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Module 20—Social Cognitive and Trait Theories
1. The stories of Wangari Maathai and Kiran Bedi illustrate the idea that:
a. personality is fixed from birth
b. personality can help us overcome barriers
c. luck and fate have as much to do with our lives as persistence
d. traits are responsible for civil disobedience
Answer: B
2. According to the textbook, women make good cops partly because they:
a. are less authoritarian
b. are more verbal
c. are more permissive
d. can demonstrate empathy easier than men
Answer: A
3. What barrier did Wangari Maathai face as she founded the Green Belt Movement?
a. debilitating neurological disorder
b. sexism
c. external locus of control
d. corruption of the government of Kenya
Answer: D
4. “People are basically good and their personality is shaped by an inborn tendency to reach
their greatest potential.” What kind of theorist would be most likely to make that statement?
a. social cognitive
b. trait
c. humanistic
d. analytical
Answer: C
5. As Roger attempts to think about his personality, he remembers what he read once: “Your
personality is shaped by the environment, cognitive/personal factors, and behavior.” In what
source did Roger most likely read that?
a. The Handbook of Psychodynamic Theory

b. Maslow’s Essays on Being Human
c. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Social Cognitive Theory
d. The Id, Ego, and Superego
Answer: C
6. “Who you are is shaped by the environment, personal-cognitive factors, and behaviors all
interacting and influencing how information is processed and used.” What kind of theorist
would be most likely to make that statement?
a. social cognitive
b. trait
c. humanistic
d. analytical
Answer: A
7. What words are most descriptive of the social cognitive approach?
a. id, ego, superego
b. self-actualization, intelligence, hierarchy of needs
c. trait, self-efficacy, unconscious motivation
d. cognitive-personal factors, behaviors, environmental factors
Answer: D
8. Ellen’s expectation that other people will treat her fairly is an example of what Bandura
a. paradigms
b. traits
c. cognitive factors
d. environmental influences
Answer: C
9. In social cognitive theory, beliefs, expectations, values, intentions, and social roles are
known as:
a. cognitive factors
b. dispositional factors
c. personal factors
d. traits
Answer: A

10. Trent always expects to fail. Whenever he tries something new he expects to fail. But
most of the time, he actually does very well. He has a hard time trying to remember all of the
success he has. The social cognitive theory would suggest that his ____ influence(s) the way
he interprets his past accomplishments.
a. schemas
b. situational factors
c. intelligence
d. cognitive factors
Answer: D
11. Bandura would say that a person’s emotional makeup and their biological and genetic
influences comprise:
a. personal factors
b. trait factors
c. intelligence
d. cognitive factors
Answer: A
12. According to social cognitive theory, which of the following is/are understood to affect
a. beliefs and feelings
b. unconscious wishes
c. unresolved desires
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: A
13. What are the three interactive factors that play a critical role in shaping our personality
according to social cognitive theory?
a. id, ego, and superego
b. cognitive-personal factors, behaviors, and environmental factors
c. unresolved desires, dreams, and self-actualization drives
d. unconditional positive regard, conditional positive regard, and traits
Answer: B
14. Stephanie expects that other people will treat her unfairly. This belief influences her
behavior to the point that she acts in a suspicious and somewhat rude manner. From the social
cognitive perspective, this contributes to:

a. how people treat her, thereby reinforcing her expectations
b. how people treat her, thereby weakening her expectations
c. the self-efficacy of other people
d. her internal locus of control
Answer: A
15. In social cognitive theory, the social, political, and cultural influences that impact us are
a. conscious forces
b. cognitive-personal factors
c. environmental factors
d. internal factors
Answer: C
16. In his social cognitive theory, Bandura emphasizes cognitive-personal factors, behavior,
a. traits
b. expectations
c. locus of control
d. environmental influences
Answer: D
17. From a social cognitive perspective, what strengthened Wangari Maathai’s belief
regarding the importance of the environment and planting trees?
a. her behavior of having spoken out against deforestation
b. unconscious motives
c. fixation at the anal stage
d. fulfillment of the highest level in Maslow’s hierarchy
Answer: A
18. Albert Bandura developed a theory by which personality development is influenced by
highly developed language ability, observational learning, purposeful behavior, and selfanalysis. His theory is called:
a. social cognitive theory
b. self-actualization theory
c. self-efficacy theory

d. trait theory
Answer: A
19. Social cognitive theory was originally known as ____, and was changed to reflect the
importance of ____ factors.
a. trait theory; social
b. social learning theory; cognitive
c. psychoanalysis; psychological
d. trait theory; cognitive
Answer: B
20. What are the four cognitive processes in Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory?
a. memory, schemas, operant conditioning, and observational learning
b. self-actualization, self-efficacy, locus of control, and classical conditioning
c. language ability, observational learning, purposeful behavior, and self-analysis
d. language ability, gender roles, paradigms, and schemas
Answer: C
21. Learning by watching others and performing the modeled behavior is known as ____
a. observational
b. perceptual
c. operant
d. classical
Answer: A
22. After watching a basketball game, a group of fifth graders go to the gym to play. Each one
of them tries to model what they saw at the game. The cognitive factor most illustrated here
a. locus of control
b. sublimation
c. delay of gratification
d. observational learning
Answer: D
23. A visit to the local mall will reveal that many young boys are wearing the football jersey
of a famous quarterback. This best illustrates:

