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Module 5—Sensation
1. Which is not a characteristic of all senses?
a. transduction
b. translucence
c. adaptation
d. perception
Answer: B
2. When the ear registers sound waves, the sound waves are transformed into electrical
signals that become neural impulses. This process is called:
a. perception
b. transduction
c. adaptation
d. sensation
Answer: B
3. Which word best describes transduction?
a. stabilizes
b. creates
c. transform
d. reduces
Answer: C
4. The eye changing light waves into impulses and the ear changing sound waves into
impulses are examples of:
a. transduction
b. translucence
c. adaptation
d. sensation
Answer: A
5. The process of ____ refers to the sense organ changing physical energy into electrical
signals that become neural impulses.
a. adaptation

b. perception
c. transduction
d. sensation
Answer: C
6. If a sense organ is continuously stimulated, the sense organ will decrease responding
through the process of:
a. transduction
b. perception
c. agnosia
d. adaptation
Answer: D
7. Alyssa can’t smell the dirty diapers on the baby, but everyone else can. Why?
a. Alyssa has experienced transduction.
b. Alyssa is dichromatic.
c. Alyssa has experienced adaptation.
d. Alyssa has damaged Pacinian corpuscles.
Answer: C
8. If you do not feel the chair you are now sitting in, it is because:
a. constant rubbing numbs nerve endings
b. when there is constant stimulation, our senses experience a decrease in responding
c. sitting tends to constrict blood flow and partially numbs our skin senses
d. the temperature on the surface of the skin goes up and makes us less sensitive
Answer: B
9. Denise is unaware of the feel of the chair she sits in while playing with her computer.
Denise’s lack of sensitivity is the result of:
a. hypersensitivity
b. changing stimuli
c. lack of stimulation
d. adaptation
Answer: D

10. Miranda and Joy are about to swim in a cold lake. Miranda jumps in and shortly
experiences adaptation to the cold water. What is she most likely to say?
a. “It’s nice once you get used to it.”
b. “I’m having an attack of vertigo.”
c. “I can see the water much more clearly now.”
d. “The water seems to have gotten colder.”
Answer: A
11. Adaptation is less likely to occur when the stimulus is:
a. constant
b. low intensity
c. mild
d. high intensity
Answer: D
12. Sensations occur:
a. when a stimulus activates a receptor causing an impulse that is processed by the brain
b. right after we experience illusions
c. after the sense organs engage in perception
d. once you react to the sensory input
Answer: A
13. Perception occurs:
a. after the rods and cones become activated
b. when a stimulus activates a receptor, causing an impulse that is processed by the brain
c. after meaningful combinations of sensory experiences are created
d. before transduction
Answer: C
14. Sensations are to perception as ____ is to ____.
a. combining; separating
b. adaptation; transduction
c. meaningless; meaningful
d. illusion; constancy
Answer: C

15. Each sense organ is designed to receive a kind of ____.
a. perception
b. chemical
c. visible spectrum
d. physical energy
Answer: D
16. What do radio waves, X-rays, TV waves, and light waves all have in common? They are
a. located at the shorter end of the electromagnetic energy spectrum
b. forms of electromagnetic energy
c. examples of ultra-violet waves
d. in the invisible spectrum
Answer: B
17. The reason that we can “see” a rainbow is because the light waves are:
a. at the shorter end of the electromagnetic energy spectrum
b. at the longer end of the electromagnetic energy spectrum
c. ultra-violet waves
d. in our visible spectrum
Answer: D
18. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that receptors in the eye are sensitive to is
referred to as the ____ spectrum.
a. visible
b. light
c. upper
d. lower
Answer: A
19. As an image of an object goes through the front structures of the eye, the object’s image:
a. is perceived by the individual
b. is converted into a longer electromagnetic wavelength
c. is turned upside down
d. is detected by the retina

Answer: C
20. In order for you to see, your eye must change ____ beams of light waves into ____ beams
of light waves.
a. narrow; broad
b. broad; narrow
c. invisible; visible
d. narrow; visible
Answer: B
21. The structure in the front of the eye that first helps focus light waves into a narrower
beam is the:
a. fovea
b. retina
c. cornea
d. iris
Answer: C
22. How does the lens of the eye focus light on to the retina?
a. The lens goes through a process called transduction.
b. The lens is attached to muscles that change the curve of the lens.
c. The lens is attached to ganglion cells that send competing nerve impulses to the brain.
d. The lens goes through a process of adaptation.
Answer: B
23. The ____ of the eye can adjust its shape and focus light on the back surface of the eye
called the ____.
a. cornea; lens
b. iris; fovea
c. lens; retina
d. pupil; ocular membrane
Answer: C
24. Deb has blue eyes; Erv’s eyes are brown. The difference in eye color is the result of
different pigments in the:
a. iris
b. pupil

c. cornea
d. lens
Answer: A
25. Vi shines a flashlight into Mike’s eye. The bright light will cause Mike’s iris to:
a. relax and pupil to enlarge
b. constrict and pupil to become smaller
c. relax and pupil to become smaller
d. constrict and pupil to enlarge
Answer: B
26. With far away objects, the surface of the lens becomes:
a. less transparent
b. more curved
c. less curved
d. more transparent
Answer: C
27. If the eyeball is too long, light from distant objects focuses at a point slightly in front of
the retina, resulting in:
a. farsightedness
b. nearsightedness
c. cataracts
d. night blindness
Answer: B
28. If you see distant objects clearly but close objects appear blurry, you are:
a. nearsighted
b. farsighted
c. normal
d. abnormal
Answer: B
29. If the eyeball is too short, light from distant objects focuses at a point slightly in back of
the retina, resulting in:
a. farsightedness

