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Module 7—Sleep and Dreams
1. The purpose of isolating a person in a cave for many months without clocks, television, or
radio was to determine:
a. if people can live without such modern devices
b. how much the person sleeps with no time cues
c. how the devices’ electromagnetic waves affect memory
d. how many books the person could read
Answer: B
2. Stefania, the woman who spent 130 days underground, had a difficult time:
a. estimating the passage of time
b. keeping physically fit
c. being away from her family
d. with concentration near the end of her ordeal
Answer: A
3. The four months Stefania spent in a Plexiglas module taught researchers:
a. social deprivation has profoundly devastating effects on mental health
b. blood sugar levels are linked to light cues
c. delusions are commonplace in light-deprived settings
d. without cues of light, it becomes difficult to judge time
Answer: D
4. What did the discovery of rapid eye movement and its association with dreaming give
a. a reliable method to study how the body uses light cues
b. a reliable method to identify and study dreaming in the laboratory
c. a reliable method to study the effects of hypnosis on dreams
d. a reliable method to study the role that vision plays in dreaming
Answer: B
5. Consciousness is defined as:
a. the process by which a sensation becomes a perception
b. different levels of awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings

c. cognitive reflection of the physical events one encounters
d. introspective thinking that results in mental experiences
Answer: B
6. Your different levels of awareness of thoughts and feelings are called:
a. apnea
b. perception
c. identity
d. consciousness
Answer: D
7. Dr. Barr is an authority on consciousness and wishes to set up a website that summarizes
his research in the area. Which of the following website addresses would be most
Answer: A
8. The continuum of consciousness ranges from:
a. acute awareness to total unawareness and unresponsiveness
b. limited awareness to fantasizing
c. automatic processes to altered states
d. unconsciousness to dreaming
Answer: A
9. Activities (such as studying for an exam) that require full awareness and concentration are
a. automatic processes
b. conscious processes
c. focused processes
d. controlled processes
Answer: D
10. Answering this question correctly is an example of a(n) ____, since it requires
concentration and your full attention.

a. controlled process
b. conscious process
c. introspective process
d. automatic process
Answer: A
11. Andy is learning how to juggle three balls. He is not very good at it, and he keeps
dropping them. You can plainly see the concentration on his face. Juggling for Andy is a(n):
a. automatic process
b. controlled process
c. attentional process
d. introspective process
Answer: B
12. According to your authors, why does using a car phone while driving increase the chance
of having a car accident?
a. Automatic processes like using a car phone disrupt other ongoing activities like driving.
b. When talking on the phone, we tend to enter an altered state that disrupts consciousness.
c. Controlled processes like using a car phone disrupt other ongoing activities like driving.
d. Most of the conversations that take place on car phones tend to be highly emotional and
this increases road rage.
Answer: C
13. Although Christine is concentrating on reading her psychology book, she can also eat her
breakfast, brush her hair, and put on her nail polish without interfering with her studying. For
Christine, these other activities are called:
a. automatic processes
b. subliminal processes
c. uncontrolled processes
d. unconscious processes
Answer: A
14. “I can chew gum and walk at the same time.” This best illustrates:
a. controlled processes
b. altered states of consciousness
c. automatic processes

d. Daydreaming
Answer: C
15. Controlled process is to automatic process as ____ is to ____.
a. suprachiasmatic nucleus; basal ganglia
b. absolute threshold; JND
c. daydreaming; night dreaming
d. full awareness; little awareness
Answer: D
16. People generally daydream during situations that:
a. require a great deal of attention
b. are repetitious or boring
c. are controlled processes
d. immediately precede sleeping
Answer: B
17. What appears to be a function of daydreaming?
a. to act as a safety valve to release pent-up sexual desires
b. to facilitate the release of growth hormones
c. to reflect on past actions or plan for the future
d. to encode memories into the unconscious mind
Answer: C
18. Professor Clark is lecturing and notices a student in the back of the room who appears to
be daydreaming. Professor Clark startles the student by asking, “Excuse me. Can I be of
service to you?” Given what we know about daydreaming, the student is most likely to say
she was daydreaming about:
a. “I was just imagining that I’m playing a championship game with seconds left.”
b. “I was thinking about how my boyfriend broke up with me last night.”
c. “I was thinking about how much I want a new car.”
d. “I was just thinking what I would do if a won the Mega Lotto tonight—it’s up to $100
million dollars.”
Answer: B
19. Meditation, hypnosis, or drug use usually produces which type of consciousness?
a. automatic processes

b. altered states
c. sleep and dreams
d. cognitive unconscious
Answer: B
20. Young David is being wheeled into the operating room for surgery and the preoperative
drugs are having an effect. His eyes are open, but his perception of the world around him, the
voices of the surgical team, and the faces of his relatives are very different than normal. At
what point along the continuum of consciousness is David most likely to be?
a. a vegetative state
b. Unconsciousness
c. an altered state
d. cognitive preconscious
Answer: C
21. Which of the following is the most distracting while driving?
a. use of a cell phone
b. listening to music
c. reading the directional street sign
d. talking to a passenger
Answer: B
22. ____ refers to awareness that differs from normal consciousness.
a. Automatic processes
b. Cognitive unconscious
c. Controlled processes
d. Altered states
Answer: D
23. Which type of consciousness involves passing through five states of differing levels of
a. altered states
b. automatic processes
c. coma
d. sleep
Answer: D