a. self-analysis
b. observational learning
c. self-efficacy
d. locus of control
Answer: B
24. A new television show is watched by millions of teenagers. Parents and teachers have
noticed that teenagers are imitating the dress and the language of this television show.
Bandura would use the factor of ____ to explain this phenomenon.
a. self-analysis
b. self-actualization
c. observational learning
d. locus of control
Answer: C
25. A popular television game show has influenced our society. We imitate what the host says
and how he dresses. Imitation best illustrates ____. Is that your final answer?
a. delay of gratification
b. self-actualization
c. locus of control
d. observational learning
Answer: D
26. After reading about Bandura’s theory, you realize that you can set goals, plan ahead, and
try to anticipate future events. In other words, you are capable of:
a. self-analysis
b. establishing your own locus of control
c. using language
d. purposeful behavior
Answer: D
27. As part of a class you are interviewing a five-year-old girl. You ask the child to explain
how to cook breakfast and how to ride a bike. She doesn’t seem to notice that her
explanations do not make sense. Since you are familiar with social cognitive theory, you
know that this child probably has not yet developed a mature ability of:
a. self-efficacy
b. self-analysis

c. schemes
d. purposeful behavior
Answer: B
28. You are writing a paper for a class. As you start writing, you notice that you keep on
evaluating your work. You keep deleting what you’ve just written and decide to take a
different approach in your paper. Your ____ allows you to monitor your writing.
a. self-analysis
b. purposeful behavior
c. locus of control
d. observational learning
Answer: A
29. Our belief about how much control we have over situations or rewards is called:
a. self-efficacy
b. self-analysis
c. locus of control
d. purposeful behavior
Answer: C
30. A father is having a discussion with his 15-year-old daughter. He asks what she plans to
do with her life. She replies, “I don’t know. Whatever happens to me will happen, I guess!”
Her response best illustrates a(n) ____ locus of control.
a. external
b. internal
c. primary
d. secondary
Answer: A
31. “I wear my seatbelt every time I’m in a car. I know that I can take steps to keep myself
safe and healthy. I must have a(n) ____ locus of control.”
a. secondary
b. primary
c. external
d. internal
Answer: D

32. If you believe that you have control over situations and rewards, you possess:
a. self-efficacy
b. an internal locus of control
c. an external locus of control
d. self-focused control
Answer: B
33. Ann believes that good things happen to her when she works hard. From a social
cognitive perspective, Ann has:
a. self-actualized
b. self-focused control
c. an external locus of control
d. an internal locus of control
Answer: D
34. “What’s the use? It doesn’t matter how hard I prepare for this job interview. Whatever
happens is just fate or luck.” This thinking reflects:
a. an external locus of control
b. a holistic view of life
c. an internal locus of control
d. becoming fixated at the oral stage of development
Answer: A
35. Clayton flunked his algebra test and believes his failure was due to trick questions on the
exam. Clayton appears to:
a. be using sublimation
b. have an external locus of control
c. be self-actualized
d. have unconditional positive regard
Answer: B
36. Researchers have found correlations between the locus of control and psychological
functioning. Which of the following is an incorrect summary of the research?
a. People with an internal locus of control are generally higher achievers
b. People with an internal locus of control are generally more likely to take preventive health

c. People with an internal locus of control are generally more depressed
d. People with an internal locus of control report less stress
Answer: C
37. Research suggests that people with an internal locus of control are more likely to:
a. report less stress
b. report more depression
c. engage in unhealthy risk-taking behaviors
d. be self-actualized
Answer: A
38. To postpone an immediate reward in favor of completing a task for a future reward is
a. self-efficacy
b. postponement bias
c. delay of gratification
d. self-actualization
Answer: C
39. Sarah has just received a job offer for a position that doesn’t pay well and has few
opportunities for advancement. But jobs are scarce. Does she take the job and forego another
more favorable job offer in the future? She decides to say no to the present offer. She is
a. regression
b. delay of gratification
c. fixation
d. an approach-approach conflict
Answer: B
40. Mischel’s concept of delay of gratification is best related to:
a. fixation
b. identity
c. will power
d. temperament
Answer: C