b. nearsightedness
c. cataracts
d. night blindness
Answer: A
30. Uncle Randy finds that he is having trouble reading the newspaper, even when he holds it
at arm’s length. In fact, he has trouble focusing on close objects. It is probable that light is
being focused:
a. slightly in front of the retina
b. beside the fovea
c. slightly behind the retina
d. slightly in front of the fovea
Answer: C
31. The path that the light takes as it enters your eye is:
a. cornea, pupil, lens, retina
b. pupil, lens, retina, sclera
c. lens, cornea, pupil, retina
d. fovea, lens, cornea, retina
Answer: A
32. The surgical technique called LASIK is used to treat:
a. Meniere’s disease
b. nearsighted vision
c. conduction deafness
d. neural deafness
Answer: B
33. Light-sensitive cells in the retina are called:
a. iris
b. cornea
c. lens
d. photoreceptors
Answer: D
34. The kinds of photoreceptors in the retina are:

a. ganglion cells and end bulbs
b. rods and cones
c. cochlea and cones
d. Meniere’s bodies and glial cells
Answer: B
35. How many layers of cells are found in the retina?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
Answer: C
36. Transduction in the visual system takes place in the:
a. cornea
b. lens
c. retina
d. iris
Answer: C
37. Rods are primarily located in the:
a. fovea
b. periphery of the retina
c. iris in farsighted individuals
d. optic nerve
Answer: B
38. A heavy concentration of cones can be found in:
a. the periphery of the retina
b. the optic nerve
c. the fovea
d. primary visual cortex
Answer: C
39. The point of exit for impulses on their way from the eye to the brain is called the:

a. fovea
b. blind spot
c. retina
d. optic chiasm
Answer: B
40. Most people are not aware of their blind spot because the area that is lost is filled in by
a. continuous back and forth movement of the eyes
b. association areas in the brain that give meaning to sensations
c. optic nerve
d. optic chiasm
Answer: A
41. The structures responsible for our ability to see color are the:
a. cones
b. rods
c. rhodopsins
d. foveas
Answer: A
42. Cones contain three different kinds of:
a. opsins
b. chromopsins
c. transopsins
d. rhodopsin
Answer: A
43. The ____ connect individually to neighboring cells. This allows us to see ____.
a. cones; in dim light
b. rods; in fine detail
c. cones; in fine detail
d. rods; in color
Answer: C

44. Which of the following structures allows you to read these words and see other stimuli in
fine detail?
a. rods
b. cones
c. ganglion cells
d. cochlea
Answer: B
45. Rods contain a single type of:
a. opsin
b. chromopsin
c. transopsin
d. rhodopsin
Answer: D
46. Rods are used to see:
a. blacks, whites, and shades of gray
b. shades of color and fine detail
c. fine detail and primary colors
d. colors and general outlines
Answer: A
47. Your astronomy professor must have taken a psychology class. He says to best look at a
dim star, don’t look directly at it, but to the side. Why is this good advice?
a. Rods are located in the fovea of the retina and respond best in dim light, whereas cones
best respond to bright light and are located in the periphery.
b. Your cornea has special cells that function when looking at dim light from the side.
c. Rods are located in the periphery of the retina and respond best in dim light, whereas cones
best respond to bright light and are located in the fovea.
d. Cones are located in the periphery of the retina and respond best in dim light, whereas rods
best respond to bright light and are located in the fovea.
Answer: C
48. When you look at objects in dim light, the objects lack color and clarity because:
a. cones are unable to see colors
b. of the process of light adaptation

c. the optic nerve does not register wavelengths of light when it is dark
d. rods do not distinguish colors or fine details
Answer: D
49. Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.
a. the fovea; the lens
b. small amounts of light; bright light
c. opsin; rhodopsin
d. light adaptation; dark adaptation
Answer: B
50. If you look at a dim light, which of the following will show strong activation?
a. the fovea
b. cones
c. opsin
d. rods
Answer: D
51. Information is transmitted from the eye to the brain through the:
a. fovea
b. cornea
c. optic nerve
d. retina
Answer: C
52. Which brain structure performs the initial processing of visual stimuli?
a. thalamus
b. cornea
c. fovea
d. visual association areas
Answer: A
53. The primary visual cortex:
a. creates perceptions out of visual sensations
b. transforms nerve impulses into simple sensations

c. focuses light waves on the retina
d. transforms sensory information into a nerve impulse
Answer: B
54. The ____ sends simple visual sensations to the ____, which add(s) meaning to the
a. retina; lens
b. primary visual cortex; association areas
c. optic nerve; optic chiasm
d. rods; cones
Answer: B
55. Hubel and Wiesel have shown that cells located in the brain’s primary visual cortex
respond to ____ stimuli.
a. very general
b. intense
c. very specific
d. weak
Answer: C
56. Sidney is shown a picture of a dog. He reports being able to see the picture but cannot
identify it as a dog. Sidney has likely suffered damage to which part of his brain?
a. hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c. optic lobe
d. visual association areas
Answer: D
57. Janice comments on the texture of the brush strokes in a painting. She does not notice the
complexity of the visual image. Janice is probably relying on information provided by her:
a. thalamus
b. cones
c. visual association areas
d. primary visual cortex
Answer: D

