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Module 25—Social Cognition & Behavior
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The example of Joshua Bell presented in the module illustrates:
a. that physical appearance influences our judgments of other people
b. the influence of motivation on intelligence
c. groupthink in an educational setting
d. how changes in the brain influence social behavior
Answer: A
2. “Look at them. They’ve got green hair! I bet they’re terrible people, get poor grades, and
take drugs.” What area of psychology is best suited for studying how people make judgments
of others based on physical appearance?
a. forensic psychology
b. social psychology
c. personality psychology
d. counseling psychology
Answer: B
3. ____ examines how our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by
others.
a. Social psychology
b. Developmental psychology
c. Experimental psychology
d. Cognitive psychology
Answer: A
4. Dr. Coleman is interested in how our thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced
by other people. Dr. Coleman must be studying:
a. interpersonal psychology
b. clinical psychology
c. social psychology
d. personality psychology
Answer: C
5. Karen is asking Joe about next semester’s classes that he’s registered for. One of the
classes is Social Psychology. “What’s that?” she asks Joe. Joe’s most accurate response is:

a. “The course is on how we are influenced by our interactions with others.”
b. “It is about how sociologists use psychology.”
c. “Social Psych is the study of emotions in social settings”
d. “It’s about how people get along with each other.”
Answer: A
6. Which of the following topics would be most likely studied by a social psychologist?
a. stereotypes, persuasion, and attitudes
b. systematic desensitization, UCR, dieting, and superego
c. unconditional positive regard, and hypnotic amnesia
d. formal operations, Korsakoff’s syndrome, and fight-or-flight response
Answer: A
7. What is the best reason why the case of the FAMU Marching 100 band introduces the
module on social psychology?
a. It illustrates social cognitive theory’s concept of self-efficacy.
b. Their behavior illustrates the role of unconscious conflict on behavior.
c. This case illustrates how abnormal behavior can impair judgment.
d. It shows how good people can do terrible things.
Answer: D
8. Will works for a large corporation as an employment interviewer. He visits colleges and
universities interviewing job candidates. He says that he can tell if a candidate is the right
person by just looking at the person. A social psychologist would call this:
a. prosocial behavior
b. altruism
c. personnel evaluation
d. person perception
Answer: D
9. Forming impressions and making judgments about the traits of others is called:
a. social facilitation
b. person perception
c. social reasoning
d. person polarization

Answer: B
10. Larry has noticed that when he wears jeans and T-shirts he is treated differently when he
goes shopping than when he wears a suit and tie. This illustrates how physical appearance can
influence:
a. person perception
b. social facilitation
c. deindividuation
d. person polarization
Answer: A
11. You advise your friend to dress appropriately for a job interview. As a student of social
psychology, you recognize the importance of ____ in forming judgments about others.
a. altruism
b. the affective component of an attitude
c. internal attributions
d. physical appearance
Answer: D
12. Susan is going on a blind date with Michael. When she first meets Michael, she notices
that he has long hair, an earring, and wears a leather jacket. She decides that Michael is
rebellious, dangerous, and aggressive. She is basing her judgments on which of the following
factors?
a. the two-way process
b. seeking information
c. the need to explain
d. social consequences
Answer: C
13. Laura decides that the stranger sitting next to her in the restaurant is rich. He is well
dressed, has a cell phone, and orders lobster to eat. This illustrates which of the following?
a. group polarization
b. need to explain
c. hindsight bias
d. consensus effect
Answer: B

14. What area(s) of the brain become(s) activated when a person looks at a picture of an
unfamiliar person of a different race?
a. area of the brain that is involved in emotional vigilance
b. the amygdala
c. the hippocampus
d. areas of the brain that integrate visual information and memory
Answer: A
15. The way in which we perceive someone can influence:
a. the way in which we would interact with the person
b. causal relevance
c. attribution error
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: A
16. At the gym, you run into Jake. Jake is unshaven and is wearing ragged clothes and noname tennis shoes, and he is also very sweaty. He asks you if you want to play some
basketball. You think that Jake is a loser and say no. This best illustrates:
a. social cognition
b. situational attribution
c. how groupthink influences individual behavior
d. the influence of person perception on behavior
Answer: D
17. A man who lives in your town is very wealthy, but does not show it. In fact, he drives an
old Chevy pick-up and wears worn clothes. Visitors to town, who do not know about his
wealth, are often rude and inconsiderate to him. This best illustrates:
a. the central route of persuasion
b. how impressions of others will influence behavior
c. how individual behavior affects diffusion of responsibility
d. the actor-observer effect
Answer: B
18. Those faces that we might consider the most attractive are those that:
a. are the most symmetrical in shape
b. come closest to the average face found in the general population

c. approximate a round shape
d. approximate a heart shape
Answer: B
19. What have researchers found about attractive faces?
a. Attractive faces come closest to the average face found in the general population.
b. Attractive faces have large eyes and high cheekbones.
c. Attractive faces are those that have a square shape.
d. Attractive faces have dimples, small eyes, low cheekbones, and a small forehead.
Answer: A
20. Which of the following characteristics is not considered to be true of physically attractive
people?
a. they have good genes
b. they are healthy
c. they are potentially good mates
d. they are conceited
Answer: D
21. From an evolutionary perspective, an attractive face:
a. is mathematically symmetrical
b. is statistically unusual
c. implies some built-in ability
d. implies a potential for aggression
Answer: C
22. From an evolutionary viewpoint, we are drawn to attractive faces because:
a. they signal that the person has good genes and health, and is a good mate
b. they signal that the person is in need of protection and nurturing
c. they are mathematically symmetrical
d. they are mathematically unsymmetrical
Answer: A
23. From evolution’s point-of-view, a young woman’s childbearing ability is signaled by her:
a. face free of winkles
b. facial skin free of pimples or blemishes

c. skin’s softness
d. “hourglass figure”
Answer: D
24. Why are most women attracted to men who have masculine faces, larger jaws, and more
muscle mass? An evolutionary explanation would be that these features signal:
a. high levels adrenaline
b. high levels of estrogen
c. high levels of testosterone
d. youthfulness
Answer: C
25. Professor Varnadore studies how people judge others because they belong to certain
groups. In which journal should Professor Varnadore publish her study?
a. American Journal of Attributional Thinking
b. Journal of Groupthink
c. Journal of Prosocial Behavior
d. Journal of Stereotypes
Answer: D
26. Based on a study described in the module, who is most likely to receive the best treatment
for their heart problems?
a. women
b. African Americans
c. men
d. White men
Answer: D
27. Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain traits because:
a. of their observable behavior
b. they belong to a particular group
c. of the fundamental attribution error
d. they hold utilitarian attitudes
Answer: B
28. Katy has red hair. When other people see Katy, they assume she has a temper. This
illustrates:

a. impression management
b. a stereotype
c. conformity
d. social characteristics
Answer: B
29. A person who says that all Scottish people are thrifty and cheap is demonstrating:
a. discrimination
b. prejudice
c. impression management
d. segregation
Answer: B
30. How do stereotypes develop according to your textbook?
a. Stereotypes are innate.
b. Stereotypes develop because of an interaction between genetics and the environment.
c. Others reward us for holding certain attitudes and beliefs.
d. There are biological predispositions found in most people that lead to stereotypes.
Answer: C
31. A father is talking to his young son. “That’s good, Kevin—boys know how to play
baseball and girls don’t.” Is this the typical way that stereotypes develop?
a. No, stereotypes are due to genetic factors.
b. No, stereotypes are due to biological dispositions.
c. Yes, same-gender parents mold the attitudes of their children.
d. Yes, other people reward us with approval for holding certain attitudes.
Answer: D
32. An unfair, biased, or intolerant attitude toward another group of people is called a(n):
a. prejudice
b. expectation
c. stereotype
d. attribution
Answer: A
33. Prejudice is to discrimination as:

