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Module 24—Therapies
1. What case played an important role in the development of psychoanalysis?
a. Little Albert
b. Phineas Gage
c. Sybil
d. Anna O.
Answer: D
2. The case of Anna O. allowed Freud to:
a. develop his treatment approach called psychoanalysis
b. see how incorrect his treatment ideas were
c. test his new technique called systematic desensitization
d. conduct experiments on hysteria
Answer: A
3. What happened to Anna’s symptoms when she recalled her painful past experiences in
a. They disappeared for a time, but reemerged as different symptoms.
b. Her symptoms disappeared.
c. Her hallucinations intensified.
d. She had to be committed to a mental hospital.
Answer: B
4. Anna O.’s case is important, because it reflects Freud’s premise that:
a. emotional problems originate in the unconscious
b. Americans will pay money to have someone listen to their problems
c. emotional problems are conditioned
d. thoughts play no role in psychological problems
Answer: A
5. Freud believed that Anna’s symptoms were caused by:
a. a conditioned emotional reaction
b. low self-efficacy
c. strong, primitive unconscious sexual desires

d. a hormonal dysfunction
Answer: C
6. What case played an important role in the development of behavior therapy?
a. Little Albert
b. Phineas Gage
c. Sybil
d. Anna O.
Answer: A
7. The case of Little Albert was important in the development of:
a. cognitive therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. behavior therapy
d. client-centered therapy
Answer: C
8. By what mechanism did Little Albert come to fear a white rat?
a. inferiority complex
b. failure to fulfill deficiency needs
c. classical conditioning
d. unresolved conflicts
Answer: C
9. Little Albert was conditioned to:
a. sit in a trance-like state
b. fear a white rat
c. unlearn his fear of a rat
d. be unresponsive to a rat
Answer: B
10. Which psychologist conditioned Little Albert to fear a rat?
a. Aaron Beck
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Carl Rogers

d. John Watson
Answer: D
11. The case of Little Albert demonstrated that:
a. emotional problems may develop through conditioning
b. manifest content is related to latent content
c. serotonin may play a role in fear
d. unconscious conflicts can lead to emotional problems
Answer: A
12. Verbal interaction between the therapist and client, a supportive relationship, and analysis
of the client’s experiences are the three characteristics of:
a. psychotherapy
b. deinstitutionalization
c. meta-analysis
d. transference
Answer: A
13. During the middle ages, schizophrenic individuals were called:
a. schizophrenics
b. neurotics
c. lunatics
d. idiots
Answer: C
14. The typical treatment of individuals with schizophrenia from the 15th to 18th centuries
a. bloodletting
b. exorcism and trephination
c. confinement to asylums or hospitals
d. phenothiazines
Answer: C
15. If you were diagnosed with schizophrenia in the 1600s, you would probably be:
a. put in a straitjacket or chained to a wall
b. treated humanely

c. treated at a community mental health center
d. treated with Thorazine
Answer: A
16. It is the late 1700s, and you are a colleague of Dr. Benjamin Rush. He invites you into his
study to show his therapeutic tool to calm patients down. What does he show you?
a. an antianxiety drug
b. a straitjacket
c. the “tranquilizing chair”
d. an herbal blend
Answer: C
17. Dr. Benjamin Rush tried to cure patients by:
a. teaching them coping skills
b. analyzing their dreams
c. injecting them with neuroleptic drugs
d. drawing large amounts of blood over a period of time from patients
Answer: D
18. What did Dorothea Dix do for the treatment of mental patients during the 1800s?
a. She fought for humane treatment and moral therapy.
b. She argued that mental patients could be treated in their homes.
c. She began the process of deinstitutionalization.
d. She developed the country’s first psychiatric hospital.
Answer: A
19. Dorothea Dix’s efforts were important in the development of:
a. antipsychotic drugs
b. the tranquilizing chair
c. institutionalization
d. moral therapy
Answer: D
20. “Let us take these mental patients and treat them with dignity and give them a relaxed and
decent environment.” This approach to treatment is known as:
a. psychoanalysis

b. moral therapy
c. cognitive therapy
d. desensitization
Answer: B
21. Who might have written, “These patients are humans. Thus we must treat them humanely.
Let their stay with us be pleasant and relaxing?”
a. Benjamin Rush
b. Aaron Beck
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Dorothea Dix
Answer: D
22. If a newspaper article was written describing Dorothea Dix’s contribution to reforming
the care of mental patients, what would be the most appropriate title?
a. “Dix Fights for Cognitive Behavior Therapy”
b. “Dix Argues for Community Mental Health Centers to Be Built”
c. “Dix Advocates Bloodletting for Treatment”
d. “Dix: Working to Provide Humane Treatment”
Answer: D
23. Who is most closely associated with the moral treatment movement?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Aaron Beck
c. Dorothea Dix
d. Carl Rogers
Answer: C
24. Professor White is writing a book to describe the mental hospitals of the late 1800s.
Knowing what you do about that era, what title would you recommend to Professor White for
her book?
a. Using Behavior Therapy in Mental Hospitals of the Late 1800s
b. Bloodletting as the Preferred Treatment in Mental Hospitals
c. Treatment for Mentally Disturbed Patients in the Late 1800s: Pleasant Settings
d. Snake Pits: “Caring” for the Mentally Ill in the Late 1800s
Answer: D