58. After a traffic accident, a patient was diagnosed as having damage to parts of the primary
visual cortex of the brain. Such damage will:
a. usually affect one eye
b. always result in total blindness
c. result in an inability to recognize objects
d. result in the loss of sight in spots of the patient’s visual field
Answer: D
59. What is the function of association areas?
a. Association areas allow us to see color.
b. Association areas respond to certain kinds of visual stimuli.
c. Association areas add meaning to the sensation.
d. Association areas help to focus light waves on the retina.
Answer: C
60. A car accident completely destroys Ann’s primary visual cortex. The most likely effect of
the accident is that Ann will:
a. experience double vision
b. be almost totally blind
c. lose color but not black-and-white vision
d. be able to see close objects but not distant ones
Answer: B
61. As you walk on campus, you suddenly recognize an old friend who is heading towards
you. What point in the visual pathway is responsible for the creation of this meaningful image
of an old friend?
a. rhodopsin
b. visual association areas
c. primary visual cortex
d. cornea
Answer: B
62. A difficulty in assembling simple visual sensations into more complex, meaningful
images is called:
a. sensory deficit
b. perceptual aphasia

c. visual agnosia
d. night blindness
Answer: C
63. White light contains:
a. all the light waves in the visible spectrum
b. long wavelength light
c. all light waves except those of the wavelength corresponding to blue
d. the primary color
Answer: A
64. What effect does a prism have on light?
a. It creates white light.
b. It separates light into white light of three wavelengths.
c. It creates the colors of orange, red, yellow, and blue.
d. It separates light into waves that vary in length.
Answer: D
65. The trichromatic theory explains how:
a. we experience an afterimage
b. the brain changes light waves into color
c. cones in the retina change light waves into colors
d. rods in the retina change light waves into colors
Answer: C
66. A chemist named Thomas Young believed that the cones are most responsive to blue,
green, and red light. This theory is called the:
a. opponent-process theory
b. trichromatic theory
c. theory of reasoned colors
d. adaptation theory
Answer: B
67. According to the trichromatic theory, the primary colors are:
a. yellow, blue, white
b. blue, green, red

c. orange, green, gray
d. brown, black, white
Answer: B
68. The ____ theory identifies three different types of cones in the retina.
a. trichromatic
b. trineural
c. trioptic
d. triconical
Answer: A
69. Each of the three opsins in the cones is most sensitive to one of the three:
a. types of agnosia
b. different categories of ganglion cells located at the front layer of the retina
c. wavelengths of light that make up the three primary colors
d. association areas
Answer: C
70. How we individually experience “red” depends on:
a. how many color genes a person has
b. how many rods a person has
c. the gender of the individual
d. the age of the individual
Answer: A
71. A wrestler gets poked in the eye. His color vision will be most affected if the poke
damages the:
a. lens
b. rods
c. cones
d. cornea
Answer: C
72. Whereas the trichromatic theory focuses on the functions of the cones, the opponentprocess theory explains color vision by studying the:
a. rods

b. opsins
c. ganglion cells and thalamus
d. optic nerve and retina
Answer: C
73. A ganglion cell responds to the color blue when excited, and to the color yellow when
inhibited. This idea is characteristic of the:
a. opponent-process theory
b. trichromatic theory
c. theory of reasoned colors
d. adaptation theory
Answer: A
74. Ed has trouble driving because he cannot tell the difference between green and red lights.
Ed has:
a. night blindness
b. agnosia
c. color blindness
d. opponent process disorder
Answer: C
75. Monochromats are people who:
a. have only cones
b. see only in black and white
c. see bright colors better than dark colors
d. see only primary colors
Answer: B
76. A psychology professor is describing the experience of color blindness. She says, “It’s
like living in a black and white movie.” What type of color blindness is she describing?
a. primary color blindness
b. unichromatic color blindness
c. trichromatic color blindness
d. monochromatic color blindness
Answer: D

77. An individual who has only one kind of functioning cone will have:
a. night blindness
b. dichromatic color blindness
c. total color blindness
d. problems with light adaptation
Answer: C
78. In first grade, Thomas is found to be a monochromat. Thomas was born without:
a. attached retinas
b. functioning cones
c. complete cell development in one of the hemispheres of the occipital lobe
d. sight in one eye
Answer: B
79. The most common problem for a dichromat is:
a. an inability to focus both eyes on a near object at the same time
b. seeing printed stimuli as though they were inside out and backwards
c. an inability to recognize objects presented visually
d. an inability to distinguish between red and green
Answer: D
80. The range of hearing for college students is:
a. 30 to 18,000 cycles per seconds
b. 400 to 700 nanometers
c. 400 to 800 cycles per seconds
d. 30 to 18,000 nanometers
Answer: A
81. Which of the following pitches should a ringtone be if the cell phone owner does not want
adults over 70 years of age to be likely to hear it?
a. 8,000 cycles per second
b. 8,000 nanometers
c. 17,000 cycles per second
d. 800 nanometers
Answer: C

82. Subjective experience on the loudness of sound is determined by the:
a. amplitude of the sound wave
b. frequency of the sound wave
c. shape of the sound wave
d. duration of the sound wave
Answer: A
83. As the decibels of a sound increase, the:
a. frequency decreases
b. frequency increases
c. amplitude decreases
d. amplitude increases
Answer: D
84. Which of the following statements regarding sound waves is incorrect?
a. high amplitude is perceived by the brain as loud
b. low amplitude is perceived by the brain as soft
c. the subjective experience of a high or low note is determined by frequency
d. fast frequency is perceived as a high note
Answer: C
85. Sound waves that have a lower frequency are perceived to be:
a. a high note
b. a low note
c. loud in volume
d. soft in volume
Answer: B
86. The height of a sound wave is called ____ and the speed of the sound wave is called
a. frequency; decibel
b. volume; frequency
c. altitude; amplitude
d. amplitude; frequency
Answer: D