a. attitude is to behavior
b. underestimation is to overestimation
c. attribution is to schema
d. schema is to stereotype
Answer: A
34. Specific unfair behavior toward members of a group is known as:
a. prejudice
b. stereotyping
c. discrimination
d. attribution
Answer: C
35. John voted against Linda’s promotion because he doesn’t think women can do the job.
John’s behavior is an example of:
a. a stereotype
b. prejudice
c. an event schema
d. discrimination
Answer: D
36. Which of the following is an example of discrimination?
a. a woman who thinks that all men are insensitive
b. a teacher who believes that a particular racial group is intellectually superior to all others
c. public washrooms being declared out of bounds to members of a particular ethnic group
d. someone who considers Germans to be orderly
Answer: C
37. According to the textbook, what is one reason why we frequently use stereotypes?
a. stereotypes are reinforced by the general public
b. stereotypes require deep, reflective thought
c. it requires that we consider attributions and groupthink experiences
d. it saves us time thinking
Answer: D

38. Morton believes that all people from the South are slow and dull-witted. When Morton
has a chance to meet with some articulate, intelligent Southerners, his stereotype:
a. is destroyed
b. will be reinforced
c. will dismiss this experience, since it doesn’t fit with his stereotype
d. will be modified
Answer: C
39. Person schemas that contain general information about people who have membership in
groups are an example of:
a. dispositions
b. attributions
c. stereotypes
d. scripts
Answer: C
40. “I’ve noticed that when I think about my co-workers, I can only remember those that I
really like or really don’t like.” This is an example of:
a. social schema recall
b. social cognition
c. polarization
d. self-criticizing bias
Answer: B
41. The textbook describes the case of Dr. Harriet Hall, an Air Force flight surgeon. Her story
illustrates how, even with exceptional accomplishments:
a. personality traits influence how others interact with us
b. people’s perception is influenced by her birth defect
c. she had to tolerate prejudice and discrimination based on her sex
d. she had to tolerate prejudice and discrimination based on her religion
Answer: C
42. Schemas are:
a. errors in attribution caused by cognitive dissonance
b. mental categories representing an organized collection of knowledge
c. attitudes resulting in prejudice and discrimination

d. factors that co-vary with the behavior we are trying to explain
Answer: B
43. State Trooper Kirk has a schema of a drug dealer: a nervous male who drives a nice car at
slightly under the speed limit. A disadvantage of this schema is:
a. it slows decision making relating to stopping potential drug dealers
b. there are too many specific details in it, leading to confusion
c. “drug dealer” is more appropriate as a self-schema than a person schema
d. drug dealers who do not fit the schema may avoid detection
Answer: D
44. “I wear glasses even though I don’t have to. People say that glasses make me look smart.”
This idea about intelligence and wearing glasses is an example of:
a. an external attribution
b. a person schema
c. deindividuation
d. counterattitudinal behavior
Answer: B
45. What type of schema describes how we expect people to perform or act because of their
social position?
a. dispositional schema
b. attributional schema
c. behavioral schema
d. role schema
Answer: D
46. Tim says to his friend Juan, “Your grandfather is pretty fun. I never thought old people
could be that much fun.” Tim’s comment is an illustration of:
a. a dispositional schema
b. an attributional schema
c. a role schema
d. self-serving bias
Answer: C
47. An experienced waiter can tell very quickly if a customer is a potential big tipper, and
then serves the customer accordingly. To do this, the waiter would probably rely on a(n):

a. self-schema
b. person schema
c. event schema
d. subconscious schema
Answer: B
48. A group of friends go out to a Thai restaurant. One of the friends says that he will be in
charge of the ordering because, as he puts it, he “knows how this sort of thing is done.” If this
is, in fact, the case, the person would be making use of a(n):
a. self-schema
b. person schema
c. event schema
d. subconscious schema
Answer: C
49. Dirk is given a ticket to a college football game. He is happy because he knows that
people at college football games scream, drink beer, and have a good time. This knowledge is
an example of a(n) ____ schema.
a. event
b. person
c. self
d. interpersonal
Answer: A
50. A foreign exchange student had never been to a dorm party. His friends ask him to watch
a movie that portrays typical college partying. His friends are helping him develop a(n)
____schema.
a. event
b. person
c. self
d. interpersonal
Answer: A
51. Which of the following would be an example of an event schema?
a. not renting an apartment to a lesbian couple
b. knowing that all chess players are smart

c. thinking that dentists cause people to feel pain
d. expecting to wait in line for movie tickets
Answer: D
52. Danny thinks he is a good athlete. Thus, he has an athletic self-schema. As compared to
someone who does not have an athletic self-schema, it is likely that Danny:
a. will pay less attention to other athletic individuals
b. will remember information related to athletics better
c. will have his schema change if he encounters nonathletic information
d. will pay extra attention to information that slightly conflicts with his athletic schema
Answer: B
53. Which of the following statements concerning a schema is not accurate?
a. Information inconsistent with a schema is discounted.
b. Schemas change easily.
c. Information supporting a schema is attended to.
d. Schemas persist.
Answer: B
54. Why are schemas so highly resistant to change?
a. They prevent us from overlooking information.
b. They fail to fill in missing information.
c. We discount information that is inconsistent with them.
d. We forget information that is consistent with them.
Answer: C
55. An advantage of schemas is that they:
a. help us organize complex stimuli
b. force us to focus on all information, rather than just parts of it
c. help us see the world as others see it
d. constantly change
Answer: A
56. A disadvantage of schemas is that they:
a. restrict or bias what we attend to, store, and recall
b. create disorganization within long-term memory

c. cannot predict how we should behave in social situations
d. are easily changed
Answer: A
57. A woman’s schema about Italians is that they are very emotional and irrational. She
travels to Rome and meets many pleasant, calm, and rational locals. When she returns, it is
likely that her memory of the Italians’ general behavior will be:
a. consistent with the type of people she met in Rome
b. distorted to be consistent with her schema
c. changed to include more negative judgments
d. unchanged, but she will be more emotional and irrational
Answer: B
58. An attribution is a(n):
a. stereotype
b. belief
c. explanation
d. attitude
Answer: C
59. You want to set up a website for information on the concept of attributions. What would
be the most accurate name for the website?
a. www.explanation.edu
b. www.persuasion.edu
c. www.schema.edu
d. www.stereotype.edu
Answer: A
60. The explanations given for someone’s behavior or beliefs are known as:
a. attributions
b. event schemas
c. person schemas
d. stereotypes
Answer: A