24. Tim believes that sleep is one continuous state of consciousness. Is Tim right?
a. Yes—sleep is made up of non-REM consciousness
b. Yes—sleep is made up of REM consciousness
c. No—sleep is made up of five different REM and non-REM stages
d. No—sleep is made up of two different REM states
Answer: C
25. As we pass into the deepest stages of sleep, we may:
a. sleeptalk or sleepwalk
b. have nightmares
c. have very vivid and emotional dreams
d. enter REM
Answer: A
26. The individual most associated with the concept of the unconscious is:
a. B. F. Skinner
b. Wilhelm Wundt
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Stephen LaBerge
Answer: C
27. According to Freud, where do we place threatening wishes or desires?
a. the unconscious
b. an altered state of consciousness
c. the conscious
d. the superego
Answer: A
28. The term ____ refers to mental and emotional processes of which we are unaware but that
influence our conscious thoughts and behaviors.
a. unconsciousness
b. implicit (or nondeclarative) memory
c. coma
d. altered states
Answer: B

29. Can you describe the complex motor movements involved in riding a bicycle according to
the cognitive view of the unconscious?
a. Yes—since motor memories are automatic processes
b. Yes—motor memories are examples of controlled processes
c. No—these motor memories are implicit or nondeclarative memories
d. No—these motor memories are often associated with threatening wishes and desires, and
therefore are stored in the unconscious
Answer: C
30. A hard blow to the head can produce a temporary state of:
a. cognitive unconscious
b. euphoria
c. sleep
d. unconsciousness
Answer: D
31. A person who is classified as being in a vegetative state:
a. has no awareness or responsiveness
b. is temporarily unconscious
c. is considered to be in an altered state
d. is capable of mental processes
Answer: A
32. Professor Johnson views the unconscious as an active psychological process that protects
us from threatening thoughts and desires. Her views are most consistent with:
a. Czeisler
b. Kihlstrom
c. Freud
d. Mesmer
Answer: C
33. You have internal timing devices set for hours, a single day, and for many days. These
a. biological clocks
b. lunar clocks
c. biorhythms

d. circadian rhythms
Answer: A
34. Dr. Buckbee is studying biological clocks. He is most interested in the clock that is set for
about a single day. Dr. Buckbee studies:
a. suprachiasmatic rhythms
b. lunar rhythms
c. daily rhythms
d. circadian rhythms
Answer: D
35. What is the literal meaning of circadian?
a. “the mind’s clock”
b. “about a day”
c. “the mind’s day”
d. “time has no end”
Answer: B
36. A researcher wishes to investigate the length of the sleep-wake cycle that is regulated by a
subject’s biological clock. The researcher can do this by:
a. letting the subject eat and sleep whenever he or she feels like it
b. asking the subject to estimate the time at certain intervals without the use of a clock
c. removing all cues to time and measuring when the subject sleeps and wakes
d. analyzing the cycle produced by brain-wave patterns
Answer: C
37. A circadian rhythm is a(n):
a. naturally occurring cycle in the body set to about 24 hours
b. altered state of consciousness
c. type of neurotransmitter involved in sleep
d. naturally occurring cycle in the body set to about 12 or 13 hours
Answer: A
38. If left in a place with no time or light cues, your sleep-wake cycle would:
a. remain at 24 hours
b. change to a little more than 24 hours

c. keep constant at 12 hours
d. remain unchanged at about 4 hours
Answer: B
39. Imagine that NASA conducts a study to find out the length of a person’s sleep-wake cycle
if all time cues, such as daylight and clocks, are removed. How long would you predict this
cycle to be, given these conditions?
a. 16 hours and 32 minutes long
b. 20 hours long
c. 24 hours long
d. 24 hours and 18 minutes long
Answer: D
40. Each day ____ resets our circadian clock.
a. an alarm clock
b. morning sunlight
c. the feeling of hunger
d. evening sunlight
Answer: B
41. How would you explain that some blind individuals do not have sleep problems?
a. Light does not readjust their circadian rhythms.
b. These individuals are often prescribed sleeping pills to prevent any sleep disturbances.
c. Because of plasticity, the brain pathways to the SCN become rewired.
d. The pathway for light to the SCN is not damaged while the pathway required for vision is
Answer: D
42. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the:
a. cerebellum
b. hippocampus
c. hypothalamus
d. basal ganglia
Answer: C
43. Zoe, who is obese, gets up in the middle of the night to eat. What is the most likely cause?

a. Her food-entrainable circadian clock is damaged.
b. Zoe is sleep walking.
c. Her patterns of REM and Non-REM are disrupted.
d. She is still experiencing jet lag.
Answer: A
44. You are writing an article for a newspaper on late-night eating among obese people.
Which of the following is the most appropriate title for your article?
a. Using Light to Cure Late-Night Snacking
b. Eating Becomes an Automatic Process for Some
c. Lack of Endorphins Causes Late-Night Eating
d. Is Your Food-Entrainable Circadian Clock Broken?
Answer: D
45. “My husband’s food-entrainable circadian clock must be broken.” Which of the following
behavior is the most likely evidence of this statement?
a. He gets up late at night to eat.
b. He eats a very large breakfast.
c. He eats his meals at varying times throughout the day.
d. He craves high-protein foods.
Answer: A
46. After telling your friends about the role of light in the sleep-wake cycle, one of them asks
about blind people. You mention:
a. that nearly all blind people have serious problems with their sleep-wake cycle
b. all blind people must use auditory cues of time passage
c. the pathway for vision and for circadian rhythms are separate
d. blindness causes profound disturbances in sleeping that must be treated with hormone
Answer: C
47. How does the body reset its genetically preset sleep-wake circadian clock to the 24-hour
a. morning light enters the eye and is sent to the basal ganglia
b. morning light enters the eye and is sent to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
c. the sound of the clock alarm resets the circadian clock