87. Pitch is determined by:
a. the amplitude of the sound wave
b. the number of molecules of air affected by the sound-producing object
c. the frequency of the sound wave
d. the time it takes for a sound to reach the ear
Answer: C
88. “That is awful!” says Franco as he listens to a duet singing a song at a concert. “Neither
singer seems to be able to sing in tune!” Which of the characteristics of sound is most likely
the cause of the awful singing?
a. loudness
b. decibel
c. amplitude
d. pitch
Answer: D
89. At the opera, we can distinguish between the low sound of the male bass and the high
sound of the female soprano because the voices differ in:
a. pitch
b. loudness
c. amplitude
d. decibels
Answer: A
90. As Diana runs her fingers up the keyboard, the pitch gets higher and higher. As the pitch
increases, the:
a. frequency gets faster
b. decibels get smaller
c. amplitude gets slower
d. cycles per second decreases
Answer: A
91. Amplitude is to loudness as ____ is to ____.
a. pitch; frequency
b. frequency; pitch
c. decibel; whisper

d. yell; decibel
Answer: B
92. Jake is a drummer in a rock-and-roll band and plays 45 rock concerts a year. He is likely
to be exposed to sounds reaching as high as:
a. 50 decibels
b. 70 decibels
c. 90 decibels
d. 120 decibels
Answer: D
93. Too much amplitude in a stimulus can cause:
a. visual agnosia
b. vertigo
c. deafness
d. blindness
Answer: C
94. The artist Vincent van Gogh cut off his ear toward the end of his life. A psychologist
would note more precisely that van Gogh cut off his:
a. stirrup
b. pinna
c. cochlea
d. eardrum
Answer: B
95. Conrad is always sticking a pencil into his ear to dig out wax. His mother has repeatedly
told him, “Get that pencil out of your ear.” To be more precise Conrad’s mother should say
“Get that pencil out of your:
a. middle ear”
b. inner ear”
c. auditory canal”
d. tympanic membrane”
Answer: C
96. The thin membrane that moves in and out in response to sound wave patterns and passes
the vibrations to the middle ear is the:

a. tympanic membrane
b. auditory nerve
c. cochlear membrane
d. basilar membrane
Answer: A
97. The vibrations of the eardrum that are caused by sound waves are amplified in the:
a. outer ear
b. inner ear
c. middle ear
d. ear canal
Answer: C
98. The primary function of the ossicles is to:
a. transform sound waves into impulses
b. gather sound waves and send them into the middle ear
c. pass sound waves from the outer ear to the oval window
d. assemble sensations into perceptions
Answer: C
99. Vibrations of the eardrum set in motion three small bones in the middle ear. These are:
a. cochlea, basilar membrane, oval window
b. hammer, anvil, stirrup
c. stirrup, oval window, canal
d. anvil, cochlea, hammer
Answer: B
100. Which of the following sayings best describes the relationship between the hammer,
anvil, and stirrup?
a. Passing the buck.
b. A stitch in time saves nine.
c. Out of sight, out of mind.
d. A penny saved is a penny earned.
Answer: A
101. In what order do sound waves pass through the auditory system?

a. external ear, stirrup, auditory canal, tympanic membrane, hammer, anvil, and cochlea
b. external ear, auditory canal, hammer, tympanic membrane, anvil, stirrup, and cochlea
c. external ear, auditory canal, tympanic membrane, hammer, anvil, stirrup, and cochlea
d. external ear, auditory canal, anvil, stirrup, cochlea, tympanic membrane, and hammer
Answer: C
102. Vibrations in the oval window cause fluid to move back and forth in the:
a. middle ear
b. cochlea
c. auditory nerve
d. auditory receptors
Answer: B
103. Neural impulses in the ear begin with:
a. a liquid chemical stimulating nerve endings
b. the bending of tiny hair cells
c. sound waves stimulating nerve endings
d. the vibration of the basilar membrane stimulating nerve endings
Answer: B
104. A nerve impulse will be generated in the cochlea when:
a. movements of the basilar membrane stimulate the hair cells
b. sound waves vibrate the ossicles
c. the sound is recognized by the primary auditory cortex
d. vibrations travel through the auditory canal
Answer: A
105. The auditory receptors are called:
a. hair cells
b. rods
c. ossicles
d. cones
Answer: A
106. Jeremy is deaf because his hair cells have been damaged. The reason Jeremy cannot hear
is because the:

a. sound waves cannot be transformed into nerve impulses
b. sound waves cannot cause the oval window to vibrate
c. tympanic membrane does not receive information from the basilar membrane
d. cochlea has no fluid to generate sound vibrations
Answer: A
107. Nerve impulses are transmitted from the cochlea to the brain via the:
a. oval window
b. basilar membrane
c. auditory nerve
d. stirrup
Answer: C
108. Auditory association areas in the brain:
a. send impulses to the middle ear which vibrate the ossicles
b. transform meaningless sounds into meaningful perceptions
c. trigger nerve impulses that activate the hair cells
d. convert nerve impulses into sensations of sound
Answer: B
109. Nerve impulses from the inner ear are converted into sensations of meaningless sounds
in the:
a. association areas
b. cochlea
c. primary auditory cortex
d. tympanic membrane
Answer: C
110. Jackie’s auditory association area is damaged, but other structures are healthy. What will
be her auditory experience?
a. She can recognize songs, but not spoken words.
b. She can hear basic auditory sounds.
c. Total deafness.
d. She can recognize individual words, but not complete sentences.
Answer: B

