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Chapter 4 Rome: From Republic to Empire MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Where did the Etruscans originally come from? A. Rome B. Etruria, north of Rome C. Sicily, south of Rome D. Cannae, east of Rome Answer: B 2. Gauls, Celtic people from modern ____________, drove the Etruscans out of the Po Valley. A. Galway B. Ireland C. France D. Turkey Answer: C 3. Romans entrusted their leaders with the power to issue commands and enforce those commands, if necessary. This power was called ____________. A. posse comitatus B. coloni C. humanitas D. imperium Answer: D 4. ____________ were the upper class in early Rome; ____________ were the lower class. A. Patrons, patronage B. Senators, equestrians C. Patricians, plebeians D. Plebeians, patricians Answer: C 5. To extend a consul’s term in office, the Roman republic instituted the ____________ in 325 B.C.E. A. consulship B. office of praetor C. proconsulship D. monarchy Answer: C 6. In an effort to organize their power and protect themselves from the patrician magistrates, plebeians created the office of the ____________. A. censor B. centurion C. praetor D. tribune Answer: D 7. The power of the consuls in Rome was checked by the ____________. A. Assembly B. Gracchi C. tribunes D. Senate Answer: D 8. Roman kings had to be approved by the Senate and ____________. A. approved by the people B. born to the last king C. marry a virgin D. consuls Answer: A 9. Upper class Roman women had ____________ compared with women in classical Greece. A. less power and influence B. more power and influence C. more incentive to bear twins D. more responsibilities to the state Answer: B 10. The concept of humanitas, which the Romans borrowed from Greece, emphasized ____________ in education. A. discipline B. athletics C. vocational training D. critical thinking Answer: D 11. The Roman constitution was ____________. A. written on papyrus B. engraved in stone C. an unwritten accumulation of laws and customs D. kept in a temple dedicated to Minerva Answer: C 12. Censors had an important role in the early Republic. They had the power to ____________. A. black out passages from private communication B. destroy books C. light fires for incense in the temple D. remove senators for moral impropriety Answer: D 13. As Rome defeated her neighbors on the Italian peninsula, her peace treaties offered ____________. A. special status as allies for some B. no quarter C. prominence to successful military leaders D. cash for land Answer: A 14. Which of these was the last Etruscan state to oppose Rome? A. Gaul B. Luca C. Ostia D. Veii Answer: D 15. The Punic Wars were fought against ____________. A. Carthage B. Corsica C. Ischia D. Numidia Answer: A 16. Carthage’s ____________ never lost a battle to Rome’s armies on the field, but lost the war. A. Celeste B. Crassus C. Hannibal D. Longinus Answer: C 17. Unlike the terms reached after defeating their Italian neighbors, Rome, under the influence of the conservative Cato, imposed a peace on Macedonia and Carthage that was ____________. A. contingent on cultural exchanges B. freely given C. generous D. harsh Answer: D 18. The Romans admired the culture of ____________ but had contempt for the citizens’ squabbling, commerce, and perceived weakness. A. Assyria B. Greece C. Iberia D. Persia Answer: B 19. Educated women were probably taught at ____________, rather than at school. A. nurseries B. colleges C. home D. temple Answer: C 20. ____________ from Babylon influenced Roman civilization, despite the Senate’s attempt to expel the practice in 139 B.C.E. A. Astrolabes B. Astrology C. Astronauts D. Astronomy Answer: B 21. Who were coloni? A. midlevel officers of the army responsible for a single platoon B. humanist teachers who developed punctuation for Latin C. divinators who looked for signs in sheep intestines D. tenant farmers who replaced most agricultural slave labor Answer: D 22. Wealthy Romans took possession of public land, legally and illegally. This led to a greater division between rich and poor and thus to the land-reform proposals of ____________. A. Cicero B. Julius Caesar C. Marius D. Tiberius Gracchus Answer: D 23. Marius and Sulla harbored personal resentments stemming from ____________. A. credit extended from Marius to Sulla while both were still students B. Sulla marrying Marius’ daughter without the latter’s permission C. animosity between Rome and the Etruscans D. the credit given for the end of the Jugurthine War Answer: D 24. Roman students wrote on ____________. A. paper B. parchment C. slates D. wax tablets Answer: D 25. Julius Caesar’s assassins included ____________. A. Brutus B. Crassus C. Cleopatra D. Pompey Answer: A 26. After two major wars, the Romans cited a technical breach of the peace to spitefully destroy ____________. A. Athens B. Carthage C. Gaul D. Etruria Answer: B 27. Although morality played only a small role in Roman religion, rituals were performed as civic duty because it was thought that ____________. A. colonies required divine protection B. consuls had direct communication with the gods C. neighbors would report nonbelievers D. they were necessary to protect the state Answer: D 28. Tiberius