41. Denise told her nine-year-old daughter Miranda that she could spend her money now and
get an inexpensive toy. On the other hand, Miranda could also save her money and purchase a
more expensive and more preferred toy later. Which of the following, according to Bandura,
is most likely to influence her decision?
a. postponement bias
b. delay of gratification
c. the Big Five Traits
d. locus of control
Answer: B
42. According to research cited in your textbook, four-year-old children who can delay
gratification tend to:
a. strive for higher achievement
b. get better grades
c. select less preferred rewards
d. become easily frustrated
Answer: A
43. Which of the following is not related to the ability to delay gratification?
a. more competence
b. high intelligence
c. greater social responsibility
d. lower self-efficacy
Answer: D
44. Experiments testing children’s ability to delay gratification have found that:
a. the desire for immediate gratification is correlated with success in adult life
b. a child’s ability to delay gratification is determined by the perceived strength of that
c. children who are able to delay gratification develop into adolescents who can concentrate
better than those who cannot
d. a child’s ability to delay gratification is unrelated to his or her eventual personality
Answer: C
45. A social cognitive theorist would say that as a college student, you must be able to put off
immediate rewards and develop the ability to:
a. delay gratification

b. self-actualize without fulfilling deficiency needs
c. tolerate conditional positive regard
d. resolve any id-superego conflict
Answer: A
46. ______ refers to one’s confidence in their ability to organize and execute a given course
of action to solve a problem or accomplish a ask.
a. Self-actualization
b. Self-esteem
c. Self-regard
d. Self-efficacy
Answer: D
47. If you think that you can’t successfully go on a diet, lose weight, and keep it off, then you
a. strong delay of gratification
b. strong self-efficacy
c. Oedipus conflict
d. weak self-efficacy
Answer: D
48. Wayne likes to play computer games, and he is especially good at ones that require good
eye-hand coordination. He is poor on games that require forethought and critical thinking.
His brother Lloyd introduces Wayne to a game that is very similar to the ones at which he has
already excelled. Based upon your understanding of social-cognitive theory, what is Wayne’s
self-efficacy and why?
a. weak self-efficacy—he is comparing his performance to Lloyd’s
b. strong self-efficacy—he is able to have an external locus of control
c. strong self-efficacy—because of his success in the past on similar games
d. weak self-efficacy—his body is telling him that he is anxious
Answer: C
49. Which of the following is not used to judge self-efficacy according to Bandura?
a. comparing our capabilities with those of others
b. comparing our actual experiences to a hierarchical base rate
c. listening to what other people say about our capabilities

d. using feedback from our bodies
Answer: B
50. There is a children’s story of a little red engine that was confronted with a heavy load.
The little red engine kept saying, “I think I can, I think I can” as it attempted to carry the
load. Which of the components of social cognitive theory does this story best illustrate?
a. self-efficacy
b. positive regard
c. willpower
d. personal factors
Answer: A
51. According to the research on self-efficacy, your motivation for doing well on a variety of
tasks is influenced by:
a. how strongly you believe in your own capabilities
b. the extent to which you resolved the Oedipus or Electra complex
c. the ability to delay gratification
d. how others treat your capability
Answer: A
52. “I don’t think that I’m capable of selecting the right answer to this question.” According
to Bandura, this best illustrates weak:
a. ideal self
b. transference
c. self-actualization
d. self-efficacy
Answer: D
53. The case of Michael J. Fox illustrates:
a. the shortcomings of social cognitive theory
b. the person-situation interaction
c. the role that the unconscious mind has on motivation
d. how beliefs influence personality and behavior
Answer: D
54. An advantage of the social cognitive approach is that:
a. it does consider the importance of unconscious motives

b. it has integrated more influential factors than other theories
c. childhood experiences are examined
d. it is based primarily upon the clinical experiences of Albert Bandura
Answer: B
55. An accurate evaluation of social-cognitive theory is that social cognitive concepts:
a. are less subject to error and bias
b. cannot be manipulated or experimentally tested
c. form a complete theory of personality
d. include the influence of childhood and emotional factors
Answer: A
56. A person’s fear of snakes can be successfully treated by observing a fearless model
handling a snake. This is based on:
a. psychodynamic theory
b. humanistic theory
c. social cognitive theory
d. the trait approach
Answer: C
57. One criticism of social cognitive theory is that:
a. many concepts have not been experimentally based
b. it takes into account interactions among cognitive factors, behavior, and environmental
c. too little attention is paid to childhood experiences
d. these concepts have been unsuccessfully used in programs for change
Answer: C
58. Which of the following is a criticism of social cognitive theory?
a. It describes an interaction among only cognitive-personal factors, behaviors, and the
b. It is experimentally based.
c. It pays little attention to genetic factors.
d. Many of the concepts have been manipulated, controlled, and tested.
Answer: C