111. The ____ transforms auditory sensations into meaningful perception.
a. auditory association area
b. primary auditory cortex
c. vestibular system
d. basilar membrane
Answer: A
112. A golfer yells “fore” after hitting a golf ball in the direction of Morris. Morris turns in
the direction of the yell and is able to avoid the ball. Morris was able to determine the
direction of the yell because of:
a. movements of hair cells within the basilar membrane
b. movements of fluid within the cochlea
c. the sound of the yell hitting both ears at the same time
d. the sound of the yell hitting one ear before the other
Answer: D
113. Which of the following best describes how the brain judges the direction of sounds?
a. by calculating the amount of bend in hair cells
b. by calculating the difference in time it takes sound to reach both ears
c. by calculating the speed of fluid movement in the cochlea
d. by calculating the speed that it takes sound to reach the auditory association areas
Answer: B
114. The frequency theory and place theory are explanations of how the auditory system
a. amplitude
b. direction
c. loudness
d. pitch
Answer: D
115. According to the frequency theory, the auditory system converts the frequency of sound
waves into the subjective experience of:
a. loudness
b. amplitude
c. pitch

d. volley
Answer: C
116. According to the place theory, the auditory system converts the frequency of sound
waves into the subjective experience of ____ based upon the place along the basilar
membrane where there is maximum vibration.
a. loudness
b. amplitude
c. pitch
d. volley
Answer: C
117. The theory that assumes that different frequencies of sound waves stimulate different
areas along the basilar membrane is called:
a. volley theory
b. place theory
c. frequency theory
d. opponent-process theory
Answer: B
118. The ear senses loudness by:
a. how slow or fast nerve impulses are transmitted from the auditory nerve to the brain
b. the location of the most intense stimulation in the cochlea fluid
c. the electrical strength of the neural impulse sent to the brain
d. the number of vibrations reaching the cochlea
Answer: A
119. The brain transforms the rate of impulses into:
a. perceptions of which direction the sound came from
b. sensations of loudness
c. the pitch of the noise that was perceived
d. sound waves of differing pitch
Answer: B
120. Toan’s voice causes a slow rate of nerve impulses in your auditory system, while
Hector’s voice causes a fast rate. Toan is ____ and Hector is ____.
a. yelling; whispering

b. screaming; yelling
c. whispering; yelling
d. yelling; whispering
Answer: C
121. The vestibular sense provides our awareness of:
a. position and balance
b. smell
c. taste
d. taste and flavor
Answer: A
122. What structures in the inner ear help us to maintain balance?
a. tympanic membranes
b. semicircular canals
c. ossicles
d. meniere’s rings
Answer: B
123. The vestibular system helps us to keep balance by providing information:
a. on the position of the head
b. to the cerebellum
c. about the position of the body
d. regarding the outside environment
Answer: A
124. Motion sickness may result from:
a. the brain’s inability to function properly when jostled
b. visual confusion caused by distant objects appearing blurry
c. contradictory information from the vestibular and visual systems
d. the continuous movement of the olfactory cells
Answer: C
125. While Sarah and Renee are watching a movie on a large screen of an airplane flying
through the Grand Canyon, both of them feel motion sickness. Why?
a. Expectation of feeling sick from the reports of their friends.

b. Information from the visual system contradicts information from the vestibular system.
c. They have flying phobia.
d. Motion sickness is most common among thrill-seekers like Sarah and Renee.
Answer: B
126. Your vestibular system says that your head is bouncing around; your eyes say that the
physical world is steady and not bouncing around. The result of this inconsistency is:
a. Meniere’s disease
b. Muller-Lyer illusion
c. subliminal motion
d. motion sickness
Answer: D
127. Which of the following is the most important with regard to your kinesthetic sense?
a. Pacinian corpuscles
b. gravity
c. endorphins
d. amacrine cells
Answer: B
128. Your _____ system is responsible for informing you about your body’s positions and
motions relative to gravity.
a. vestibular
b. corpuscular
c. kinesthetic
d. cerebellar
Answer: C
129. Taste and smell are classified as chemical senses because they:
a. respond to chemicals in the sensory neurotransmitters
b. send chemical impulses to the somatosensory cortex
c. detect chemical changes in the Pacinian corpuscle
d. react to chemical stimuli
Answer: D
130. To how many basic tastes can people respond?

a. three
b. five
c. seven
d. nine
Answer: B
131. Linda claims to be a very good judge of wine because she has sensitive taste buds. For
which of the following does Linda not have receptors?
a. sweetness
b. sourness
c. acidity
d. bitterness
Answer: C
132. From an evolutionary view, _______ would be better able to identify and avoid
poisonous foods.
a. females
b. monochromats
c. supertasters
d. children
Answer: C
133. What is the meaty-cheese taste called?
a. umami
b. Pacinian
c. Meniere
d. mukluk
Answer: A
134. The receptors for taste are called:
a. Pacinian buds
b. capsaicin buds
c. flavor buds
d. taste buds
Answer: D

135. Louie breaks Jim’s nose during a basketball game. In addition to smell, which of Jim’s
senses will be most affected by the injury?
a. cold
b. pressure
c. taste
d. touch
Answer: C
136. Humans have an innate desire to avoid ____ tastes, and it is believed that this avoidance
is advantageous to survival.
a. salty
b. sweet
c. umami
d. bitter
Answer: D
137. A supertaster is someone:
a. who has at least twice as many more taste buds than normal
b. who has 10 times more flavor buds than normal
c. whose sense of flavor is exceptionally sensitive
d. whose saliva glands are two times larger than normal
Answer: A
138. Flavors are detected by:
a. combining our senses of taste and smell
b. mixing two or more of the same basic tastes
c. the taste buds translating the taste of the chemicals
d. an innate ability to identify tastes
Answer: A
139. Which of the following would make a cola taste test more difficult?
a. removing the carbonation
b. asking the tester to hold his nose
c. asking the tester to eat a cracker between tastes
d. asking the tester to look at the cola before tasting it