Gracchus pressed for land-reform legislation as a way to ____________. A. antagonize the Latin League into breaking their treaty B. cheat on his personal taxes C. disgrace his brother Gaius D. redistribute wealth Answer: D 29. Patrons gave clients protection and land to work. In return, clients gave patrons ____________. A. entertainment, in the form of mock combat B. gifts in kind C. naming rights to their children D. political support Answer: D 30. In times of crisis, consuls could, with the advice of the Senate, retire for six months in favor of a temporary ____________. A. censor B. consul in training C. dictator D. emperor Answer: C 31. Although the plebeians won many rights in the Struggle of the Orders, the end result was not democratic because ____________. A. the plebeians who gained higher office were part of a small group of the wealthiest Roman families B. plebeians were still not allowed to serve as consuls C. plebeians wanted women to vote D. the patricians controlled the office of tribune Answer: A 32. Women had more power in elite Roman households than their Greek counterparts. They raised the children, ____________. A. and dominated their husbands B. cooked meals, and were allowed to speak when spoken to C. kept accounts, and supervised the slaves D. and built the family home Answer: C 33. After the Twelve Tables were published, it became more difficult for ____________. A. patricians to exploit the plebeians B. plebeians to exploit the patricians C. men to act as materfamilias D. Romans to get restaurant reservations Answer: A 34. Because the Romans did not destroy the Latin cities after defeating them in 338 B.C.E., ____________. A. Carthage felt free to attack Rome B. the Senate removed Sulla from his command C. the Romans gathered more plunder when they attacked again in 336 B.C.E. D. most of the cities remained loyal allies Answer: D 35. King Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated the Romans twice but suffered so many casualties that his career gave rise to the term, a “Pyrrhic ____________.” A. ally B. defeat C. war D. victory Answer: D 36. The Punic Wars were fought against Carthage, which was originally settled by ____________. A. Corsicans B. Etruscans C. Phoenicians D. Punts Answer: C 37. Following the First Punic War, Sicily was settled as a province, meaning ____________. A. Sicilians paid tribute rather than served in the Roman army B. Sicilians needed passports to visit the mainland C. Romans retained the right to Sicilian marble D. Sicilians were allowed to maintain self-governance Answer: A 38. Rome’s defeat by Carthage in 216 proved that ____________. A. Carthage had incurred disastrous debt B. an alliance between the two powers was inevitable C. Carthage would control the Mediterranean D. Rome’s control of Italy was not unshakeable Answer: D 39. In the years following the Second Macedonian War, Rome treated Greek cities as ____________. A. tributaries B. colonies C. protectorates D. provinces Answer: C 40. Before the influence of Greece and Etruria and their personified deities, Roman gods were ____________. A. humanlike divinities B. impersonal spirits known as numina C. philosophical concepts D. organized into a pantheon of twelve gods Answer: B 41. The Senate approved the worship of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, but reversed itself when the cult proved to be ____________. A. a financial scam B. promoting Phrygia at the expense of Rome C. a time-sink D. too ecstatic and sensual Answer: D 42. The Romans came into contact with Hellenized culture in ____________. A. New Carthage B. books C. Athens D. southern Italy Answer: D 43. In the Roman Republic it was common for slaveholders to ____________. A. eat at the same table as their slaves B. free their slaves C. allow their daughters to marry slaves D. sell their oxen to buy more slaves Answer: B 44. After Tiberius’s land-reform bill was voted down by the Senate, he introduced ____________. A. a bill that would have done the opposite B. a more extreme version of the bill C. the Senate to his family in a bid to win sympathy D. his brother to politics Answer: B 45. Tiberius Gracchus ran for reelection but ____________. A. was disqualified because his petition was submitted too late B. he won without a single vote from the assembly C. he lost D. was killed in a riot during the election Answer: D 46. Because they suspected the Senate was taking bribes from Jugurtha, king of Numidia, _____________ elected Marius to the consulship and assigned him to defeat Jugurtha. A. equestrians B. senators C. the consuls D. the assembly Answer: D 47. Mark Antony requested military aid from Cleopatra because ____________. A. Lepidus needed help in Africa B. he did not want to accept troops from Octavian, his political rival C. Octavian did not send the troops he promised D. the Egyptian army was the most feared in the Mediterranean Answer: C 48. Julius Caesar felt he needed to conquer the Gauls ____________. A. to avenge the father he never met B. to acquire more territory for Rome C. to burnish his military credentials D. to establish a route to Britain Answer: C 49. Caesar and Pompey both relied on what group for their power? A. the censors B. the