d. eating breakfast in the morning resets hormonal levels
Answer: B
48. The fundamental problem underlying jet lag and accidents during graveyard shifts is that:
a. our circadian rhythm is disrupted so that our normal sleep and wake times get thrown off
b. corporate greed is inconsistent with the biological needs of people
c. we do not know how to reset circadian rhythms
d. we do not value good, quality sleep
Answer: A
49. Everyday our circadian clock gets reset by about:
a. 3 minutes
b. 18 minutes
c. 1 hour
d. 3 hours
Answer: B
50. Eric usually has problems with attention and alertness at work. Last week he was
involved in a minor accident at work. He talks about experiencing a “dead zone.” Since Eric
does not abuse drugs, the most likely reason for Eric’s problems at work is:
a. that he feels unfulfilled
b. he works the overnight shift
c. family problems at home
d. his lack of confidence in management
Answer: B
51. Tom is working the graveyard shift at the mill. He has just reached the “dead zone” and is
experiencing problems with alertness. The clock on the wall reads:
a. 1:00 AM
b. 2:00 AM
c. 5:00 AM
d. 6:00 AM
Answer: C
52. If your circadian rhythm becomes out of step with clock time when you travel, you
experience a phenomenon known as:
a. sleep spindles

b. activation-synthesis
c. paradoxical sleep
d. jet lag
Answer: D
53. A frequent flier has problems with jet lag. He decides that he can control this by changing
the seat he normally occupies in the aircraft. This strategy is:
a. not likely to work because jet lag is caused by protein imbalances that result from having to
eat at irregular times
b. going to fail because jet lag is caused by a lack of synchrony between biological and
chronological clocks
c. likely to work because jet lag is caused by the nature of movement in an aircraft and this is
experienced differently in different parts of the plane
d. not likely to work because jet lag is caused by the tiring nature of travel
Answer: B
54. The rule of thumb for recovering from jet lag is that it takes about ____ to reset the
circadian clock for ____ of time change.
a. one hour; each hour
b. one day; each day
c. one day; each hour
d. two days; each hour
Answer: C
55. Which of the following did Charles Czeisler find could reset the circadian rhythm of a
night worker?
a. exposure to bright light
b. removing all clocks from the workplace
c. injecting high doses of melatonin
d. electroencephalogram tracing
Answer: A
56. What does light therapy do in resetting circadian rhythms?
a. light resets the internal timing clock
b. light resets the basal ganglia
c. light resets the suprachiasmatic nucleus

d. light resets the retina
Answer: C
57. According to Module Seven, light therapy has been recently used to treat:
a. night terrors
b. sleep apnea
c. narcolepsy
d. depression
Answer: D
58. What hormone is thought to play a role in circadian rhythms?
a. dopamine
b. melatonin
c. estrogen
d. prolixin
Answer: B
59. The sun is rising. The morning light is becoming brighter. What’s happening to your level
of melatonin?
a. melatonin is not affected by light levels
b. it is stabilizing
c. it is decreasing
d. it is increasing
Answer: C
60. In people with normal circadian clocks, what effect does melatonin taken in pill form
have on jet lag?
a. It helps people to adjust to jet lag.
b. It helps people to adjust to jet lag, but only if traveling east to west.
c. It helps people to adjust to jet lag, but only if traveling west to east.
d. It was no more effective than a placebo in reducing jet lag.
Answer: D
61. Your psychology professor is talking about the changes in the electrical activity of the
brain and the accompanying physiological bodily responses you experience as you sleep.
What is your professor most likely describing?
a. activation-synthesis stages

b. continuum of sleep
c. altered states of consciousness
d. stages of sleep
Answer: D
62. Heidi wants to be an astronaut. As part of her medical exam, she is hooked to an
electroencephalograph. This device is being used to monitor Heidi’s:
a. hypnotic susceptibility
b. blood alcohol level
c. hypothalamic activity in sleep
d. brain waves
Answer: D
63. Sleep is divided into stages by examining a person’s:
a. activity level during sleep
b. dream activity
c. circadian rhythms
d. EEG pattern
Answer: D
64. Brain waves are described by examining their:
a. frequency and altitude
b. frequency and amplitude
c. pitch and amplitude
d. size and depth
Answer: B
65. Before entering the first stage of sleep, you probably feel relaxed and drowsy as you lay
in your bed. This is called the ____ stage.
a. alpha
b. beta
c. psi
d. theta
Answer: A
66. Whose brain is most likely to have alpha waves?

