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Chapter 5 The Roman Empire MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Octavian became the undisputed ruler of Rome following the Battle of ____________. A. Actium B. Thermopylae C. Milvian Bridge D. Carthage Answer: A 2. “Augustus” was an honorific title meaning “____________.” A. first citizen B. ambitious C. summer D. venerated Answer: D 3. Augustus reduced the size of the Senate to ____________. A. 20 B. 1000 C. 600 D. 100 Answer: C 4. In Augustus’s reign, Rome had a professional army of between ____________. A. 10,000 and 50,000 men B. 50,000 and 100,000 men C. 100,000 and 250,000 men D. 250,000 and 500,000 men Answer: D 5. According to Cicero, laws should be ____________. A. local B. fair C. different for every ethnicity D. universal Answer: D 6. What made Maecenas, the cultural adviser to Augustus, important to literary circles? A. He controlled imperial patronage for the arts. B. He would bring Augustus to important parties. C. He was an incisive critic. D. He was a publisher. Answer: A 7. ____________ was a cruel and vicious emperor whose bizarre actions made many suspect he was insane. A. Caligula B. Claudius C. Nero D. Nerva Answer: A 8. Vespasian founded the ____________ dynasty. A. Flavian B. Valentinian C. Julio-Claudian D. Severan Answer: A 9. Which of the following was NOT a part of elite Roman women’s lives? A. divorce B. contraception C. literary groups D. formal education Answer: D 10. Typical cities in the Roman Empire had about 20,000 inhabitants. Rome itself had more than _____________ (choose the largest correct answer). A. 40,000 B. 80,000 C. 120,000 D. 500,000 Answer: D 11. Because they denied the existence of the Roman gods, Christians were accused of ____________. A. atheism B. monotheism C. pantheism D. Zoroastrianism Answer: A 12. Jesus’ death was ordered by ____________. A. Augustus B. Caligula C. Judas Iscariot D. Pontius Pilate Answer: D 13. “Circuses” were named for their ____________. A. acrobatics B. circular layout C. clowns D. 24-hour duration Answer: B 14. The beliefs of the majority of Christians were considered universal, or catholic. Those disagreeing with catholic orthodoxy were known as ____________. A. anti-Christians B. episcopals C. heretics D. Nazarenes Answer: C 15. Septimius Severus changed conditions in the Roman army for what reason? A. to help falling recruitment B. to restore the army’s prestige C. to improve morale D. in accordance with changing Roman morals Answer: A 16. Although the military had social mobility in the empire, a new class system was legally recognized between the lower classes, humiliores, and the upper classes, ____________. A. agapes B. consiliores C. honestiores D. praetors Answer: C 17. ____________ shared his imperial power with three other men. A. Aurelian B. Constantine C. Constantius II D. Diocletian Answer: D 18. Constantine’s father was a ____________ under Diocletian. A. Caesar B. censor C. consul D. mercenary Answer: A 19. Valentinian I divided the empire in two and appointed his brother Valens as ruler of the east. The two sides became increasingly separate, as ____________ was spoken in the west and _____________ in the east. A. Greek; Turkish B. Greek; Latin C. Italian; Latin D. Latin; Greek Answer: D 20. Manichaeans, whose faith combined elements of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Judaism, believed the world to be ____________. A. basically a good place B. a temporary evil to be escaped C. in perpetual war between good and evil D. a place to atone for past sins Answer: C 21. In 311, Galerius issued the Edict of Toleration, permitting Christian worship. He was perhaps influenced by ____________. A. divination at Delphi B. his Christian wife C. Jewish advisors D. Christian music Answer: B 22. Faith, fundamental to Christian belief, and reason, the foundation of classical education, were reconciled in the writings of ____________. A. Augustine B. Leo C. Ambrose D. Peter Answer: A 23. In the rural west of the late empire, many cities were reconfigured as walled fortresses. For civilians, life revolved around the villa, a(n) ____________. A. corner market B. country estate C. village of a few hundred people D. extended family Answer: B 24. The fourth- and fifth-century “decline and fall of the Roman Empire” refers to the diminishing fortunes of ____________. A. the frontier provinces B. Rome and the Italian peninsula C. the eastern empire D. the western empire Answer: D 25. ____________, the great eighteenth-century scholar of Roman history, suggested that instead of asking why Rome fell, “we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long.” A. Alexander Hamilton B. Henry James C. Edward Gibbon D. Samuel Morse Answer: C 26. The ____________, who characterized one segment of the nobility at the end of the republic, found their literary expression in the personal poems of Catullus. A. introverted Hellenophiles