Answer: B
140. If we could state one’s sense of flavor in a mathematical formula, what would it look
a. taste + smell = flavor
b. taste = flavor
c. taste + spicy = flavor
d. bitter + sour + salty + sweet = flavor
Answer: A
141. Little Austen hates the taste of cough syrup. When he has to take his medicine, he would
be happier if he:
a. did not look at the medicine
b. plugged his nose
c. smelled the medicine before drinking it
d. tasted the medicine a little before gulping it down
Answer: B
142. Whenever you smell a particular perfume, you think of your grandmother Grace. You
know that it involves memory, but how?
a. Smell triggers memories.
b. Smell is connected to the thalamus where memories are stored.
c. Smell is connected to the limbic system where emotions and memories are processed.
d. Smell is connected to the corpus callosum where memories are stored.
Answer: C
143. What is the best explanation for why advertisers use attractive scents to encourage us to
make purchases?
a. Smell is processed by the same brain area that is used in attention.
b. Our senses are organized in such a way that our smell directs where and when we look at
c. Smell can prevent episodes of vertigo, allowing consumers to make purchases.
d. Smell is more connected to our limbic system than other senses.
Answer: D
144. Olfactory cells are stimulated by:
a. the taste buds’ response to a chemical stimulus

b. molecules dissolving in the mucus covering the cells
c. the sniffing action of the outer nasal passages
d. the primary olfactory cortex
Answer: B
145. If you were to trace the path of neural impulses in olfaction, which of the following
paths would be correct?
a. olfactory cells and primary olfactory cortex
b. olfactory cells, thalamus, and primary olfactory cortex
c. olfactory cells, olfactory bulb, and primary olfactory cortex
d. hair cells, olfactory bulb, thalamus, and primary olfactory cortex
Answer: C
146. The receptors for smell are called:
a. olfactory cells
b. Pacinian corpuscles
c. ossicles
d. taste buds
Answer: A
147. Which of the following best explains why we soon stop smelling our own deodorant,
cologne, or perfume?
a. consolidation
b. olfaction
c. transduction
d. adaptation
Answer: D
148. You enter a classroom full of people only to smell someone’s very strong perfume. At
the end of class, you notice that you don’t smell the perfume. This best illustrates:
a. consolidation
b. adaptation
c. transduction
d. olfaction
Answer: B

149. Where are hair receptors in the skin?
a. wrapped around the cones
b. in the somatosensory cortex
c. wrapped around Pacinian corpuscles
d. wrapped around the base of each hair follicle
Answer: D
150. Our sense of touch comes from:
a. a half-dozen miniature sensors located in the skin
b. millions of tiny nerves on the surface of the skin
c. special glands for pressure, temperature, and pain
d. stimulation of the tiny hairs that cover the body
Answer: A
151. Which of the following, located in the fat layer of the skin, allows us to respond to
a. the free nerve endings
b. the hair receptors
c. the Pacinian corpuscles
d. the ossicles
Answer: C
152. Free nerve endings:
a. can transmit information about temperature and pain
b. respond when hairs on the skin are bent or pulled up
c. are the only receptors to respond to vibration
d. have a protective structure surrounding them
Answer: A
153. Consider this: A free nerve ending, rod, and a Pacinian corpuscle walk into a bar and
each orders a cold beer. Which one is most likely to tell the bartender that the beer is warm?
a. rod
b. Pacinian corpuscle
c. free nerve ending
d. rod and Pacinian corpuscle

Answer: C
154. The outermost layer of skin:
a. has no sensory receptors
b. contains free nerve endings
c. is composed entirely of hair receptors
d. is called the outerderm
Answer: A
155. You are capable of shrinking to a small enough size to fit into nerves and be able to
follow the transmission of nerve impulses. You would find that nerve impulses from the skin
would travel to the:
a. lateral geniculate lobe
b. somatosensory cortex
c. occipital lobe
d. frontal lobe
Answer: B
156. Which sense can be suppressed by psychological factors?
a. vibration
b. pain
c. color vision
d. pressure
Answer: B
157. According to the theory of evolution, the primary purpose of the expression “disgust” is
a. communicate disapproval of the behaviors of others
b. show rejection of young children’s behaviors
c. indicate rejection of contaminated or dangerous foods
d. indicate rejection of offensive odors
Answer: C
158. You attend a presentation on campus on emotional expressions. The speaker claims that
disgust is typical of expressions in that it depends on the culture. What is your educated
reaction to this claim?
a. You disagree since disgust is only found in Western cultures.

b. You disagree. Disgust is a basic emotion and is expressed the same around the world.
c. You agree, but add that how it is expressed depends on the age of the individual.
d. You agree. The facial expression of disgust depends on the culture.
Answer: B
159. The fact that most of us would find fish eyes, blood, and grubs repulsive to eat suggests
a. third world cultures have very unhealthy diets
b. our agricultural system is the best in the world
c. our culture is far superior to any other in the world
d. most of our tastes are shaped by our culture
Answer: D
160. A(n) ____ is an intervention that has no real medical effects; ____ is a change in the
person’s condition due to the bogus intervention.
a. placebo; placebo effect
b. pseudomed; attribution
c. endorphin; placebo effect
d. double-blind; placebo
Answer: A
161. To test for placebo effects, researchers use a design called:
a. double-blind procedure
b. single-blind procedure
c. random sampling
d. counterbalancing
Answer: A
162. Given the research described in the textbook, what percentage of doctors has actually
prescribed placebos to patients?
a. 2-10%
b. 15-25%
c. 45-85%
d. 75-95%
Answer: C