25. Peaking in the 1950s, psychoanalysis was more effective in treating ____ than ____.
a. less serious disorders; more serious disorders
b. males; females
c. middle-class patients; lower-class patients
d. psychosis; neurosis
Answer: A
26. Which of the following is an accurate representation of the life of a mental patient in the
early 1900s?
a. Mental patients were sentenced to prison.
b. Hospitals sold tickets so that people could come and observe the behavior of mental
c. Mental patients were kept in huge, overcrowded hospitals with little supervision.
d. Hospitals used drug therapy to treat mental patients.
Answer: C
27. Of the following historical figures, who is most responsible for introducing drugs into the
treatment of mental disorders?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Henri Laborit
c. Benjamin Rush
d. Francine Shapiro
Answer: B
28. The initial use of chlorpromazine was to:
a. lower blood pressure
b. treat epilepsy
c. calm down a patient before surgery
d. treat the side effects of ECT
Answer: C
29. The ____ are a group of drugs that reduce the effects of the neurotransmitter dopamine,
and are used to reduce schizophrenic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions.
a. bioamines
b. catacholamines
c. monoamines

d. phenothiazines
Answer: D
30. The phenothiazines are effective in reducing schizophrenic symptoms by:
a. reducing the size of brain ventricles
b. blocking or reducing the effects of dopamine
c. increasing the effects of dopamine
d. blocking or reducing the effects of hormones
Answer: B
31. The mental health system in the 1950s was marked by:
a. the development of the community mental health center
b. the development and use of antipsychotic drugs
c. an increase in the number of institutionalized mental patients
d. an increase in the severity of symptoms displayed by mental patients
Answer: B
32. In 1950, there were ____ patients in mental hospitals. In 1970, there were ____ patients in
mental hospitals.
a. 1,000,000; 555,000
b. 555,000; 750,000
c. 550,000; 150,000
d. 100,000; 5,000
Answer: C
33. In 2000, there were ____ patients in mental hospitals. Deinstitutionalization has ____ that
number over the last 40 years.
a. 1,000,000; reduced
b. 10,000; reduced
c. 80,000; reduced
d. 100,000; increased
Answer: C
34. The term deinstitutionalization refers to:
a. moving mental patients from the prisons into mental hospitals
b. the dramatic increase in the number of mental patients during the 1950s

c. offering low-cost mental health care to a community
d. releasing mental patients from mental hospitals and returning them to the community
Answer: D
35. The goal of deinstitutionalization was to:
a. improve the training of mental health professionals
b. test a new form of psychotherapy
c. get patients back into the community
d. reduce the amount of money spent on mental patients
Answer: C
36. Many former mental patients have ended up in the street as America’s homeless. Which
of the following is probably at least partially responsible?
a. the failures of psychoanalysis
b. moral treatment movement
c. community mental health centers
d. deinstitutionalization
Answer: D
37. What percentage of Americans experience a mental disorder at some time in a year?
a. 3%
b. 17%
c. 26%
d. 39%
Answer: C
38. Community mental health centers are:
a. large mental hospitals that house hundreds of patients
b. half-way houses for mental patients
c. places for mental patients who do not need in-patient hospitalization
d. facilities that perform electric shock therapy
Answer: C
39. Marty requires some professional help, but cannot afford it. He should seek help at:
a. the nearest welfare office
b. his local community mental health center

c. the Department of Social Services
d. the nearest psychiatric hospital
Answer: B
40. Community mental health centers focus on:
a. early detection and prevention
b. conducting clinical research
c. intense psychoanalysis
d. anxiety disorders
Answer: A
41. Karl is going to visit the local community mental health center. He is most likely to see a:
a. psychiatric nurse
b. psychoanalyst
c. psychiatrist
d. clinical psychologist
Answer: D
42. How many Americans each year need help in dealing with different mental disorders,
according to the American Psychological Association?
a. 2 million
b. 30 million
c. 50 million
d. 80 million
Answer: B
43. When should a person seek help for some psychological or behavioral problem?
a. When other people indicate that help should be sought.
b. When the problem starts to interfere with the person’s daily functioning.
c. When thoughts of suicide first surface.
d. When many days of being depressed pass.
Answer: B
44. According to the textbook, what is a reason why so many individuals who need help do
not seek it?
a. social stigma attached to having a mental disorder

b. difficulty recognizing the point at which people see they need help
c. most people know that no effective treatments exist for mental disorders
d. most disorders are so severe that the person loses touch with reality
Answer: A
45. Brett is visiting a psychiatrist, where he will receive psychotherapy. Is this typical?
a. yes; psychiatrists typically provide psychotherapy
b. no; psychiatrists are not trained to provide psychotherapy
c. no; less than 30% of visits to psychiatrists involve psychotherapy
d. maybe; about half of all visits to psychiatrists involve psychotherapy
Answer: C
46. A therapist with an MD is most likely a:
a. neurologist
b. psychoanalyst
c. clinical psychologist
d. psychiatrist
Answer: D
47. Which of the following type of therapists is most likely to have a PhD?
a. clinical psychologist
b. psychiatrist
c. social worker
d. neurologist
Answer: A
48. If Dr. Crane views psychological disorders as diseases to be treated with drugs, it is likely
that Dr. Crane is:
a. a social worker
b. a psychiatrist
c. a clinical psychologist
d. a psychoanalyst
Answer: B
49. The major difference between a clinical and a counseling psychologist is that:
a. clinical psychologists prescribe medication

b. clinical psychologists deal more with problems of living than with mental disorders
c. counseling psychologists place less emphasis on research
d. counseling psychologists place more emphasis on experimental methods and research
Answer: C
50. Anita is a junior in college and has been seeing a therapist at the university’s health clinic
because of feeling homesick. What is the most likely type of professional Anita is seeing?
a. psychiatrist
b. counseling psychologist
c. psychoanalyst
d. clinical social worker
Answer: B
51. Jenny wants to be a therapist who focuses on people who have problems of living. You
would suggest she investigate the career of:
a. psychiatrist
b. psychoanalyst
c. clinical social worker
d. counseling psychologist
Answer: D
52. What was the result of a trial program in which clinical psychologists were trained to
prescribe drugs?
a. Clinical psychologists should not be allowed to prescribe drugs, since very few MDs would
be willing to train them.
b. Clinical psychologists should be allowed to prescribe drugs without any additional
c. Clinical psychologists who are properly trained can safely provide drug treatment.
d. Because of their theoretical orientation, clinical psychologists should not be allowed to
prescribe drugs.
Answer: C
53. Several states have passed laws that allow psychologists to prescribe drugs to treat mental
disorders. What requirements do these laws make?
a. The psychologist must have a PhD.
b. The psychologist must have received advanced medical training.
c. The psychologist must have an MD degree.