61. Alfonso sees a news story about a beautiful 22-year-old blond woman who just married
an elderly billionaire. Alfonso feels that the woman married the billionaire for his money.
Alfonso’s explanation is an example of:
a. a fundamental perceptual error
b. an attribution
c. prejudice
d. discrimination
Answer: B
62. You see a friend walking towards you. You say “Hi.” He doesn’t even acknowledge you
are there. “What a jerk!” You have made a(n) ____attribution.
a. peripheral
b. central
c. internal
d. external
Answer: C
63. You’ve asked yourself many times why you do the things you do. Each time you conclude
that you are “just that type of person.” Therefore, you tend to make ____ attributions about
your own behavior.
a. internal
b. external
c. primary
d. central
Answer: A
64. A person’s disposition refers to their:
a. peripheral route of persuasion
b. self-serving bias
c. type of schema
d. internal characteristics
Answer: D
65. A person making a situational attribution is explaining that a behavior is caused by:
a. someone’s personality
b. how much ability the person has

c. external factors
d. how hard the person tries
Answer: C
66. Andy believes that he did not get a job because the interviewer didn’t ask the right
questions. Andy is making an attribution based primarily on:
a. the situation
b. disposition
c. schemas
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: A
67. Mike thinks that Bob did well on the physics test because Bob studied hard and for a long
time for it. This is an example of a(n) ____ attribution.
a. external
b. situational
c. consequential
d. dispositional
Answer: D
68. You are looking for information on the individual who developed the model of
covariation. Who was it?
a. Bandura
b. Kelley
c. Asch
d. Milgram
Answer: B
69. Harold Kelley developed the covariation principle to:
a. help people overcome responses resulting from obedience
b. categorize and identify the origins of specific attitudes
c. determine whether behavior should be attributed to dispositional or situational factors
d. identify the masculine and feminine components of an individual’s self-schema
Answer: C
70. The covariation principle says that in deciding between dispositional and situational
explanations, we should look for three factors:

a. consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
b. person, role, and event schemas
c. behavioral, affective, and cognitive components
d. stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
Answer: A
71. In determining whether other people engage in the same behavior in the same situations,
we gather information on their:
a. consistency
b. distinctiveness
c. consensus
d. uniqueness
Answer: C
72. Each time Juan is in the student union, he acts very outgoing and will talk to anyone near
him. In terms of the model of covariation, Juan shows:
a. consistency
b. distinctiveness
c. consensus
d. uniqueness
Answer: A
73. How differently a person behaves in one situation compared to other situations is called:
a. specificity
b. distinctiveness
c. consensus
d. uniqueness
Answer: B
74. In explaining a friend’s behavior, you decide that there is high consistency, low
distinctiveness, and low consensus. You are most likely to make a(n) ____ attribution.
a. fundamental
b. situational
c. external
d. internal

Answer: D
75. The term ____ refers to a real but invisible barrier that keeps women and people of color
from reaching the top executive positions in business.
a. “glass ceiling”
b. “subtle prejudice”
c. “prejudicial fence”
d. “promotion cover”
Answer: A
76. If you look at the senior managers of the Fortune magazine top 500 companies, 95% are
white men. What barrier exists that prevents more women from reaching these top positions?
a. “prejudicial fence”
b. “subtle prejudice”
c. “glass ceiling”
d. “promotion cover”
Answer: C
77. I don’t want to use a great deal of energy and time thinking. So I take the easy way out
when it comes to explaining behavior. From a social psychological perspective, I’m a(n):
a. internal dispositioner
b. intellectual miser
c. cognitive Scrooge
d. cognitive miser
Answer: D
78. According to the cognitive miser model, people conserve time and energy in making
attributions by:
a. taking cognitive shortcuts
b. basing judgments on schemas
c. forming utilitarian attitudes
d. using the peripheral route for persuasion
Answer: A
79. Conserving time and effort through the use of cognitive shortcuts is essential to the:
a. covariation principle
b. cognitive miser model

c. central route for persuasion
d. foot-in-the-door technique
Answer: B
80. The tendency to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors and underestimate
the importance of situational ones is known as:
a. stereotyping
b. fundamental attribution error
c. schema-driven processing
d. prejudice
Answer: B
81. You are walking in a parking lot full of small puddles of water. A car drives through one
near you and splashes you with water. You are likely to attribute the driver’s behavior to
internal dispositions. This is called:
a. stereotyping
b. actor-observer effect
c. covariation
d. the fundamental attribution error
Answer: D
82. Which of the following statements is the best example of a fundamental attribution error?
a. “People live in ghettos because they lack the motivation to make anything of themselves.”
b. “She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth.”
c. “Prison guards are not mean people, they are just victims of a very difficult situation.”
d. “There, but for the grace of God, go I.”
Answer: A
83. A car is tailgating Jerry. The car passes him dangerously. Jerry thinks, “What a jerk!”
Jerry has ignored the possibility of the situation affecting the other driver. Jerry has
committed the:
a. fundamental attribution error
b. primary attribution tendency
c. self-serving bias
d. central attribution error
Answer: A

84. The actor-observer effect suggests that, as actors, we attribute our behaviors to ____, but,
as observers, we attribute others’ behavior to ____.
a. motivation; conformity
b. the situation; their disposition
c. consensus; consistency
d. self-schema; event schema
Answer: B
85. While walking down a crowded city street, we hear someone sound his car horn to try to
get traffic moving. If we use actor-observer bias to attribute cause to the horn honking, we
will:
a. believe that we would never use our own horn in traffic
b. judge the traffic to be very frustrating
c. remind ourselves that there are drivers on the road who deserve to be honked at once in a
while
d. consider the horn honker to be impatient
Answer: D
86. You and your roommate have just received grade reports. Since you and your roommate
were in the same class, you are curious about how well he did. Both of you received a “D.”
You received a “D” because the professor was bad; you believe your roommate got a “D”
because he is not too bright. You have just experienced the:
a. primary dispositional effect
b. grading attribution effect
c. fundamental attribution effect
d. actor-observer effect
Answer: D
87. “When I beat my average bowling score, I attribute it to my skill, but if I score below my
average, I blame it on the dent in my bowling ball.” This is an example of the:
a. actor-observer effect
b. covariation principle
c. fundamental attribution error
d. self-serving bias
Answer: D
88. As you share your high school transcript with your children, you notice that you attribute
the “A’s” to your hard work and discipline. The poor grades are explained by telling your

children that the teacher was bad and the tests were unfair. Oops! You realize that you’ve
committed the:
a. covariation principle
b. self-serving bias
c. fundamental attribution error
d. actor-observer effect
Answer: B
89. Mary thinks she will do well on Dr. Ogle’s business logistics test. She ends up getting the
highest grade in the class. Mary will probably attribute her excellent performance to:
a. ability
b. unstable factors
c. task difficulty
d. luck
Answer: A
90. “As a sales representative for a major company, I often meet my sales quota and make
lots of sales because of my hard work and skill. Sometimes, I don’t make the quota, but it’s
because the company doesn’t give me a list of potential customers.” This person is
experiencing:
a. fundamental attribution error
b. self-serving bias
c. actor-observer effect
d. groupthink
Answer: B
91. In order to convince a freshman that academic problems can be overcome, an instructor
must get the freshman to:
a. attribute problems to temporary factors
b. attribute problems to innate abilities
c. believe that a considerable amount of college success is attributable to good fortune
d. let the instructor assume responsibility for the student’s success for a while
Answer: A
92. To improve students’ grades, researchers tried to change their attributions about poor
grades from being ____ to ____.
a. external; internal

b. internal; dispositional
c. temporary; permanent
d. permanent; temporary
Answer: D
93. Attempts to improve students’ grade-point averages by convincing them that their
problems were due to temporary factors:
a. were successful only temporarily
b. actually caused increased dropout rates among freshman subjects
c. were successful only for subjects of above-average intelligence
d. were generally very successful
Answer: D
94. What effect does shifting attributions for poor academic performance to temporary
conditions have on college students?
a. a reduced dropout rate
b. a reduced self-serving bias
c. an increased dropout rate
d. an increased self-serving bias
Answer: A
95. Changing the attributions of college freshmen regarding their academic performance
demonstrates that:
a. thought patterns are not as important as innate ability
b. attributions influence our behaviors
c. most college students are much more realistic about self-analysis of failure in their first
year of college than they are in their fourth year
d. females attribute cause to failure in much more constructive ways than males do
Answer: B
96. Any belief that includes a positive or negative evaluation of some target, which
predisposes us to act in certain ways toward the target, is defined by your text as a(n):
a. stereotype
b. schema
c. attitude
d. attribution

