following descriptions is inaccurate regarding the traits of creative people?
a. Have the ability to change mental directions
b. Sensitive to the needs of others
c. Motivated by the challenge of solving problems
d. Not afraid to take risks
Answer: B
96. Which of the following is not a part of the definition of reasoning presented by your

a. solving problems
b. making plans or decisions
c. brainstorming
d. achieving goals
Answer: C
97. If you think of a standard kitchen funnel, it goes from a very wide, broad area to a very
specific and narrow bottom. This is a good analogy for _____ reasoning.
a. deductive
b. convergent
c. divergent
d. inductive
Answer: A
98. Jackson observes that a squirrel in his backyard likes to run up and down trees all day
long. From this he assumes that all similar woodland creatures enjoy the same type of
activity. What kind of reasoning has Jackson used?
a. deductive
b. convergent
c. divergent
d. inductive
Answer: D
99. Brenda is watching a political debate. When her preferred candidate gets up to speak, she
nods her head when he makes points with which he agrees. When he is saying things that she
does not support, however, she simply turns away and talks to her roommate. Brenda’s
tendency to seek out information that is consistent with her beliefs is called the:
a. confirmation bias
b. halo effect
c. brainstorm heuristic
d. means-end algorithm
Answer: A
100. We tend to make decisions based on ____ rather than ____.
a. intellect; emotion
b. emotion; intellect

c. short-term gains; long-term gains
d. perception of fate; perception of emotion
Answer: B
101. Shaun is gambling and is told that there is a 70% chance that he will win the bet. Kevin
is also gambling and is told that there is a 30% probability that he will lose the bet. Stuart is
gambling and he has been told that he has a 50% chance that he will lose the bet. Based on
the research by De Martino described in Module 14, which person is most likely to gamble
a. Shaun
b. Kevin
c. Stuart
d. it is impossible to predict based on the information presented
Answer: A
102. In research conducted by Dr. De Martino, the brain area involved in ____ is very active
in subjects as they make decisions.
a. reasoning
b. memory
c. emotion
d. language
Answer: C
103. Which of the following is the best evidence supporting the role of emotion in decision
a. Individuals with brain injury resulting in loss of emotion have difficulty in making even
simple decisions.
b. Individuals with brain injury resulting in loss of emotion have difficulty in making
complex decisions.
c. Individuals with brain injury resulting in loss of emotion appear to make decisions more
quickly and efficiently.
d. When individuals focus on their emotional state, their decisions tend to be better.
Answer: A
104. Jack has decided to support Candidate A in the upcoming election. If Jack is typical of
how people make political decisions, his decision was influenced by:
a. rational thinking
b. emotions

c. past experiences
d. family and friends
Answer: B
105. The notion that language determines the way people think and perceive the world is
characteristic of:
a. Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition
b. overgeneralization
c. the social learning approach
d. the theory of linguistic relativity
Answer: D
106. Professor Anderson has discovered a primitive tribe in the Amazon rainforest and has
studied their language. She has found that this tribe has only seven emotions. She reasons that
they should only perceive these seven emotions. She is basing her hypothesis on:
a. the psychometric approach
b. Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition
c. the social learning approach
d. the theory of linguistic relativity
Answer: D
107. Do doctors and nurses perceive injuries differently, since they use a special kind of
medical jargon to describe such injuries? The theory of linguistic relativity would predict:
a. that thinking and perception are only different if one’s culture supports the language
b. no, since thinking and perception occur independently of language
c. that their thinking about and perception of injuries is different
d. that doctors’ and nurses’ original native language does not differentiate between different
kinds of injuries
Answer: C
108. Josh is a plumber and Phil knows nothing about plumbing. According to the theory of
____ Josh and Phil would think about and perceive plumbing tools differently.
a. deductive reasoning
b. heuristics
c. prototypes
d. linguistic relativity