d. The psychologist can only prescribe drugs for treating anxiety disorders.
Answer: B
54. What therapy focuses on the therapist and client talking about the client’s symptoms and
trying to identify the cause of the problem?
a. cognitive-behavior therapy
b. insight therapy
c. medical therapy
d. the eclectic approach
Answer: B
55. The popularity of ____ has declined since the 1950s for a variety of reasons.
a. psychotherapy
b. antipsychotic drugs
c. psychoanalysis
d. the eclectic approach
Answer: C
56. Which therapy applies the principles of learning to address the client’s problems?
a. cognitive-behavior therapy
b. insight therapy
c. medical therapy
d. the gestalt approach
Answer: A
57. Which therapy spends part of its focus on a client’s thoughts?
a. behavior therapy
b. meta therapy
c. cognitive-behavior therapy
d. medical therapy
Answer: C
58. In practice, most therapists:
a. adopt one technique early in their careers and rarely change
b. use a combination of approaches, rather than a single one

c. use one approach at a time, but shift between methods according to what is currently
d. have an approach of their own that does not resemble any of the classic approaches
Answer: B
59. An eclectic approach to psychotherapy involves using techniques that are:
a. unique to a particular therapist
b. determined by the personality of a particular therapist
c. borrowed from a number of different approaches
d. beneficial to a small number of patients only
Answer: C
60. Why is cognitive-behavior therapy considered eclectic?
a. The therapy places much more responsibility on the client than on the therapist.
b. It is based entirely on research.
c. It was developed from the school of thought known as Eclectrica
d. It combines elements from different therapeutic approaches.
Answer: D
61. Pauline is seeking therapy for her depression. One professional she visits says that he will
use a variety of techniques from different therapeutic approaches. Since Pauline has taken an
introductory psychology course, she correctly identifies this therapist to take a(n) ____
approach to therapy.
a. client-centered
b. eclectic
c. cognitive
d. behavioral
Answer: B
62. Dr. Dodson uses a variety of insight therapy techniques, along with some directive
techniques from the cognitive-behavioral approach. Dr. Dodson sounds like he has a(n) ____
approach to therapy.
a. moral movement
b. medical
c. meta-analytical
d. eclectic

Answer: D
63. ____ therapy sometimes involves using psychoactive drugs to treat mental disorders.
a. Moral
b. Biomedical
c. Meta-analytical
d. Eclectic
Answer: B
64. Your friend believes that psychotherapy is useless, and that emotional problems are just as
likely to go away without treatment. You disagree, because evaluation studies have found that
a. has an approximate success rate of 50 percent
b. is more effective than no treatment
c. is more effective than drug therapy
d. may be effective, because the patient expects it to be effective
Answer: B
65. When using meta-analysis to evaluate psychotherapy’s effectiveness, the most
improvement occurs in:
a. 1 to 12 sessions
b. 13 to 18 sessions
c. 19 to 24 sessions
d. 25 to 30 sessions
Answer: B
66. Meta-analysis is a procedure used to:
a. determine the effectiveness of some treatment across many studies
b. help the patient become aware of and understand the causes of his or her problem
c. identify which mental patients should be deinstitutionalized, and which should not
d. gradually expose a patient to a feared object while simultaneously practicing relaxation
Answer: A
67. Which of the following statements is true regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
a. There is little significant difference between the different treatment approaches.
b. About 30–50% of clients who receive psychotherapy show great improvement.

c. Some forms of psychotherapy are no more effective than just being placed on a waiting
d. The most effective form of psychotherapy is psychoanalysis.
Answer: A
68. What therapeutic approach focuses on threatening thoughts and desires that lead to
unconscious conflicts that create mental disorders?
a. psychoanalysis
b. client-centered therapy
c. cognitive therapy
d. behavior therapy
Answer: A
69. Psychoanalysis was developed by:
a. John Watson
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Albert Ellis
Answer: C
70. Freud believed that one of the essential requirements for improvement was the client’s
a. a new consciousness of the needs of others
b. fulfillment of sexual fantasies
c. self-actualization
d. insight into the causes of the individual’s problem
Answer: D
71. Psychoanalysis argues that the primary reason for the development of psychological
problems and mental disorders is:
a. irrational thoughts and beliefs
b. a poor learning history
c. unconscious conflicts
d. lack of unconditional positive regard in the person’s life
Answer: C
72. A primary assumption of psychoanalysis is that:

a. the client’s negative self-statements cause psychological problems
b. a lack of self-actualization leads to mental disorders
c. therapy must desensitize the client to feared objects
d. unconscious conflicts lead to symptoms
Answer: D
73. A psychoanalyst would view a phobia as a symptom of:
a. some unconscious conflict
b. an irrational belief
c. other anxieties in the person’s life
d. a poorly learned behavior
Answer: A
74. A person displays an uncontrollable fear of spiders. Freudian analysis would suggest that
this fear stems from:
a. an unconscious conflict that manifests itself as a fear of spiders
b. a negative first-hand experience with spiders
c. seeing someone else have a negative experience with spiders
d. an expectation based on the archetypal symbol of spiders as evil
Answer: A
75. From a psychoanalyst’s perspective, mental disorders are treated:
a. by unlearning conditioned emotional responses
b. as problems of living caused by societal inequities
c. by the patient gaining insight into his or her unconscious conflicts
d. using the principles of learning
Answer: C
76. Freud used techniques that would:
a. modify environmental consequences
b. polarize thinking in order to prevent rational emotive thoughts
c. censor unacceptable material
d. provide clues to unconscious conflicts and repressed thoughts
Answer: D

