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Chapter 18 The French Revolution MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The French parlements spoke for the interests of the ____________. A. aristocracy B. peasantry C. guilds D. clergy Answer: A 2. Who was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionary land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of their social status? A. Jacques Necker B. Louis XIV C. René Maupeou D. Charles Alexandre de Calonne Answer: D 3. The Second Estate of the Estates General was made up of the ____________. A. clergy B. bourgeoisie C. artisans D. nobility Answer: D 4. Throughout the winter and spring of 1789, the high prices for _____________ produced many riots. A. wine B. cotton C. cheese D. bread Answer: D 5. “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” was proclaimed by ____________. A. Louis XVI B. the National Constituent Assembly C. the Directory D. the First Estate Answer: B 6. According to the suffrage stipulations of the Constitution of 1791, approximately how many of France’s 25 million citizens were qualified to vote? A. 50,000 B. 250,000 C. 1 million D. 25 million Answer: A 7. The term sans-culottes was used in revolutionary France to refer to ____________. A. children B. the professional classes C. the lower middle-class D. the lower clergy Answer: C 8. Louis XVI was condemned to death on the charge of ____________. A. conspiring against the liberty of the people B. the manslaughter of hundreds of revolutionaries C. subversive actions against the state D. conspiracy to commit murder Answer: A 9. What foreign power dominated Poland after the second partition was complete? A. Prussia B. Austria C. Russia D. France Answer: C 10. Which of these sparked war between France and most of the rest of Europe in 1792? A. the execution of Louis XVI B. the formation of the Constituent Assembly C. the Tennis Court Oath D. France’s invasion of Belgium Answer: D 11. Many victims of the Reign of Terror were subject to this “humane” form of execution. What was it? A. hanging B. guillotine C. starvation D. poisoning Answer: B 12. Which body carried out the policies in the Reign of Terror? A. the Legislative Assembly B. the Convention C. the Committee of Public Safety D. the Estates General Answer: C 13. Who were the primary targets of the revolutionary tribunals? A. politicians B. peasants C. aristocrats D. enemies of the revolution Answer: D 14. What happened on the Ninth of Thermidor to end the Reign of Terror? A. Robespierre was executed. B. Members of the Convention stood together to shout down Robespierre. C. Robespierre delivered a speech making it clear that no one in the Convention was safe from the Terror. D. Robespierre replaced the worship of reason with the “Cult of the Supreme Being.” Answer: B 15. The French Revolution has often been considered a victory of the ____________. A. peasantry B. clergy C. nobility D. bourgeoisie Answer: D 16. The Treaties of Basel in March and June 1795 concluded peace with ____________. A. Poland and Spain B. Prussia and Poland C. Spain and Prussia D. Poland and Great Britain Answer: C 17. What was the period called that saw the execution of those people who had been involved in the Reign of Terror? A. the Thermidorian Reaction B. the September Massacres C. the Cult of Reason D. the white terror Answer: D 18. With what type of political movement is the term Thermidor associated? A. revolution B. overthrow of a monarchy C. political reaction D. populism Answer: C 19. In October 1795, who put down the royalist rebels that were intensifying the food riots? A. Robespierre B. Napoleon Bonaparte C. William Pitt the Younger D. Jacques Danton Answer: B 20. How many émigrés left France after the Revolution? A. fewer than 1,000 B. 10,000 C. over 16,000 D. 50,000 Answer: C 21. How did Louis XVI and his family try to escape Paris in June 1791? A. They disguised themselves as servants. B. They were escorted by military police. C. They were given freedom to pass by sympathetic revolutionaries. D. They were escorted by clergymen. Answer: A 22. Who issued the Declaration of Pillnitz? A. Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia B. Marie Antoinette of France and King Frederick William II of Prussia C. King Louis XVI of France and Emperor Leopold II of Austria D. Emperor Leopold II of Austria and Marie Antoinette of France Answer: A 23. What two exceptions did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy make in the policy of dissolving religious orders in France? A. orders who had been supportive of the revolution and those in the countryside B. orders who had been supportive of the monarchy and those located in urban centers C. those orders who cared for the sick or ran a school D. those orders who were well connected to nobles or who had been financially supported by the royal family Answer: C 24. How did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy reform the church in France? A. It demanded that clergymen must marry. B. It demanded that the clergy live in the district in which they preached. C. It demanded that all clergy must take an oath to support the Civil Constitution. D. It required the church to become a branch of the secular government. Answer: C 25. What revenue was to back up the value of the assignats? A. new taxes on the nobility B. taxes on the Third Estate C. wealth captured after the monarchy was executed D. the sale of church property Answer: D 26. By which of the following ways did the aristocracy attempt to limit the influence of the Third Estate? A. They demanded that each estate have an equal number of representatives. B. They levied excessive “luxury” taxes on the estate. C. They demanded that each individual should have a vote in the Estates