Answer: D
109. Whorf’s assertion that Inuits have many more words for snow:
a. has been supported by dozens of studies
b. was wrong
c. has not been studied
d. has been revised since the Inuits have hundreds of words for snow
Answer: B
110. A form of communication that has complex rules that are used to make symbols is
a. language
b. semantics
c. grammar
d. morphemes
Answer: A
111. You are watching a game show that gives the answer and contestants give the question.
One of the items was, “An arbitrary pairing between a sound or symbol and a meaning.” Not
one of the contestants knew the answer, but you do! What is the question?
a. “What is grammar?”
b. “What is a heuristic?”
c. “What is a word?”
d. “What is language?”
Answer: C
112. The set of rules that are used to regulate how we combine words in phrases and
sentences is called:
a. phonemes
b. morphemes
c. grammar
d. semantics
Answer: C
113. Speakers of different languages all learn the same basic rules. Of the following, which is
not one of these rules?
a. phonology

b. morphology
c. semantics
d. heuristics
Answer: D
114. The most basic speech sounds of a given language are called:
a. phonemes
b. morphemes
c. syllables
d. semantics
Answer: A
115. In the word “sock”, the sound of the “s” is a(n) ____, whereas the use of the “s” to make
the word plural is a(n) ____.
a. overgeneralization; transformational rule
b. concept; unit of grammar
c. syntax; semantic
d. phoneme; morpheme
Answer: D
116. ____ specifies how we make the meaningful sounds that are used by a particular
a. Syntax
b. Grammar
c. Morphology
d. Phonology
Answer: D
117. When we correctly combine phonemes into meaningful combinations of sounds and
words, we are using:
a. semantics
b. grammar
c. phonology
d. morphology
Answer: D

118. A “morpheme” is defined as a:
a. pronunciation that is not phonetic
b. new word that is formed by combining two existing words
c. child’s common mispronunciation of a word that is not phonetic
d. combination of sounds that has meaning
Answer: D
119. Which of the following words consists of a single morpheme?
a. unspeakable
b. computer
c. books
d. uncomfortable
Answer: B
120. Of the following, which one is not an example of a morpheme?
a. d in dog
b. s in cars
c. ing in fishing
d. ed in talked
Answer: A
121. The rules that allow us to combine words to make meaningful phrases and sentences is
a. morphology
b. phonology
c. syntax
d. semantics
Answer: C
122. The phrase “the red house” in Spanish would be “la casa roja,” which in English means,
literally, “the house red.” This example illustrates that Spanish and English differ in rules of:
a. syntax
b. phonology
c. morphology
d. semantics

Answer: A
123. When a person says “boy rides bike,” the meaning is different than if the person says
“bike rides boy.” This is an example of the rules of:
a. phonology
b. morphology
c. deep structure
d. semantics
Answer: D
124. Joyce and Phil are having an argument. The argument is over the semantics of Joyce
calling Phil a “clown.” Semantics is involved with:
a. phonology of words
b. morphology of words
c. the meaning of words
d. the order of words in a sentence
Answer: C
125. “Once upon a time, a big spider scared a little girl who was eating some cottage cheese.
It was very ugly.” You know that the “it” refers to the big spider and not to the cottage cheese.
a. semantics
b. grammar
c. syntax
d. phonology
Answer: A
126. Which individual is most associated with explaining how we understand language?
a. Noam Chomsky
b. Alan Cromer
c. Benjamin Whorf
d. Carl Rogers
Answer: A
127. What two principles help us to understand language according to Chomsky?
a. prototypes and morphemes
b. transformational rules and concept learning

c. mental grammar and innate brain program
d. semantics and functional fixedness
Answer: C
128. Which of the following provides the strongest support for the existence of an innate
program for learning language?
a. children who learn two languages from birth learn them just as quickly as children who
only learn one language
b. the case of Genie
c. children with the largest vocabulary have parents with large vocabularies
d. parents using “parentese”
Answer: A
129. What accounts for the child’s understanding of the complicated rules of grammar?
a. parents reading to their children
b. the innate program
c. parents using parentese
d. the interaction of an innate program and environmental experiences
Answer: D
130. As you read a novel, it occurs to you that you have never before read these sentences in
your entire life. What allowed the author of this novel to create so many different, brand new
combinations of words?
a. morphology
b. mental grammar
c. innate program
d. surface structure
Answer: B
131. Chomsky argues that an innate ____ allows us to create an endless number of sentences.
a. transformational rule
b. program of mental grammar
c. potential
d. predisposition
Answer: B
132. How do we acquire the innate program for understanding language?