a. Fran—she is dreaming
b. Gary—he is in stage 1
c. Vi—she is very relaxed and drowsy
d. Erv—he is excited as he watches his favorite football team
Answer: C
67. In a typical night, we spend about ____ of our sleep time in non-REM.
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 80%
d. 95%
Answer: C
68. A commuter who takes the train daily from Connecticut to Manhattan is in his habit of
sitting with his eyes closed, but the motion and noise of the train keep him from truly falling
asleep. He feels relaxed and is drowsy. The commuter’s brain is probably emitting which type
of waves?
a. beta
b. alpha
c. delta
d. theta
Answer: B
69. The phone rings and wakes you just when you first fall asleep. It is most likely you have
been awakened from:
a. non-REM sleep
b. REM sleep
c. SPID sleep
d. paradoxical sleep
Answer: A
70. Thomas nudges Nancy, who is on the couch sleeping. Nancy says, “I feel as if I wasn’t
even sleeping.” Nancy, most likely, woke from ____.
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3

d. REM sleep
Answer: A
71. What is the lightest stage of sleep?
a. Alpha stage
b. Stage 1
c. Stage 2
d. Stage 3
Answer: B
72. Sleep spindles appear during what stage of sleep?
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4
Answer: B
73. The deepest stage of sleep is characterized by ____ waves.
a. alpha
b. beta
c. theta
d. delta
Answer: D
74. Rip’s EEG indicates that he has entered delta sleep. We can expect that:
a. his brain will be emitting sleep spindles
b. he has just fallen asleep
c. he would be very difficult to awaken
d. he is about to wake up
Answer: C
75. A mother tells her son that if he doesn’t sleep he won’t grow. The mother is:
a. partly correct in that growth hormones are released during Non-REM sleep
b. relying on an old folk tale that has no support in science
c. partly correct in that a rested body grows faster

d. correct because we do most of our growing when we are asleep
Answer: A
76. In a typical night, we spend about ____ of our sleep time in REM.
a. 20%
b. 50%
c. 80%
d. 95%
Answer: A
77. REM brain waves have ____ frequency and ____ amplitude.
a. no; slow
b. slow; high
c. high; low
d. low; fast
Answer: C
78. Every night, we cycle into REM about:
a. 1-2 times
b. 3-4 times
c. 5-6 times
d. 7-8 times
Answer: C
79. REM sleep is sometimes referred to as:
a. daydreaming
b. rebound sleep
c. paradoxical sleep
d. delta sleep
Answer: C
80. You are looking at two EEG profiles recorded from an individual’s full night of sleep. But
you have a difficult time telling apart two types of brain waves. What are the two waves that
look identical to each other?
a. delta waves and alpha waves
b. beta waves and REM brain waves

c. sleep spindles & theta waves
d. delta and REM brain waves
Answer: B
81. REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because:
a. the body does not need REM sleep, but does need regular sleep
b. although asleep, the brain waves are virtually identical to those recorded while awake
c. dreams often make no sense to the individual once they are awake
d. REM sleep occurs immediately following Stage 1 sleep and immediately before Stage 2
Answer: B
82. Manuel suffers from REM behavior disorder. Because of the disorder, he:
a. acts out his dreams because his voluntary muscles are not paralyzed
b. experiences an increased percentage of time spent in REM
c. has an excess of Stage 2 sleep
d. has a paralysis of his legs during REM
Answer: A
83. Denise is watching Greg sleep. Denise notices that Greg’s eyes are rapidly moving backand-forth behind his closed eyelids. She also notes that his arms lack muscle tension. These
suggest that Greg is:
a. experiencing sleep spindles
b. dreaming
c. in gamma sleep
d. emitting theta waves
Answer: B
84. According to an EEG, Rachel is in REM sleep. She is probably:
a. sleepwalking
b. in a light state of sleep
c. dreaming
d. just falling asleep
Answer: C
85. Emily is watching Mae sleep and concludes Mae is in REM. If Emily awakens Mae, what
is the chance Mae will report having had a vivid and complex dream?

a. 20-30%
b. 50%
c. 80-90%
d. 100%
Answer: C
86. Jayne wants a really creative name for her website on dreaming. What would be a good
choice that is also consistent with the research on dreaming?
Answer: B
87. A woman has just had a baby and is allowed to have the newborn in the hospital room
with her at night. On the third night, however, the nurses decide the woman needs her rest,
since the baby has been waking up often in the night. If the baby woke its mother during each
of her REM sleep periods, what would we expect on the night when the nurses looked after
the baby and the mother was allowed to sleep through?
a. the mother would be very irritable
b. the mother would sleep, but wake up depressed
c. the mother would increase her REM sleep that night
d. the mother would experience an increase in Stage 1 sleep
Answer: C
88. As a volunteer in a sleep experiment, Isaac was awakened each time he entered REM
sleep for two nights. On the third night he was allowed to sleep normally. We would expect
that REM deprivation would:
a. have no effect on his normal sleeping pattern
b. cause a temporary depression
c. lead to REM rebound on the third night
d. cause him to be irritable for the next few days
Answer: C
89. Based upon the research cited in Module Seven, REM may help us to:
a. encode information into memory
b. restore and repair our physical bodies

c. reset our circadian clock
d. increase the accuracy of our perception of images
Answer: A
90. In a lecture on sleep, Professor Kaurala is using a metaphor to explain the cycles between
NON-REM and REM. Which of the following is most appropriate in describing the journey
through the night?
a. someone hiking in the mountains going up and down hills and valleys
b. a caterpillar turning into a butterfly and then dying
c. an acorn growing to be an oak tree
d. a submarine diving to very deep depths
Answer: A
91. The transition between wakefulness and sleep is:
a. paradoxical sleep
b. REM
c. Non-REM Stage 1
d. Non-REM Stage 2
Answer: C
92. We enter REM sleep from:
a. wakefulness
b. drowsiness
c. Stage 4 sleep
d. Stage 2 sleep
Answer: D
93. Sleepwalking and night terrors occur during:
a. Stage 1 sleep
b. REM sleep
c. sleep spindles
d. Stage 4 sleep
Answer: D
94. Of the following ordered stages, which most resembles the first hour or so of a typical
night of sleep?

