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Module 6—Perception
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The examples of a subliminal CD, selecting a puppy, and a mammogram underscore the
importance of:
a. being a smart consumer of products and services
b. figure-ground in perception
c. perception in everyday life
d. the subliminal threshold
Answer: C
2. As it relates to the topic of perception, what factor most influences a doctor’s ability to
detect a cancerous tumor on a mammogram?
a. how large an object must be before we can detect it
b. how we are influenced by our culture
c. what shape an object must be before we can detect it
d. how consistent the object is with the principle of continuity
Answer: A
3. The accuracy of identifying cancer tumors increases when mammograms are:
a. read using a magnifying glass
b. in color
c. read by two doctors and a new computer program
d. in 3D
Answer: C
4. The point above which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived is called
a stimulus ____.
a. perception
b. threshold
c. just noticeable difference
d. sensation
Answer: B
5. A quality inspector at the local manufacturing plant carefully examines a product for flaws
using a special light. The flaws show up as dark green spots of light. For this inspector, the
____ is the point at which a flaw can be detected.

a. threshold
b. JND
c. gestalt
d. subliminal threshold
Answer: A
6. Who initially discovered the idea of the absolute threshold?
a. Fechner
b. Weber
c. Gestalt
d. Pavlov
Answer: A
7. Gustav Fechner defined an absolute threshold as:
a. the intensity level that a person detects 50% of the time
b. the amount of stimulus energy needed to develop a perception
c. an increase or decrease in the intensity of stimuli
d. the smallest amount of stimulus energy that can be observed or experienced
Answer: D
8. Why did Gustav Fechner’s definition of absolute threshold need to be modified?
a. Alertness and the testing situation can influence an individual’s thresholds.
b. We now know that absolute threshold is influenced by the JND.
c. Because the concept of absolute threshold was found to be invalid.
d. Because his definition of the absolute threshold did not differ significantly from the
difference threshold.
Answer: A
9. A stimulus that is detected at only an unconscious level is called a(n) ____ stimulus.
a. absolute
b. just noticeable
c. detectable
d. subliminal
Answer: D
10. The level at which a stimulus is detected at least 50% of the time is called the:

a. absolute threshold
b. just noticeable threshold
c. perceptional limit
d. subliminal threshold
Answer: A
11. In order to answer the question, “At what point are you aware of a stimulus?” one should
measure the:
a. subliminal stimulus
b. proximity
c. absolute threshold
d. just noticeable difference
Answer: C
12. As part of a psychology experiment, Linda sits in a small, completely darkened room and
looks through an apparatus. At the sound of a tone, she is exposed to a brief flash of light.
These lights vary in intensity. After each tone, she reports whether she saw the flash. The
intensity of light that Linda perceives 50 percent of the time is her:
a. just noticeable difference
b. Weber’s constant
c. absolute threshold
d. subliminal limit
Answer: C
13. A subliminal stimulus is one that:
a. has a 50-50 chance of being detected
b. has a variable JND
c. is below an absolute threshold and thus is not consciously perceived
d. has been perceived by association areas of the brain but not the higher cortices
Answer: C
14. Doctors fail to detect about ____ of tumors on mammograms.
a. 7%
b. 18%
c. 30%
d. 49%

Answer: C
15. Dr. Wilson is reading a mammogram. She knows that one way to increase the accuracy of
the mammogram is to:
a. focus her attention on the black spots since they indicate tumors
b. use a powerful magnifying glass
c. reduce the lighting, which will lower the absolute threshold
d. ask another doctor to read the mammogram
Answer: D
16. The JND is defined as the:
a. amount of a stimulus needed to perceive depth using monocular cues
b. amount of a stimulus needed to perceive depth using binocular cues
c. smallest amount of stimulus you can detect 25% of the time
d. smallest change in intensity of the stimulus that you can detect 50% of the time
Answer: D
17. The smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to
detect at least half of the time is called a(n):
a. just noticeable difference
b. absolute threshold
c. perception
d. retinal disparity
Answer: A
18. The just noticeable difference serves as the foundation for:
a. transduction
b. Ponzo illusion
c. absolute threshold
d. Weber’s Law
Answer: D
19. Danny is taking a shower. After 10 minutes in the shower, the hot water runs out. The
point at which Danny can tell that the water is getting cold represents his:
a. absolute threshold
b. subliminal stimulus