provinces C. the wealthiest members of the Senate D. the troops they led Answer: D 50. How did the civil war following Julius Caesar’s death finally end? A. in battle between Octavian and Mark Antony B. through the personal negotiations of the Second Triumvirate C. with a restoration of the Republic D. through a Senate decree Answer: A 51. Based on the histories of Cassius Dio and Nicolaus of Damascus, ____________ was a hated word in the history of the late republic. A. “Carthaginian” B. “farm” C. “king” D. “luck” Answer: C 52. Looking at the extent of the Roman Republic in 44 B.C.E. (Map 4-3), one could argue that the Roman Empire was a ____________ world. A. cohesive B. Latin C. Greek D. Mediterranean Answer: D 53. The career of ____________ could arguably be traced to Sulla’s use of military power against fellow Romans. A. Mark Antony B. Cleopatra C. Julius Caesar D. Sulla Answer: C 54. Somewhat ironically, the constant wars fought by the Roman Republic left a historical reputation of ____________. A. artistic accomplishment B. competent craftsmanship C. freedom and the rights of man D. lasting peace Answer: D 55. What does the coin stamped with the profile of Brutus that reads “Ides of March” suggest about contemporary reaction to Caesar’s assassination? A. Some celebrated Brutus’s act. B. Brutus was the most hated man in Rome. C. The Senate was able to censor all news of Caesar’s death. D. No one knew who was Caesar’s killer. Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. After overthrowing their king, the Roman elite established their state as a ____________. Answer: Republic 57. Romans endowed their rulers with the power of ____________, the power to command and to enforce those commands. Answer: imperium 58. For two hundred years, through the Struggle of the Orders, plebeians slowly acquired rights that had previously been the sole province of ____________. Answer: patricians 59. Rome borrowed mythology, aspects of religion, philosophy, and literature from the _____________ ; educated Romans were expected to be bilingual. Answer: Greeks 60. When Carthage had the opportunity to occupy Sicily, which was close to the Italian peninsula, the Romans launched the first of three ____________. Answer: Punic Wars 61. Because they thought he was trying to make himself into a king and abolish the Republic, a conspiracy led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus assassinated ____________. Answer: Julius Caesar 62. ____________ defeated Rome in battle multiple times but lost his war when Carthage was attacked in his absence. Answer: Hannibal 63. Spartacus, a gladiator, led a rebellion of ____________ against the Roman nobles in 73 B.C.E. Answer: slaves 64. The area that is modern France was occupied by Celtic people called ____________; Julius Caesar made his military reputation in campaigns against them. Answer: Gauls 65. Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a private political alliance known as the First ____________. Answer: Triumvirate 66. Octavian made Mark Antony look weak by suggesting he was merely a pawn of Cleopatra, queen of ____________. Answer: Egypt 67. The magisterial office known as the ____________ had a five-year term and the power to remove senators from office for immoral behavior. Answer: censor 68. Leaders who appealed to the general populace were known as populares; those who supported the traditional role of the Senate were known as ____________. Answer: optimates 69. One of the rewards held out to defeated enemies in Italy was Roman ____________. Answer: citizenship 70. Gaius Octavius, who adopted the name C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, is referred to by modern scholars as Octavian, and eventually would be known as ____________. Answer: Augustus ESSAY 71. The Senate began as a powerful body but over time ceded power to both the consuls and the general populace. How did leaders and the masses erode the influence of the Senate? Answer: The erosion of the influence of the Senate in ancient Rome was facilitated by a combination of factors involving both leaders and the general populace. Leaders, particularly ambitious generals and politicians, sought to consolidate power and advance their own agendas by bypassing or circumventing the authority of the Senate. They often appealed directly to the people, using populist rhetoric and promises of reform to garner support and undermine the Senate's authority. Additionally, some leaders utilized patronage networks and alliances with influential individuals to exert influence outside the traditional structures of government, diminishing the Senate's role as the primary decision-making body. On the other hand, the general populace played a crucial role in eroding the influence of the Senate through their growing political awareness and demands for greater participation in governance. Over time, the plebeians, or common people, organized themselves into various political factions and interest groups, such as the plebeian assembly and the tribunes of the plebs, to advocate for their rights and challenge the authority of the Senate. They used mechanisms such as popular assemblies, protests, and strikes to pressure the Senate into enacting reforms and addressing their grievances, gradually shifting the balance of power away from the aristocratic elite and towards the broader citizenry. 