163. One of the strongest placebo effects involves:
a. reducing body temperature
b. relieving pain
c. relieving stomach cramps
d. reducing depression
Answer: B
164. Researchers studying the relationship between placebo effects and the cost of medicine
a. the placebo effects depend on both the cost and the patient’s perception of the doctor’s
b. no relationship was found
c. the pricier the pill, the stronger the placebo effects
d. the pricier the pill, the weaker the placebo effects
Answer: C
165. Dr. Smalley is conducting research on a new high blood pressure drug. He assigns
patients to three groups: one group gets the new drug, one receives a placebo; and the third
group gets a drug that is the standard drug to treat high blood pressure. But Dr. Smalley and
his patients do not know who is receiving what treatment. This is an example of a:
a. randomized Latin squares design
b. repeated measures design
c. double-blind design
d. stratified sample design
Answer: C
166. The fact that fake surgeries and inert medications can cause placebo effects points to the
idea that:
a. mental factors such as beliefs and expectations can influence pain perception
b. the medical community has the ingenuity to save money on health care
c. pain is just a physical experience
d. a person’s doctor must be watched very closely
Answer: A
167. Psychologists are particularly interested in the placebo effect because it suggests a:
a. mind-over-body interaction

b. way to reduce medical costs
c. body-over-mind interaction
d. way to take patients from psychiatrists
Answer: A
168. The sense of pain differs from the other senses in that:
a. pain is a mechanical sense, and the other senses are all chemical senses
b. impulses from the skin receptors do not communicate with the brain
c. the other senses depend on intensity of the stimulus and psychological factors
d. pain can be triggered by many different stimuli
Answer: D
169. Where does the perception of pain take place?
a. free nerve endings
b. somatosensory and limbic areas of the brain
c. neural gates
d. pain receptors
Answer: B
170. What effect do social, psychological, and emotional factors have on pain?
a. All three factors can cause pain, but not increase or decrease it.
b. Just social and emotional factors cause pain.
c. All may cause, increase, or decrease pain.
d. Only emotional factors can increase pain.
Answer: C
171. When looking at the brains of people who were given a placebo, researchers found
a. the same brain areas activated as real painkillers
b. an overall increase in brain activity
c. an overall decrease in brain activity
d. the same brain areas activated as in dreaming
Answer: A
172. You’ve stubbed your big toe. You start rubbing it to reduce the pain. What would the
gate control theory of pain say about your action?
a. It should not be helpful since the gate control theory of pain is not valid.

b. Your action will not help since pain gates are closed through the release of endorphins.
c. Your action should help to reduce pain since it prevents the release of endorphins.
d. It should be helpful since nonpainful nerve messages from rubbing your toe will close the
pain gate.
Answer: D
173. According to the gate control theory:
a. rubbing a painful area triggers nonpainful impulses, which compete with painful impulses
b. the spinal cord allows only painful impulses to pass through and reach the brain
c. pain is reduced by distracting yourself from thinking about the pain
d. neural gates close when a person’s emotional state calms down
Answer: A
174. One study found that if subjects thought a shock given to them was intentional versus
accidental, they rate the shock as:
a. less painful
b. more painful
c. less manageable
d. more manageable
Answer: B
175. Of the following, which has been shown to reduce the experience of pain?
a. focusing on an unpleasant image
b. decreased emotion
c. increased attention
d. decreased physical movement
Answer: C
176. Four of your friends were hurt in a skiing accident and each is at home recovering from
their painful injuries. Based on the gate control theory of pain, who is most likely to have the
most pain?
a. Guy reads mystery novels.
b. Travis likes to write in his journal and letters to relatives.
c. Cyndy watches movies on cable.
d. Lacey sits around the house and complains about the pain.
Answer: D

177. During Game 6 of the 1988 NBA playoff finals, Isaiah Thomas played a great game
despite a severely sprained ankle. Thomas’s amazing ability to play despite the injury is due
a. endorphins being released by the brain
b. small-diameter sensory nerves being activated
c. high pain tolerance in professional athletes
d. superior physical conditioning
Answer: A
178. Chemicals produced in the brain that have many of the same properties as morphine are
a. opsins
b. endocrines
c. endorphins
d. estrogens
Answer: C
179. The brain produces endorphins during:
a. REM sleep
b. periods of severe stress
c. periods of physical pleasure
d. NREM sleep
Answer: B
180. According to a study described in Module Five, patients with jaw pain who received a
placebo injection:
a. experienced an increase in REI sleep
b. showed increased levels of endorphins
c. showed decreased levels of endorphins
d. reported less dread
Answer: B
181. The effects of endorphins are similar to the effects of:
a. dopamine
b. caffeine
c. nicotine

d. morphine
Answer: D
182. Dr. McCurnin says that the brain has its own factory that makes pain killers. Dr.
McCurnin is:
a. describing a theory
b. making a reference to neurotransmitters
c. referring to endorphins
d. wrong
Answer: C
183. A worker in a lumber mill suffers a serious injury when he gets his arm caught in the
machinery. Though the experience is painful, it is less painful than it might be because:
a. the worker is probably too delirious to experience much pain
b. the pain sensors are probably damaged in such an injury
c. trauma blocks the production of sodium ions and so transmission of pain impulses is
d. the brain produces endorphins, which stop receptors from signaling pain
Answer: D
184. Those subjects who experienced intense dread in the study described in Module Five
showed increased activity in:
a. the brain areas associated with memory
b. the thalamus
c. the brain areas associated with pain
d. the parietal lobe
Answer: C
185. Based on the study on dread in Module Five, what would people dread most about
getting a root canal?
a. waiting for it
b. the pain associated with the procedure
c. the pain associated with the recovery and healing
d. the possibility that the dentist will find other problems
Answer: A