B. peace-promoting “doves” C. crippled war veterans D. pleasure-seeking aristocrats Answer: D 27. Because Augustus was officially “first citizen” and not king or emperor, he could not legally name his ____________. A. advisers B. military leaders C. cabinet D. successor Answer: D 28. After the Praetorian Guard killed the emperor and installed a frightened Claudius on the throne, it was clear that the ultimate arbiter of leadership in imperial Rome was ____________. A. democratic elections B. military power C. Etruscan tradition D. foreign models Answer: B 29. The troubled succession of the early Roman Empire was exemplified in the year 69, when ____________. A. Claudius had a nervous breakdown B. the Germans attacked C. four different men served as emperor D. Trajan took power by force Answer: C 30. One telling change in the literature of the Silver Age came in response to an increasingly irritable imperial rule. What was it? A. a lack of writing on contemporary affairs and recent history B. an emphasis on comedies C. many contemporary biographies of the emperor D. political poetry Answer: A 31. Although differences in doctrine had the potential to splinter the early Christian church into dozens of sects, a unity of belief and ritual was maintained by a ____________. A. single religious leader known as the pope B. group of secret nuns C. network of bishops D. regular publication of current thought Answer: C 32. At first, Christians were thought to be a sect of Jews and thus ____________. A. awarded high office B. eligible for state persecution C. enemies of the state D. protected by law Answer: D 33. After Rome’s destruction of Jerusalem, Christians congregated in ____________. A. Carthage B. Constantinople C. Judea D. Rome Answer: D 34. Instead of maintaining a large fighting force throughout the empire, the emperors of the late third century fortified the cities and reorganized the army to be ____________. A. autonomous B. bodyguards C. more mobile, including heavy cavalry D. more stable, including permanent defensive trenches Answer: C 35. Constantinople was easily defensible, because of its location ____________. A. on an island B. on a peninsula C. on a hilltop D. well inland Answer: B 36. Diocletian and Decius attacked Christians for what reason? A. Christians threatened internal security. B. Christians threatened imperial authority. C. Christians sparked several small uprisings. D. Christians were already declining in numbers. Answer: B 37. The debate that resulted in the Nicene Creed is proof that, although the Christian emperors hoped to unite the empire behind a single religion, there were ____________. A. barbarians who believed in Christ B. better faiths to choose from C. a lot of competing religions D. divisions within Christian worship Answer: D 38. As the Roman government became more efficient, it took on more functions. To pay for these services, Rome ____________. A. instituted “sin” taxes on tobacco and alcohol B. minted fewer coins, hoping speculators would take them out of circulation C. imposed taxes on farmers who lived outside of Italy D. sold bonds Answer: C 39. Trajan’s campaign to establish the province of Dacia between the Danube River and Carpathian Mountains can be seen as being defensive because ____________. A. he immediately declared Dacians to be citizens of Rome under his protection B. he built a wall there C. his goal was to split enemy groups D. he paid mercenary Visigoths to keep other Germanic tribes out of the region Answer: C 40. Hadrian’s wall represented a solidified, rigid defensive perimeter. Once a border demarcation was established, however, ____________. A. negotiations were irrelevant B. it required passport control stations C. initiative passed to the barbarians D. Romans lost the will to conquer Answer: C 41. Why did the Roman underclass live in cramped apartment buildings? A. Land was at a premium in Rome. B. It was an inexpensive way to share heating costs with neighbors. C. Additional height added water pressure to the plumbing. D. They were concerned about suburban sprawl. Answer: A 42. Silver Age literature, produced between the death of Augustus and the reign of Marcus Aurelius, reflected the times. In contrast to Augustan work, Silver Age writing was ____________. A. genuinely funny, even to modern readers B. gloomy and negative C. clichéd and unoriginal D. filled with reflections on current affairs Answer: B 43. Early Christians James and Paul argued over whether ____________. A. their worship services should be conducted in Latin or vernacular languages B. Romans should be allowed to convert C. Jesus was truly the messiah D. Christianity was a version of Judaism Answer: D 44. Adherents to the imperial cult worshipped the emperor more as a(an) ____________ than as a religious act. A. way to pass time B. annual ritual C. political duty D. duty to their parents Answer: C 45. Less than a hundred years after the