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Chapter 6 Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476–1000) MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which emperor first divided the Roman Empire into east and west? A. Augustus B. Constantine C. Diocletian D. Valens Answer: C 2. “Visigoths” were ____________ Germanic Goths. A. northern B. southern C. eastern D. western Answer: D 3. The Visigoths defeated Emperor ____________ at the battle of Adrianople in 378. A. Diocletian B. Justinian C. Tiberius D. Valens Answer: D 4. During Justinian’s rule, the empire’s strength lay in its ____________. A. cities B. farms C. mountains D. suburbs Answer: A 5. Urban councils of about 200 members governed Byzantine cities in the early fifth century. They were composed of ____________. A. bishops B. praetors C. decurions D. vicars Answer: C 6. Emperor Heraclius defeated the Sassanid king Khosro II and recovered ____________. A. John the Baptist’s head B. the crown of thorns C. a piece of Christ’s cross D. the shroud of Turin Answer: C 7. The word “Muslim” is Arabic for ____________. A. created B. divine C. strength D. submissive Answer: D 8. What is the Ka’ba? A. a shrine that houses a black meteorite B. a robe Muslim women must wear C. a Jewish sect D. a prayer said before all meals Answer: A 9. Which of the following has been the dominant group of Muslims in Islamic history? A. Sunnis B. Kharijites C. Persians D. Shi’a Answer: A 10. By the eighth century, Islam had already spread from ____________. A. Damascus to Jerusalem B. Egypt to Pakistan C. Scandinavia to North Africa D. Spain to India Answer: D 11. Which of these was the principal conduit for the transfer of learning from the Mideast to western Europe? A. Athens B. Alexandria C. Cordoba D. Rome Answer: C 12. Christian monastic life pursued the “counsels of perfection,” that is, ____________. A. truth, justice, and the Roman way B. reading, writing, and arithmetic C. faith, hope, and charity D. chastity, poverty, and obedience Answer: D 13. In part because the patriarchs of the Eastern church considered the bishop of Rome an equal, the ____________. A. pope acknowledged that the patriarch was, in fact, superior B. pope gratefully sent gifts to Constantinople C. two churches were able to coexist peacefully for centuries D. pope made claims of papal primacy Answer: D 14. Monophysites believe ____________. A. that the trinity inhabited only one body, that of Jesus B. that Jesus was only immortal, never a man C. that Jesus was only a man, never immortal D. in a single god Answer: B 15. The key disputes between the eastern and western Christian churches concerned ____________. A. relations with Judaism B. the nature of Christ C. woman priests D. opposition and support of monasticism Answer: B 16. The Merovingian Dynasty was founded by the warrior chieftain ____________. A. Charlemagne B. Clovis C. Lothar D. Merovich Answer: B 17. Charles Martel created a great army by ____________. A. falsely accusing Muslims of various petty crimes B. recruiting monks who had studied the martial arts C. seizing church land and then giving it to men who agreed to serve him D. appealing to Frankish patriotism Answer: C 18. The Frankish kings who defeated the Lombards gave the pope the lands surrounding Rome, to be known as ____________. A. Greater Metropolitan Rome B. the Duchy of Benevento C. Frankish Italy D. the Papal States Answer: D 19. Charlemagne conquered large swaths of western Europe and his rescue of Pope Leo III led to being crowned to lead the ____________. A. Tudor dynasty B. Holy Roman Empire C. Byzantine Empire D. Ummayad dynasty Answer: B 20. Charlemagne created a center of learning in ____________, where pure scholarship was taught alongside administrative skills for royal bureaucrats. A. Aachen B. Paris C. Arles D. Rome Answer: A 21. Hampered by Frankish laws of inheritance, Louis the Pious had too many ____________ for his own succession plan to succeed smoothly. A. bastards B. daughters C. cousins D. sons Answer: D 22. The Viking Leif Erikson traveled as far west as ____________. A. Jamestown B. New Brunswick C. Newfoundland D. Nova Scotia Answer: C 23. Landed nobility retained vassals to populate their armies by supplying them with ____________. A. land B. soldiers C. salaries D. churches Answer: A 24. In the early Middle Ages, the three-field system was used, combining crop rotation and the use of ____________. A. burning B. horse pasture C. fallow fields D. artificial fertilizer Answer: C 25. The “expansion of Europe within Europe” refers to ____________. A. the conquest of eastern Europe, formerly barbarian Hungary B. a population boom made possible by innovations in agriculture C. a redrawing of maps, based on information gathered from Vikings D. the tilling of all available land each growing season Answer: B 26. The Visigoths were pressured to invade the western Roman Empire by ____________. A. a drought and other odd weather patterns that disrupted traditional agriculture B. Huns invading Visigoth territory C. manipulative administrators in the eastern empire D. a population boom Answer: B 27. Although the Roman military succumbed to Germanic invaders in the fifth century, Roman _____________ proved to be dominant when the two peoples mixed. A. athletes B. cuisine C. culture D. entertainment Answer: C 28. Because he condemned idolatry and immorality, Muhammad was ____________. A. chased out of Medina B. chased out of Mecca C. forced to wear a hair shirt D. removed as his people’s leader Answer: B 29. Mecca was an important pilgrimage site before Islam because pagans came to worship ____________. A. a natural gas leak that produced an eternal flame B. at the Ka’ba C. the place of Muhammad’s birth D. at a Roman temple Answer: B 30. Why has martyrdom become so important to Shi’a Muslims? A. Ali, whom they believed to be the True caliph, was assassinated by other Muslims. B. A strong vision of the afterlife cannot come soon enough for some Shi’as. C. Throughout his long life, Ali taught the importance of sacrifice. D. They believe martyrdom is the only path to heaven. Answer: A 31. Early Muslim conquests were successful against the Persian Empire in part because ____________. A. the Persians were exhausted by decades of war B. they had a better navy C. they had the support of the Byzantines against this common enemy D. the Persians recognized the truth of Muhammad’s words Answer: A 32. Muslims indirectly shaped the development of Western Europe because ____________. A. they showed an interest in Roman architecture B. they forced the Europeans to focus on their own territory and culture C. Christians wanted to create a culture that would compete with that of the Muslims D. Europeans converted in large numbers to Islam Answer: B 33. As the Western empire declined and governors withdrew from the cities, ____________ were left as the centers of urban culture. A. schools B. market squares C. amphitheaters D. cathedrals Answer: D 34. Benedict wrote a plan that dictated every activity a monk should undertake each day. This discipline and organization ____________. A. brought the Benedictines economic and political power B. was adopted by a majority of Christians C. threatened potential Muslim invaders D. was seen as heresy by the Eastern Orthodox Church Answer: A 35. Which of these marked a long-lasting split between the western and eastern Christian churches? A. Pope Leo I took the title pontifex maximus. B. Pope Damasus I claimed that he was a direct successor to Peter. C. Cardinal Humbertus excommunicated the Orthodox patriarch. D. Pope Gelasius I claimed the ruling clergy gave him more power than secular rulers. Answer: C 36. When the Byzantines encountered religious practices that were deeply tied to a locality, the church was most likely to ____________. A. explain why paganism would lead believers to hell B. eradicate all the local believers C. absorb those practices into Christian practice D. destroy the objects or shrines Answer: C 37. As retaliation for Cardinal Humbertus’ actions, the patriarch declared that all Western popes ____________. A. were enemies of the Byzantine state B. had been tools of the Roman Empire under Diocletian C. were demoted to bishops D. had been heretics since the sixth century Answer: D 38. Since the landed nobility in Western Europe did not have any fealty to the Frankish kings, the Merovingians established ____________ with the hope that those men would be loyal to the crown. A. vassels B. counts C. provincial governors D. duchies Answer: B 39. When Charles Martel seized church property to distribute to the men who would make up his Carolingian army, the church did not object because ____________. A. it knew it would receive compensation B. it depended on the Franks for armed protection C. Martel effectively controlled the pope D. Martel controlled Rome Answer: B 40. Pepin illustrates which of these aspects of medieval monarchy? A. The popes could both make and unmake kings. B. Kings were no more than the first among equals. C. Kings owed their position to both their nobles and the church. D. A clear definition had evolved between church and royal power. Answer: C 41. Which of these best describes the relationship between the Frankish kings and the papacy? A. mutually supportive B. openly hostile C. isolation D. distrust Answer: A 42. Pope Leo III’s coronation of Charlemagne and the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire did not simply benefit the new emperor. Leo hoped ____________. A. that the new empire would destroy Constantinople B. Charlemagne would create the office of pontifex maximus for him C. to gain leverage over the king and enhance the church’s stature D. to be the next emperor Answer: C 43. Charlemagne created special royal envoys who would make visits to different districts as auditors because ____________. A. he suspected that local counts were secret Lombards B. he hoped different bureaucrats would develop new innovations in administration C. he wanted to unify the state D. local counts were becoming less loyal to the crown as they consolidated power Answer: D 44. Charlemagne developed the intellectual center of Aachen to patronize scholars and promote classical and Christian