59. Dr. Erkzine says that one of the shortcomings of social cognitive theory is that it is
empirically based. What is your reaction to his criticism?
a. You agree and would add that there is more evidence supporting the psychodynamic
b. Being experimentally based is actually a strength of social cognitive theory.
c. He may be right, but that is a mild problem of social cognitive theory.
d. You agree and add that another shortcoming is that the theory just focuses on
environmental influences.
Answer: B
60. Do women make better peacekeepers? Evidence suggests that the answer is:
a. yes, at least for now, because women have a greater determination to succeed
b. no, because women in our society tend to have a lower sense of self-efficacy
c. yes, because personality traits shared by many women are useful in keeping the peace
d. no, because the performance of male and female officers is about the same
Answer: C
61. A term used to describe female police officers is ____, while male police officers are
described as ____.
a. peacekeepers; enforcers
b. negotiators; peacekeepers
c. referees; enforcers
d. enforcers; referees
Answer: A
62. Officer Taylor is a 20-year veteran of the police department. If he is typical of male police
officers, his traits would include:
a. diplomacy
b. sympathy
c. assertiveness
d. compassion
Answer: C
63. An approach aimed at understanding the structure of personality by measuring,
identifying, and classifying similarities and differences in personality is called:
a. social cognitive theory

b. cognitive-behavioral theory
c. psychodynamic theory
d. trait theory
Answer: D
64. Using personality characteristics that are relatively stable and enduring to explain
behavior is called:
a. the trait approach
b. the cognitive-social approach
c. the psychodynamic approach
d. the transactional approach
Answer: A
65. A relatively stable and enduring tendency to behave in a particular way is called a(n):
a. self-concept
b. trait
c. internal locus of control
d. factor
Answer: B
66. A personality researcher tells her associates that her goal is to identify the smallest
number of enduring tendencies that can describe all the differences between personalities.
This researcher appears to subscribe to which theory of personality?
a. trait
b. psychodynamic
c. social cognitive
d. humanistic
Answer: A
67. Just as Professor Snyder is dismissing class, she says, “Tomorrow we will look at
relatively stable and enduring tendencies to behave in particular ways.” Since you’ve done
the assigned reading already, you know that tomorrow the professor will be presenting the
topic of ____ theory.
a. social cognitive
b. psychodynamic
c. trait

d. humanistic
Answer: C
68. Which names are most associated with the trait theory of personality?
a. Richard Lazarus and Alfred Binet
b. Walter Mischel and Julian Rotter
c. Gordon Allport and Raymond Cattell
d. Albert Bandura and B. F. Skinner
Answer: C
69. In the 1930s, Gordon Allport found ____ traits in the dictionary.
a. 4,500
b. 7,500
c. 10,000
d. 11,750
Answer: A
70. What was the disadvantage to the list of traits developed by Gordon Allport?
a. traits cannot be measured
b. some traits were poorly defined
c. there were too few traits
d. it was too long
Answer: D
71. Who was it that constructed a list of traits that was considered too long and therefore
impractical to use in research?
a. Albert Bandura
b. Gordon Allport
c. Daryl Bem
d. B.F. Skinner
Answer: B
72. The statistical technique that reveals relationships among different items and then puts
similar items into groups is called:
a. factor analysis
b. correlation

c. standard deviation
d. linear regression
Answer: A
73. Cattell utilized factor analysis to reduce Allport’s lengthy list of traits down to:
a. a five-factor model
b. source traits
c. a hierarchy of traits
d. higher-order and lower-order traits
Answer: B
74. In the Big Five, each factor represents:
a. one or two “subtraits”
b. an unconscious construct that cannot be measured
c. a dichotomy
d. a continuum of behavior
Answer: D
75. The acronym OCEAN refers to:
a. an objective measure of personality
b. defense mechanisms
c. The Big Five traits
d. the elements of social cognitive theory
Answer: C
76. Which of the following is not one of the five groups of traits in the five-factor model used
to describe personality?
a. neuroticism
b. intelligence
c. extroversion
d. agreeableness
Answer: B
77. When making decisions, Kevin doesn’t systematically consider options and their possible
consequences. In fact, you could say he makes decisions carelessly. Which of The Big Five
traits is most relevant to Kevin?

a. conscientiousness
b. anal expulsive
c. extraversion
d. fixation
Answer: A
78. Ellie, a college sophomore, doesn’t enjoy going to social events. She would prefer to stay
at home. Which of The Big Five traits is most relevant to Ellie?
a. supertrait
b. conscientiousness
c. extraversion
d. locus of control
Answer: C
79. Jeremy is very outgoing. He enjoys taking risks and being involved in any social
activities. He prefers to be with people and dislikes jobs where he has to work alone. Jeremy
would be classified being high on the ______ factor of the Big Five model.
a. neuroticism
b. openness
c. extraversion
d. antagonism
Answer: C
80. During a meeting, Howard presents an idea for a new product. Bobby, who has a
tendency to have narrow interests, says, “That new product Howard talks about, it will never
work. Never, never, never and you can bet on that!” Which of the following traits would be
most applicable to Bobby?
a. openness
b. conscientiousness
c. extroversion
d. neuroticism
Answer: A
81. The Big Five traits can be thought of as:
a. interrelated
b. out of date, since there is little research support for it