crucifixion, membership in the Christian community was ____________. A. virtually unknown B. a crime C. plummeting D. expensive Answer: B 46. The historian Tacitus related an incident in which Nero used a city fire ____________. A. as inspiration for a poem B. as an excuse to kill Christians C. to promote his new fire department D. as light to read by Answer: B 47. Because Rome had a large early Christian population, and because Peter was thought to be first bishop of the city, ____________. A. Christians were expected to make a pilgrimage to Rome in their lifetime B. subsequent bishops of Rome claimed leadership of the Catholic Church C. Paul wrote an angry letter to Ephesus D. emperors looked upon Christians as their wards Answer: B 48. A measure of the desperate straits of the Roman military in the third century was the use of _____________ in the army. A. slaves B. donkeys C. mercenaries D. Parthians Answer: C 49. The elaborate civilian bureaucracy established by Constantine included four praetorian prefects, twelve vicars, and almost a hundred provincial governors. The system was corrupt despite ____________. A. steady pay and good benefits B. spies and secret informants C. the freedom granted each bureaucrat D. the use of paper money Answer: B 50. When the bishop of Milan excommunicated emperor Theodosius I for ordering a massacre, the emperor ____________. A. had the bishop killed B. paid penance C. massacred the bishop’s family D. returned to worshipping pagan gods Answer: B 51. Christianity appealed to the poor and underserved populations of Rome. For this reason, it makes sense that it first gained popularity ____________. A. in urban centers B. in Italy C. in frontier towns D. among coloni Answer: A 52. The Roman authorities were suspicious of Christians because they ____________. A. dressed differently B. kept caches of weapons in their churches C. were happier than other citizens D. had a secret network of communities Answer: D 53. A pervasive negative mood in the decades following the reign of Augustus is apparent in the _____________ of the time, which was satirical and pessimistic. A. dance B. music C. literature D. architecture Answer: C 54. Diocletian emphasized the divine nature of the imperial office, requiring citizens to worship the same. This caused conflict and led to ____________. A. temples rebuilt to accommodate four tetrarchs B. a Jewish pogrom C. harsh persecution of Christians D. war with the Goths Answer: C 55. According to Tacitus, why did Nero, in 64 C.E., kill a number of Christians in particularly horrific ways? A. as punishment for arson B. for the public good C. to satisfy his own perverse desires D. as a result of a clerical error Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. Augustus’s imperial reign is known as the “Principate” after his title princeps, meaning “first ____________.” Answer: citizen 57. ____________ believed in a world of divine and natural law, and his writings were read well into the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Answer: Cicero 58. Although he was arguably reflecting the society around him, ____________ was exiled for writing that was considered out of step with Augustan ideals of morality. Answer: Ovid 59. Gaius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, acted erratically and was eventually killed by members of the ____________. Answer: army 60. By 212 C.E. almost every free inhabitant of the Roman Empire was granted ____________. Answer: citizenship 61. Although Latin was the language of the Roman Empire, eastern provinces continued to use ____________. Answer: Greek 62. Hadrian’s wall in the south of Scotland exemplifies his foreign policy, reversing the offensive polices of Trajan with a new focus on ____________. Answer: defense 63. With a soaring population and limited land, many of Rome’s underclass lived in cramped insulae, or ____________ buildings. Answer: apartment 64. Imperial Rome made great engineering advances, including the use of vaults and domes, both forms adapted from Etruscan semi-circular ____________. Answer: arches 65. Jesus of Nazareth was named christos by his followers, meaning “____________.” Answer: messiah 66. The Circus Maximus’s racing companies called factiones and gambling were all elements of one of the Romans’ favorite entertainments, ____________ racing. Answer: chariot 67. Saul of Tarsus, in Cilicia, underwent a conversion outside Damascus and changed his name to ____________. Answer: Paul 68. Early Christians organized themselves into communities and elected ____________ to lead worship and supervise funds. Answer: bishops 69. Diocletian divided the empire into four parts, led by a quartet known as the ____________. Answer: tetrarchy 70. Born in Africa, ____________ was one of the great early theologians, known for his books Confessions and City of God. Answer: Augustine ESSAY 71. Although Augustus granted himself the powers of an absolute