a. around age 2, it becomes activated by brain growth
b. by brain stimulation that occurs in REM sleep
c. our brains come with that ability built in
d. through formal schooling starting at age 5
Answer: C
133. How does a child learn the complex rules of grammar?
a. interaction between the child’s experience and the innate program
b. interaction between inductive reasoning and linguistic overgeneralization
c. linguistic overgeneralization
d. interaction between the innate program and morphology
Answer: A
134. The sentences “Ann kissed Jack” and “Jack was kissed by Ann” have different:
a. semantics
b. deep structures
c. denotations
d. surface structures
Answer: D
135. Two sentences may have the same meaning, but the actual wording of the sentences may
differ. This difference is in their:
a. semantics
b. deep structure
c. surface structure
d. comparative linguistics
Answer: C
136. The underlying meaning of a sentence is its:
a. surface structure
b. deep structure
c. phonology
d. transformational grammar
Answer: B

137. You are talking to a stranger. He says something that is not clear, but you understand him
anyway. You are able to determine the underlying meaning of his speech, even though his
specific use of words was unclear. You have comprehended the ____ of his comments.
a. surface structure
b. mental grammar
c. morphology
d. deep structure
Answer: D
138. According to Chomsky, the difference between surface structure and deep structure has
to do with:
a. single words and two-word combinations
b. learning factors and innate factors
c. wording and meaning
d. overgeneralization and telegraphic speech
Answer: C
139. We learn to shift back and forth between surface structure and deep structure by using:
a. transformational rules
b. babbling
c. syntax
d. semantics
Answer: A
140. According to Chomsky, transformational rules allow us to:
a. translate words from a foreign language into our own
b. translate words from our language into a foreign one
c. convert surface structures into deep structures and back into surface structures
d. learn new grammatical rules of language
Answer: C
141. The ideas of surface structure, deep structure, and transformational rules are part of:
a. the social learning approach
b. Chomsky’s theory of language
c. behaviorism

d. basic rules of grammar
Answer: B
142. What is one criticism of Chomsky’s theory of language?
a. It downplays the importance of environmental influences.
b. It ignores the biological components of language.
c. It does not explain how children learn language.
d. It fails to account for how we can create new sentences.
Answer: A
143. Children, regardless of culture or language, do not differ in regard to the ____ of stages
in language acquisition.
a. speed
b. order
c. development
d. age
Answer: B
144. Of the following, which is not part of the language stages described in the textbook?
a. babbling
b. one-word sentences
c. sentences
d. parentese
Answer: D
145. At about six months of age, babies begin to verbalize one-syllable sounds called:
a. babbling
b. syntax
c. holophrasing
d. telegraphing
Answer: A
146. At what age do children become sensitized to sounds that make up their native
a. before 1 month
b. by about 6 months

c. by about 10 months
d. by about one year
Answer: B
147. In deaf children who are only exposed to sign language, babbling is:
a. skipped
b. delayed by about six months
c. manual
d. oral
Answer: C
148. The single-word stage of language acquisition begins at:
a. six months of age
b. one year of age
c. one and a half years of age
d. two years of age
Answer: B
149. When a child has reached the single-word stage, what percent of single words refer to
objects and to actions?
a. 20% to objects and 80% to actions
b. 80% to objects and 20% to actions
c. 50% to objects and 50% to actions
d. 70% to objects and 30% to actions
Answer: C
150. “Parentese,” which includes speaking in a higher voice and stretching out each word,
usually emerges from parents in response to their child’s use of:
a. babbling
b. overgeneralization
c. words
d. rules of grammar
Answer: C
151. When parents use parentese, children learn many things about language. Which of the
following is not an effect of parentese?