c. difference threshold
d. principle of closure
Answer: C
20. Craig is blaring his stereo in his room. His father tells him to turn down the volume. Craig
lowers the sound but his father claims the music is as loud as it was before. This is because:
a. the change in volume did not reach his father’s just noticeable difference
b. Craig’s father is unfamiliar with rock music
c. the music was above his father’s absolute threshold
d. Craig’s father subliminally perceived the volume change
Answer: A
21. The proportioned increase in the intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a just
noticeable difference is called:
a. Fechner’s constant
b. Weber’s law
c. intrastimulus difference
d. Helmholtz’s hierarchy
Answer: B
22. Weber’s law states that:
a. the accuracy with which we judge the size of a stimulus is directly proportional to the
intensity of that stimulus
b. the effort required to lift a weight is logarithmically proportional to the magnitude of the
weight
c. a tone must be three times louder in decibels before we perceive it as twice increased
d. the size of a just noticeable difference is related to the intensity of the stimulus
Answer: D
23. At low stimulus intensities, it takes ____ changes in order to detect a JND between two
stimuli.
a. large
b. small
c. inverse
d. moderate
Answer: B

24. At high stimulus intensities, it takes ____ changes in order to detect a JND between two
stimuli.
a. large
b. small
c. inverse
d. moderate
Answer: A
25. How did scientists conclude that fabric softeners worked on towels?
a. Subjects showed a high level of transduction when feeling the towels.
b. The subjects failed to detect a JND in softness.
c. Subjects detected a JND in softness.
d. The absolute threshold was found to be 50%.
Answer: C
26. When sensation occurs, we:
a. become aware of the stimulus’s meaning and significance
b. perceive
c. experience an activation of our sensory receptors
d. are acutely aware of inconsistencies in our physical environment
Answer: C
27. The first awareness of some outside stimulus is called a(n):
a. sensation
b. perception
c. absolute threshold
d. subliminal experience
Answer: A
28. Which of the following best represents sensation?
a. an aircraft pilot making an adjustment in altitude
b. a college student interpreting an essay by Plato
c. a 14-year-old seeing a bright flash of light
d. deciding to wear shorts today because the weather is nice
Answer: C

29. The transformation of sensations into a meaningful perception:
a. is not influenced by experience
b. occurs only in the sense organs
c. is an automatic, instantaneous process
d. results in the experience of numerous “raw” sensations
Answer: C
30. An orange, striped blob is to a tiger as ____ is to ____.
a. Weber’s Law; sensation
b. proximity; figure-ground
c. perception; sensation
d. sensation; perception
Answer: D
31. Sensation is to ____ as perception is to ____.
a. monocular; binocular
b. meaningless; meaningful
c. similarity; simplicity
d. JND; Weber’s Law
Answer: B
32. Perception is best defined as the:
a. process by which sensory receptors detect outside stimuli
b. combination and interpretation of sensations
c. process where the brain transmits information to sensory neurons
d. stimulation of sensory receptors
Answer: B
33. Craig is taking his family for a car ride. His three-year-old, Katy, and Noelle, who is
seven months old, are both looking out the side windows at approaching cars. Noelle sees
bright flashes of lights, while Katy understands that the flashes of lights are cars. Which of
the girls’ experiences in the best example of perception and why?
a. Katy, because she makes sense out of the flashes of lights
b. Noelle, since she is capable of detecting bright flashes of lights
c. Katy, because her sensory receptors are being stimulated by the lights

d. Noelle, because her sensory receptors are transmitting information to her brain
Answer: A
34. Based upon your understanding of perception and factors that can influence it, which
saying is the most appropriate to describe perception?
a. “Opposites attract”
b. “A stitch in time saves nine”
c. “Easy come, easy go”
d. “Different strokes for different folks”
Answer: D
35. ____ areas in the brain change sensations to perceptions.
a. Primary
b. Transductive
c. Association
d. Hindbrain
Answer: C
36. Which of the following best represents perception?
a. a baby blinking her eyes in response to a puff of air
b. a newborn crying
c. 10-year-old Andrew successfully plays a video game
d. a newborn showing a reflex
Answer: C
37. When listening to music, the experience of hearing each individual note would be a ____,
while interpreting the meaning of each note is an example of ____.
a. unit; illusion
b. segment; unit
c. perception; sensation
d. sensation; perception
Answer: D
38. Omar and Heidi look at a beautiful flower. Omar sees it as a Grand Lady Hybrid Strain X6. This illustrates:
a. the perceptual principle of figure-ground

b. the gender difference in perception
c. how perceptions are personalized interpretations
d. how sensations are personalized interpretations
Answer: C
39. The story of Gabrielle and the large brown dog shows:
a. how sensations are personalized interpretations
b. perception is influenced by transduction
c. the perceptual principle of simplicity
d. how perceptions are personalized interpretations
Answer: D
40. The major difference between a sensation and a perception is that a sensation:
a. provides basic information and perceptions add meaning and organization to that
information
b. involves the sense of touch and perceptions involve the sense of sight
c. is limited to the peripheral nervous system and perceptions occur in the endocrine system
d. is an active process and perception is a passive process
Answer: A
41. _______ processing is when perception is guided by previous knowledge, experience,
beliefs, or expectations to recognize a whole pattern.
a. Top-down
b. Bottom-up
c. Threshold-specific
d. Ganzfield-delimited
Answer: A
42. Ben has spent the last two hours playing some intense games of chess with his son,
Rothie. Afterwards they go outside to play catch together. As they walk into their yard, Ben
looks up and says to Rothie, “When I look at those clouds, they look like chess pieces to me!”
Clearly Ben is being affected by
a. top-down processing
b. the gestalt principle of motion parallax
c. retinal disparity
d. bottom-up processing