77. Which of the following is not a technique developed by Freud as a part of psychoanalytic
a. progressive relaxation
b. free association
c. analysis of slips of the tongue
d. dream interpretation
Answer: A
78. Freud believed that his psychoanalytic techniques would lead to:
a. more rational thoughts
b. an emphasis on observable behavior
c. a reaction from the patient to see the therapist as a substitute parent, lover, or another
significant other
d. changes in the serotonin levels
Answer: C
79. “My cousin has many maladaptive thoughts that probably arise from some unconscious
thought or conflicts.” According to Freud, this cousin experiences:
a. resistance
b. conditional positive regard
c. neuroses
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: C
80. A person decides to seek help through psychoanalysis. In the interactions between the
person and the therapist, the therapist might use free association, which means the person is:
a. asked a series of specific questions regarding his or her childhood
b. given a number of specific suggestions regarding ways to improve his or her behavior
c. encouraged to say anything he or she chooses
d. taught ways to avoid harmful thoughts
Answer: C
81. Freud used free association in psychoanalysis because he believed that:
a. the client’s constant talking would be relaxing and reduce anxiety
b. the associations would give clues to the unconscious cause of the problem
c. the associations could be used to change negative self-beliefs

d. the associations would ultimately lead to self-denial
Answer: B
82. What technique did Freud use with Rat Man that was described in the textbook?
a. token economy
b. analysis of transference
c. free association
d. dream interpretation
Answer: C
83. Freud believed that ____ represented the purest form of free association.
a. irrational thoughts
b. meta-analysis
c. dreams
d. unconscious conflicts
Answer: C
84. Freud based his psychoanalysis on:
a. correlational studies
b. the experiments of Jung and Rogers
c. a solid foundation of experiments
d. his case studies
Answer: D
85. The Rat Man called Freud a “substitute mother.” This best illustrates
a. empathy
b. resistance
c. cognitive dissonance
d. transference
Answer: D
86. According to psychoanalysts, transference and ____ are two essential problems in
improving a patient’s mental health.
a. resistance
b. polarized thinking
c. meta-analysis

d. Freudian slips
Answer: A
87. The process of projecting onto one’s therapist conflict-ridden emotions that one felt
toward important people during childhood is called:
a. free association
b. resistance
c. transference
d. insight
Answer: C
88. During his psychoanalysis, Brian reacts to his therapist in the same way he reacted to his
mother. Freud would describe this reaction as:
a. resistance
b. conditional positive regard
c. undesirable
d. transference
Answer: D
89. Many clients have the temporary experience of falling in love with their therapists. Freud
would consider such feelings an example of:
a. resistance
b. free association
c. transference
d. insight
Answer: C
90. Freud believed that one of the main duties of the analyst was to help the patient work
a. meta-analysis
b. polarized thoughts
c. irrational interpretations
d. transference
Answer: D
91. What happens if the feelings involved in transference are not resolved?
a. the patient develops neuroses

b. therapy will be stalled
c. the patient becomes desensitized to therapy
d. irrational interpretations lead to polarized thinking
Answer: B
92. In working out his transference, Michael becomes defensive, because he does not want to
admit repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness. Michael is showing:
a. flooding
b. polarized thinking
c. transference
d. resistance
Answer: D
93. Which of the following is an example of resistance?
a. showing up late for a therapy session
b. revealing unconscious thoughts during free association
c. having a sexually explicit dream
d. explaining irrational beliefs
Answer: A
94. Why was short-term dynamic psychotherapy developed?
a. traditional psychoanalysis does not create enough transference
b. there was a shortage of qualified psychoanalysts
c. traditional psychoanalysis often requires many years of weekly sessions
d. transference was found to be harmful
Answer: C
95. A person is involved with short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Which of the following is
not likely to happen during one of those sessions?
a. identifying and discussing problems
b. attempting to resolve the client’s conflicts
c. the therapist taking a less directive role in identifying the patient’s problems
d. working through transference
Answer: C

96. Short-term dynamic psychotherapy compresses the treatment time of traditional
psychoanalysis from:
a. 5 sessions to 2 or 3 sessions
b. 60 sessions to 10 or 20 sessions
c. 100 sessions to 25 or 30 sessions
d. 600 sessions to 20 or 30 sessions
Answer: D
97. Data on the effectiveness of short-term dynamic psychotherapy indicate:
a. claims that the program achieves major psychological changes are greatly exaggerated
b. follow-up visits can, in fact, extend the duration of therapy to that of traditional
c. effective treatment of disorders like generalized anxiety, panic, and depression
d. much more research must be conducted before the effectiveness of STDP can be properly
Answer: C
98. What form of psychoanalysis takes a more directive approach and shortens the total time
in therapy?
a. eclectic therapy
b. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
c. gestalt therapy
d. client-centered therapy
Answer: B
99. Which of the following correctly describes the influence Freud has had on our own
a. Many people think that dreams reflect unconscious desires.
b. Many people believe that we can unlearn many of our problems.
c. Most people understand how phobias can be conditioned.
d. We see references to self-actualization in TV shows and movies.
Answer: A
100. Traditional psychoanalysis might not be:
a. as unproductive as once believed
b. the most commonly used treatment for much longer