186. Holly hurts her shoulder playing tennis. A therapist inserts needles in several points on
her body and stimulates them. The therapist is treating Holly’s shoulder using:
a. biofeedback
b. acupuncture
c. cognitive programming
d. behavioral programming
Answer: B
187. Scientists have studied how acupuncture is effective in reducing pain. One idea
presented in your textbook suggests that:
a. the needles interfere with the sodium pumps in the neuron
b. it alters the magnetic wave energy surrounding your body
c. endorphins are secreted from stimulating points along the pain pathway
d. the brain is stimulated to produce aspirin
Answer: C
188. It appears that acupuncture is not effective in treating:
a. headaches
b. back pain
c. nausea
d. knee pain
Answer: A
189. In a study where subjects thought they were getting acupuncture in their right arm, but
only received a fake acupuncture treatment, they:
a. reported more pain in their arm
b. figured out that the treatment was not real
c. reported less pain in their arm
d. reported less feeling in their arm
Answer: C
190. What seems to be the best explanation for the reported effects of acupuncture?
a. the competence of the doctor
b. the time of day the acupuncture is given
c. belief in its effectiveness

d. the age of the patient
Answer: C
191. A microchip implanted into the retina could:
a. restore full vision
b. help farsighted individuals
c. change light waves into electrical signals
d. help dichromats see more colors
Answer: C
192. Stan, who is blind because of damage to the optic nerves, is participating in a research
study on artificial senses. He is eligible for an experimental device to help him see, at least
partially. Which of the following is best suited for Stan?
a. cochlear implant
b. upon further review, Stan cannot be helped
c. artificial eye and retina
d. implanting tiny wires from a camera into his visual cortex
Answer: D
193. Conduction deafness differs from neural deafness in that:
a. conduction deafness cannot be treated
b. neural deafness can be treated when cells regenerate
c. conduction deafness can be helped with an external hearing aid
d. neural deafness can be helped with an external hearing aid
Answer: C
194. Mary’s grandfather suffers from hearing loss. The doctor recommends a hearing aid.
Grandfather’s condition is most likely:
a. neural deafness
b. auditory fatigue
c. conduction deafness
d. cochlea fatigue
Answer: C
195. Conduction deafness involves conditions that:
a. interfere with transmitting vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea

b. are not improved by the use of a hearing aid
c. involve damage to the auditory receptor cells along the basilar membrane
d. are caused by damage to association areas
Answer: A
196. Neural deafness is caused by:
a. the presence of carbamide in the auditory canal
b. injury to the tympanic membrane
c. malfunction of the ossicles
d. damage to the hair cells
Answer: D
197. A firecracker explodes near Timmy’s ear. Most of his hearing is lost. A doctor’s
examination shows damage to his auditory nerve. Timmy is suffering from:
a. auditory fatigue
b. neural deafness
c. cochlea implant
d. conduction deafness
Answer: B
198. A doctor suggests that a patient may benefit from an electronic ear implant. The person
probably has:
a. conductive deafness
b. middle ear damage
c. damage to associative areas of the brain
d. neural deafness
Answer: D
199. Cochlear implants involve small electronic devices that take the place of the:
a. ear drum
b. basilar membrane
c. hair cells
d. anvil, hammer, and stirrup
Answer: C

200. Three-year old John has just received a cochlear implant. Based on material presented in
your textbook, he will need:
a. a replacement in two years
b. a replacement in five years
c. intensive motor skill rehabilitation
d. intensive speech rehabilitation
Answer: D
201. People with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis (CIPA) do not experience
pain. In addition, these individuals:
a. cannot regulate their body temperature
b. are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease
c. do not produce endorphins
d. suffer from Meniere’s disease
Answer: A
202. Which stimulation could Ashley, the young girl with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
with Anhidrosis (CIPA), actually experience?
a. taking a warm bath
b. getting a hug from her parents
c. stubbing her big toe
d. getting stung by a bee
Answer: B
203. The case of Ashley Blocker illustrates:
a. the potential for computers giving sight to the blind
b. how Meniere’s disease affects the quality of life
c. the important function that pain plays in protecting us
d. the role that endorphins play in pain management
Answer: C
1. Because of transduction, there is decreased responding in the sense organ when exposed to
continuous levels of stimulation.
Answer: False

2. Sensations refer to the organization and interpretation of meaningful perceptual
Answer: False
3. The process that refers to changing physical energy into electrical signals is called agnosia.
Answer: False
4. Objects that you see are turned upside down on the retina.
Answer: True
5. The pupil of the eye is really a circular muscle.
Answer: False
6. Farsightedness is due to the eyeball being too short.
Answer: True
7. The photoreceptors in your eye are called rods and cones.
Answer: True
8. Cones are extremely light sensitive.
Answer: F
9. The visual association areas respond to specific kinds of visual stimuli such as lines and
Answer: False
10. The trichromatic theory of color vision asserts that there are three kinds of cones in the
Answer: True
11. The opponent-process theory says that color vision is the result of brain cells responding
to two pairs of color.
Answer: True
12. The cochlea of the ear contains the receptors for hearing.
Answer: True
13. The rods and cones of the cochlea are stimulated by fluid resulting in nerve messages.
Answer: False
14. High pitch sounds are created by high frequency waves.
Answer: True
15. The semicircular canals provide the brain with information about the pitch of sound.
Answer: False

16. Flavor is the result of taste and smell.
Answer: True
17. Disgust as a facial expression is displayed differently throughout the world.
Answer: False
18. Because of transduction, we stop smelling scents that we are exposed to repeatedly.
Answer: False
19. Endorphins are produced in situations that involve fear, stress, or injury.
Answer: True
20. The price of medicine does not affect its effectiveness.
Answer: False
21. Conduction deafness is due to damage to the auditory nerve.
Answer: False
22. Neural deafness can be treated with cochlear implants.
Answer: True
23. Individuals with CIPA have difficulty regulating body temperature.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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