ruler, he did not proclaim this ascension openly. In what ways did he retain the appearance of republican government? Why? Answer: Augustus, while consolidating power as the first Roman emperor, took deliberate steps to maintain the appearance of republican government in order to legitimize his rule and garner support from the Roman populace. One way in which Augustus retained the appearance of republican government was by preserving certain republican institutions and traditions. For example, he maintained the Senate as a legislative body and consulted its members on important matters of state, giving the impression that he was ruling with the consent of the Senate and respecting its authority. Additionally, Augustus held various republican offices, such as consul and tribune, albeit with greatly expanded powers, to maintain the illusion of continuity with the republican past. Furthermore, Augustus promoted the idea of restoring traditional Roman values and virtues, such as piety, morality, and discipline, which resonated with the conservative sentiments of the Roman elite and populace. By presenting himself as a champion of Roman tradition and morality, Augustus sought to appeal to the sense of national pride and identity among the Roman people, thereby strengthening his legitimacy as a ruler. Overall, Augustus retained the appearance of republican government through a combination of institutional continuity, symbolic gestures, and appeals to traditional values, in order to legitimize his rule and ensure the stability of the Roman Empire. 72. Augustus introduced laws intended to proscribe moral behavior. What sort of behavior was codified, and who do you think would have suffered the most prosecution from these laws? Answer: Augustus introduced laws intended to proscribe moral behavior as part of his efforts to restore traditional Roman values and promote social order and stability. These laws, known as the "leges Juliae" or Julian laws, aimed to regulate various aspects of Roman society, including marriage, family life, and public morality. One of the key behaviors codified by these laws was adultery. Augustus enacted strict penalties for adultery, including fines, exile, and even death in some cases, in order to discourage extramarital affairs and promote marital fidelity. Those who engaged in adultery, particularly women of the upper classes, would have been subject to prosecution and punishment under these laws. Additionally, Augustus introduced legislation aimed at promoting public decency and morality, such as restrictions on luxury and extravagance, as well as efforts to combat public displays of vice and immorality. Individuals who engaged in behaviors deemed to be immoral or socially disruptive, such as drunkenness, gambling, or prostitution, could also face legal consequences under Augustus's moral legislation. Overall, the laws introduced by Augustus to proscribe moral behavior were intended to uphold traditional Roman values and promote social cohesion and stability. While they may have affected individuals from all social classes, it is likely that those who held positions of wealth and privilege would have been most susceptible to prosecution and punishment under these laws, as they were seen as setting the moral example for society. 73. Freestanding amphitheaters were built around the empire, hippodromes were constructed for chariot racing, and gladiatorial combat was as popular as ever. What did the need for entertainment (and particular kinds of entertainment) suggest about the Roman populace? Did these entertainments benefit or harm the emperor in any way? Answer: The widespread construction of entertainment venues such as amphitheaters and hippodromes, as well as the popularity of spectacles like chariot racing and gladiatorial combat, suggests several things about the Roman populace. Firstly, it indicates a desire for leisure and diversion from the challenges of daily life. The Roman people, like many others throughout history, sought entertainment as a means of escape and relaxation. Additionally, the popularity of violent and sensational spectacles like gladiatorial combat reflects a fascination with spectacle, competition, and the display of power and prowess. These entertainments could both benefit and harm the emperor, depending on how they were managed and perceived. On one hand, providing lavish spectacles and entertainments for the populace could serve as a means of gaining popularity and support, as well as distracting the population from political unrest or dissatisfaction. Emperors who sponsored grandiose games and spectacles could enhance their prestige and legitimacy in the eyes of the people. On the other hand, excessive spending on entertainments could drain the imperial treasury and exacerbate economic inequality, leading to resentment among the lower classes. Additionally, the violent and brutal nature of some spectacles, such as gladiatorial combat, could also evoke criticism and moral condemnation from certain segments of society. 