c. fully covered by health insurance plans
d. incorporated into other treatment approaches
Answer: C
101. Which of the following is a reason for the decline of psychoanalysis?
a. There are too few analysts to meet the needs of the number of patients.
b. Drugs are now used to treat problems formerly dealt with in psychoanalysis.
c. Freud’s notion of transference is no longer highly regarded.
d. Psychoanalysis is too short-term to generate enough salary for analysts.
Answer: B
102. Up until the 1980s, followers of the psychoanalytic approach had:
a. not believed that the client transfers anything to the therapist
b. been very slow to conduct research to test their treatment’s effectiveness
c. believed that removal of the symptoms meant a cure of the illness
d. allowed the client to express thoughts more frequently and openly
Answer: B
103. The idea of ____ has been supported by the research, providing evidence of a Freudian
a. id
b. an Oedipus complex
c. transference
d. procedural or nondeclarative memory
Answer: D
104. You are watching a TV talk show. The guest is an advocate of Freudian psychoanalysis
and correctly claims that the concept of _____ has been supported by research.
a. systematic desensitization
b. the Oedipus complex
c. id
d. unconscious forces
Answer: D
105. Of the following Freudian concepts, which has been tested and found to be valid?
a. defense mechanism

b. id as a source of energy
c. role of the Oedipus complex in personality development
d. basic drives limited to sex and aggression
Answer: A
106. According to Module 24, how has Freud’s influence on culture been described?
a. psychology’s most dangerous ideas
b. like a “friend you don’t want your family to meet”
c. like a “dirty little secret”
d. “inescapable force”
Answer: D
107. What was Carl Rogers’ reaction to Freud’s psychoanalytic approach?
a. He disagreed with Freud’s belief that psychological problems come from unconscious
b. Rogers argued that psychological problems come from unconscious thoughts and not what
Freud believed, which was failure to reach one’s potential.
c. He disagreed with the argument that Freud made about how the necessity of the therapist is
to be more of a helper rather than expert.
d. He argued that Freud focused too much on the role of the conscious mind.
Answer: A
108. Carl Rogers assumed that:
a. people are essentially apathetic regarding their own lives
b. everyone has the capacity to change
c. a great deal of our behavior is governed by the unconscious
d. removing the symptoms of a client’s problem is the same as solving the problem
Answer: B
109. Chris is in counseling with a therapist who never gives advice or directions to him, but
who often restates what Chris has said so that he can reflect on his feelings. What type of
therapist is Chris seeing?
a. client-centered
b. psychoanalytic
c. cognitive
d. behavioral

Answer: A
110. Which type of therapy makes the assumption that clients have the potential to help
themselves, and the therapist’s role is to be supportive of the client’s efforts?
a. client-centered therapy
b. psychiatry
c. psychoanalysis
d. behavioral therapy
Answer: A
111. Which of the following is not one of the three therapist characteristics that Rogers
believed would facilitate change in clients?
a. empathy
b. directness
c. positive regard
d. genuineness
Answer: B
112. Client-centered therapists emphasize showing their client that they understand what the
client is feeling through:
a. systematic desensitization
b. overgeneralization
c. reflection
d. polarized thinking
Answer: C
113. According to Carl Rogers, a therapist should function as a(n):
a. analyzing expert
b. helper or facilitator
c. behavior modifier
d. parent-figure
Answer: B
114. Positive regard, according to principles of client-centered therapy, is the ability to:
a. communicate caring and respect for a client
b. understand what a client is feeling

c. be nondefensive in interactions with a client
d. modify irrational beliefs and experiences
Answer: A
115. If you were describing client-centered therapy as a recipe, what would be the most
important ingredient?
a. the resistance seen in the client to work through their problems
b. the assertiveness of the therapist in challenging specific maladaptive thoughts
c. transference between the client and therapist
d. the relationship between the client and therapist
Answer: D
116. According to Carl Rogers, the therapist’s role was to:
a. provide specific programs for behavioral change
b. elevate the client from a laziness that Rogers believed to be inborn
c. help the client discover unconscious motives that are the root of the client’s problem
d. demonstrate empathy and positive regard
Answer: D
117. The lasting contribution of client-centered therapy is the importance of:
a. developing a positive working relationship with the client
b. allowing transference to take place
c. directly giving advice to the client
d. free association
Answer: A
118. Therapists from the client-centered approach assume the importance of empathy and
reflection in producing change. The research:
a. has supported their assumption
b. has supported the importance of empathy, but not reflection
c. has supported the importance of reflection, but not empathy
d. has indicated that empathy and reflection may not be as important as previously believed
Answer: D
119. One of the common assumptions of cognitive therapy is that:
a. maladaptive behaviors are learned through one’s environment

b. environmental improvement will result in improvement in the client
c. it is important to identify the unconscious conflicts
d. treatment primarily involves changing the client’s maladaptive thought patterns
Answer: D
120. What type of therapy involves the identification and changing of maladaptive thought
a. psychoanalysis
b. behavior therapy
c. cognitive therapy
d. client-centered therapy
Answer: C
121. Scott has a problem with his parents. His therapist focuses on helping Scott observe and
record his thoughts about his parents, and emphasizes how his thoughts affect his feelings.
Scott’s therapist is practicing:
a. psychodynamic therapy
b. cognitive therapy
c. client-centered therapy
d. behavior therapy
Answer: B
122. Beck developed his cognitive therapy based on his patient’s:
a. negative automatic statements
b. unconscious wishes
c. problematic behaviors
d. negative regard
Answer: A
123. Overgeneralization involves:
a. gradually exposing someone to their greatest fear
b. making blanket judgments based on a single incident
c. categorizing information as either “good” or “bad”
d. focusing on one detail so much that you fail to notice others
Answer: B