Answer: A
43. Jarrod’s textbook has an interesting feature in it. It has pages of transparent pages, each of
which has only a small picture on it. When he lays the pages down one after another, they
give a diagram of the human brain, adding one structure at a time until the whole brain is
represented. This is similar to the perceptual task of
a. monocular shadowing
b. bottom-up processing
c. binocular convergence
d. top-down processing
Answer: B
44. ________ processing is when perception begins with bits and pieces of information that,
when combined, lead to the recognition of a whole pattern.
a. Constructive
b. Side-to-side
c. Top-down
d. Bottom-up
Answer: D
45. As you sit back at the baseball game, you perceive the ball being pitched, the batter
hitting it, the ball shooting high into center field, and being caught. The structuralist would
argue that this perception is:
a. the result of figure-ground, simplicity, and continuity
b. influenced by your prior experience with the game
c. created because the brain follows certain rules of perceptual organization
d. formed by many basic units or elements
Answer: D
46. As you sit back at a baseball game, you perceive the ball being pitched, the batter hitting
it, the ball shooting high into center field, and being caught. Gestalt psychologists would
argue that this perception is:
a. adding together individual sensations
b. combining larger and larger units of sensations
c. the result of your brain following a set of rules to create a meaningful experience
d. formed by adding many basic elements
Answer: C

47. Gestalt psychologists explain perceptions based on the rules of organization, which are
rules that specify how:
a. our brains organize sensations into perceptions
b. we combine sensations together by adding individual units
c. we break down perceptions into smaller units
d. absolute thresholds identify subliminal stimuli
Answer: A
48. The Gestalt rules of organization:
a. are binocular cues for perceiving three-dimensional objects
b. illustrate how illusions lead to inaccurate perceptions
c. are rules that help us organize elements into something that is complete
d. were developed by Weber as part of Weber’s Law
Answer: C
49. If a newspaper had an article about the Gestalt psychologists’ position on perception,
what would be the headline?
a. “Brain Follows Rules in Perception”
b. “Perception: Adding Together Basic Sensations”
c. “Combining Elements Together”
d. “Breaking Down Perception into Its Elements”
Answer: A
50. The rules of organization such as figure-ground and closure were developed by the ____
to describe how we perceive.
a. Structuralists
b. Freudians
c. Gestalt psychologists
d. Behavioral psychologists
Answer: C
51. Looking up at the blue sky, Matt imagined that he saw the clouds as animal shapes.
Viewing clouds against the sky is an example of which principle of perceptual organization?
a. figure and ground
b. closure
c. simplicity

d. continuity
Answer: A
52. When doctors read mammograms, they use _____ principles such as figure-ground and
proximity.
a. Gestalt
b. Freudian
c. behavioral
d. phi
Answer: A
53. The ability to separate figure from ground is:
a. learned through experience
b. an automatic process
c. a binocular cue
d. a form of adaptation
Answer: B
54. Professor Karweick walks into her filled classroom, immediately perceiving students as
sitting in rows rather than in a haphazard fashion. This is similar to what principle of
perceptual organization?
a. similarity
b. simplicity
c. figure-ground
d. closure
Answer: A
55. The principle of closure states that:
a. we group objects if they are in close physical proximity
b. we group objects together that appear similar
c. memory for organized perceptions is superior to that of unorganized perceptions
d. we tend to fill in missing parts of a figure
Answer: D
56. A skywriter is writing the words “VOTE FOR JOHNSON” in the blue sky above a
football stadium during a game. However, his emission system becomes clogged so that only

parts of the letters appear. Johnson tells him not to worry, the crowd will perceive his
message by using:
a. continuity
b. proximity
c. closure
d. interposition
Answer: C
57. A famous artist has made a name for herself by the way she leaves objects in paintings
incompletely drawn. Yet when we look at her works, we perceive the complete objects. What
organizational rule of perception is occurring?
a. closure
b. simplicity
c. similarity
d. absolute threshold
Answer: A
58. The principle of proximity states that:
a. we think things are close together if they look similar
b. if things are close together when they are in our field of vision, we assume they will stay
close together when they leave our sight
c. if we stare at a random collection of objects long enough, they will appear to merge with
one another
d. we tend to group together objects that are close to one another physically
Answer: D
59. If you see two people walking and holding hands, you perceive that they are a couple
because of the Gestalt principle of:
a. proximity
b. continuity
c. figure-ground
d. simplicity
Answer: A
60. The Gestalt rule of ____ states that we tend to organize stimuli in the most basic way
possible.
a. continuity