Answer: C
97. Someone speaks up during a Social Problems class and says, “I really think that abortion
is a form of murder.” Which one of the three components was demonstrated by this student?
a. cognitive
b. affective
c. physiological
d. behavioral
Answer: A
98. “I have strong feelings against black olives.” This demonstrates the ____ component of
an attitude.
a. cognitive
b. affective
c. physiological
d. behavioral
Answer: B
99. “I don’t eat black olives.” This demonstrates the ____ component of an attitude.
a. cognitive
b. affective
c. physiological
d. behavioral
Answer: D
100. If you had a negative attitude towards physician-assisted suicide, then the behavioral
component would be:
a. your dislike and distrust of those who advocate it
b. voting for politicians who want to make it illegal
c. your belief that assisted suicide is evil
d. your hatred toward assisted suicide
Answer: B
101. “I donate my time and money to a number of charities for children.” This demonstrates
which component of an attitude?
a. cognitive
b. affective

c. physiological
d. behavioral
Answer: D
102. With regard to attitudes: cognitive component is to ____ as affective component is to
____.
a. beliefs; actions
b. emotions; feelings
c. thoughts; emotions
d. behavior; actions
Answer: C
103. The idea of cognitive dissonance explains how we:
a. make the fundamental attribution error
b. deal with inconsistencies
c. persuade other people to be obedient
d. develop stereotypes
Answer: B
104. Which of the following words best describes cognitive dissonance?
a. clash
b. harmony
c. straight
d. clear
Answer: A
105. The state of unpleasant psychological tension that motivates people to reduce our
inconsistencies and return to a more consistent state is referred to as:
a. the self-serving bias
b. attribution
c. prejudice
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: D
106. Although Paula loves her work with the American Cancer Society, she smokes cigarettes
at home. If this inconsistency between her actions and attitudes makes her uncomfortable, she
would be experiencing

a. the self-serving bias
b. attribution
c. prejudice
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: D
107. “I know that I should wear my seat belt in the car, but I don’t.” This person probably
experiences:
a. external attribution
b. the self-serving bias
c. prejudice
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: D
108. When a person takes a public position that is different from their private belief, they are
engaging in ____ behavior.
a. persuasive
b. synergic
c. counterattitudinal
d. oppositional
Answer: C
109. When we start to believe our own lies after engaging in counterattitudinal behavior, it
could be because of:
a. changing our mind
b. self-schemas
c. self-perception
d. the cognitive miser model
Answer: C
110. Self-perception theory suggests that we:
a. observe our own behavior and then infer attitudes from the behavior
b. strive to reduce inconsistencies between our attitudes and behavior
c. feel motivated to conserve time and effort by taking cognitive shortcuts
d. attempt to control and regulate the information that we present to others

Answer: A
111. “If I said it, it must be true, because I’ve reduced the inconsistency of my beliefs and
behavior.” This best describes the:
a. arousal-cost-reward model
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. covariation theory
d. self-perception theory
Answer: B
112. “If I said it, it must be true, because I’ve simply explained my own behavior.” This best
describes the:
a. arousal-cost-reward model
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. covariation theory
d. self-perception theory
Answer: D
113. Which of the following theories says that attitudes follow behavior?
a. attribution
b. schema
c. self-esteem
d. self-perception
Answer: D
114. If you were to measure the attitudes towards the wearing of seat belts in a state where
wearing them was compulsory and compare those attitudes to those of people living in a state
where it was not compulsory, self-perception theory would predict that people in the state
with compulsory seat belt legislation tended to:
a. develop a more positive attitude toward the wearing of seat belts
b. develop a more negative attitude toward the wearing of seat belts
c. wear the seat belts only when police officers were visible
d. praise the virtues of seat belts, but not wear them
Answer: A
115. The central route for persuasion presents information with:
a. emotions

b. personal appeals
c. style and image
d. strong arguments, analyses, facts, and logic
Answer: D
116. If a television commercial selling a new car presents strong arguments, analyses, facts,
and logic, we would say that ____ has been used.
a. the central route for persuasion
b. the peripheral route for persuasion
c. cognitive dissonance
d. compliance
Answer: A
117. You are watching a television commercial for a long-distance phone company. In it, two
phone companies are being compared for price, service, and quality. This commercial uses
the ____ route to persuasion.
a. cognitive dissonance
b. peripheral
c. central
d. compliance
Answer: C
118. Mr. Johnson is a lawyer for a physician who helps sick people take their own lives. His
job is to ensure that the public has a positive attitude toward assisted suicide. Mr. Johnson
uses the central route to foster that kind of attitude. He often releases information to the news
media. Which of the following types of information might Mr. Johnson release if using the
central route?
a. pictures of the suffering patients
b. portray people against assisted suicide as religious fanatics
c. statistics about the cost of long-term health care for these sick patients
d. information about the pain patients are feeling
Answer: C
119. A candidate for the U.S. Senate wants to use the central route for persuasion during his
campaign. This candidate should focus primarily on:
a. presenting clear information about his views
b. making a lot of exciting personal appearances

c. TV commercials with the slogan “for a better tomorrow, vote today for ...”
d. getting endorsements from sports figures and other celebrities
Answer: A
120. The peripheral route for persuasion emphasizes:
a. analyses, facts, and logic
b. credibility of candidates
c. emotional appeal
d. devoting sufficient time to understanding the issues
Answer: C
121. A candidate for the Presidency wants to use the peripheral route for persuasion during
her campaign. This candidate should focus primarily on:
a. presenting clear information about her views
b. making a lot of exciting and enthusiastic personal appearances
c. appearing credible and knowledgeable
d. being committed to the issues
Answer: B
122. You and a friend are watching television when a commercial comes on for a fast-food
restaurant. The commercial shows happy people talking and laughing at the restaurant, but
not much mention is made of the food. You correctly identify the commercial to be an
example of the ____ of persuasion.
a. covariation model
b. attributional route
c. central route
d. peripheral route
Answer: D
123. Central routes for persuasion generally work on the ____, whereas peripheral routes for
persuasion work primarily on the ____.
a. person schema; role schema
b. disposition; situation
c. cognitive component; affective component
d. fundamental attribution error; self-serving bias
Answer: C

124. Of the routes of persuasion presented in the textbook, which one is most likely to
produce more enduring results?
a. central route
b. peripheral route
c. cognitive route
d. primary route
Answer: A
125. Of the following, which will likely be the least effective in reducing smoking behavior
among teenagers?
a. health threats
b. a credible source
c. a familiar source
d. an attractive source
Answer: A
126. Claire must try to convince the other executives in her company to invest in a major real
estate venture. She knows that her colleagues are not initially in favor of the idea. According
to what psychologists know about the optimal content for persuasive messages, Claire
should:
a. present both sides of the argument
b. present one side of the argument
c. present the facts and let the members of the group make up their own minds
d. start by suggesting that they not make the investment, in the hope that she will get some
opposition to that idea
Answer: A
127. You are presenting a scientific paper to a group of your professors. Based on Module 25,
what approach should you take and why?
a. the secondary approach, since your audience is likely to be much older than you
b. the peripheral approach, since your professors are most concerned with how interesting
you can make the presentation
c. the central approach, because the audience is most interested in the facts
d. the central approach, because the audience is most interested in your presentation skills
Answer: C