124. Which of the following maladaptive thought patterns is the best example of
a. “She hates me.”
b. “I have many problems.”
c. “Every time I try something new, I fail.”
d. “Sure I got an A in physics, but I barely passed English.”
Answer: C
125. Sorting information into the categories of good and bad is characteristic of:
a. empathy
b. flooding
c. overgeneralization
d. polarized thinking
Answer: D
126. When someone focuses on one detail so much that they fail to notice other events, they
are said to be engaging in:
a. selective attention
b. flooding
c. empathy
d. polarized thinking
Answer: A
127. Tina is very upset over her evaluation at work, because she has focused on the one minor
criticism her boss made and has ignored the highly positive tone of the rest of the report.
Which maladaptive thought pattern is Tina exhibiting?
a. overgeneralization
b. selective attention
c. geographic intelligence
d. polarized thinking
Answer: B
128. Which of the following is true regarding the effectiveness of cognitive therapy?
a. Its benefits tend to be shorter lasting than other forms of therapy.
b. It is effective with a variety of symptoms.
c. Few studies have been conducted to examine cognitive therapy’s effectiveness.

d. It is less effective than psychoanalysis.
Answer: B
129. Which of the following mental disorders is most effectively treated by cognitive
a. borderline personality disorder
b. antisocial personality disorder
c. paranoid schizophrenia
d. depression
Answer: D
130. Which of the following individuals would be best treated with cognitive therapy?
a. Aditi was diagnosed with mental retardation
b. William suffers from schizophrenia
c. Harry, who has antisocial personality disorder
d. Emmi, who has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder
Answer: D
131. Why could it be said that Joseph Wolpe finished what John Watson had started?
a. Watson discovered phenothiazines and Wolpe used them to treat schizophrenia.
b. Watson originated the idea of free association; Wolpe refined it.
c. Wolpe developed a technique to reduce Little Albert’s fear.
d. Wolpe conducted scientific studies based on Watson’s theory of free association.
Answer: C
132. The principles of classical and operant conditioning are used in ____.
a. client-centered therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. behavior therapy
d. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
Answer: C
133. Dr. Johnson is a behavior therapist. The techniques she uses are based upon the
principles of:
a. classical and operant conditioning
b. Freudian psychoanalysis

c. attribution theory
d. the medical model
Answer: A
134. A person with a fear of flying sees a therapist who specializes in behavior therapy.
Therapy sessions will focus on:
a. hidden conflicts that are manifested in a fear of flying
b. irrational beliefs about the dangers of flying
c. negative past experiences that caused the fear of flying
d. changing the specific problem behavior
Answer: D
135. Behavior therapists do not focus on:
a. the principles of classical conditioning
b. the underlying unconscious conflicts
c. a specific problem behavior
d. rewards to change behavior
Answer: B
136. In behavior therapy, the problem is:
a. a lack of self-actualization
b. too much self-actualization
c. the behavior itself
d. caused by unconscious conflicts
Answer: C
137. A technique of behavior therapy in which the client is gradually exposed to the feared
object while simultaneously practicing relaxation is called:
a. free association
b. transference
c. flooding
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: D
138. Systematic desensitization involves three steps. Which of the following is not among the
three steps?

a. relaxation training
b. stimulus hierarchy construction
c. awareness of negative thoughts
d. exposure
Answer: C
139. A person is using systematic desensitization to try to overcome his fear of driving on the
freeway. The first step in this program would be:
a. relaxation training
b. stimulus hierarchy construction
c. free association
d. building up his self-image
Answer: A
140. The process of stimulus hierarchy construction involves:
a. identifying the exact responses involved in anxiety-provoking situations
b. listing, in order of priority, the goals that a client wishes to accomplish in therapy
c. listing from least feared to most feared a hierarchy of feared stimuli
d. outlining a session-by-session program for uncovering unconscious conflicts
Answer: C
141. Sylvia is undergoing systematic desensitization. She and her therapist are working on
developing a list of feared stimuli. What are they creating?
a. resistance hierarchy
b. transference list
c. exposure list
d. stimulus hierarchy
Answer: D
142. Kyle is very afraid of the water. After creating an embarrassing scene at a beach party,
he seeks the help of a therapist, who uses systematic desensitization. During the sessions,
Kyle is asked to go through stimulus hierarchy construction. To do this, Kyle would:
a. describe in detail his physiological responses when faced with the prospect of going in
b. identify the first moment when he begins to feel the fear, and then list, in increasing order
of severity, other stimuli that would evoke the fear