c. supertraits
d. sharply focused single traits
Answer: C
82. In examining cultural differences in the Big Five traits, research has found:
a. only openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism to be present in most cultures
b. support in very different countries and cultures
c. similarities, but only in individualistic countries
d. similarities, but only among males of the cultures
Answer: B
83. In examining The Big Five traits, researchers have found regional differences in the U.S.
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. The highest scores on agreeableness are found in the Midwest.
b. The highest scores on conscientiousness are found in the Midwest and in the South.
c. The highest scores on openness are found in the Northeast and West
d. The highest scores on agreeableness are found in the South.
Answer: B
84. Walter Mischel, in a discussion of trait theory, commented that:
a. the five-factor model should be reduced down to a two-factor model
b. traits accurately predict behavior across situations
c. individuals do not behave consistently across different situations
d. traits are not based on inherited factors
Answer: C
85. Joe is a nice guy. Trait theory would predict:
a. Joe would be nice in some situations, but not in other situations
b. his “niceness” would disappear as his fixation is reduced
c. Joe would be nice only when his ego constructs a defense mechanism
d. he would be nice across different situations
Answer: D
86. The example of Jerry Sandusky’s public exposure for child sexual abuse use best
a. the role the Big Five play in personality

b. the difference between an internal and external locus of control
c. how people behave differently in different situations
d. how we learn by observation
Answer: C
87. Fran considers herself to be a patient person, as do her close friends and children. If Fran
is like many other people tested, she will:
a. be consistently patient in many varied situations
b. be considered patient by others because she considers herself to be patient
c. also be kind
d. show impatience in some situations
Answer: D
88. According to trait theory, you can predict behavior from one situation to another situation
provided that:
a. you observe the person several times
b. the two situations are essentially the same
c. the two situations occur in contiguous time
d. the behavior is easily described
Answer: B
89. A shipping company is looking for a new manager for its warehouse. Applicants are
administered a battery of personality tests. If the company wishes to pick the best person for
the job, it should:
a. forget about the personality tests and rely solely on interviews
b. look very carefully at the personality tests and place little emphasis on interviews
c. choose the applicant who scores highest on an intelligence test
d. place the applicants in work situations and watch how they behave
Answer: D
90. Vern considers Phil to be a very honest person. In fact, in a psychology class in which the
consistency of traits was being discussed, Vern cited his friend as an example of consistency.
It may be that Vern is overestimating Phil’s consistency, because Vern:
a. is not particularly honest himself
b. is externally oriented
c. judges Phil’s behavior in the same type of situation each time

d. is not very intelligent
Answer: C
91. Walter Mischel noted that to predict behavior, we must take into account:
a. the situation and the trait
b. the self-efficacy of the subject
c. the validity and reliability of the personality test that was used
d. the obviousness of the behavior
Answer: A
92. Your behavior is the result of an interaction between your traits and the effects of being in
a specific situation. This is called:
a. behavioral biasing
b. situational behavioral interaction
c. trait-environment duo
d. person-situation interaction
Answer: D
93. From the trait theory perspective, how could you improve the accuracy in predicting
behaviors across situations?
a. define the subject’s phenomenological experience more exactly
b. decrease the number of judges making the prediction
c. increase the number of observations in many different situations
d. measure the behavior in a few situations
Answer: C
94. In a letter of recommendation you are writing for someone, you use ____ as a short cut in
describing their personality.
a. cognitive-personal factors
b. traits
c. locus of control
d. self-efficacy
Answer: B
95. At what age would we expect the beginnings of a person’s more stable personality traits?
a. age 3

b. age 12
c. age 18
d. age 30
Answer: A
96. Between 22 and 30, people generally become:
a. less cooperative
b. less self-disciplined
c. less emotional
d. more emotional
Answer: C
97. After age 30, there are ____ in personality traits and a person’s personality is ____.
a. small changes; stable
b. large changes; instable
c. no changes; instable
d. significant changes; stable
Answer: A
98. As a young adult, Roberta was considered to be sociable and friendly. If we were to meet
Roberta in late adulthood, we would:
a. find that those traits had diminished
b. find that those traits had become more prominent
c. be reasonably sure that she would still be sociable and friendly
d. be unable to predict her personality, because traits are not stable over long periods of time
Answer: C
99. If there is personality change after the age of 30, it generally is:
a. restricted to openness to new ideas
b. only temporary and tied to the situation
c. because of the adoption of a totally new theme
d. due to stressors and challenges
Answer: D
100. Ross is 35 years old and enjoys collecting stamps. Based on the research described in the
textbook, which of the following is most likely to happen to Ross as he ages?