education. One result of his efforts was ____________. A. the Lord’s Prayer B. a new design for furniture, attaching a desk to a chair C. the Carolingian sect of Christian monks D. Carolingian minuscule, a style of handwriting Answer: D 45. Louis the Pious worked to break Frankish tradition and leave Lothar, the eldest of his three sons, as sole heir. However, after his second wife bore him a fourth son, ____________. A. Lothar, jealous of his half-brother, worked with his brothers to defeat their father B. Louis decided to leave the throne to that young son, Charles C. Louis retired, leaving Lothar as co-regent D. Louis asked the pope to annul the second marriage Answer: A 46. With the collapse of the Carolingian monarchy and attacks by Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims, local populations depended on local strongmen for protection, establishing the preconditions for ____________ society. A. academic B. feudal C. high D. monastic Answer: B 47. Without a strong central government, freemen would entrust themselves to local magnates, offering to contribute to local fighting units in return for protection. This service was known as ____________. A. serfdom B. vassalage C. peasantry D. slavery Answer: B 48. Although church law directed lords to set peasants free to serve as priests, lords preferred a “serf priest” who ____________. A. would serve priests B. would attend to serfs C. would lead the congregation as he was directed by the lord D. served as priest and serf Answer: D 49. Medieval people understood that there was a link between food and health but they did not know to ____________. A. eat vegetables along with meat B. add milk to their porridge C. wash their fruit D. cook pork to above 160 degrees internally Answer: A 50. Why did future rulers find Justinian’s body of civil law attractive as a foundation of their own jurisprudence? A. It outlined the basic responsibilities of each citizen. B. It protected basic civil rights. C. The main point was to bring subjects under a single authority. D. There were provisions for different sorts of democratic systems. Answer: C 51. Consider Map 6-1. The territory that had the fewest invasions in the fourth and fifth centuries, and also the most prosperous in that era, was that of the ____________. A. Carthaginians of North Africa B. Carolingians in Aachen C. Catholics in Rome D. Byzantines of Asia Minor Answer: C 52. Major divisions within religious traditions could begin with small disagreements. Which of these was the initial cause of the split between the Sunnis and Shi’a? A. disagreement over what should be the official version of the Qur’an B. disagreement over leadership of Islam C. which language to use in Muslim services D. which city would be the center of Islam Answer: B 53. Compare the power and influence of Rome and Constantinople in the second half of the first millennium. Use Map 6-2 for reference. A. The Eastern Empire was much stronger than the Western. B. The Western Empire was much stronger than the Eastern. C. The Eastern and Western empires were evenly matched. D. Both empires were decimated by Muslim conquest. Answer: A 54. Reading Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali on marriage, one is struck by the fact that he writes for an audience of ____________, which indicates a lot about his attitude towards relationships. A. clergy B. laity C. men D. women Answer: C 55. Throughout the Middle Ages, attempts by central governments to develop loyal administrators at local levels were often based on grants and favors and tended to fail because ____________. A. external attacks kept governments from focusing on local issues B. administrators became autonomous C. the church held sway over the populace D. of problems with the rights of succession Answer: B SHORT ANSWER 56. In the fourth and fifth centuries, ____________ barbarian tribes invaded the Roman Empire. Answer: Germanic 57. ____________, with his wife Theodora at his side, expanded the Byzantine Empire and ruled it with a strong hand. Answer: Justinian 58. St. Cyril and his brother developed the Cyrillic alphabet, which was used for the written language of the ____________. Answer: Slavs 59. The end of the Byzantine Empire came with the conquest of ____________ in 1453 by the Ottoman Turks. Answer: Constantinople 60. Islam was founded by the prophet ____________, a wealthy man who received the word of God from the angel Gabriel. Answer: Muhammad 61. One of the requirements of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca to visit the ____________, a black meteorite that was worshipped by pagans and incorporated into Islamic practice. Answer: Ka’ba 62. The capital of the Muslim world moved from Mecca in Saudi Arabia to Damascus in Syria and then to ____________ in Iraq. Answer: Baghdad 63. For centuries, the major texts on medicine in the Western world were compilations of work by ____________ scholars. Answer: Muslim 64. ____________ wrote Rule for Monasteries, which laid out a schedule that accounted for every moment in a monk’s day. Answer: Benedict 65. As part of their argument about their superior