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, REM
b. 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM
c. 1, 2, 3, REM, 4, REM
d. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, REM
Answer: B
95. Elaine is talking in her sleep. In what stage of sleep is she most likely at this moment?
a. Stage 1
b. REM sleep
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4
Answer: D
96. Little Timmy has a problem with bedwetting. In what stage of sleep is this most likely to
a. Stage 1
b. REM sleep
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4
Answer: D
97. “When I was a kid I used to wet my bed all the time. Now I think I must have been
dreaming that I was going to the bathroom.” Is this person’s explanation correct?
a. No, bedwetting occurs in Non-REM Stage 4 and dreaming occurs in REM.
b. No, bedwetting occurs in REM and dreaming occurs in Non-REM.
c. Yes, bedwetting occurs in REM and that is when dreaming also occurs.
d. No, bedwetting occurs in Non-REM Stage 1 and dreaming occurs in Non-REM Stage 4.
Answer: A
98. The most difficult Non-REM stage to awaken someone from is:
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4
Answer: D

99. A four-year-old has night terrors on a regular basis. In what stage of sleep is this most
likely to occur?
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4
Answer: D
100. Why are evening people less vulnerable to fatigue?
a. they have high levels of melatonin throughout the day
b. they don’t waste energy with entrainment
c. they have less activity in their suprachiasmatic nucleus
d. they have more activity in their suprachiasmatic nucleus
Answer: D
101. Your friend asks, “Why am I this way? I mean, why do I like to get up early in the
morning? I get really tired in the afternoon.” The reason for your friend’s preference and
energy in the morning is:
a. high levels of melatonin in the morning
b. the level of activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
c. she is experiencing the effects of jet lag
d. she has abnormally high levels of non-REM
Answer: B
102. Dr. Ramez studies circadian clocks—specifically, the rhythm of body temperature. In
her current study, she needs to disrupt the body temperature rhythm in rats. What part of the
rat’s brain regulates body temperature?
a. limbic system
b. brainstem
c. suprachiasmatic nucleus
d. hippocampus
Answer: C
103. Consider this case study: Paul eats a light breakfast and is a night worker, but sometimes
works in the afternoon. He often complains of being cold in the morning. Paul is most likely
a. early bird

b. afternoon person
c. morning person
d. evening person
Answer: D
104. Based on Module Seven, who is most likely a conscientious introvert?
a. Taylor—a morning person
b. Bashir—an evening person
c. Garth—tends not to remember dreams
d. Tom—has chronic nightmares
Answer: A
105. Stacy is a very outgoing person, but often she makes poor decisions because of her
impulsiveness. Stacy is most likely to be:
a. an evening person
b. a morning person
c. suffering from jet lag
d. suffering from narcolepsy
Answer: A
106. What tends to happen to people as they age with regard to circadian preference?
a. People’s tendency for circadian preference remains unchanged until the late 70’s.
b. People tend to become more like evening persons after reaching middle adulthood.
c. People tend to become more like afternoon persons after reaching middle adulthood.
d. People tend to become more like morning persons after reaching middle adulthood.
Answer: D
107. Mary Joy is in her sixties and is in good health. In her twenties, she was most like an
evening person. What is her most likely status right now?
a. Mary Joy remains an evening person
b. She is a combination—an afternoon person
c. She is a morning person
d. Mary Joy has no strong preference either way
Answer: C
108. According to survey research, most adults sleep between ____ hours a night.

a. 4-4.9
b. 5-5.9
c. 6-6.9
d. 7-7.9
Answer: D
109. As one-year-old Gabriella grows up through adolescence, the percentage of time spent in
REM will:
a. dramatically fluctuate and stabilize around 25 years of age
b. remain the same
c. gradually increase
d. gradually decline
Answer: D
110. The local school board wants to change the high school’s schedule to be more consistent
with the sleep patterns of adolescents. What is their proposal?
a. require practice for sports and music to be held in the early morning
b. start high school classes one hour earlier
c. increase the time allowed between classes without being tardy
d. start high school classes one hour later
Answer: D
111. Who will spend the most time in REM sleep during the course of a 24-hour period?
a. a 60-year-old man
b. a 35-year-old woman
c. a 10-year-old boy
d. a 6-month-old girl
Answer: D
112. Who will spend about 6.5 hours a day sleeping?
a. a 67-year-old man
b. a 35-year-old woman
c. a 10-year-old boy
d. a 6-month-old girl
Answer: A