b. closure
c. similarity
d. simplicity
Answer: D
61. The principle of continuity states that:
a. we organize forms along a smooth line or path
b. we will continue to perceive stimuli in a given manner until we notice a change
c. we assume objects continue to possess the same form even when removed from our
perceptual field
d. we use similar patterns of organization throughout our lives
Answer: A
62. Mark is coming in for a night landing in his twin-engine plane. He sees blue lights on the
ground before him. Mark perceives this to be the outline of the runway. What principle of
perceptual organization is he most likely using?
a. spread
b. familiarity
c. continuity
d. contour
Answer: C
63. A perceptual constancy is defined as the:
a. tendency for all persons to see the world in the same manner
b. ability for several different sensory images to form a perception at the same time
c. tendency to perceive things as unchanging, even though their physical appearance changes
d. ability to utilize only one sense, even though multiple sensations are being experienced
Answer: C
64. What term describes our tendency to perceive sizes, shapes, and colors as remaining the
same even though their physical characteristics keep changing?
a. convergence
b. organizational constancy
c. retinal constancy
d. perceptual constancy
Answer: D

65. You see a friend down the street. The visual image you receive is of a person who is the
size of a doll, yet you know your friend hasn’t shrunk since you last saw him. This is due to
which of the following?
a. motion parallax
b. accommodation
c. relative size
d. size constancy
Answer: D
66. Diane and Debbie are at an outdoor circus. Their father has purchased each a helium
balloon. Debbie accidentally lets go of her balloon and it floats farther and farther away. The
balloon appears to be becoming smaller and smaller. Both Diane and Debbie believe that the
balloon remains the same size. Their perception is best explained by:
a. Gestalt psychology
b. motion parallax
c. interposition
d. size constancy
Answer: D
67. If Julie lacks size constancy, what would she probably say about a dog running towards
her?
a. “Oh no! That dog shouldn’t be allowed to run free like that.”
b. “Wow! That dog’s color is changing as it runs.”
c. “Oh no! That dog is growing with every step he takes.”
d. “Look at that dog. He wants to play.”
Answer: C
68. Given that size constancy appears to be learned, what would a blind person whose sight is
suddenly restored say as he looked out the window of an airplane as it flies high above in the
sky?
a. “Very small people must live in those very small houses down there.”
b. “Why does the color of those houses down there keep changing?”
c. “It seems that the cars down on the ground are moving very slowly.”
d. “Amazing, I can really see those houses very clearly.”
Answer: A
69. Which of the following athletes makes best use of size constancy?

a. a football player catching a pass on the run
b. a gymnast doing a cartwheel
c. a basketball player shooting a foul shot
d. a baseball pitcher throwing a curve ball
Answer: A
70. Brightness constancy results in the tendency to perceive:
a. all stimuli as brighter than they really are
b. brightness as remaining the same in changing illumination
c. colors as grayish in dim light
d. that the sun produces white light
Answer: B
71. A green car looks like a green car, regardless of whether it is dawn or dusk, because of:
a. interposition
b. convergence
c. color constancy
d. monocular cues
Answer: C
72. Of the following, what is the most remarkable characteristic about depth perception?
a. We are capable of seeing four dimensions.
b. The retina is capable of detecting three dimensions.
c. Images on the retina are only two dimensional, yet we see three dimensions.
d. Retinal disparity should overload the visual system with information, yet it does not.
Answer: C
73. We are able see in three dimensions. What are the three dimensions?
a. depth, width, height
b. width, height, diameter
c. height, disparity, depth
d. depth, convergence, height
Answer: A
74. The muscles that move the entire eye give cues to depth through:

a. convergence
b. accommodation
c. retinal disparity
d. neural inconsistency
Answer: A
75. Of the following depth cues, which is based on the muscles of the eye providing
information?
a. accommodation
b. retinal disparity
c. convergence
d. interposition
Answer: C
76. Because of a problem with her eyes, Julie has trouble with convergence. This would
affect her:
a. ability to focus on the intersections of lines and edges
b. ability to turn the eyes inward as an object moves closer to her face
c. ability to block out irrelevant stimuli
d. ability to perceive figure-ground
Answer: B
77. Because the eyes are separated by several inches, each eye receives a slightly different
image. This is called:
a. interposition
b. shape inconsistency
c. convergence
d. retinal disparity
Answer: D
78. You are writing a paper on the depth cue of retinal disparity. What is the best title for your
paper?
a. “How the Eyes Turn Inward”
b. “Retinal Disparity: Another Monocular Depth Cue”
c. “Retinal Disparity: Seeing Depth Through Two Images”
d. “Retinal Disparity: Weber’s Discovery”