74. Consider Map 5-2 showing the extent of the Roman Empire between 14 and 117 C.E. How could this evidence be used to explain why Trajan was considered one of the “good emperors”? What societal benefits flowed from the changes he made to the empire? Answer: Map 5-2 showing the extent of the Roman Empire between 14 and 117 C.E. provides evidence for why Trajan was considered one of the "good emperors" and illustrates the societal benefits that flowed from the changes he made to the empire. Trajan's expansion of the empire to its greatest territorial extent during his reign demonstrated his military prowess and success as a conqueror. By conquering new territories in Dacia (modern-day Romania) and Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), Trajan not only secured the borders of the empire but also brought wealth, resources, and prestige to Rome. The acquisition of new provinces enriched the imperial treasury and provided opportunities for economic growth and development through trade and commerce. Furthermore, Trajan's policies of public works and infrastructure development, such as the construction of roads, bridges, and aqueducts, improved communication and transportation networks throughout the empire. These improvements facilitated trade, facilitated the movement of goods and people, and promoted economic integration and prosperity. Additionally, Trajan's social welfare programs, such as his public assistance initiatives and subsidies for the poor, helped to alleviate poverty and improve living standards for many inhabitants of the empire. His policies aimed at promoting social cohesion and integration, such as granting citizenship to provincials and promoting cultural exchange and assimilation, contributed to the stability and unity of the empire. Overall, Trajan's reign was marked by territorial expansion, economic prosperity, and social welfare initiatives, which earned him a reputation as one of the "good emperors" and brought tangible benefits to Roman society. 75. Certain Christian tenets did not fit with Roman paganism. Imagine you are a Roman whose neighbor has converted to Christianity. What do you perceive as the neighbor’s change in behavior? How does that make you feel? Answer: As a Roman neighbor observing someone converting to Christianity, I may perceive several changes in their behavior that contrast with traditional Roman paganism. Firstly, I might notice that they no longer participate in the worship of Roman gods and goddesses, such as offering sacrifices at temples or attending religious festivals. Instead, they may gather with other Christians for worship services or prayer meetings in private homes or underground churches. Additionally, I might observe changes in their moral and ethical behavior, as Christianity often promotes values such as compassion, humility, and forgiveness that differ from the values emphasized in Roman society, such as honor, power, and glory. They may exhibit greater kindness and generosity towards others, as well as a commitment to living a morally upright and virtuous life according to Christian teachings. Furthermore, I may notice differences in their social interactions and lifestyle choices, as Christianity can influence aspects of daily life such as diet, dress, and leisure activities. For example, they may abstain from certain foods or practices that are considered immoral or idolatrous, or they may choose to spend their time and resources differently, prioritizing spiritual growth and service to others over worldly pursuits. As a Roman neighbor, these changes in behavior might evoke a range of emotions and reactions. Some may feel curious or intrigued by their neighbor's newfound faith, while others may feel skeptical or even hostile towards Christianity, viewing it as a threat to traditional Roman values and beliefs. There may also be feelings of confusion or concern about how their neighbor's conversion will affect their relationship and interactions with them, particularly if there are differences in religious beliefs or practices that create tension or conflict. Overall, the perception of a neighbor converting to Christianity would likely prompt a mix of reactions depending on individual attitudes and beliefs within Roman society. 