a. it prevents errors of overgeneralization
b. attracts the child’s attention
c. holds the child’s attention
d. helps children with language comprehension
Answer: A
152. The age at which children typically begin using two-word combinations is:
a. 1 year
b. 1 1/2 years
c. 2 years
d. 2 1/2 years
Answer: C
153. Telegraphic speech is characterized by:
a. two-word combinations
b. parentese
c. one-syllable verbalization
d. omission of articles, prepositions, and parts of verbs
Answer: D
154. The stage of sentences in language acquisition occurs at about ____ and is characterized
by ____.
a. 4 years of age; overregulation
b. 4 years of age; telegraphic speech
c. 3 years of age; grammatical tenses
d. 3 years of age; concrete speech
Answer: B
155. When a child applies a grammatical rule to cases where it should not be used, the child
has committed:
a. overregulation
b. overgeneralization
c. telegraphic speech
d. overspecification
Answer: B

156. When a child says, “Me cookie” the child is demonstrating:
a. overregulation
b. overspecification
c. telegraphic speech
d. concrete speech
Answer: C
157. When a child says, “I eated my cookie,” the child is demonstrating:
a. overgeneralization
b. early speech impairment
c. telegraphic speech
d. concrete speech
Answer: A
158. An incident of overgeneralization represents a(n):
a. step backward for children
b. atypical landmark in acquiring language
c. point between babbling and single word stages
d. understanding of the basic rules of grammar
Answer: D
159. If you argue that children are genetically “prewired” physiologically and neurologically
to make speech sounds and learn language, you argue for ____ factors in language
a. innate
b. social learning
c. environmental
d. learning
Answer: A
160. The notion of a critical language period supports the idea that ____ factors are involved
in language acquisition.
a. environmental
b. structural
c. innate

d. social
Answer: C
161. According to Noam Chomsky’s view of language acquisition, a child whose parents
speak French will:
a. learn French via genetics
b. be genetically programmed the same way a German child is to facilitate the learning of
c. begin life with no facility for learning language and, therefore, have to learn it all from his
parents and other models
d. have more difficulty than children learning an easier language such as Spanish
Answer: B
162. Feedback, reinforcement, observation, and imitation are examples of ____ related to
language acquisition.
a. innate factors
b. environmental factors
c. transformational rules
d. semantics
Answer: B
163. A mother is thinking about how much TV her young children watch. Based on research
described in Module 14, what should she be most aware about regarding her children’s
language development and viewing habits?
a. reduced conversations between the her and the children
b. increased overgeneralization
c. increased vocabulary
d. increased complexity of deep structure of her children’s speech
Answer: A
164. Dyslexia can be defined as:
a. problems with reading comprehension caused by problems in attention
b. mental retardation that is manifested in reading and writing
c. difficulties in reading despite intelligence, motivation, and education
d. a physical disturbance in the visual system that leads to reading problems
Answer: C

165. Most individuals with dyslexia:
a. are male
b. are female
c. have normal or above-average intelligence
d. are color-blind
Answer: C
166. According to the textbook, learning to read is different than learning to speak, because:
a. the brain does not have innate areas devoted specifically to speaking
b. speaking involves motor movements and hearing
c. the brain does not have innate areas devoted specifically to reading
d. reading is more defined by one’s culture than speaking
Answer: C
167. Which of the following is the correct order of steps in reading?
a. morpheme producer, automatic detector, word analyzer
b. phoneme producer, word analyzer, syntax detector
c. morpheme producer, phoneme analyzer, work detector
d. phoneme producer, word analyzer, automatic detector
Answer: D
168. The phoneme producer is located in the:
a. left inferior frontal gyrus
b. right parieto-temporal lobe
c. left occipital lobe
d. amygdala
Answer: A
169. After a word’s letters are changed into sound, we must:
a. analyze each phoneme
b. vocalize the sound
c. analyze words
d. create a permanent record of the letters and its sound
Answer: C