72. The geographical location of Rome influenced the Republic’s political decisions. Explain how, giving at least two examples. Answer: The geographical location of Rome influenced the Republic's political decisions in several ways. One significant example is the strategic advantage provided by Rome's central location within the Italian peninsula. Situated at the crossroads of major trade routes and surrounded by fertile farmland, Rome became a hub of commerce and agriculture, allowing it to accumulate wealth and resources that fueled its expansion and dominance in the region. This geographical advantage enabled Rome to assert its influence over neighboring city-states and eventually establish hegemony over the entire Italian peninsula. Furthermore, Rome's proximity to the Mediterranean Sea facilitated its expansion and imperial ambitions beyond Italy. Access to maritime trade routes and naval resources allowed Rome to project power and extend its influence across the Mediterranean basin, leading to the conquest of territories such as Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. The control of key ports and naval bases further solidified Rome's dominance in the Mediterranean and facilitated its rise as a major naval power in the ancient world. Overall, the geographical location of Rome played a crucial role in shaping the Republic's political decisions and expansionist policies, enabling it to capitalize on its central position within Italy and its access to maritime trade routes to become a dominant force in the ancient Mediterranean world. 73. Royal Rome was characterized by all the virtues and flaws that would play out in the five centuries of the Republic. Argue for or against this statement using at least three examples. Answer: Arguing for the statement that "Royal Rome was characterized by all the virtues and flaws that would play out in the five centuries of the Republic," one can find evidence to support this claim through various examples. Firstly, the virtue of military prowess was evident in both Royal Rome and the Republic. In the early Roman monarchy, legendary figures like Romulus and Numa Pompilius established Rome's military might through conquest and expansion. Similarly, during the Republic, Rome's military prowess continued to be a defining characteristic, as seen in the successful conquest of neighboring territories and the establishment of Roman hegemony over the Italian peninsula. However, this military strength also led to the flaw of imperialistic ambition, as Rome's expansionist policies eventually brought it into conflict with other powers and contributed to its downfall. Secondly, the virtue of civic duty and public service was present in both Royal Rome and the Republic. In the early monarchy, rulers like Numa Pompilius implemented reforms aimed at promoting social cohesion and civic virtue among the Roman populace. Similarly, during the Republic, the concept of civic duty and service to the state was central to Roman society, as evidenced by the institution of the citizen-soldier and the emphasis on public service and leadership. However, this virtue was sometimes overshadowed by the flaw of political corruption and the pursuit of personal ambition, as seen in the rise of powerful individuals like the Gracchi brothers and Julius Caesar, who exploited their positions for personal gain at the expense of the common good. Thirdly, the virtue of legal and political innovation was evident in both Royal Rome and the Republic. In the early monarchy, rulers like Servius Tullius introduced legal and political reforms aimed at improving governance and administration. Similarly, during the Republic, Rome developed a sophisticated system of laws, institutions, and political mechanisms, such as the Senate and the assemblies, which laid the foundation for the functioning of the Roman state. However, this virtue was sometimes undermined by the flaw of institutional instability and political upheaval, as seen in the recurring conflicts between patricians and plebeians, as well as the breakdown of republican norms and traditions during periods of civil strife and dictatorship. In conclusion, while Royal Rome and the Republic had their distinct characteristics and historical contexts, they shared common virtues and flaws that shaped the course of Roman history. The legacy of Royal Rome, with its military prowess, civic duty, and legal innovation, continued to influence the development of the Roman Republic and the subsequent Roman Empire, leaving a lasting impact on Western civilization. 