128. If an audience is known to be initially opposed to a persuasive message, which of the
following types of communication will be most effective in changing the audience’s
attitudes?
a. a one-sided message
b. a fear-inducing message
c. a message from a non-credible source
d. a two-sided message
Answer: D
129. In Nigeria, the beauty ideal for women is:
a. to be thin
b. to be heavy
c. to have very dark skin
d. to have very light skin
Answer: B
130. Younger Nigerian women are starting to reject the traditional view that beautiful women
are ____ and to adopt ____ American standards.
a. heavy; light-skinned
b. dark skinned; light-skinned
c. heavy; trim
d. light skinned; dark-skinned
Answer: C
131. In 1997, how many organ transplants were done in Japan?
a. 0
b. 1,000
c. 10,000
d. 23,000
Answer: A
132. What recent development in Japan has led to increased organ transplants?
a. a famous and beloved public figure receiving an organ transplant
b. changing attitudes toward death
c. health insurance now covering all expenses

d. a declaration of a religious figure that approves of organ transplantation
Answer: B
133. What is motivating more and more Egyptian women to learn self-defense methods?
a. an increase in crime
b. an effective method to improve physical fitness
c. to increase self-esteem
d. sexual harassment encouraged by traditional attitudes
Answer: D
134. The case of the hazing incident in high school and college clubs best illustrates:
a. obedience
b. compliance
c. consistency
d. conformity
Answer: D
135. “A behavior performed because of group pressure, even though that pressure involves no
direct requests” is the definition of:
a. obedience
b. compliance
c. consistency
d. conformity
Answer: D
136. At Jack’s office, a number of men start wearing Hawaiian shirts on Fridays. Soon Jack
begins wearing a Hawaiian shirt on Fridays. Jack’s behavior is an example of:
a. conformity
b. consistency
c. compliance
d. obedience
Answer: A
137. Have you ever noticed that when people are in the elevator, they typically stand facing
the door? This best illustrates:
a. compliance

b. consistency
c. obedience
d. conformity
Answer: D
138. You have gone to the local gym to exercise for about a week. You notice that everyone is
wearing light-colored socks. Tomorrow, you go the store to buy a pair of light-colored socks
and wear them to the gym. You think you look pretty neat. You have just experienced:
a. primary attribution
b. consensus
c. conformity
d. obedience
Answer: C
139. As a class project, Dr. Thomas asks her class to attempt to replicate the findings of
Asch’s classic experiment on conformity. What task will students in the class use in their
attempted replication?
a. requests for charity
b. the effects of punishment on learning
c. judging the length of lines
d. expressing political opinions
Answer: C
140. In Asch’s classic experiment on conformity, ____ percent of the subjects never
conformed to group pressure by giving an incorrect answer on any of the trials.
a. 15
b. 25
c. 35
d. 45
Answer: B
141. During a study that used the Asch procedure, subjects’ brains were scanned using fMRI.
When subjects conformed, activity increased in the areas of the brain involved in ____.
a. strong emotion
b. spatial awareness and perception
c. language comprehension

d. sympathetic division activation
Answer: B
142. During a study that used the Asch procedure, subjects’ brains were scanned using fMRI.
When subjects resisted group pressure, activity increased in the areas of the brain involved in
____.
a. strong emotion
b. spatial awareness and perception
c. language comprehension
d. parasympathetic division activation
Answer: A
143. If a person gives in to some form of social pressure, but does not change their private
beliefs, then the person is demonstrating:
a. compliance
b. obedience
c. the foot-in-the-door technique
d. the self-handicapping strategy
Answer: A
144. Bethany answers the phone and is greeted by a person selling magazines. She says that
she’s not interested in buying any magazines. But the person persists. She ends up buying
several subscriptions that she knows she does not need. Bethany illustrates:
a. the self-handicapping strategy
b. obedience
c. conformity
d. compliance
Answer: D
145. Which of the following is an example of compliance?
a. slowing down in a school zone when children are present
b. deciding to work overtime in order to meet a project deadline, even though you wish you
didn’t have to, just because your boss asked if you would
c. wearing the same clothes as your friends
d. deciding to go on a diet
Answer: B

146. As you visit Rome, the cliché, “When in Rome, do as the Romans” is very much in your
mind. Even though you change your public behavior, your private beliefs remain unchanged.
This is an example of:
a. obedience
b. compliance
c. consistency
d. conformity
Answer: B
147. An increased probability of compliance to a second request if a person complies with a
small first request is the definition of:
a. the foot-in-the-door technique
b. the face-in-the-door technique
c. multiple conformity
d. serial obedience
Answer: A
148. Imagine that you have been put in charge of a fundraising campaign for your community
organization. You decide to try the foot-in-the-door technique. Which of the following
strategies would fit the technique?
a. asking potential donors to contribute a fairly large sum of money and, when they refuse,
saying you will settle for a lesser amount
b. asking the same potential donors repeatedly until they give in and contribute
c. asking potential donors for a small contribution, and then going back a few weeks later and
asking for more
d. offering potential donors a number of benefits, and then asking them for a contribution to
your cause
Answer: C
149. At a local health fair, you see a business selling exercise equipment. One of their
marketing tools is to give you a one-month-free rental of any piece of exercise equipment.
You realize that this tool is really the:
a. foot-in-the-door technique
b. cognitive dissonance method
c. arousal-cost-reward technique
d. social comparison method
Answer: A

150. When you engage in behavior in response to an order by a person with power or
authority, you are demonstrating:
a. conformity
b. constancy
c. compliance
d. obedience
Answer: D
151. You are taking this test because your professor told you to do so. Since you are indeed
taking this test, you have just experienced:
a. altruism
b. obedience
c. conformity
d. compliance
Answer: B
152. Captain Janeway orders her crew to stand at attention during a military parade, and they
do so. The crew’s behavior is an example of:
a. compliance
b. obedience
c. conformity
d. constancy
Answer: B
153. What roles were played in Milgram’s study on obedience?
a. co-workers
b. artist and critic
c. teacher and learner
d. patient and doctor
Answer: C
154. When psychiatrists were asked to predict what percentage of the population would
deliver the full range of shocks in the Milgram experiment, their prediction was:
a. less than 1 percent
b. about 2 percent
c. between 25 and 30 percent

d. about 50 percent
Answer: A
155. In the study of obedience conducted by Stanley Milgram, what percentage of “teachers”
delivered the maximum 450-volt-shock?
a. 35 percent
b. 45 percent
c. 55 percent
d. 65 percent
Answer: D
156. Religious leaders, military officers, doctors, scientists, and parents are examples of:
a. authority figures
b. conformity inducers
c. altruistic leaders
d. asocial models
Answer: A
157. What happened when the authority figure in Milgram’s study gave orders over the
phone?
a. Subjects were more likely to agree with the group and disagree with the authority figure.
b. “Learners” were more likely to disobey the authority figure.
c. Subjects were more likely to disobey the authority figure.
d. Subjects were less likely to disobey the authority figure.
Answer: C
158. The results of Milgram’s obedience experiments demonstrated that:
a. most people will not obey orders to harm others in the lab
b. males but not females will obey orders to shock another person
c. a majority of people will obey orders, even if they feel that the orders are unreasonable
d. psychiatrists overestimate the percentage of individuals who will follow orders to harm
others in laboratory experiments
Answer: C
159. A commanding officer gives a soldier an order that he knows the soldier would rather
not obey. According to the findings of the Milgram obedience experiments, what should the
officer do to increase the likelihood of obedience?