a. He will start tinkering with old cars.
b. He will start collecting beer steins.
c. He will start jogging and lifting weights.
d. He will become less dependent on his wife.
Answer: B
101. In understanding the trait of shyness, a behavioral geneticist will argue that:
a. identical twins separated at birth will always have the same level of shyness
b. genetics will determine two levels of shyness and environmental factors will determine
which one actually occurs
c. the influence of genetics on shyness is fixed
d. genetics set a range for the level of shyness and environmental influences will interact with
that range
Answer: D
102. If you are studying how inherited factors influence and interact with psychological
factors to shape personality, then you are studying:
a. psychogenetics
b. actualization
c. behavioral genetics
Answer: C
103. Who published the first study simultaneously comparing four different groups of twins?
a. Thomas Bouchard
b. Jim Springer
c. Raymond Cattell
d. Julian Rotter
Answer: A
104. Which of the following groups share nearly 100% of their genes?
a. fraternal twins reared together
b. identical twins reared together
c. fraternal twins reared apart
d. a brother and sister born three years apart

Answer: B
105. The statistical measure that estimates how much of a behavior is due to genetic factors is
a. factor analysis
b. behavioral genetics
c. heritability
d. graphology
Answer: C
106. If intelligence has a heritability of .5 to .7, it means that:
a. 50–70% of a person’s IQ score is explained by genetic factors
b. 50–70% of IQ scores are explained by genetic factors
c. 5–7% of a person’s IQ score is explained by genetic factors
d. 25–49% of a person’s IQ score is explained by genetic factors
Answer: A
107. If genetics plays no role in a behavior, then the heritability would be:


b. 100
c. 1
d. 0.0
Answer: D
108. The heritability of personality traits range from:
a. .05–.10
b. .41–.51
c. .69–.99
d. 1.56–2.90
Answer: B
109. Kaisa is a three-year-old and seems to have the genes for shyness. Her parents will try to
encourage her to socialize and play with other children. What is the most likely outcome that
her parents can expect?
a. She is likely to outgrow her shyness.
b. Her shyness will likely become more intense.

c. Kaisa’s level of shyness is likely to stay at the same level.
d. It is impossible to predict what will happen
Answer: A
110. Which of the following is an accurate evaluation of the genetic influences on traits?
a. Data for the five-factor model give a complete portrait of personality.
b. 40–50% of the development of personality traits is attributable to genetic factors.
c. Genetic factors do not determine behaviors.
d. Traits can be used to effectively predict behaviors across different situations.
Answer: B
111. Regarding the development of personality, it is currently believed that:
a. a shared environment has a significant effect on the development of personality
b. individual differences in personality can be attributed primarily to heredity
c. personality changes most rapidly during adolescence
d. heredity has some influence on personality, but environment also has a strong influence
Answer: D
112. Factors that involve how each individual’s genetic factors react and adjust to the
environment are called:
a. nonshared environmental factors
b. shared environmental factors
c. nominal environmental factors
d. interactive environmental factors
Answer: A
113. Two variables that have minimal impact on personality development are:
a. the family’s economic status and the child’s gender
b. genetics and nonshared environmental factors
c. parental practices and shared family experiences
d. shared environmental factors and genetics
Answer: C
114. Personality appears to be influenced by several factors. Of the following lists, which one
correctly orders the factors contributing to personality (from most to least):
a. error, genetic factors, nonshared environmental factors, shared environmental factors

b. genetic factors, shared environmental factors, nonshared environmental factors, error
c. shared environmental factors, genetic factors, nonshared environmental factors, error
d. genetic factors, nonshared environmental factors, error, shared environmental factors
Answer: D
115. The professor is discussing the various influences on personality. She writes the four
factors on the overhead projector. Which one has the least impact on personality?
a. genetics
b. nonshared environmental factors
c. innate predispositions
d. parental practices
Answer: D
116. A problem with the five-factor model is that:
a. its comprehensiveness makes it too unmanageable
b. it is too limited and simplistic to give meaningful descriptions of personalities
c. it is based upon unreliable statistical techniques
d. it takes into account genetic influences
Answer: B
117. Personality tests based on the five-factor model:
a. find significant differences between different populations and age groups
b. allow us to make very accurate predictions across most situations
c. fail to show the complexity of the human personality
d. lack reliability and validity
Answer: C
118. One shortcoming with the trait theory is its insistence that:
a. behavior is consistent across all situations
b. personality traits have a strong genetic basis
c. the Big Five traits are valid
d. the situation can change behavior
Answer: A
119. Traits could be better predictors of future behavior if they were assessed:
a. through the interview technique

b. at different times, but in the same situation
c. in different conditions and situations
d. using projective techniques
Answer: C
120. Environmental factors contribute about ____ to personality traits.
a. 80%
b. 5%
c. 10%
d. 50%
Answer: D
121. “He’s changed.” “There’s something different about him.” “I wonder what happened to
him?” These observations refer to someone who experienced a sudden and dramatic shift in
personality, beliefs, and values. This change is called a:
a. transformation
b. profound personality alteration
c. quantum personality change
d. transference shift
Answer: C
122. Why are dramatic, sudden changes in personality difficult to believe?
a. because they are based on psychodynamic techniques
b. personality traits are stable and typically do not change suddenly
c. genetics account for 95% of personality, and genetics do not change
d. environment, which influences personality, never changes suddenly
Answer: B
123. A significant concern regarding the study of quantum personality change is that:
a. the data are only self-reports, subject to bias and inaccuracies
b. personality is not subject to dramatic shifts
c. there is no valid or reliable way to measure personality changes
d. subjects are difficult to recruit
Answer: A