170. Paul suffers from dyslexia. If the current research is correct, Paul would have:
a. fewer cells in the left hypothalamus
b. associated physical problems primarily an overactive thymus gland
c. problems distinguishing between sounds like pa and ba
d. glasses
Answer: C
171. Bruce has problems hearing the difference between “ba, da, and pa.” An outcome
described in the textbook of Bruce’s problems might be:
a. an attached stigma
b. frustration in social situations
c. problems with the visual perception of words with those letters
d. difficulties hearing the differences between words with those sounds
Answer: D
172. Bruce has problems hearing the difference between “ba, da, and pa.” What is a
neurological explanation for his dyslexia?
a. His word analyzer is overanalyzing the individual letters of a word.
b. He has defective neural wiring between the phoneme producer, word analyzer, and
automatic detector.
c. Bruce has damage in the visual cortex.
d. Bruce has brain damage in the thalamus.
Answer: B
173. Training children with dyslexia to use computer games appears to:
a. increase language ability equal to 1 to 2 years’ worth
b. decrease neural activity from the cortex that interferes with the word analyzer
c. increase neural activity in the phoneme producer and word analyzer
d. create more neural connections in the thalamus
Answer: C
174. You watch a documentary on TV showing children with dyslexia singing a rhyming
song with a teacher. Based on Module 14, what is the most likely outcome of this approach?
a. it reduces activity in the left occipito-temporal areas in the brain
b. it helps children to understand parentese
c. it helps children develop associations between telegraphic speech and babbling

d. it helps children develop associations between sounds and words
Answer: D
175. According to the study cited in the textbook, when looking at an underwater scene,
Japanese subjects gave more statements about:
a. objects that were the largest
b. the background
c. the improbability of the scene
d. the size of the scene
Answer: B
176. When Americans view objects, they tend to:
a. analyze each object separately
b. analyze objects that are close together as being connected
c. perceive the objects as one
d. focus on objects that are familiar
Answer: A
177. Males and females use language differently. Males use language to ____ and females
use it to ____.
a. direct others’ behavior; criticize
b. share concerns; maintain their position in a group
c. solve problems; share concerns
d. criticize; maintain their independence
Answer: C
178. Males use language to ____, whereas females use it to ____.
a. share concerns; direct others’ behavior
b. share concerns; maintain her position in a group
c. solve problems; express ideas
d. maintain their independence; develop feelings of intimacy
Answer: D
179. Using fMRI scans, research has revealed that when males are doing certain word
processing tasks, their brain activity occurs:
a. only in the left hemisphere

b. only in the right hemisphere
c. equally in both hemispheres
d. only in the left occipital lobe
Answer: A
180. Jenny is participating in a study where her brain is being studied with MRI. She is
currently doing a language task. Which area of her brain is especially active?
a. left hemisphere
b. right hemisphere
c. activity is spread out equally in both hemispheres
d. right parietal lobe
Answer: C
181. The Pirahã people illustrate how culture impacts thinking. They:
a. only have words for relative amounts, but not specific numbers
b. only have words for specific numbers, but not relative amounts
c. they have no words for any quantity above one
d. they think of numbers in terms of images
Answer: A
182. What term refers to the ability to use sounds, smells, or gestures to exchange
a. communication
b. expression
c. language
d. grammar
Answer: A
183. Language uses a set of ____ symbols.
a. auditory
b. abstract
c. practical
d. visual
Answer: B