74. Enemies such as Hannibal knew that the key to a successful war against Rome would be to turn her allies against the Republic. How did Rome earn such loyalty from client states and provinces? Answer: Rome earned loyalty from client states and provinces through a combination of military strength, political diplomacy, and economic incentives. One key factor was Rome's military prowess and reputation for swift and decisive action. Client states and provinces often sought Roman protection and support against external threats or rival powers. Rome's ability to maintain security and stability within its territories reassured its allies and discouraged rebellion or defection. Additionally, Rome employed diplomatic strategies to cultivate loyalty and alliances among client states and provinces. This included the granting of favorable treaties, the extension of Roman citizenship or autonomy to select allies, and the establishment of diplomatic ties through intermarriage and political alliances. By integrating client states into the Roman political and economic system, Rome fostered a sense of shared interests and mutual benefit, thereby strengthening loyalty and cooperation. Furthermore, Rome utilized economic incentives to secure loyalty from client states and provinces. This included the provision of trade opportunities, infrastructure development, and access to Roman markets and resources. By fostering economic prosperity and development within its territories, Rome incentivized loyalty and cooperation among its allies, as they benefited from their association with the Roman Empire. Overall, Rome's ability to earn loyalty from client states and provinces was a result of its multifaceted approach, combining military strength, political diplomacy, and economic incentives to cultivate alliances and cooperation within its empire. 75. Was Rome part of the Hellenistic world? Support your answer with details. Answer: Rome was indeed part of the Hellenistic world, albeit to a lesser extent than other regions such as Greece and Egypt. The term "Hellenistic" refers to the period following the conquests of Alexander the Great, during which Greek culture, language, and influence spread throughout the Mediterranean and Near East. While Rome was not directly under the control of Alexander or his successors, it was deeply influenced by Hellenistic culture and civilization. One key aspect of Rome's connection to the Hellenistic world was its adoption of Greek culture and art. Greek literature, philosophy, and architecture were highly esteemed in Roman society, and many Roman elites were educated in Greek language and culture. Roman literature, including works by poets like Virgil and Horace, often drew inspiration from Greek mythology and literary conventions. Furthermore, Rome's conquest of the Greek-speaking regions of the eastern Mediterranean, such as Macedonia and Greece itself, further intensified the influence of Hellenistic culture on Rome. The influx of Greek slaves, artisans, and intellectuals into Rome contributed to the spread of Greek ideas and customs throughout the empire. Additionally, Roman elites, such as the Scipio family, developed close ties with Greek intellectuals and scholars, fostering intellectual exchange and cultural assimilation. Overall, while Rome maintained its distinct identity and political institutions, it was undeniably part of the broader Hellenistic world, sharing in the cultural, intellectual, and artistic legacy of ancient Greece. 76. Compare the influence on Rome of the Etruscans and Greeks. Did the conquest of these two peoples influence Rome’s attitude towards their cultures? Answer: The influence of the Etruscans and Greeks on Rome had significant impacts on Roman culture, politics, and society. The Etruscans, who inhabited the region of Etruria (modern-day Tuscany), exerted a considerable influence on early Rome, particularly in the development of urbanization, architecture, and religion. The Romans adopted Etruscan building techniques, such as the use of arches and vaults, which became characteristic of Roman architecture. Additionally, the Etruscans introduced the Romans to the practice of divination and religious rituals, which played a central role in Roman religion. The Greeks, on the other hand, had a profound influence on Rome in various aspects, including language, literature, philosophy, art, and politics. Greek colonization of southern Italy and Sicily brought Greek culture into contact with Rome, leading to the adoption of Greek customs, art forms, and literary traditions. Greek philosophy, particularly Stoicism and Epicureanism, had a significant impact on Roman thought and ethics, shaping Roman intellectual and moral discourse. The conquest of the Etruscans and Greeks by Rome influenced Rome's attitude towards their cultures in different ways. While the Romans initially adopted and assimilated many aspects of Etruscan and Greek culture, they also asserted their own identity and traditions, often adapting and transforming foreign influences to suit their own needs and values. Additionally, the conquest of these peoples reinforced Rome's sense of superiority and destiny as a conquering power, shaping its imperialistic ambitions and attitudes towards conquered peoples. 