76. The Roman Empire after Marcus Aurelius was seen by Dio Cassius as a decline from “a kingdom of gold into one of iron and rust.” Do you agree with Cassius’s metaphor? What were the major difficulties following the last of the “good emperors”? Were the problems caused by internal or external forces? Answer: Dio Cassius's metaphor of the decline of the Roman Empire from "a kingdom of gold into one of iron and rust" captures the sentiment of many historians regarding the period following the last of the "good emperors," Marcus Aurelius. This period, often referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century, was marked by a series of major difficulties that contributed to the decline of the empire. One major difficulty was political instability and the breakdown of central authority. After the death of Marcus Aurelius, a succession of weak and ineffective emperors, often chosen through military force rather than hereditary succession, led to frequent civil wars, usurpations, and power struggles within the empire. This internal turmoil weakened the imperial government and undermined its ability to maintain order and stability. Another major difficulty was economic decline and fiscal instability. The empire faced mounting financial pressures due to excessive spending on military campaigns, administrative expenses, and public works projects, combined with a declining tax base and rampant corruption and inefficiency in government. This economic downturn led to inflation, currency devaluation, and widespread poverty and hardship among the Roman populace. Additionally, the empire faced external threats from barbarian invasions, particularly along the northern and eastern frontiers. Germanic tribes such as the Goths, Vandals, and Visigoths launched raids and incursions into Roman territory, putting further strain on the empire's military resources and exacerbating its internal weaknesses. Overall, the major difficulties following the last of the "good emperors" were caused by a combination of internal and external forces, including political instability, economic decline, and external threats, which contributed to the gradual decline and eventual fall of the Western Roman Empire. 77. The sculpture on the church of San Marco in Venice portrays Diocletian and three colleagues. Explain the symbolism of the four men. Explain why the sitting of the sculpture is ironic. Answer: The sculpture on the church of San Marco in Venice portrays Diocletian and three colleagues, known as the Tetrarchs, who ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperors during the late third and early fourth centuries. The symbolism of the four men reflects the concept of the tetrarchy, a system of government established by Diocletian to address the challenges of governing a vast and fragmented empire. Each of the four figures is depicted in similar attire and posture, symbolizing their equality and shared authority as rulers of the empire. The sitting of the sculpture is ironic because it portrays the four emperors sitting closely together in a huddled and rigid manner, conveying a sense of unity and solidarity. However, this symbolism is undercut by the historical reality of the tetrarchy, which was characterized by internal rivalries, power struggles, and instability. Despite Diocletian's efforts to establish a system of joint rule and cooperation among the four emperors, the tetrarchy ultimately failed to prevent further decline and division within the empire, leading to the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Thus, the sitting of the sculpture serves as a poignant reminder of the idealistic aspirations of the tetrarchy contrasted with the harsh realities of imperial politics and power dynamics. 78. Looking at Map 5-6, Map Exploration, we can see the spread of Christianity from 200 to 600 C.E. Why did Christianity first take root in urban areas? What would have been the consequence of Christianity spreading more rapidly before developing an orthodox tradition? Answer: Christianity first took root in urban areas for several reasons. Firstly, cities were hubs of cultural, social, and economic activity, making them fertile ground for the spread of new ideas and religious movements. Urban populations were more diverse and cosmopolitan, allowing for greater interaction and exchange of beliefs among different groups of people. Additionally, cities offered greater opportunities for communication and networking, as well as access to public spaces such as marketplaces, temples, and meeting places, where Christians could gather and worship freely. Furthermore, the urban context provided Christians with a degree of anonymity and protection from persecution, as the sheer size and diversity of cities made it easier to blend in and avoid detection by authorities. This allowed Christianity to flourish and grow underground, despite periodic outbreaks of persecution and suppression by the Roman government. The consequence of Christianity spreading more rapidly before developing an orthodox tradition could have been the proliferation of diverse and competing interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice, leading to fragmentation and disunity within the Christian community. Without a unified orthodoxy to provide doctrinal cohesion and stability, Christianity may have splintered into numerous sects and denominations, each with its own beliefs and practices, making it more vulnerable to external threats and internal divisions. 