position, bishops from Rome cited Jesus’s words to the apostle ____________ in the Gospel of Matthew. Answer: Peter 66. ____________ is defined as the opposition to the use of images in Christian worship. Answer: Iconoclasm 67. The Frankish kingdom consisted of two dynasties, the Merovingian and the ____________. Answer: Carolingian 68. Charlemagne established ____________ as a center for learning and scholarship; Alcuin of York led the palace school. Answer: Aachen 69. A medieval lord expected service from his vassals and granted them ____________ so that they could provide those services. Answer: fiefs 70. The ____________ system was a process of crop rotation that ultimately produced larger yields of food for medieval farmers. Answer: three-field ESSAY 71. Christians were persecuted by their own government for the first three hundred years of that religion. In contrast, Islam had antagonistic neighbors but could spread freely within Muslim empires. How did these two experiences shape some of the differences in attitude or practice of these religions? Answer: The contrasting experiences of Christianity and Islam in terms of persecution and freedom of spread have shaped differences in attitude and practice within these religions. For Christianity, the experience of persecution during its formative years instilled a sense of martyrdom and resilience among its followers. Christians developed a strong sense of identity as a persecuted minority, and martyrdom became a central theme in Christian theology and spirituality. As a result, Christian communities emphasized loyalty to the faith and adherence to doctrinal orthodoxy as a means of preserving their identity and solidarity in the face of external threats. In contrast, Islam's relatively rapid expansion within Muslim empires allowed for a different set of attitudes and practices to develop. While Islam faced opposition and conflict with neighboring societies, particularly during the early period of Islamic expansion, Muslim rulers and governments generally provided protection and support for the spread of Islam within their territories. This enabled Islam to become deeply integrated into the social, cultural, and political fabric of Muslim societies, shaping attitudes towards religious identity, authority, and practice. As a result of these differing experiences, Christianity developed a more centralized and hierarchical structure, with strong emphasis on doctrinal orthodoxy and institutional authority, as a means of preserving unity and coherence in the face of external threats. In contrast, Islam developed a more decentralized and diverse religious landscape, with greater emphasis on individual interpretation and community autonomy, reflecting the varied experiences and contexts of Muslim societies. 72. What are some of the divisions that split the Christian church? Which do you think are more significant: doctrinal or practical differences? Answer: The Christian church has experienced numerous divisions throughout its history, resulting in a multitude of denominations and sects with varying doctrinal and practical differences. Some of the divisions that have split the Christian church include: - The Great Schism of 1054, which resulted in the separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church over theological, cultural, and political differences. - The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, which led to the splintering of Western Christianity into various Protestant denominations, such as Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, and others, due to disagreements over doctrine, authority, and practice. - The proliferation of independent and non-denominational Christian churches and movements, which often arise from disagreements or dissatisfaction with established denominations and their teachings. Both doctrinal and practical differences have played significant roles in these divisions, but the relative significance of each varies depending on the specific context and circumstances. In some cases, doctrinal differences, such as disagreements over theological interpretations or beliefs, have been the primary cause of division, leading to schisms and separations within the church. In other cases, practical considerations, such as differences in worship styles, church governance, or social and cultural issues, have been more prominent factors driving division and fragmentation within the Christian community. Ultimately, both doctrinal and practical differences have contributed to the diverse and dynamic nature of Christianity as a global religious tradition. 73. How did Islamic culture influence the West? What are some specific legacies that Muslims left with Western Europeans? Answer: Islamic culture had a significant influence on the West, leaving behind several specific legacies that have shaped Western European society and culture. One major legacy of Islamic influence on the West is in the realm of science, philosophy, and scholarship. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim scholars made significant advancements in various fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy. Many Greek and Roman texts were translated into Arabic and preserved by Islamic scholars, and these works later made their way to Western Europe via Muslim Spain and Sicily, contributing to the revival of learning and scholarship during the European Renaissance. Another legacy of Islamic influence is in architecture and design. Islamic architecture, characterized by intricate geometric patterns, elaborate tilework, and soaring domes and arches, had a profound impact on Western European architecture, particularly during the medieval and Renaissance periods. Islamic architectural elements can be seen in buildings such as the Alhambra in Spain, the Great Mosque of Cordoba, and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which inspired Western architects and designers in their own works. Additionally, Islamic influence can be seen in areas such as art, literature, music, cuisine, and technology, as well as in the transmission of knowledge and ideas across cultural and geographical boundaries. Muslim scholars, traders, and travelers played a crucial role in facilitating cultural exchange and interaction between the Islamic world and Western Europe, leaving a lasting imprint on Western civilization. 74. How did relations with Christianity’s top religious officials affect the ambitions of political leaders? Give two examples citing different religious traditions. Answer: Relations with Christianity's top religious officials often affected the ambitions of political leaders in both positive and negative ways, influencing their actions and decisions in matters of governance and diplomacy. Two examples from different religious traditions illustrate this dynamic: 1. In the Catholic tradition, the Pope wielded significant religious and political authority during the medieval and early modern periods, often serving as a powerful arbiter and mediator in European politics. Political leaders sought the Pope's approval and support for their policies and actions, particularly in matters of war, diplomacy, and succession. For example, the Investiture Controversy of the 11th and 12th centuries, which centered on the appointment of bishops and the balance of power between the Pope and secular rulers, led to conflicts between the Papacy and various European monarchs, including the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and King Henry II of England. The resolution of these conflicts often depended on the willingness of political leaders to compromise with the Pope and adhere to his authority. 2. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the relationship between political leaders and religious officials was similarly complex, with the Byzantine Emperor exerting authority over the Eastern Orthodox Church while also seeking the endorsement and legitimacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Byzantine Emperor often relied on the support of the Church to maintain his power and authority, and political decisions were often influenced by religious considerations. For example, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I's efforts to reconquer the Western Roman Empire and restore the unity of the Roman Empire were driven by religious motivations, including the desire to reunite the Christian Church under the authority of the Byzantine Emperor and assert Byzantine dominance over the Western Mediterranean. Similarly, the relationship between the Russian Tsar and the Russian Orthodox Church played a crucial role in shaping Russian politics and society, with the Tsar often seeking the blessing and approval of the Church for his policies and actions. 75. Feudal society developed over time. What were the costs and benefits for lords at the beginning of the Middle Ages? Did these change toward the end of this era? Answer: Feudal society in the early Middle Ages presented both costs and benefits for lords. At the beginning of this era, lords held significant power and authority over their lands and vassals, enjoying privileges such as land ownership, military service, and the collection of taxes and rents from peasants. The feudal system provided lords with a ready source of labor and resources, as well as a framework for defense and protection through the loyalty and service of their vassals. However, being a lord also came with costs and responsibilities. Lords were expected to provide protection and justice for their vassals, maintain infrastructure such as castles and fortifications, and administer their lands effectively. Additionally, lords were often required to fulfill obligations to their own superiors, such as providing military support and tribute to higher-ranking lords or the king. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the costs and benefits for lords underwent significant changes. The consolidation of centralized monarchies and the decline of feudalism resulted in a shift in power dynamics, with monarchs asserting greater control over their realms and reducing the autonomy of feudal lords. This led to the decline of feudal privileges and obligations, as well as the emergence of new economic and social structures such as mercantilism and capitalism. Overall, while feudal lords initially enjoyed significant privileges and power in exchange for their obligations and responsibilities, these dynamics shifted over time as the feudal system evolved and ultimately declined. 