a. accompany the order with a threat
b. leave the soldier alone, to obey the order without losing face
c. stay in the presence of the soldier until the order has been obeyed
d. give the order in a friendly way
Answer: C
160. A concern regarding the Milgram obedience study is that of:
a. mundane realism
b. appropriate control groups
c. ethics
d. adequate testing of the null hypothesis
Answer: C
161. A technique whereby experimental subjects are told about the purpose and method of the
experiment is called:
a. obtaining informed consent
b. postexperimental discussion
c. sampling
d. debriefing
Answer: D
162. Because of greater concern regarding ethics, Milgram’s original study was replicated,
but with only:
a. debriefing at the conclusion of the study
b. a small number of subjects
c. a maximum shock level of 150 volts
d. subjects who passed psychological testing
Answer: C
163. As part of his job, Joe raises money for the American Cancer Association. Joe’s action
for the Cancer Association is an example of:
a. altruism
b. reciprocity
c. prosocial behavior
d. diffusion of responsibility

Answer: C
164. In ____, the person who is helping does so without expectation of a reward.
a. diffusion of responsibility
b. reciprocity
c. prosocial behavior
d. altruism
Answer: D
165. A car is rapidly approaching an old lady crossing Hollywood Boulevard. Alan pushes the
lady out of the way and is himself hit by the car, but saves her life. This is an example of:
a. empathy
b. prosocial behavior
c. diffusion of responsibility
d. reciprocity
Answer: B
166. Helping a victim because of identification with what the victim is going through is an
example of which motivation for helping?
a. values
b. reciprocity
c. norms
d. empathy
Answer: D
167. A mugger attacks an old man on a subway car. Bernard gets disgusted when he sees the
old man being beat up and he jumps the mugger and begins hitting him. Bernard’s motivation
for helping appears to be:
a. altruism
b. personal distress
c. reciprocity
d. diffusion of responsibility
Answer: B
168. “Good people help others who are in trouble” represents which motivation for helping
others?
a. norms and values

b. empathy
c. norm of reciprocity
d. diffusion of responsibility
Answer: A
169. The two most prominent models used to explain helping behavior differ in that:
a. one emphasizes the helper, whereas the other emphasizes the victim
b. one emphasizes instincts, whereas the other emphasizes thought patterns
c. one emphasizes sex, whereas the other emphasizes social norms
d. one emphasizes stages, whereas the other emphasizes arousal, costs, and rewards
Answer: D
170. According to the ____ model, we notice a situation, interpret it as one in which help is
needed, assume personal responsibility, choose a form of assistance, and carry out that
assistance.
a. decision-stage
b. cognitive miser
c. arousal-cost-reward
d. attribution
Answer: A
171. What is the initial stage in the decision-stage model of helping?
a. assuming personal responsibility
b. choosing a form of assistance
c. noticing the situation
d. carrying out the assistance
Answer: C
172. According to the decision-stage model of helping, most people don’t help because they
don’t:
a. assume personal responsibility
b. choose a form of assistance
c. notice the situation
d. carry out the assistance
Answer: A

173. Keith notices a man violently slapping a woman in a store parking lot. This upsets him
and makes him want to do something to stop the slapping. According to the arousal-costreward model of helping, Keith is experiencing:
a. cost
b. reward
c. activation
d. arousal
Answer: D
174. Kris sees that a child is trapped in a burning building, but is too afraid of fire to offer any
assistance. Kris probably based her decision on:
a. the decision-stage model
b. the arousal-cost-reward model
c. the frustration-aggression hypothesis
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: B
175. Group cohesion is determined by:
a. the arousal-cost-reward model
b. the phenomenon called the risky shift
c. how much group members perceive that they share common attributes
d. formal rules used to obtain compliance from members of the group
Answer: C
176. Formal or informal rules about how group members should behave are known as:
a. group norms
b. group perceptions
c. group values
d. group ideals
Answer: A
177. According to Maslow’s theory, people become involved with groups in order to:
a. satisfy the need to belong
b. prevent self-handicapping behavior
c. resolve feelings of cognitive dissonance

d. experience group polarization and the risky shift
Answer: A
178. Which theory proposes that we join groups to be able to measure the correctness of our
attitudes and beliefs?
a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
b. attribution theory
c. social comparison theory
d. informational influence theory
Answer: C
179. A teenager is unsure how his new haircut looks. What would Leon Festinger say the
teenager should do?
a. determine if his peer group has group cohesion
b. compare his haircut with that of his peers
c. ask his mother
d. use consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness to determine his attribution
Answer: B
180. Leon Festinger’s social comparison theory offers ____ reasons for forming groups.
a. behavioral
b. affective
c. cognitive
d. biological
Answer: C
181. Tina needs some help in one of her classes. She decides to join a task-oriented study
group. In Group A, the members have specific duties to perform, like writing practice
questions and writing an outline of each lecture. In Group B, there is more emphasis on
developing relationships, like making sure everyone shows up to the review sessions. Which
group should Tina join?
a. either group
b. neither group
c. Group B
d. Group A
Answer: D

182. Lori is being interviewed by a college professor regarding her circle of friends. Lori says
that she enjoys her friends because “they give me support and love.” To what type of group
does Lori belong?
a. facilitative group
b. socially oriented group
c. diffused oriented group
d. task oriented group
Answer: B
183. Katy swims faster when there are large crowds at the swim meet than when she practices
and no one is around. Her faster times may be due to:
a. social inhibition
b. deindividuation
c. diffusion of responsibility
d. social facilitation
Answer: D
184. Jimmy usually beats Ivan in practice tennis matches, but when he plays Ivan again
before a packed house during a tournament, Jimmy plays badly and loses. Jimmy’s poor
performance is likely due to:
a. deindividuation
b. diffusion of responsibility
c. social facilitation
d. social inhibition
Answer: D
185. “Whenever I am trying to play a complex piano piece that I’ve never seen before, my
friend usually sits down to listen.” Make a likely prediction of the piano player’s performance
based upon your understanding of social and group influence:
a. the friend will cause social inhibition, since the song is new and complex
b. the performance will be better, because of social facilitation
c. the performance will be better ,because of social inhibition
d. the friend will cause deindividuation
Answer: A
186. Tim is a nice, quiet boy, except when he roams the streets as a member of a gang. While
with the gang, Tim acts in a violent, vulgar fashion. His antisocial behavior is likely the result
of:

a. social facilitation
b. social inhibition
c. deindividuation
d. infusion
Answer: C
187. Which of the following is associated with a greater likelihood of taking on an antisocial
role?
a. social facilitation
b. informational influence
c. altruism
d. deindividuation
Answer: D
188. As you browse the Internet and read posts on various discussion boards and forums, you
notice that people are very willing to discuss personal intimate details about their lives. What
is the best explanation of this?
a. deindividuation
b. bystander effect
c. group polarization
d. altruism
Answer: A
189. Your songwriter friend has written a song on deindividuation. Now you have to give it a
title. What is the best title?
a. “Just Another Face in the Crowd”
b. “Judge Me”
c. “Nowhere To Go”
d. “Do What I Say”
Answer: A
190. What does deindividuation provide an individual in a crowd?
a. social inhibition
b. motivation
c. anonymity
d. an identity