77. The text suggests that Sulla’s greatest legacy was his use of military power, not the constitutional reforms he enacted. Do you agree? Explain how Sulla influenced the politics of Rome in the decades following his rule. Answer: Sulla's greatest legacy is indeed debatable, but his use of military power certainly left a lasting impact on Roman politics. Sulla's military campaigns and subsequent dictatorship reshaped the balance of power in Rome and set a precedent for future generals to seize control through force. While his constitutional reforms aimed to restore the authority of the Senate and curb the power of the popular assemblies, they ultimately proved to be short-lived and were largely undone in the years following his rule. Sulla's influence on the politics of Rome in the decades following his rule was significant. His dictatorship paved the way for future strongmen, such as Julius Caesar and Pompey, to exploit the weaknesses of the Republic and vie for power. The proscriptions and purges carried out by Sulla also set a precedent for political violence and instability, contributing to the erosion of republican norms and the eventual collapse of the Republic. 78. Compare the First and Second Triumvirates. Which was more effective? Why? What led to the dissolution of each? Answer: The First and Second Triumvirates were both political alliances formed between powerful individuals seeking to consolidate their power and influence in Rome. However, they differed in their composition, objectives, and ultimate effectiveness. The First Triumvirate, consisting of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, was formed in 60 B.C.E. with the aim of securing their political positions and pursuing their individual agendas. While the First Triumvirate achieved some short-term successes, such as the election of Caesar as consul and the passage of legislation favorable to its members, it ultimately broke down due to personal rivalries and conflicting ambitions. The dissolution of the First Triumvirate led to the outbreak of civil war between Caesar and Pompey, culminating in Caesar's rise to power as dictator. The Second Triumvirate, consisting of Octavian (later known as Augustus), Mark Antony, and Lepidus, was formed in 43 B.C.E. with the aim of avenging the assassination of Julius Caesar and restoring order to Rome. The Second Triumvirate was more effective than the First, as its members were able to cooperate more effectively and achieve their objectives, such as defeating the forces of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Philippi. However, like the First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate eventually dissolved due to personal rivalries and power struggles, leading to the rise of Octavian as the sole ruler of Rome. Overall, while both Triumvirates were effective in achieving short-term political goals, neither was able to provide long-term stability or prevent the eventual collapse of the Republic. 79. Do you believe Caesar wanted to be king? What are the implications of your answer? Answer: The question of whether Caesar wanted to be king is a subject of historical debate and interpretation. Some scholars argue that Caesar's actions and ambitions suggest a desire for absolute power and kingship, while others contend that Caesar was motivated by a desire to reform and stabilize the Republic. If Caesar did indeed want to be king, the implications would be significant for understanding his motives and intentions. It would suggest that Caesar was willing to subvert republican institutions and traditions in order to achieve his personal ambitions, thereby undermining the principles of the Republic and paving the way for the eventual establishment of the Roman Empire. Alternatively, if Caesar did not want to be king and instead sought to reform the Republic, the implications would be different. It would suggest that Caesar was motivated by a genuine concern for the welfare of Rome and its people, albeit through unconventional means. This interpretation would challenge the traditional view of Caesar as a power-hungry dictator and present a more nuanced understanding of his role in Roman history. Ultimately, the question of Caesar's motives remains a matter of interpretation, and different historians may reach different conclusions based on the available evidence and their own perspectives. 80. No one considers themselves a villain of their own history. How would Julius Caesar tell his story? How would the conspirators who assassinated him explain their side of the story? Answer: Julius Caesar would likely tell his story as that of a visionary leader who sought to reform and stabilize the Republic in the face of corruption and political dysfunction. He would emphasize his military victories, such as the conquest of Gaul, and his efforts to enact social and political reforms, including the redistribution of land and the reform of the calendar. Caesar would portray himself as a defender of the people against entrenched interests and a champion of Roman greatness and civilization. On the other hand, the conspirators who assassinated Caesar would likely explain their actions as a necessary sacrifice to preserve the Republic and prevent Caesar from becoming a tyrant. They would portray Caesar as a power-hungry dictator who threatened the liberties and traditions of Rome. They would justify their actions as a desperate measure to restore the authority of the Senate and uphold the principles of republican government, even if it meant committing a violent act against a fellow citizen. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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