Answer: C
79. As a result of an accident, David has only one eye. Which of the following depth cues
would he not be able to use?
a. accommodation
b. retinal disparity
c. linear perspective
d. interposition
Answer: B
80. Imagine that you are watching a large ball moving. As it comes towards you,
a. the phi phenomenon decreases
b. retinal disparity increases
c. relative size decreases
d. interposition decreases
Answer: B
81. Because of retinal disparity, we can enjoy:
a. watching a 3D movie while wearing special glasses
b. looking at the Müller-Lyer illusion
c. being fooled by the Ames room
d. trying to figure out impossible figures
Answer: A
82. If one object partially overlaps another object, the partially overlapping object will appear
closer because of the ____ depth cue.
a. motion parallax
b. relative size
c. interposition
d. retinal disparity
Answer: C
83. As you look down the street, you see an apartment building partially overlapping an
office building. Based on the depth cue of ____, you know that the apartment building is
closer to you.
a. interposition
b. relative size

c. retinal disparity
d. light and shadow
Answer: A
84. In a sketch of the New York downtown area, Vincent creates a feeling of depth by
drawing skyscrapers so that they partially overlap. The cue for depth he is using is known as:
a. linear perspective
b. relative size
c. atmospheric perspective
d. interposition
Answer: D
85. The convergence of parallel lines, giving the feeling of distance, is called:
a. relative size
b. convergence
c. linear perspective
d. aerial perspective
Answer: C
86. A brochure displays a long stretch of road. The lines that make up the road are drawn so
that they converge at the horizon. The result is that the brochure creates a sense of distance.
This is based on a monocular cue called:
a. texture gradient
b. linear perspective
c. relative size
d. convergence
Answer: B
87. To show a set of railroad tracks moving off into the distance, an artist paints the tracks so
that the rails converge. This depth cue is known as:
a. linear perspective
b. atmospheric perspective
c. relative size
d. interposition
Answer: A

88. If two objects are the same size, yet one appears to be larger, you make the assumption
that that object is closer. Why?
a. motion parallax
b. atmospheric perspective
c. relative size
d. retinal disparity
Answer: C
89. Which cue for depth relies on the fact that dust, smog, or water vapor give distant objects
a hazy look?
a. linear perspective
b. atmospheric perspective
c. closeness to the horizon
d. interposition
Answer: B
90. The depth cue of light and shadow make brightly lit objects appear ____.
a. closer
b. farther away
c. larger
d. smaller
Answer: A
91. If you are looking at a lighthouse in the fog, the lighthouse will appear farther away than
it really is because of a monocular depth cue called:
a. interposition
b. retinal disparity
c. linear perspective
d. atmospheric perspective
Answer: D
92. Textures can be used to create a sense of depth because:
a. each eye sends a different, independent image to the brain
b. texture results in the figure being more dominant than the background
c. the loss of sharpness and detail causes a sense of distance

d. the farther away the object is, the more defined the sense of texture
Answer: C
93. An artist wishing to use texture as a cue to depth in his painting would:
a. put finer detail in objects that he wanted to appear farther away
b. put finer detail into an object that bordered the area to be viewed
c. put finer detail in objects he wanted to appear close
d. space his objects evenly from near to far
Answer: C
94. A famous painter used dust and clouds to create a depth cue in her paintings. She used
____ as a depth cue.
a. light and shadow
b. convergence
c. linear perspective
d. atmospheric perspective
Answer: D
95. The brain transforms the speed of moving objects into indicators of distance because of a
depth cue called:
a. interposition
b. motion parallax
c. linear perspective
d. retinal disparity
Answer: B
96. According to motion parallax, near objects appear ____, whereas objects in the distance
appear ____.
a. smaller; larger
b. hazy; clear
c. textured; shadowed
d. to move quickly; to move slowly
Answer: D
97. When Western Caucasians look at a face, they tend to focus on the:
a. nose

b. eyes and mouth
c. shape of the face
d. size of the face
Answer: B
98. When East Asians look at a face, they tend to focus on the:
a. nose
b. eyes and mouth
c. shape of the face
d. size of the face
Answer: A
99. An explanation for why Western Caucasians tend to focus on eyes when looking at faces
is that:
a. there was evolutionary pressure to make that adaptation
b. Western culture considers eye contact offensive
c. it is a biological predisposition
d. Western culture places value on eye contact
Answer: D
100. In a story comparing American and Japanese subjects on perception of an underwater
scene, AmericAnswer:
a. tended to focus on the fish
b. tended to focus on the background
c. tended to describe the relationship between fish and the background
d. demonstrated holistic thinking
Answer: A
101. You want to learn more about holistic thinking. Based on the study described in Module
Six, which culture would you want to visit?
a. southern United States
b. China
c. Africa
d. northern Europe
Answer: B