184. Which of the following would be the most accurate title of a newspaper article
describing dolphins’ use of language?
a. “Dolphins communicate to each other using abstract symbols”
b. “Dolphins possess language comprehension”
c. “Studies show dolphins’ ability to create novel sentences”
d. “Science shows dolphins apply rules of grammar”
Answer: B
185. There is little evidence that dolphins:
a. carry out commands
b. express emotional states
c. understand hand signals
d. can apply the rules of grammar to create meaningful sentences
Answer: D
186. In addition to sign language, chimpanzees have been taught to communicate with
humans by using:
a. puppets
b. symbols on a board
c. crude handwriting
d. words in the form of primitive vocalizations
Answer: B
187. Koko the gorilla has a vocabulary of about ____ signs and Washoe the chimpanzee has
learned about ____ signs.
a. 200; 20
b. 500; 50
c. 1,000; 250
d. 1,200; 200
Answer: C
188. The research involving the chimp named Nim has indicated that Nim:
a. actually learned to communicate with language
b. was capable of rules of grammar
c. was primarily imitating or responding to cues

d. used sign language to represent abstract words
Answer: C
189. On a field trip to a primate language lab, you get to see Kinko, a chimp who has learned
250 signs. The researcher says that Kinko really does understand language in the same way
that humans do. What do you say about that?
a. You disagree—primates like Kinko have learned to imitate or respond to cues from their
human teachers.
b. You disagree—no primates have ever been taught to use that many signs.
c. You agree—it is a well-established scientific fact.
d. You agree—but would add that no one really knows how humans understand language.
Answer: A
190. Kanzi, a bonobo, has indicated a knowledge of word order. Psychologists estimate that
his comprehension and use of abstract symbols is equivalent to that of a:
a. 1-year-old human
b. 2-year-old human
c. 4-year-old human
d. 4 1/2-year-old human
Answer: B
191. During research for a paper on Kanzi, you found that he was taught using:
a. chips with symbols on them
b. a keyboard with symbols that stand for words
c. American Sign Language
d. parentese
Answer: B
192. When examining language and animals, researchers believe that ____ is responsible for
the development of human language.
a. parentese
b. social learning
c. a gene called FOXP2
d. education
Answer: C

193. In an audience at the local concert hall, you notice two friends. One is a talented
musician and the other is a nonmusician. As the performer on stages talks about each of the
songs and then plays them, what is going on in the brains of your two friends?
a. the musician’s brain shows more activity in areas involved in both music and speech
b. the musician’s brain shows more activity in areas involved in music
c. the nonmusician’s brain shows more activity in areas involved in both music and speech
d. the nonmusician’s brain shows more activity in areas involved in speech
Answer: A
194. Why should children have some type of musical training?
a. music can relax children
b. musical training can be used to reinforce learning in school
c. musical training can help children learn parentese
d. musical training activates the same brain areas involved in language
Answer: D
1. Developing a list of essential characteristics is important in the exemplar theory of
Answer: True
2. The prototype theory focuses on an “average”-looking object.
Answer: True
3. Children develop concepts through experience.
Answer: True
4. The brain stores different concepts in the same area.
Answer: False
5. The initial state, operations state, and goal state occur in problem solving.
Answer: True
6. An algorithm is a rule of thumb.
Answer: False
7. Functional fixedness allows us to see similarities between situations.
Answer: False
8. A sudden grasp of a solution is called insight.

Answer: True
9. In divergent thinking, we develop many solutions.
Answer: True
10. There is a strong correlation between creativity and IQ.
Answer: False
11. Creative people are driven by external motivation.
Answer: False
12. A phoneme is the smallest meaningful combination of sounds.
Answer: False
13. The grammar of a language is the rules of combining words to form sentences.
Answer: True
14. A child who says, “I goed there” illustrates telegraphic speech.
Answer: False
15. Parentese is a way of speaking to infants.
Answer: True
16. Both innate and environmental factors play a role in language acquisition.
Answer: True
17. We tend to base decisions solely on our rational thinking.
Answer: False
18. In a study on political preferences, strong supporters of candidates use reasoning to
evaluate their candidates’ positions.
Answer: False
19. The theory of linguistic relativity argues that our language affects our thinking.
Answer: True
20. Men and women process words differently in their brains.
Answer: True
21. Dolphins cannot use grammar to create meaningful sentences.
Answer: True
22. Chimps can create novel sentences.
Answer: False

23. The less musical training a person has, the more activity there is in the brain areas
devoted to speech and communication.
Answer: False
24. When a child is taught a song, the brain areas that are stimulated are those also used in
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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