76. Compare and contrast the schools Charlemagne created with the intellectual output of monasteries. Consider the content and intentions of education for each. Answer: Charlemagne's efforts to promote education and scholarship in the Carolingian Empire included the establishment of schools and educational reforms aimed at training clergy, administrators, and scholars. The schools Charlemagne created, such as the Palace School at Aachen, focused on teaching Latin grammar, rhetoric, theology, and classical literature, drawing inspiration from the educational models of ancient Rome and Byzantium. The intention behind Charlemagne's educational reforms was to promote literacy, intellectual development, and religious orthodoxy among the clergy and elite, as well as to enhance the administration and governance of the empire. In contrast, the intellectual output of monasteries in the early Middle Ages focused on preserving and transmitting knowledge through the copying and dissemination of manuscripts, as well as through the cultivation of monastic libraries and scriptoria. Monastic education emphasized the study of Scripture, theology, and patristic writings, as well as practical skills such as agriculture, medicine, and craftsmanship. The intention behind monastic education was to foster spiritual growth, moral discipline, and practical knowledge among monks and laypeople, as well as to contribute to the cultural and intellectual life of medieval society. While there were similarities between the educational content of Charlemagne's schools and monastic education, such as a focus on Latin and Christian theology, there were also differences in their intentions and approaches. Charlemagne's schools aimed to promote intellectual and cultural renewal within the Carolingian Empire, while monastic education served the dual purposes of spiritual formation and scholarly preservation. Additionally, Charlemagne's schools were often more formalized and structured, whereas monastic education was more informal and communal in nature. 77. What were the main contributions of the Franks to Western civilization? Answer: The Franks made several significant contributions to Western civilization: 1. Political Consolidation: The Frankish kings, particularly Charlemagne, played a key role in the consolidation and centralization of political power in Western Europe during the early Middle Ages. Through military conquests and diplomatic alliances, the Franks established the Carolingian Empire, which laid the foundations for the medieval kingdoms of France and Germany. 2. Christianization: The Franks played a crucial role in the spread of Christianity throughout Western Europe. Clovis I, the first Christian king of the Franks, converted to Christianity in the late 5th century, setting the stage for the Christianization of the Frankish kingdom and its subsequent expansion into neighboring territories. 3. Carolingian Renaissance: Under the rule of Charlemagne, the Carolingian Empire experienced a cultural and intellectual revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne promoted education, scholarship, and the arts, establishing schools, libraries, and scriptoria to preserve and disseminate classical and Christian knowledge. 4. Legal and Administrative Reforms: The Franks introduced legal and administrative reforms that had a lasting impact on Western European society. Charlemagne's capitularies codified laws and regulations, while his missi dominici served as royal envoys and inspectors tasked with ensuring the enforcement of royal decrees. 5. Feudalism: The Frankish kingdom played a significant role in the development of feudalism, a system of social, economic, and political organization based on landholding and loyalty. Feudal relationships between lords and vassals formed the basis of medieval society in Western Europe. 78. Imagine you are a peasant living in the year 798. You have been given a choice as to where to live: Constantinople, Aachen, or Cordoba, Spain. Where would you live? Why? Argue against the other choices. Answer: As a peasant living in the year 798, I would choose to live in Constantinople. Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, offered several advantages for a peasant seeking stability, security, and opportunities for livelihood and advancement. Firstly, Constantinople was a bustling metropolis and a center of trade, commerce, and culture in the medieval world. As the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Constantinople offered abundant opportunities for employment in various trades, crafts, and industries, as well as access to markets, goods, and services. Secondly, Constantinople was a fortified city with strong defenses, making it relatively safe and secure compared to other medieval cities. The Byzantine Emperor and government invested heavily in the defense and maintenance of Constantinople's walls, ensuring the protection of its inhabitants from external threats and invasions. Lastly, Constantinople was a center of Byzantine Orthodox Christianity, providing spiritual and religious support for its residents. The city was home to numerous churches, monasteries, and religious institutions, offering opportunities for worship, education, and community involvement. Against the other choices, Aachen and Cordoba, Constantinople offers distinct advantages. Aachen, while significant as the capital of the Carolingian Empire, may lack the economic opportunities and cultural diversity of Constantinople. Cordoba, while renowned for its Islamic civilization and intellectual achievements, may present challenges for a Christian peasant in terms of religious and cultural differences, as well as potential instability due to conflict between Christian and Muslim rulers in Spain. Overall, Constantinople offers the best combination of economic opportunity, security, and cultural affinity for a peasant seeking a better life in the medieval world. 79. How did agriculture in Europe change in the early Middle Ages? What were the demographic consequences of this change? Answer: Agriculture in Europe underwent significant changes in the early Middle Ages, transitioning from the large-scale agricultural estates of the Roman Empire to a more decentralized and subsistence-based farming system. Several factors contributed to this transformation: - Decline of Large Estates: With the collapse of centralized authority in the wake of the Roman Empire's decline, large agricultural estates known as latifundia became less viable. These estates were often abandoned or subdivided, leading to the fragmentation of landownership and the emergence of smaller, self-sufficient farming units. - Shift to Manorialism: The rise of feudalism and the manorial system during the early Middle Ages transformed agricultural production and land management. Manors, or agricultural estates owned by lords or nobles, became the primary units of agricultural production. Peasants, known as serfs, worked the land in exchange for protection and a portion of the harvest. - Expansion of Cultivation: Despite the fragmentation of landownership, agricultural cultivation expanded during the early Middle Ages. New technologies such as the heavy plow and horse collar increased agricultural productivity, allowing for the cultivation of previously marginal lands. - Demographic Consequences: The changes in agriculture during the early Middle Ages had significant demographic consequences. The shift to a more localized and self-sufficient farming system led to population growth as agricultural productivity increased and food surpluses became more common. Additionally, the manorial system provided a degree of stability and security for peasants, leading to higher birth rates and longer life expectancies. 80. Compare and contrast the Viking and Magyar invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries, considering their scope and long-term impact. Answer: The Viking and Magyar invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries were both significant events in European history, but they differed in scope, tactics, and long-term impact: Viking Invasions: - Scope: The Viking invasions, originating from Scandinavia, targeted coastal regions and river valleys throughout Europe, including the British Isles, France, Spain, and Italy. Viking raids were characterized by their speed, mobility, and surprise attacks, often targeting wealthy monasteries, towns, and trade routes. - Long-Term Impact: The Viking invasions had lasting effects on European history, including cultural, political, and economic consequences. The establishment of Viking settlements, such as Dublin and York, led to the integration of Scandinavian and indigenous cultures, while Viking trade networks expanded economic opportunities and facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas. Magyar Invasions: - Scope: The Magyar invasions, originating from the Eurasian steppes, targeted the eastern and central regions of Europe, including modern-day Hungary, Austria, and the Balkans. The Magyars were skilled horsemen and warriors who employed hit-and-run tactics to plunder and pillage settlements. - Long-Term Impact: The Magyar invasions contributed to the fragmentation and destabilization of central European kingdoms, as well as the spread of fear and insecurity among local populations. However, the Magyars eventually settled in the Carpathian Basin and established the Kingdom of Hungary, which played a significant role in shaping the political and cultural landscape of central Europe. Overall, while both the Viking and Magyar invasions had significant short-term consequences for the regions they targeted, the Viking invasions had a broader geographic scope and a more enduring impact on European history through their influence on trade, culture, and political developments. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank9780205896318, 9780134104102

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