102. According to recent research, brain activity was greater for Americans relative to East
Asians when:
a. estimating a line’s length relative to the size of a square
b. estimating the length of a line
c. tracking the movement of a ball in the air
d. watching the snake illusion
Answer: A
103. When non-Westerners look at a cartoon drawing of a dog wagging its tail, they will:
a. perceive the dog as only a two-dimensional figure
b. perceive a perceptual set
c. not perceive the tail in motion
d. perceive the tail in motion
Answer: C
104. The example presented in your textbook about assuming that a body-builder is a large
man, but in fact, he is a small man, represents the influence of:
a. continuity
b. phi phenomenon
c. perceptual set
d. perception
Answer: C
105. Lois tells her friend Karl to always type class assignments on an expensive typewriter
because instructors are less likely to spot errors on an official-looking page. Lois’s advice
relies on:
a. instructor bias
b. perceptual set
c. selective perception
d. a positive association between reading speed and clarity of the typed page
Answer: B
106. In the past, Burmese women were considered attractive if they had exceptionally:
a. long necks
b. large ears
c. long hair

d. small ears
Answer: A
107. A subject has been exposed to three lights flashing in rapid succession every thirty
seconds. After many of these trials, the experimenter has two of them flash. If the subject, in
error, reports seeing three lights flash for this trial, it is probably because of:
a. the fact that the stimuli were visual and not auditory
b. long-term memory distortion
c. perceptual acuity
d. perceptual set
Answer: D
108. The key idea in perceptual set is:
a. monocular depth perception
b. figure-ground rule
c. expectation
d. phi movement
Answer: C
109. Impossible figures seem impossible because our previous experience with line drawings
leads us to interpret figures as:
a. two dimensional
b. three dimensional
c. smaller than they really are
d. larger than they really are
Answer: B
110. The study on subliminal messages cited in your textbook suggests that among the
subjects, 50% reported improvements in memory or self-esteem. The type of improvement,
memory or self-esteem, was determined by:
a. the actual subliminal messages on the recording
b. the subject’s own judgment of weakness
c. the title of the recording and not the actual content of messages on the recording
d. the experimenter manipulating the title and content
Answer: C
111. Which of the following is correct about subliminal perception?

a. Subliminal messages in self-help recordings help people to improve memory.
b. Subliminal messages in self-help recordings help people to quit smoking.
c. Subliminal messages in self-help recordings help people to lose weight.
d. Subliminal messages in self-help recordings do not affect behavior.
Answer: D
112. Based on research, subliminal messages can:
a. prevent self-fulfilling prophecies from occurring
b. persuade us to buy specific items
c. influence perceptions and decision making
d. help us to significantly modify complex behavior
Answer: C
113. An illusion is:
a. the perception of an object which is not really there
b. a reminder that perception is a passive process
c. a distorted perception of reality
d. the result of a biological deficit in sensory organs
Answer: C
114. Illusions demonstrate what happens to our perceptual processes when:
a. we use only one eye to view an object
b. retinal disparity occurs
c. our eyes fail to converge
d. perceptual cues are distorted
Answer: D
115. ____ cues make the moon on the horizon look larger because it appears ____.
a. Distance; closer
b. Binocular; closer
c. Distance; farther away
d. Subliminal; brighter
Answer: C
116. People tend to perceive an elevated moon to be ____ compared to the moon on the
horizon

a. closer
b. further
c. larger
d. darker
Answer: A
117. Why does the elevated moon in the sky appear to be closer?
a. because it is closer
b. there are no depth cues
c. to see the moon we have to lift our heads towards the sky and that provides depth cues to
the brain
d. our eyes tend to move upwards and that communicates depth to the brain
Answer: B
118. What is the most important factor in our perception of the moon’s distance?
a. the perceived color of the moon
b. the distance of the moon from the Earth
c. the phase of the moon
d. the landscape surrounding the moon
Answer: D
119. In the Ames room:
a. lighting tricks create a sense of three dimensions when only two exist
b. the use of mirrors creates the illusion of greater space
c. cues to depth are distorted by presenting people of different sizes at the same distance
d. perceived size is distorted by our assumption that the room is rectangular
Answer: D
120. The Ames room is an effective illusion because:
a. linear perspective gives us a sense of depth
b. depth cues distort our perception of size
c. we assume outside corners are closer to us than inside corners
d. motion parallax gives us a sense of depth
Answer: B
121. The Ponzo illusion illustrates that in some illusions:

a. monocular cues are very misleading
b. previous experience with corners of rooms leads us to make incorrect judgments
c. distance cues can distort size cues
d. eye convergence is susceptible to misapplication
Answer: C
122. In your new job as an editor, you write headlines for newspaper articles. One article
describes illusions and various explanations for them. Which of the following headlines best
summarizes what we know about them?
a. “Illusions—Perception Is an Active Process”
b. “When We See, Perceptual Video Camera Records Reality”
c. “Illusions Happen Independently of Our Experiences”
d. “Illusions Caused by Problems in Sense Receptors”
Answer: A
123. Based on your study of illusions, which of the following best describes perception?
a. passive
b. active
c. impersonal
d. voluntary
Answer: B
124. The group of psychic experiences that involve perceiving or sending information outside
normal sensory process is called:
a. gestalt perception
b. subliminal perception
c. extrasensory perception
d. telepathy
Answer: C
125. Herb claims that he can read other people’s thoughts. This ability is called:
a. psychokinesis
b. telepathy
c. precognition
d. clairvoyance

Answer: B
126. Marta sets up a booth at a local fair and claims she can tell the future by looking at a
person’s palm. She is claiming to have which of the following abilities?
a. psychokinesis
b. telepathy
c. precognition
d. clairvoyance
Answer: C
127. If someone reportedly has precognition, then they supposedly have the ability to:
a. read the minds of other people
b. “talk” to people with their minds
c. perceive objects that are invisible
d. foretell events before they happen
Answer: D
128. The ability to see things that are not actually present is called:
a. psychokinesis
b. telepathy
c. precognition
d. clairvoyance
Answer: D
129. Julia says that she can see objects that no one else can see. This is an example of:
a. precognition
b. clairvoyance
c. psychokinesis
d. convergence
Answer: B
130. Felipe claims to be able to move objects simply by concentrating on them. This psychic
ability is known as:
a. telepathy
b. psychokinesis
c. precognition

d. clairvoyance
Answer: B
131. Why do few research psychologists believe in ESP?
a. there’s no evidence for it
b. the existence of ESP is inconsistent with laws of physics
c. because the evidence for it is based on testimonials, which are subject to error and bias
d. the evidence showing ESP is based on experimentation
Answer: C
132. You are at a movie theater and you mentally will your popcorn to rise out of your hands
and float through the air, and it does! You have just experienced the phenomenon of:
a. psychokinesis
b. telepathy
c. an out-of-body experience
d. clairvoyance
Answer: A
133. Which neurotransmitter may actually influence our beliefs regarding ESP?
a. dopamine
b. acetylcholine
c. serotonin
d. GABA
Answer: A
134. James Randi and others have demonstrated that:
a. extrasensory perception does, in fact, exist
b. extrasensory perception is a skill that can be practical
c. most of what passes for ESP is really just trickery
d. people are capable of many unexplainable psychic feats
Answer: C
135. According to the text, there are people who claim to have psychic powers:
a. but most are never given a chance to prove it
b. but the skepticism of scientists creates negative energy that disrupts these powers when
these psychics are being tested

c. and most have been certified as true psychics by James Randi
d. most, however, cannot demonstrate these powers under carefully controlled conditions
Answer: D
136. Out of 12 alleged psychics who have accepted James Randi’s $100,000 challenge, how
many have successfully demonstrated their psychic ability?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
Answer: A
137. Professor Carey wishes to scientifically study ESP. Which is the most preferred method
for study?
a. Zener cards
b. Ganzfeld procedure
c. Gestalt procedure
d. testimonials
Answer: B
138. Bem and Honorton reported data that supported telepathy. The most prudent response to
this study was to:
a. conclude that ESP is a reliable phenomenon
b. wait and see if the results can be replicated by someone else
c. judge that Bem and Honorton are frauds
d. question the subjects in the study about their experiences
Answer: B
139. As a test of ESP, you ask your friend Jean to predict the numbers on 10 cards you pull
from the deck. Surprisingly, she gets six correct. Which of the following conclusions is most
valid?
a. The cards have been fixed.
b. Repeated tests would reduce Jean’s accuracy, so she probably doesn’t have ESP.
c. Jean would be considered to have ESP since her accuracy rate was greater than 50 percent.
d. Jean was so accurate because friends have a special rapport.
Answer: B