Answer: C
191. We use the reactions of other people to judge the seriousness of a situation, according to
which of the following theories?
a. implicit personality theories
b. informational influence theory
c. diffusion of responsibility theory
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: B
192. “I’m not sure what to do. I’m at the shopping mall and I see someone who looks like he
needs help. But, I don’t know how serious the situation is.” According to the informational
influence theory, to determine the seriousness of the situation, we use:
a. our prior experience
b. our memories
c. the reactions of others
d. the availability heuristic
Answer: C
193. Burt witnesses a mugging on a crowded bus, but does nothing to help the victim. When
later asked by the police to explain his inaction, Burt says that he figured someone else would
help the victim. Burt has cited which explanation for the bystander effect?
a. arousal-cost-reward
b. diffusion of responsibility
c. group inhibition
d. social contagion
Answer: B
194. Which statement is most related to the diffusion of responsibility theory?
a. “How are these other people reacting?”
b. “It seems whenever I am with others I do a lot better.”
c. “Someone else will probably help.”
d. “That individual is a legitimate authority figure.”
Answer: C
195. Adam is driving past the scene of an automobile accident. He sees that there are a lot of
other people around, so he doesn’t feel that he needs to stop. This is an example of the ____
theory.

a. attribution
b. catharsis
c. diffusion of responsibility
d. groupthink
Answer: C
196. Researchers have discovered that the direction of a group’s risky shift is dependent on:
a. the arousal-cost-reward model
b. dispositional and situation attributions
c. the type of person and role schemas maintained by group members
d. how conservative or liberal the group was to begin with
Answer: D
197. A liberal group is discussing a possible tax increase to fund Medicare. When the group
has finished their discussion, their views are even more liberal than they were when the group
started. This is an example of:
a. the fundamental attribution error
b. group polarization
c. the diffusion of responsibility
d. social comparison theory
Answer: B
198. A group of executives meet to decide on cost-cutting options for the company. They
eventually decide to fire 15 percent of the employees, a decision more extreme than any of
the executives had previously advocated. The decision is an example of:
a. interaction-oriented leadership
b. social inhibition
c. social facilitation
d. group polarization
Answer: D
199. According to Irving Janis, the mindguard in a group:
a. keeps discussions open and unbiased
b. makes sure all group members express their opinions
c. prevents groupthink from occurring
d. discourages ideas that threaten group unity

Answer: D
200. Ingroup is to outgroup as ____ is to ____.
a. them; us
b. difference; similarity
c. us; them
d. conservative; liberal
Answer: C
201. In groupthink, the decision is ____ than ____.
a. less important; reaching agreement
b. more important; having a spirited debate
c. less important; having a spirited debate
d. more important; reaching agreement
Answer: A
202. As a chairperson of an important committee, you recognize the danger of groupthink.
What is one way that your committee can avoid groupthink?
a. provide some time at the beginning of each meeting for small talk
b. allow the members of the group to get to know each other socially
c. during each meeting, emphasize the importance of group unity
d. make sure the group remains task oriented
Answer: D
203. What type of article would you be most likely to find in the Journal of Social
Neuroscience?
a. “The Use of Central and Peripheral Routes in Beer Commercials”
b. “Activation of Mirror Neurons During Personal Conversation”
c. “The Effects of Frustration on Aggression”
d. “Fundamental Attribution Error Among College Students”
Answer: B
204. Dr. Haines, a social neuroscientist, is asked to describe what happens neurologically
when we experience empathy. What is the most likely description?
a. The reticular formation becomes more active.
b. The corpus callosum begins to limit the amount of messages being transferred between the
two hemispheres.

c. There is an increase in activity in the brainstem.
d. Mirror neurons become activated.
Answer: D
205. From a social neuroscience view, what effect does receiving support from a friend have
on our brains?
a. there are less stress hormones produced
b. there are more stress hormones produced
c. the sympathetic division becomes more active
d. dopamine levels dramatically increase in the cortex
Answer: A
206. Jeong is having his brain scanned. As the machine is working, he is asked to read words
on a screen. He is most likely having a(n):
a. MRI scan
b. SET scan
c. fMRI scan
d. X-ray scan
Answer: C
207. Positron emission tomography (PET scan) is a technique used to:
a. transplant fetal brain tissue
b. repair damaged neurons in the spinal cord
c. study the function of brain areas
d. perform a frontal lobotomy
Answer: C
208. During a brain study, the subject watches a dot going back and forth on a computer
screen. Electrodes placed on the subject’s scalp detect activity on the brain’s surface. In this
study, a(n) _____ is being used.
a. EEG
b. PET scan
c. fMRI
d. TMS
Answer: A

209. What happens when part of the human brain is “turned off?” What technology could
actually accomplish this?
a. EEG
b. PET scan
c. TMS
d. MRI
Answer: C
210. You are watching a TV show that consists of high-speed police chases and the inevitable
crashes. As you see one particularly graphic crash, you wince. What neurological structures
allow this particular type of reaction?
a. empathy receptors
b. corpus callosum
c. hippocampus
d. mirror neurons
Answer: D
211. ____ is defined as any act that is intended to do physical or psychological harm,
according to your textbook.
a. Brutality
b. Violence
c. Aggression
d. Altruism
Answer: C
212. A football player tries to hurt the opposing quarterback so that the quarterback will not
be able to continue playing. A psychologist would consider this an example of ____ behavior.
a. aggressive
b. prosocial
c. assertive
d. angry
Answer: A
213. Which of the following would a psychologist not consider to be an example of
aggression?
a. a boy hitting another boy on the playground

b. a doctor breaking a patient’s ribs in an attempt to start the patient’s heart
c. a motorist yelling at another in a busy intersection
d. a brother hitting his younger brother
Answer: B
214. In animals there are numerous signals that signal aggression and submission. According
to ethologists, these signals are:
a. learned
b. also found in humans
c. largely programmed by genetic factors
d. redundant
Answer: C
215. Twin and adoption studies on aggression show that up to ____ of human aggression is
governed by genetic factors.
a. 69%
b. 50%
c. 34%
d. 3%
Answer: C
216. Which of the following statements is most reflective of the social cognitive model of
aggression?
a. Watching violent television programs contributes to aggression in children.
b. Frustration may result in behaviors other than aggression.
c. Catharsis relieves emotional tension and prevents aggressive behavior.
d. Children learn scripts for aggression through reinforcement.
Answer: A
217. Which of the following most accurately captures the research regarding the effects on
children of viewing violent television programs?
a. There is no relationship between viewing violent TV and later aggression.
b. Boys but not girls become more violent after watching violent TV.
c. Children who watch violent TV may demonstrate higher levels of hostile behavior.
d. There is a correlation between viewing violent TV and later aggression, but one does not
cause the other.