124. Ricardo has just experienced a quantum personality change. If his experience is typical,
in the past year, Ricardo has:
a. experienced minor fluctuations in personality
b. had an increase in positive life experiences
c. had a high level of emotional distress and negative life experiences
d. successfully met some challenge involving interpersonal relationships
Answer: C
125. Richard experienced a quantum personality change about 10 years ago. If his experience
is typical, Richard’s change in personality has:
a. continued
b. reverted back to how he was before the change
c. intensified
d. become more unstable with large fluctuations in personality
Answer: A
126. Suicide bombers in the Middle East tend to be motivated by:
a. personal and cultural influences
b. peer pressure
c. poorly developed egos
d. unconscious conflict and cultural influences
Answer: A
127. Does there appear to be a specific personality profile in suicide bombers from the
Middle East?
a. Yes—they tend to be very individualistic
b. Yes—these individuals tend to be very violent
c. No
d. Yes—suicide bombers tend to be introverted
Answer: C
128. More and more Palestinian suicide bombers are women. Why?
a. Most Palestinian males are not motivated to become suicide bombers.
b. Most victims don’t suspect women to be suicide bombers.
c. The Palestinian culture expects women to take this type of action.

d. The Palestinian culture prohibits men to take action like this.
Answer: B
129. Why do many Palestinians not criticize suicide bombers?
a. Palestinians see it as a way to reach Maslow’s level of self-efficacy.
b. It is seen as a way to address the unconscious conflict of the individual bomber, and thus to
“cleanse oneself.”
c. The government forbids criticism of suicide bombers.
d. It’s cultural; they are seen as revered martyrs.
Answer: D
130. In reviewing the psychodynamic theory of personality, select the word that does not
match the theory.
a. free association
b. trait
c. superego
d. phallic
Answer: B
131. In reviewing the humanistic theory of personality, select the word that does not match
the theory.
a. self-actualization
b. holistic view
c. hierarchy of needs
d. Big Five
Answer: D
132. In reviewing the social cognitive theory of personality, select the word that does not
match the theory.
a. self-efficacy
b. delay of gratification
c. id
d. observational learning
Answer: C
133. In reviewing the trait theory of personality, select the word that does not match the

a. self-concept
b. Big Five
d. factor analysis
Answer: A
134. Personality tests with specific written statements that require clients to respond with a
limited range of answers are called:
a. objective tests
b. projective tests
c. factor analyses
d. heritability tests
Answer: A
135. Dr. Donaldson is giving Mark a personality test that consists of ambiguous stimuli. This
is an example of a test that is:
a. standardized
b. structured
c. projective
d. objective
Answer: C
136. To find honest and trustworthy employees, a business owner might give:
a. the Thematic Apperception Test
b. behavioral tests
c. projective tests
d. integrity tests
Answer: D
137. The most frequently given psychological tests in the United States are:
a. integrity tests
b. personality tests
c. projective tests
d. intelligence tests
Answer: A

138. One of the best-known objective tests for personality is the:
a. Thematic Apperception Test
b. Rorschach inkblot test
c. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2
d. Locus of Control Inventory
Answer: C
139. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory contains three scales. Clinical scales,
content scales, and:
a. depression scales
b. mood scales
c. abnormality scales
d. validity scales
Answer: D
140. The purpose of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is to:
a. identify the locus of control
b. assess emotional adjustment in people with mental disorders
c. help students determine their learning style
d. reveal unresolved unconscious conflicts
Answer: B
141. Studies investigating the relationship between personality and the signs of the zodiac
have found that:
a. there are actually a number of relationships between a zodiac sign and personality
b. there is a relationship between a zodiac sign and personality only for people who make a
habit of reading horoscopes
c. no relationship exists between a zodiac sign and personality
d. Aries, Capricorn, and Virgo are the only signs that correlate consistently with personality
Answer: C
142. Astrology and horoscopes lack
a. scoring
b. the Barnum principle
c. reliability

d. validity
Answer: D
143. Juana went to a fortuneteller at the county fair and was amazed at how accurate the
fortuneteller was in describing her personality. It is likely that the fortuneteller’s accuracy
was due to:
a. ESP
b. the Barnum principle
c. inside information
d. projective techniques
Answer: B
144. In his horoscope, Alan reads that he is an interesting person who cares about people.
According to the Barnum principle, Alan will:
a. reject the assessment because it is too general
b. reject the assessment unless it refers to traits that Alan values
c. accept the assessment because it is generally true for most people
d. accept the assessment only if he believes it fits his personality
Answer: C
145. A test that produces the same results if administered on different occasions to the same
person is considered:
a. probable
b. valid
c. reliable
d. psychologically sound
Answer: C
146. A researcher administers a new personality test to 20 college students. Six months later
she readministers the test and finds that her results are not at all consistent with those
gathered at the first test administration. The researcher’s test has a problem of:
a. validity
b. reliability
c. probability
d. replicative credibility
Answer: B