c. make a list of times when he would most like to be free of his fear
d. list, in order of their relative strength, the rewards that would be available to him if he
conquered his fear of the water
Answer: B
143. In her systematic desensitization sessions to overcome a fear of snakes, Rene develops a
fear hierarchy of stimuli that cause anxiety. The hierarchy, from lowest to highest fear,
consisted of seeing the word “snake,” seeing a picture of a snake in a magazine, seeing a
snake on TV, seeing a snake in the zoo, seeing a live snake in front of her, and finally having
a snake crawl on her. During the final stages of the systematic desensitization program, the
therapist would ask Rene to:
a. make another list of the stimuli that provoke the fear of snakes
b. list the rewards that she would like to attain once the fear is overcome
c. learn relaxation techniques
d. imagine a snake crawling over her body
Answer: D
144. In systematic desensitization, a client who becomes anxious while imagining a step in
the stimulus hierarchy is:
a. instructed to go back to a prior step
b. told to focus on the nature of the anxiety
c. to remain relaxed and continue to imagine the step until no longer anxious
d. required to reorder the steps in the stimulus hierarchy
Answer: C
145. In systematic desensitization, when the client is gradually exposed to the actual
situations that are feared, this is called:
a. en passe exposure
b. realistic desensitization
c. in vitro exposure
d. in vivo exposure
Answer: D
146. Behavior and cognitive therapies grew out of:
a. the psychoanalytic perspective
b. interest in Rogers and Maslow’s humanistic theories
c. dissatisfaction with psychoanalysis

d. research questioning the works of Pavlov and Skinner
Answer: C
147. ____ focuses on helping clients change their thoughts by learning new skills.
a. Psychoanalysis
b. Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
c. Gestalt therapy
d. Cognitive-behavior therapy
Answer: D
148. What approach to therapy focuses on changing thought patterns by learning and
practicing new skills?
a. cognitive-behavior therapy
b. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: A
149. Monitoring one’s thoughts, setting specific goals, learning to reinforce oneself, and
substituting positive for negative thoughts are characteristic of:
a. psychoanalysis
b. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
c. cognitive-behavior therapy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: C
150. The research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy shows that:
a. it is inferior to psychoanalysis
b. any improvements are very short-lived
c. many of the concepts are untestable
d. it is more effective than control procedures
Answer: D
151. What is one common factor that appears to be very important?
a. being nondirective in the therapist’s interaction with the client
b. a warm, trusting, and accepting relationship between the client and therapist

c. successfully identifying the type of unconscious conflict underlying the problem
d. being reflective
Answer: B
152. In general, the specific psychotherapy makes no difference in terms of effectiveness as
long as _____ is (are) present in the psychotherapy.
a. transference
b. common factors
c. exposure
d. resistance
Answer: B
153. In general, the specific psychotherapy makes no difference in terms of effectiveness as
long as:
a. there is a supportive and trusting relationship between the therapist and client
b. the psychotherapy lasts at least two years
c. the therapist uses systematic desensitization
d. the therapist has many years of experience
Answer: A
154. If Adrian receives psychotherapy over the Internet, he is obtaining:
a. virtual-reality therapy
b. Facebook therapy
c. cybertherapy
d. behavior therapy
Answer: C
155. One of the disadvantages of cybertherapy is that:
a. the therapist is not unduly influenced by the physical appearance of the client
b. the therapist might not be credentialed
c. the client is not unduly influenced by the physical appearance of the therapist
d. it is costly
Answer: B
156. EMDR stands for:
a. Effective Medical Diagnosis Reporting

b. Effective Mental Development and Retreatment
c. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
d. Emotional Disturbance Remedy
Answer: C
157. The therapist is moving his pen back and forth as the patient is focusing on some
traumatic event. This therapy is called:
a. cognitive-behavior therapy
b. flooding
c. systematic desensitization
Answer: D
158. The early support for EMDR’s effectiveness came from:
a. case studies and testimonials
b. longitudinal studies
c. experiments
d. cross-sectional studies
Answer: A
159. The developer of EMDR claims that the effectiveness of EMDR is that:
a. it causes thought substitution
b. it wipes traumatic memories from long-term memory
c. it teaches a patient’s family skills to cope with the disorder
d. eye movements reprocess traumatic memories and images
Answer: D
160. What seems to be the most plausible explanation of EMDR’s effectiveness?
a. It causes thought substitution.
b. It wipes traumatic memories from long-term memory.
c. It is a form of exposure therapy.
d. It changes the electrical activity of the brain.
Answer: C
161. Some research suggests that the effectiveness of EMDR is not because of exposure, but
rather it allows the patient to:

a. emotionally distance themselves from the trauma
b. “rewire” brain circuits
c. transfer fear to the therapist
d. resolve unconscious conflicts
Answer: A
162. The effectiveness of EMDR in treating traumatic memories is comparable to:
a. psychoanalysis
b. exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
c. client-centered therapy
d. electroconvulsive therapy
Answer: B
163. Which of the following is true of the Balians of the island of Bali?
a. They assume that depression has biological causes.
b. They reject notions of evil spirits and utilize drug therapies.
c. Their success rates are similar to those of psychotherapies.
d. Their patients generally do not trust them.
Answer: C
164. The primary assumption made by the Balians of the cause of problems is:
a. an imbalance of positive and negative energy
b. evil spirits
c. too much blood in the head
d. rotting internal organs
Answer: B
165. Why might Putu, the Bali who complained of depression, get better after receiving the
healer’s treatment?
a. bloodletting and potent medication
b. exorcism and bloodletting
c. empathy and positive regard
d. the placebo effect and the development of a close relationship with the healer
Answer: D

166. _____ therapies involve the use of interventions to treat mental disorders that change
biological factors, such as the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
a. Gestalt
b. Psychophysiological
c. Psychosomatic
d. Biomedical
Answer: D
167. The most common form of biomedical therapy currently practiced is
a. drug therapy
b. transcranial magnetic stimulation
c. deep brain stimulation
d. electroconvulsive therapy
Answer: A
168. Maxim is going to see his psychiatrist and is hoping that he will get a prescription for a
drug that will help him with his escalating levels of anxiety. He wants a medication that will
lower his overall state of physiological arousal and help him feel a sense of tranquility. What
kind of medication is Maxim most hoping to receive?
a. a tricyclic
b. a benzodiazepine
c. a monoamine oxidase inhibitor
d. a neuroleptic
Answer: B
169. About 80 percent of antidepressant drugs that are prescribed today belong to a class of
medications called
a. MAOIs
b. TCAs
c. SNRIs
d. SSRIs
Answer: D
170. Why is it that people who undergo lithium therapy must have regular blood tests?
a. To make sure that there are no chromosomal mutations that occur as a result of the lithium
being in the blood.