Answer: C
218. Children who watch 2–3 hours of television daily are nearly ____ times more likely to
commit violent and aggressive acts later in life compared to children who watched less
television.
a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 10
Answer: B
219. The ____ says that when our pursuit of our goals is blocked, we become frustrated and
we respond with anger and aggression.
a. diathesis-aggression model
b. peripheral route of aggression
c. frustration-aggression hypothesis
d. negative affect model
Answer: C
220. According to Leonard Berkowitz, a person’s reaction to frustration:
a. always involves aggression
b. depends on his or her neurochemical makeup
c. is affected by genetic factors
d. depends on how that person interprets information about the frustrating situation
Answer: D
221. Three-year-old Katy has just had her baby sister tear up an art project that Katy had been
working on. Katy is obviously frustrated, since she put much time and effort into the picture.
But she doesn’t hit her sister because “Mom says we can’t hit.” This would have been
predicted by the:
a. diathesis-aggression model
b. modified frustration-aggression hypothesis
c. frustration-aggression hypothesis
d. negative affect model
Answer: B
222. The frustration-aggression hypothesis was modified because of research that indicated
that:

a. people always respond to frustration with aggression
b. aggression is genetic
c. cognitive factors can override aggression
d. aggression is an innate, biological phenomenon
Answer: C
223. Most researchers agree that the primary motivation for rape is:
a. sexual urges and libido
b. catharsis
c. aggression, power, and control
d. social inhibition and deindividuation
Answer: C
224. The majority of rapes are committed by:
a. anger rapists
b. sadistic rapists
c. power rapists
d. rapists out to physically hurt someone
Answer: C
225. A convicted rapist admits that he often carried a weapon. However, he swears that he
carried it with the intention of using it to overcome his victim more easily but not to harm
her. It is likely that this person is an example of a(n):
a. anger rapist
b. acquaintance rapist
c. sadistic rapist
d. power rapist
Answer: D
226. Reports circulate around Pacific Beach about a rapist who accompanies sexual acts of
short duration with abusive language and physical trauma to the victim. Which type of rapist
is at large in Pacific Beach?
a. anger
b. power
c. sadistic
d. acquaintance

Answer: A
227. A college coed is found dead near an off-ramp of Highway 15. The police determine that
she was raped and tortured before being killed. This act apparently was committed by a(n):
a. acquaintance rapist
b. anger rapist
c. power rapist
d. sadistic rapist
Answer: D
228. Guy believes that if he goes out on a date with a woman he knows and pays for a nice
dinner, she needs to have sex with him. He uses verbal coercion to force his date to have sex.
Guy is most likely a(n):
a. acquaintance rapist
b. anger rapist
c. power rapist
d. sadistic rapist
Answer: A
229. John thinks a woman who accepts a ride from a strange male is responsible if she gets
raped. This belief is an example of a:
a. rape myth
b. rape stigma
c. rape schema
d. rape motif
Answer: A
230. Which of the following is not among the cognitive-behavioral deficits among children
who have aggression problems?
a. aggressive children do not correctly recall social cues
b. aggressive children tend not to make accurate explanations about situations
c. aggressive children tend to use adaptive solutions to problems
d. aggressive children are reinforced for their aggression
Answer: C
231. Tony, a nine-year-old with a history of aggression problems, is playing in the park.
Tommy comes over and says “Hi” to Tony. Then Tony responds with insults and jumps on
Tommy and hits him repeatedly. This is an example of how aggressive children:

a. reconstruct their schemas
b. misinterpret nonharmful social cues
c. experience catharsis
d. cope with cognitive dissonance
Answer: B
232. One program to curb aggression in children focuses on:
a. reduction of testosterone
b. teaching children problem-solving skills
c. genetic screening and counseling
d. attitude change and persuasion
Answer: B
233. An aggressive child enrolled in an anger control program would likely learn to do all of
the following except:
a. use self-statements to inhibit impulsive behaviors
b. generate alternative nonaggressive solutions when frustrated
c. hit a doll or pillow to release aggressive tension
d. expect reinforcers for following appropriate rules for their behaviors
Answer: C
234. Freud theorized that engaging in aggressive behavior could get rid of pent-up emotions.
This notion is referred to as:
a. catharsis
b. altruism
c. the risky shift
d. deindividuation
Answer: A
235. Which of the following best describes catharsis?
a. “cooking up a storm”
b. “What part of ‘no’ don’t you understand?”
c. “letting off some steam”
d. “He who is without sin, let him cast the first stone.”
Answer: C

236. A group of college students decided to go to a hockey game on Friday night and “blow
off some steam.” What does the research reveal about catharsis?
a. catharsis is only effective for moderately aggressive individuals
b. catharsis works, but only for mildly aggressive individuals
c. observing athletic events is an effective way to reduce aggression
d. it may actually increase aggression
Answer: D
237. Media portrayals of sexual behavior reinforce the idea that:
a. aggressiveness is not normal
b. sexual aggressiveness causes harm
c. sexual aggression is acceptable
d. no means no
Answer: C
238. When compared to men who are not sexually aggressive, men who are, tend to:
a. engage in activities that lead to catharsis
b. make fundamental attribution errors in explaining a woman’s behavior
c. perceive women as showing sexual interest in nonsexual situations
d. have lower levels of serotonin
Answer: C
239. Those against requiring all teen girls to be vaccinated against HPV argued that:
a. some health insurance will not cover the vaccine
b. the vaccine has some serious side effects
c. the vaccine is not effective
d. doing so undermines abstinence as the best method to avoid HPV
Answer: D
240. How did the governor of Texas arrive at the decision to support a mandatory vaccination
for girls to prevent HPV?
a. after weighing the pros and cons
b. after determining the side effects were minor
c. after having several family members suffer from HPV
d. after determining that health insurance companies would cover the expenses

Answer: A
Module 25—Social Cognition & Behavior Part II
TRUE/FALSE
1. An attractive face is actually related to averaging many faces.
Answer: True
2. Mirror neurons are responsible for our ability to feel aggression toward a person.
Answer: False
3. A stereotype saves time and energy in terms of thinking about people.
Answer: True
4. An example of discrimination would be to think that a woman could not be president.
Answer: False
5. Attributions are explanations for behaviors.
Answer: True
6. An internal attribution would be an explanation based on the situation.
Answer: False
7. The affective component of an attitude refers to emotional feelings.
Answer: True
8. Cognitive dissonance is an unpleasant feeling that motivates us to change.
Answer: True
9. The peripheral route uses facts, figures, and arguments to persuade.
Answer: False
10. Conformity occurs when you change behavior because of group pressure.
Answer: True
11. You start with a small request and then a large request in the foot-in-the-door technique.
Answer: True
12. According to the Milgram study, most people refused to obey an order to hurt someone.
Answer: False
13. Part of the decision-stage model of helping is determining the costs and rewards of
helping.
Answer: False
14. Social inhibition often occurs when the response is new or complex.

Answer: True
15. Group polarization occurs when the group’s point of view becomes stronger.
Answer: True
16. In groupthink, the groups are most concerned with making good decisions.
Answer: False
17. Mindguards increase the odds that groupthink will occur.
Answer: True
18. Genetic factors predispose individuals to develop aggressive behaviors.
Answer: True
19. A “good environment” cannot compensate for “bad genes.”
Answer: False
20. Social cognitive theory emphasizes that children model aggression.
Answer: True
21. TMS is a technique that works to activate or suppress brain activity.
Answer: True
22. The most common type of rapist is the power rapist.
Answer: True
23. Aggressive children tend to accurately explain other children’s aggressive behaviors.
Answer: False
24. Catharsis is effective in reducing anger or aggression.
Answer: False
25. The primary objective against mandatory vaccination for HPV is that the vaccine may
cause ADHD.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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