113. The ____ argues that activities during the day deplete key factors in our brain that must
be replenished by sleeping.
a. adaptive theory
b. repair theory
c. deprivation theory
d. activation-synthesis theory
Answer: B
114. Which statement does not support the repair theory’s attempt to explain why we sleep?
a. during sleep the secretion of growth hormone increases
b. during sleep there is an increase in the body’s release of immune cells
c. during wakefulness there is a decline in the brain’s energy stores
d. sleep protects us from dangers that we cannot see at night
Answer: D
115. The finding that during sleep there is increased production of immune cells supports the
____ theory.
a. repair
b. adaptive
c. activation-synthesis
d. Freudian
Answer: A
116. Imagine that “sleep” can talk. As the person is falling asleep, “sleep” says, “Finally, I
can get some work done. Let’s see. I need to release some growth hormone later and look at
the immune system. I think there’s something wrong with it.” Odd as it may be, which theory
of sleep is best reflected in these comments?
a. Freudian
b. repair
c. activation-synthesis
d. restorative
Answer: B
117. The ____ theory suggests that sleep evolved because it prevented energy waste and
minimized exposure to nighttime dangers.
a. repair

b. adaptive
c. activation-synthesis
d. Freudian
Answer: B
118. Why may you get really crabby when you don’t get enough sleep?
a. increased glycogen in the brain
b. increased serotonin in the brain
c. increased activity in the brain’s emotion centers
d. increased endorphins in the brain, in particular the limbic system
Answer: C
119. Sleep deprivation appears to negatively affect:
a. blood pressure
b. heart rate
c. immune system functioning
d. hormone secretions
Answer: C
120. According to a sleep-deprivation study on sled dog racers described in your textbook,
what amount of sleep did racers have who experienced vivid hallucinations?
a. 1 hour
b. 2 hours
c. 3-4 hours
d. 7 hours
Answer: B
121. Which of the following adverse effects may be caused by sleep deprivation?
a. decrease in performance of tasks that require vigilance and concentration
b. autonomic functions such as heart rate becoming erratic
c. increased glycogen
d. reduced amount of the hormone insulin
Answer: A
122. In humans, sleep deprivation seems to have minimal effects on:
a. the immune system

b. physiological functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system
c. memory
d. production and release of insulin
Answer: B
123. Why does sleep deprivation increase the risk for obesity and diabetes?
a. Sleep deprivation reduces the amount of adenosine released.
b. Sleep deprivation turns off the VLPO switch.
c. Sleep deprivation changes appetite-related hormones and increases the amount of insulin
d. Sleep deprivation disrupts the brain use of melatonin.
Answer: C
124. What role does the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) play in consciousness?
a. focuses our attention during periods of intense awareness
b. influences the quality and quantity of dreams
c. paralyzes voluntary muscles
d. acts like a master switch for sleep
Answer: D
125. After the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is turned on, the neurotransmitter ____ is
b. REM
c. dopamine
d. benzodiazepine
Answer: A
126. If George’s hypothalamus is damaged and he shows severe disruption in his circadian
rhythms, what specific part of his hypothalamus is malfunctioning?
a. lateral hypothalamus
b. ventrolateral preoptic nucleus
c. pons
d. reticular formation
Answer: B

127. Which of the following is responsible for keeping our forebrains awake and alert when
a. the cognitive unconscious
b. the suprachiasmatic nucleus
c. the reticular formation
d. sleep spindles
Answer: C
128. You are a psychology professor reviewing the outline of a student’s paper on the
mechanisms of falling asleep. As you read the outline, you notice that one of the steps is
incorrect. Which one is it?
a. the time of falling asleep is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus
b. the VLPO turns off the reticular formation
c. melatonin secretions increase
d. go to sleep when body temperature rises
Answer: D
129. Depression typically beginning in fall and ending in the spring characterizes:
a. diurnal depression syndrome
b. bipolar disorder
c. dysthymia disorder
d. seasonal affective disorder
Answer: D
130. As sunlight decreases in the fall, the amount of serotonin released ____ and the amount
of melatonin released____.
a. randomly fluctuates; decreases
b. randomly fluctuates; increases
c. decreases; increases
d. increases; decreases
Answer: C
131. Which substances seem to be influenced by a reduction in sunlight in the fall?
a. serotonin and melatonin
b. dopamine and acetylcholine
c. nitric oxide and anandamide

d. epinephrine and endorphins
Answer: A
132. Amanda seems to be developing SAD every fall. What substances may be triggering
Amanda’s SAD?
a. nitric oxide and anandamide
b. dopamine and acetylcholine
c. serotonin and melatonin
d. epinephrine and endorphins
Answer: C
133. “Around November, I started getting feelings of worthlessness and despair. It’s really
bad in January. I also gain lots of weight and overeat. But around April I start to feel much
better, and I have a better outlook on life.” This person is most likely suffering from:
a. seasonal affective disorder
b. somatoform disorder
c. dysthymic disorder
d. generalized anxiety disorder
Answer: A
134. The role that light plays in SAD is important in triggering the disorder. During the
winter months, about ____ of people living in Florida report having SAD compared to ____
of those living in New Hampshire reporting it.
a. 0.4%; 3.9%
b. 1.4%; 7.3%
c. 23%; 12%
d. 12%; 23%
Answer: B
135. If you randomly pick 100 Icelanders, about how many of them would have SAD?
a. 1
b. 3-4
c. 7
d. 11
Answer: B