b. To test for the development of a white blood cell disease called agranulocytosis that can
develop in people taking lithium.
c. Because lithium can be toxic to the body, so it is necessary to make sure it is not too
present in one’s blood.
d. To make sure that the patient is not taking other drugs that can have a lethal interaction
with the lithium.
Answer: C
171. “Whenever I am depressed, I keep thinking how worthless I am. I think that I can’t do
anything right and I keep thinking of all my failures. I just keep thinking that way and I don’t
want to.” These thoughts are:
a. effectively managed by psychoanalysis
b. called obsessions
c. called intrusive thoughts
d. called negative symptoms
Answer: C
172. David feels that no one likes him and that he is deliberately ignored at work. His
therapist asks David to keep track of the number of times in a week that people at work
actually say something to him. David discovers that people pay more attention to him than he
thought. What cognitive-behavior modification technique did David use?
a. graded task assignments
b. self-monitoring
c. behavioral rehearsal
d. free association
Answer: B
173. At the onset of an unwanted thought, the thought-stopping procedure suggests:
a. focusing on the unconscious reasons for the unwanted thought
b. doing physical exercise
c. closing one’s eyes, silently yelling, “Stop!” and counting to ten
d. practicing progressive relaxation
Answer: C
174. Ken is very depressed. As he talks to his therapist, it becomes apparent that, no matter
how successful he seems to outsiders, he always believes that he is a failure. If the
psychologist wants to have Ken think more rational thoughts, he should use:
a. interpersonal therapy

b. tricyclic antidepressants
c. thought substitution
d. lithium
Answer: C
175. Making a list of irrational thoughts and a corresponding list of rational thoughts is used
a. thought substitution
b. a stimulus hierarchy
c. in vivo desensitization
d. flooding
Answer: A
176. After a list of irrational thoughts and a matching list of rational thoughts are created, the
next step is to engage in:
a. systematic desensitization
b. free association
c. in vivo desensitization
d. thought substitution
Answer: D
177. Which of the following is one of the steps used to treat insomnia?
a. Try to make going to sleep at the same time every night a habit.
b. If you cannot sleep, get out of bed and go into a different room.
c. Sleep in when you are very tired.
d. Take naps when you feel tired, but only then.
Answer: B
178. Your roommate’s insomnia is interfering with your sleep. Which of the following is not
good advice to give your roommate?
a. If you can’t sleep, read or watch TV in bed to become drowsier.
b. Go to bed only when you are sleepy.
c. Set the alarm to the same time each morning.
d. Do not nap during the day.
Answer: A

179. Unfortunately, some people who have intense fear do not pursue therapy. What is an
option for them so that they can confront the fear in a safe and controlled way?
a. meta-analysis
b. free association
c. psychoanalysis
d. virtual-reality therapy
Answer: D
180. In using virtual-reality therapy to help Iraq war veterans, their goal is to:
a. go through the virtually created situation without overwhelming fear
b. experience transference
c. go through the virtually created situation with fear, so that the psyche can be cleansed
d. avoid transference
Answer: A
1. Dorothea Dix was an advocate of the moral treatment of mental patients.
Answer: True
2. A purpose of community mental health centers is to provide outpatient treatment.
Answer: True
3. Counseling psychologists tend to focus on problems of living rather than on serious mental
Answer: True
4. No states allow psychologists to prescribe drugs.
Answer: False
5. Most therapists are eclectic, meaning that they pick and choose aspects of several
Answer: True
6. In free association, the client is asked to say anything that comes to mind.
Answer: True
7. In resistance, the client forms strong emotions toward the therapist that substitute for
someone important in the client’s life.
Answer: False
8. Long-term psychoanalysis is more common than short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

Answer: False
9. Most psychologists are psychoanalysts.
Answer: False
10. Client-centered therapy argues that problems occur when individuals are not selfactualized.
Answer: True
11. A client-centered therapist who is nondirective tends to be more effective than one who is
more directive.
Answer: False
12. The key in client-centered therapy is the relationship between the client and therapist.
Answer: True
13. In overgeneralization, a person sorts information into two categories.
Answer: False
14. From the behavioral therapy perspective, the problem behavior reflects some unconscious
Answer: False
15. Systematic desensitization is a client-centered therapy technique.
Answer: False
16. A client is actually exposed to their fear stimulus in vivo exposure.
Answer: True
17. Behavior therapy is based on classical and operant conditioning.
Answer: True
18. Cognitive-behavior therapy attempts to modify thoughts and behaviors.
Answer: True
19. Psychotherapy is more effective for a person than simply being assigned to a waiting list.
Answer: True
20. Free association is an example of a common factor in different therapies.
Answer: False
21. It is believed that EMDR is similar to exposure therapy.
Answer: True
22. Irrational beliefs and thoughts are believed to cause emotional and behavioral problems,
according to psychoanalysts.

Answer: False
23. Nondrug treatment programs are ineffective in helping individuals with insomnia
Answer: False
24. When using virtual-reality therapy, it is best to have the client experience intense fear to
get it out of the person’s “system.”
Answer: False
25. The advantage of virtual-reality therapy is that it exposes the client to a fearful situation
in a very rapid way.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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