140. One of the biggest problems in conducting psychic research is:
a. getting subjects who are willing to participate
b. getting college students to believe in ESP
c. the inability to repeat positive results
d. that researchers randomize the procedure for choosing images
Answer: C
141. Steve wants to call a psychic hotline. He does and is amazed by the psychic’s ability to
predict Steve’s future. What does science say about psychics?
a. No research has been done to examine the accuracy of psychics.
b. Psychic’s abilities cannot be tested by the scientific method.
c. They are no more accurate than chance at predicting the future.
d. The scientific evidence is mixed.
Answer: C
142. The illusion of lights moving that are actually stationary is called:
a. relative motion
b. real motion
c. motion parallax
d. phi movement
Answer: D
143. As you look at a series of still pictures presented at about 24 frames per second, you
perceive motion. Which of the following allows you to fill in between the images?
a. motion parallax
b. real motion
c. closure
d. retinal disparity
Answer: C
144. Phi movement is now known as:
a. set movement
b. movement parallax
c. perceptual movement
d. apparent motion

Answer: D
145. In animated cartoons, movement is created by the rapid presentation of still images. This
movement is known as:
a. apparent motion
b. real motion
c. motion parallax
d. the Muller-Lyer illusion
Answer: A
146. A computer-generated illusionary experience is called:
a. apparent motion
b. a phi movement
c. virtual reality
d. a motion parallax
Answer: C
147. According to the textbook, a promising use of virtual reality is to:
a. help a blind person see
b. treat phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder
c. experience how other people perceive the world
d. train psychologists how to deal with suicidal people
Answer: B
148. Research shows that when a surgeon uses virtual simulation of surgery:
a. confidence increases, but skills remain the same
b. error rates increase
c. the surgical skills improve
d. errors are still made, but they are generally minor
Answer: C
149. Our first impression of other people is influenced by:
a. figure-ground
b. principles of perceptual organization
c. controlled process
d. their facial features

Answer: D
150. Katelyn is an attractive college student. Which of the following descriptions would
people most likely give for an attractive person?
a. loyal, quiet, generous
b. moody, insecure, pessimistic
c. shy, reserved, smart
d. sociable, outgoing, kind
Answer: D
151. The fact that our first impressions of people are influenced by their facial features,
hairstyles, and skin color suggest that perceptions are:
a. too vague to be trusted
b. interpretations of reality
c. exact copies of reality
d. formed by combining sensations
Answer: B
152. “When I see the color blue, I see the numbers 12 and 42.” This mixing of the senses is
called:
a. synesthesia
b. dementia
c. perception
d. phi phenomenon
Answer: A
153. Brain scans of people with synesthesia show that when they hear a word and then
experience color:
a. brain areas that govern strong emotion are activated
b. there is no significant change in activity relative to the control group
c. brain areas responsible for both seeing and hearing are activated
d. brain activity increases but only in random ways
Answer: C
TRUE/FALSE
1. The absolute threshold is the intensity level at which a person has a 100% chance of
detecting it.

Answer: False
2. The accuracy of mammogram tests decreases when reviewed by two doctors.
Answer: False
3. The smallest change you can detect in a stimulus is called the just noticeable difference.
Answer: True
4. Weber’s Law says that low intensity stimuli need greater changes to detect a difference.
Answer: False
5. The process of recognizing faces is influenced by culture.
Answer: True
6. Our perceptions are typically exact replicas of the original stimuli.
Answer: False
7. Transduction is the process by which sensations are changed into meaningful perceptions.
Answer: False
8. Sensation of a stimulus is influenced by our personal experiences and memories.
Answer: False
9. The structuralists say that perceptions are really made up of individual basic elements.
Answer: True
10. According to the gestalt psychologists, perception occurs because of the brain’s ability to
organize sensations according to rules.
Answer: True
11. The continuity rule says that stimuli are organized in the simplest way possible.
Answer: False
12. The rule of proximity says that we tend to perceive smooth paths when looking at a series
of points.
Answer: False
13. When the image of a stimulus changes shape or size on the retina, we perceive the actual
stimulus to be changing.
Answer: False
14. When we see the moon high in the sky, we can use depth cues provided by the landscape
to judge distance.
Answer: False
15. Linear perspective is a monocular depth cue.

Answer: True
16. As objects come close to you, convergence increases.
Answer: True
17. A full moon high in the sky is perceived to be closer to you than a moon on the horizon.
Answer: True
18. We perceive the lines in the Müller-Lyer illusion to be corners.
Answer: True
19. Any change in memory following listening to recordings with subliminal messages to
improve memory is probably due to the effectiveness of subliminal messages.
Answer: False
20. Unconscious attitudes do not influence our conscious perceptions.
Answer: False
21. Testimonial evidence provides hard scientific evidence that ESP exists.
Answer: False
22. A research method that asks ESP researchers to determine the reliability of psi
phenomenon is replication.
Answer: True
23. In apparent motion, an object is stationary, but appears to be moving.
Answer: True
24. Recent research suggests that robotic surgery introduces too much error and is dangerous.
Answer: False
25. If you can see a dog you must automatically recognize it as a dog.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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