79. Constantine moved his court to Constantinople (modern Istanbul). What were the consequences of removing the Roman Emperor from Rome itself? Can you defend the move? Why or why not? Answer: Constantine's decision to move his court to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) had significant consequences for the Roman Empire. One consequence was the symbolic shift in the center of political and administrative power away from Rome, the traditional heart of the empire, to Constantinople, a strategically located city at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. This move signaled Constantine's ambition to establish a new imperial capital that better reflected the changing geopolitical realities of the empire and served as a bulwark against external threats from the east. Additionally, relocating the imperial court to Constantinople allowed Constantine to consolidate his control over the eastern provinces and strengthen his position as sole ruler of the empire. By establishing a new administrative center in the east, Constantine sought to enhance communication and coordination between the eastern and western halves of the empire, as well as promote economic development and cultural exchange in the region. Moreover, Constantinople's strategic location on the Bosporus Strait provided natural defenses against invasion and facilitated trade and commerce between the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. The city's proximity to key trade routes and its access to maritime resources made it a thriving economic center and contributed to its long-term prosperity and influence in the Mediterranean world. In defending the move, one could argue that Constantinople offered numerous advantages over Rome as an imperial capital, including its strategic location, defensible position, and economic potential. By relocating the capital to Constantinople, Constantine sought to secure the future stability and prosperity of the Roman Empire, albeit at the expense of diminishing Rome's traditional status as the political and cultural center of the empire. 80. Although the period between Diocletian and Constantine was fraught with issues of succession, both men can be considered successful leaders in the chaos of the late empires. What policies did they enact to promote peace and prosperity? Were any of these policies counterproductive? Answer: Both Diocletian and Constantine implemented policies aimed at promoting peace and prosperity during a tumultuous period in the late Roman Empire. Diocletian's policies focused on reorganizing the imperial administration and stabilizing the economy, while Constantine's reforms aimed to strengthen the unity and cohesion of the empire and promote Christianization. Diocletian's most significant reform was the division of the empire into eastern and western halves, each ruled by an Augustus (senior emperor) and a Caesar (junior emperor). This system, known as the tetrarchy, aimed to decentralize power and improve governance by delegating authority to multiple rulers. Diocletian also introduced economic reforms, such as price controls and currency reforms, to stabilize the economy and combat inflation. Additionally, he implemented administrative reforms to streamline the bureaucracy and improve the efficiency of government. Constantine continued and expanded upon Diocletian's reforms, particularly in the realm of religion and culture. He legalized and promoted Christianity through the Edict of Milan in 313, which granted religious tolerance to Christians and facilitated the spread of the Christian faith throughout the empire. Constantine also convened the First Council of Nicaea in 325 to address theological disputes and establish doctrinal orthodoxy within the Christian Church. While many of Diocletian and Constantine's policies were aimed at promoting peace and prosperity, some of them were also counterproductive or had unintended consequences. For example, Diocletian's economic reforms, such as price controls and compulsory labor obligations, were criticized for being overly burdensome and authoritarian, leading to widespread discontent and economic stagnation in some regions. Additionally, Constantine's promotion of Christianity, while contributing to the eventual Christianization of the empire, also sparked religious conflicts and tensions between Christians and pagans, as well as within the Christian community itself. Overall, while Diocletian and Constantine's policies were aimed at addressing the challenges facing the late Roman Empire and promoting stability and prosperity, some of their reforms had unintended consequences or proved to be ineffective in the long run. Nevertheless, their leadership during a period of crisis and transition laid the foundation for the survival and adaptation of the Roman Empire in the centuries to come. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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