136. What is a possible explanation for the difference in incidence of SAD in Iceland
compared to the United States?
a. emotional hardiness
b. population density
c. religious preferences
d. diet
Answer: A
137. Research in both Iceland and Canada showed that seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
may be related to:
a. an above average number of days of bright light
b. a combination of diminished light and low temperature
c. personal tragedy and family problems
d. cultural and genetic factors
Answer: D
138. Dreams from non-REM tend to be:
a. very life-like
b. related to waking life
c. sexual in nature
d. dull and contain repetitive thoughts
Answer: D
139. What is the general belief about dreams in India?
a. dreams have no deep meanings
b. they are not to be revealed or shared
c. sexual dreams are evil
d. dreams contain hidden messages
Answer: D
140. Which theory of dreams believes that we dream as a result of threatening wishes and
desires being changed into harmless symbols?
a. the activation-synthesis theory
b. Freud’s theory of dreams
c. the extension of waking life theory

d. spiritual world theory
Answer: B
141. In a recent study, researchers found that when subjects dreamt about a plane crash, their
a. was higher than just thinking about a plane crash
b. was lower than just thinking about a plane crash
c. randomly increased and decreased with no clear pattern
d. was repressed
Answer: A
142. Freud’s interpretation of dreams was based on the assumption that:
a. dream content was a continuation of the events in our daily lives
b. dream content reflected what worried us in our waking state
c. the content of dreams had to be considered symbolic
d. dreams were similar to the hallucinations experienced by schizophrenics
Answer: C
143. Dr. Smithson is a Freudian therapist and asks his clients to remember their dreams. His
task is to:
a. analyze the spiritual dimension of the dreams
b. analyze how the dreams relate to their waking lives, since they reflect the same emotions
we experience when awake
c. simply carefully record the dreams
d. interpret the symbols in the dreams
Answer: D
144. Consider the following dream description: I am riding on a train that is going much too
fast. We enter a tunnel and suddenly everything goes dark. I wait and wait, but we never
come out of the tunnel. There is no light at the end of it. At the height of my concern, I wake
up. Which of the following may represent a Freudian analysis of the above dream?
a. the person is very anxious about a trip that he must take
b. the person has had a very stressful day at work and wished to escape the pressure quickly
c. the train entering the tunnel represents intercourse and the concern expressed is indicative
of sexual problems
d. the person may be a design engineer who has designed something that may not work and
he is anxious about it

Answer: C
145. Which theory of dream interpretation emphasizes that dreams are related to the same
thoughts, problems, and emotions that we experience when awake?
a. Freud’s theory of dreams
b. extensions of waking life
c. activation-synthesis
d. spiritual world
Answer: B
146. According to the activation-synthesis theory:
a. dreams reflect unconscious desires and anxieties
b. dreams are a continuation of our waking thoughts
c. there is no reason to interpret dreams
d. it is necessary to dream for our psychological well-being
Answer: C
147. Dr. Van Winkle claims that dreams are nothing more than random activity in the brain.
He believes in which theory of dreams?
a. Freudian
b. restorative
c. activation-synthesis
d. behavioral
Answer: C
148. The activation-synthesis theory has been criticized for:
a. too much emphasis on cultural factors
b. ignoring useful and meaningful information that may be in dreams
c. placing too much emphasis on the neurology of the brain
d. gender differences in brain function
Answer: B
149. Which of the following areas of the brain has increased activity during REM?
a. pons
b. auditory cortex
c. prefrontal lobe

d. limbic system
Answer: D
150. You dream so that you can practice and rehearse how you might respond to a dangerous
situation. This best describes:
a. activation-synthesis theory
b. Freudian theory
c. circadian theory
d. threat-simulation theory
Answer: D
151. Threat-stimulation theory argues that:
a. REM allows us to organize our memories
b. dreaming gives us a change to prepare for dangerous situations
c. dreams are random and meaningless
d. dreams represent our deepest, most unconscious desires
Answer: B
152. The typical dream is likely to include themes or characteristics of:
a. sexual encounters, black and white, and take place outside
b. recurrent themes of being threatened and our intentions
c. several characters, visual sensations, and motion-like walking
d. one character, pain sensations, and joy
Answer: C
153. Research suggests that people seldom dream about:
a. more than one character
b. activities such as running or walking
c. sexual encounters and intercourse
d. being indoors
Answer: C
154. Insomnia is a sleep problem characterized by:
a. difficulty in going to sleep or staying asleep through the night
b. an excessive amount of lucid dreaming
c. night terrors and sleepwalking

d. irresistible attacks of sleepiness
Answer: A
155. Edward suffers from “Sunday night insomnia.” His insomnia is probably caused by:
a. disruption in his normal sleep schedule
b. anxiety about the upcoming week
c. respiratory problems
d. sleep apnea
Answer: A
156. Disrupting circadian rhythms, abusing alcohol or sedatives, and having medical
problems or chronic pain are all physiological causes of
a. sleep apnea
b. insomnia
c. night terrors
d. narcolepsy
Answer: B
157. Which of the following is not a step in establishing an optimal sleep pattern?
a. go to bed only when sleepy
b. do not read in bed
c. if you cannot sleep, stay in bed and focus on falling asleep
d. set the alarm for the same time each morning
Answer: C
158. Napping during the day for treating insomnia:
a. is to be avoided
b. will not disrupt your sleep schedule for that night
c. is effective
d. prepares you for a good sleep later than night
Answer: A
159. A person decides to try a non-drug treatment for insomnia. One idea is to:
a. get out of bed and go to another room if she does not fall asleep within 20 minutes
b. stay awake as long as possible until she inevitably becomes drowsy
c. imagine some exciting scenes at bedtime