147. When a test measures what it was constructed to measure, it is considered:
a. reliable
b. psychologically sound
c. constructive
d. valid
Answer: D
148. A student takes a statistics test that is based on baseball box scores and team standing.
Afterward, the student mentions to the instructor that, to do well on the test, a student had to
be familiar with baseball, which is not part of the course. The student is criticizing the test’s:
a. validity
b. reliability
c. probability
d. psychological worth
Answer: A
149. The main advantage of objective tests is:
a. that most people give honest responses
b. the ease of administration and good reliability
c. that they are good predictors of behavior
d. the wide variety of useful tests
Answer: B
150. The reliability of the MMPI-2 ranges from:
a. .01 to .21
b. .34 to .41
c. .43 to .62
d. .70 to .85
Answer: D
151. Which of the following is not among the advantages of objective tests, as presented in
your textbook?
a. They are easily administered.
b. They are highly structured.
c. They have good reliability.

d. They only measure conscious factors.
Answer: D
152. Professor Freudson, an avid advocate for the Freudian perspective, has criticized
objective tests of personality. What is his criticism?
a. They cannot predict behaviors in specific situations.
b. They may not measure unconscious personality factors.
c. They are not useful in identifying personality differences.
d. They have low reliability and validity.
Answer: B
153. Slick Lefty, a convicted criminal, is taking an objective test of personality. Slick Lefty
wants to give the impression that he is ready for parole. What should the clinician, who is
giving the test to Slick Lefty, remember about objective tests?
a. People can figure out how to give socially desirable answers.
b. They are not useful in identifying personality differences.
c. They have low reliability and validity.
d. They are difficult to administer.
Answer: A
154. Which of the following is a disadvantage of objective tests?
a. They cannot predict behaviors in specific situations.
b. They are difficult to administer.
c. They have low reliability and validity.
d. They are not useful in identifying personality differences.
Answer: A
155. Why do many employers require potential employees to take personality tests?
a. to see how applicants handle stress and negative feedback
b. protection from legal liability
c. for tax savings
d. to predict how well the person will fit with the job
Answer: D
156. If you are applying for a job and are required to take a personality test, the best advice
for you is to:
a. be honest

b. be skeptical, since personality tests do not have good reliability or validity
c. decline to take it, claiming that it is an invasion of privacy
d. figure out what kind of answers they want and give it to them
Answer: A
157. Some companies that use personality tests claim that it has real benefits, such as
decreases in:
a. liability lawsuits
b. absenteeism
c. quantum personality change in employees
d. health insurance payments
Answer: B
1. Social cognitive theory emphasizes unconscious conflicts.
Answer: False
2. An important name in social cognitive theory is Albert Bandura.
Answer: True
3. According to social cognitive theory, your behavior does not influence your beliefs.
Answer: False
4. If you believe that you have little control over what happens, then you have an internal
Answer: False
5. Children who can delay gratification tend to be more intelligent.
Answer: True
6. From a social cognitive view, Michael J. Fox shows how unconscious motives can
influence behavior.
Answer: False
7. Previous experiences do not have much effect on a person’s self-efficacy.
Answer: False
8. Social cognitive theory pays too little attention to genetic factors.
Answer: True
9. A trait is a relatively stable and enduring tendency to behave in a certain way.

Answer: True
10. The Big Five refers to traits.
Answer: True
11. Little research support has been found in different cultures for OCEAN.
Answer: False
12. The trait approach predicts that people are consistent across situations.
Answer: True
13. Walter Mischel has found that people act consistently in similar situations.
Answer: True
14. Personality traits are relatively fixed by age 20.
Answer: False
15. The heritability of IQ is about 10%.
Answer: False
16. The Big Five has been found to be a valid and reliable way to describe personality.
Answer: True
17. The person-situation interaction supports the trait approach to personality.
Answer: False
18. The quality of life typically decreases following a quantum personality change.
Answer: False
19. Suicide bombers are more likely to have adjustment problems than non-bombers.
Answer: False
20. Most Palestinians consider only male suicide bombers to be martyrs.
Answer: False
21. The MMPI-2-RF is a projective test.
Answer: False
22. Objective personality tests tend to have good reliability.
Answer: True
23. To say that a psychological test has reliability means that it measures what it claims to
Answer: False
24. The MMPI-2 can be used to screen job applicants.

Answer: True
25. Personality tests used in the hiring process take the place of interviews with the candidate.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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