d. persevere in bed no matter how awake she feels
Answer: A
160. The primary goal of all non-drug treatments for insomnia is to:
a. help the person to dream
b. is to focus on all of the good things in the person’s life
c. stop the person from worrying and to reduce tension
d. help the person to develop some solutions to whatever is bothering them
Answer: C
161. The continued use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia may cause:
a. a reduction in anxiety
b. an increase in REM
c. REM rebound
d. dependence on the drug
Answer: D
162. When compared to benzodiazepines, the newer sleeping pills:
a. are less likely to lead to dependence
b. cause an increase in REM
c. are less likely to cause REM rebound
d. are more likely to cause cognitive side effects
Answer: A
163. Sleep apnea refers to:
a. a disorder whereby a person falls asleep uncontrollably for 10 or more seconds
b. insomnia caused by anxiety
c. insomnia caused by the excessive use of sedatives during the day
d. a condition whereby a person stops breathing while asleep for 10 or more seconds
Answer: D
164. In severe cases of sleep apnea, the preferred treatment is:
a. cognitive behavioral therapy
b. wear a mask that blows air into the nose to keep the air passages open
c. one of the nonbenzodiazepines like Lunesta

d. to actually treat insomnia, which is the cause of sleep apnea
Answer: B
165. “Your dad wears a mask to bed every night?” Which sleep disorder is he most likely to
a. insomnia
b. night terrors
c. sleepwalking
d. sleep apnea
Answer: D
166. After experiencing months of poor sleep, Ray is evaluated in a sleep laboratory. After his
evaluation, his doctor tells him that he is suffering from sleep apnea. This means that Ray
a. a disorder in which he falls asleep uncontrollably during the day but not at night
b. insomnia caused by anxiety
c. insomnia caused by the excessive use of sedatives during the day
d. a condition in which he stops breathing while he sleeps
Answer: D
167. Irresistible attacks of sleepiness that can occur without warning are symptoms of a sleep
disorder called:
a. insomnia
b. narcolepsy
c. sleep apnea
d. night terrors
Answer: B
168. The sleep attack of narcolepsy is accompanied by:
a. cataplexy
b. auditory hallucinations
c. cessation of breathing
d. outbursts of emotion
Answer: A
169. Narcoleptic individuals describe their sleep attacks as:
a. gradual

b. calming
c. restful
d. irresistible
Answer: D
170. Recent research indicates that a type of neuron that does not develop normally may
cause narcolepsy. What type of neuron is it?
a. hypocretin
b. myelinated
c. nonmyelinated
d. afferent
Answer: A
171. A ____ is a sleep disturbance characterized by screaming and sudden wakening in a
fearful state.
a. night terror
b. nightmare
c. sleep apnea
d. narcolepsy
Answer: A
172. A night terror consists of:
a. cessation of breathing while sleeping
b. a piercing scream, waking up in a panic state, and not remembering anything the next
c. a bad dream
d. difficulties staying asleep
Answer: B
173. Night terrors occur during ____ sleep, and nightmares occur during ____ sleep.
a. REM; theta
b. alpha; non-REM
c. delta; REM
d. theta; delta
Answer: C

174. Jason, a 10-year-old, is having a nightmare. In which stage of sleep does Jason most
likely experience these episodes?
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 3
c. Stage 4
d. REM
Answer: D
175. As Tanner and Patti sit in the living room one night, they watch their four-year-old
daughter Ellie come into the living room, pick up a book, and say “Baggy dog needs some
milk.” It is clear to her parents that Ellie is sleepwalking. She must be in Stage ____ of sleep.
a. REM
b. 1
c. 2
d. 4
Answer: D
176. About ____ Americans have at least one or more of the sleep disorders presented in
Module Seven.
a. 12 million
b. 35 million
c. 70 million
d. 120 million
Answer: C
177. The use of a handheld cell phone while driving has been banned by law in ____ states,
as well as in the District of Columbia.
a. 2
b. 6
c. 9
d. 14
Answer: C
1. Talking on a cell phone while driving increases your risk of an accident about four fold.
Answer: True

2. If you are engaged in an activity that requires full awareness, you are doing a controlled
Answer: True
3. Meditation or sleep deprivation can create an altered state of consciousness.
Answer: True
4. The food-entrainable circadian clock may be responsible for late-night eating in obese
Answer: True
5. According to Freud, we place threatening wishes or desires into the conscious.
Answer: False
6. We can describe nondeclarative memories.
Answer: False
7. Unconsciousness means the person has a total lack of sensory awareness and complete loss
of responsiveness to the environment.
Answer: True
8. A circadian rhythm is a biological clock that regulates some response within a 24-hour
period of time.
Answer: True
9. Morning light has no effect on retinal cells in resetting the circadian clock.
Answer: False
10. The suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates several circadian rhythms.
Answer: True
11. The pathway that allows light to get to the suprachiasmatic nucleus is not involved with
Answer: True
12. In general, it takes about three days for the body to adjust to every one hour of time
Answer: False
13. Evening people tend to be conscientious introverts.
Answer: False
14. Bedwetting occurs in NREM Stage 4.
Answer: True

15. Sleep spindles occur in Stage 1 sleep.
Answer: False
16. REM sleep is often called paradoxical sleep.
Answer: True
17. Threat-simulation theory says that dreaming allows us to prepare for dangers.
Answer: True
18. Sleep-deprived people act like intoxicated people in terms of judgment, attention, and
reaction time.
Answer: True
19. Iceland has fewer cases of SAD than New Hampshire, which gets more sun than Iceland.
Answer: True
20. Freud’s theory of dreaming argues that dreaming is the result of brain stimulation by
chemical and neural influences.
Answer: False
21. If you have insomnia, it is a good idea to nap during the day.
Answer: False
22. Night terrors occur in Stage 3 or 4.
Answer: True
23. The risk of getting into a car accident increases six times when texting while driving.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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