General. D. They attempted to disband the estate all together. Answer: A 27. The cahiers de doléances ____________. A. were grievances presented to the king B. were largely requests for the postponement of taxes C. consisted of criticism of the monarchy D. were calls for property tax changes Answer: A 28. The Tennis Court Oath refers to an oath taken by the ____________. A. National Assembly to give France a constitution B. monarchy of Louis XVI to bring France’s people together as one C. sans-culottes, pushing the revolution in a more radical direction D. monarchy of Louis XVI to squelch any hint of possible rebellion with the utmost severity Answer: A 29. During the Great Fear, ____________. A. peasants demanded the execution of Louis XVI B. the liberal nobles attained new titles and wealth C. disturbances in cities and in the countryside led to fear of violence D. the nobility refused to make concessions to the peasantry Answer: C 30. Which of the following best describes the form of government pursued by the National Constituent Assembly? A. democracy B. constitutional monarchy C. oligarchy D. theocracy Answer: B 31. The Chapelier Law ____________. A. forbade workers’ associations B. put a protective tariff on wine imports C. granted female suffrage D. expunged residual feudal dues Answer: A 32. The Roman Catholic Church ____________. A. condemned the French Revolution B. enthusiastically supported the French Revolution C. accepted the French Revolution D. ignored the French Revolution Answer: A 33. How did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy change the legal position of the Roman Catholic Church? A. It increased the status of the church. B. It made the church into a branch of the secular state. C. It directed the Roman Catholic Church to take on hospitals and schools in France. D. It restricted religious freedom for all the faithful. Answer: B 34. Why did the émigrés leave France after the Revolution? A. They left to find religious freedom. B. They wanted to begin a counterrevolutionary movement. C. They were driven out by revolutionaries. D. They left to find a better life because the social order of France was undergoing fundamental change. Answer: B 35. The sans-culottes wanted, above all else, ____________. A. a constitutional monarchy B. relief from food shortages and high prices C. tax relief D. democracy Answer: B 36. What justification did the Paris Commune give for the September Massacres? A. They claimed that the people held in city jails were counterrevolutionaries and threatened the gains of the revolution. B. They claimed that the aristocrats executed in the massacre had worked against the goals of the revolution and could not be trusted to be free. C. They claimed that the massacres targeted counterrevolutionaries. D. They claimed that the massacres were directed by the Legislative Assembly against enemies of the state. Answer: C 37. As Prime Minister of Britain, William Pitt the Younger ____________. A. embraced political reform B. supported the French Revolution C. suppressed the more radical political movements D. suppressed calls for reform Answer: D 38. Issued in August of 1793, the levée en masse was a(n) ____________. A. military requisition on the entire population B. restriction on foreign imports C. attempt to fix prices in order to quell inflation D. call to the French population to rise up and defend the church Answer: A 39. By late 1794, the French army ____________. A. was disbanded B. was larger than any other in European history C. numbered little more than 50,000 men D. joined forces with the soldiers of Polish reform Answer: B 40. The core value of the republic of virtue created by the revolution was ____________. A. public good over the private good B. individual interests over the general will C. private good over the public good D. liberty for all Answer: A 41. What was the purpose of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women? A. to promote the civil rights of women B. to fight the internal enemies of the revolution C. to fight the political enemies of the republicans in the Convention D. to support the development of a new Constitution Answer: B 42. The changes made to the traditional calendar illustrate which of these revolutionary policies? A. de-Christianization B. republicanism C. the Reign of Terror D. radicalization Answer: A 43. How did the Jacobins suppress the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women? A. They called for a popular vote on the economic policies advanced by the Society. B. They banned all women’s clubs and societies. C. They convicted the leaders of the Society and sent them to prison. D. They offered to include the Society in their regular meetings. Answer: B 44. How did most French people react to the de-Christianization of France? A. They largely supported it as a way to further the revolutionary policies. B. They opposed the de-Christianization and reacted against the revolutionary government in Paris. C. They violently opposed the policy and took up arms against the deputies of the government. D. They reacted with solid support and participated in desecrating churches. Answer: B 45. How did the revolutionary tribunals deal with Girondist politicians who had been prominent in the Legislative Assembly? A. The tribunal commended their dedication to the country and issued grants of land and property. B. The tribunal executed the Girondists. C. The tribunal tried the Girondists, but most were acquitted. D. They tied them to rafts and drowned them in the river Loire. Answer: B 46. The Thermidorian Reaction was a product of what two developments? A. the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and the Great Fear B. the Tennis Court Oath and the Reign of Terror C. the Reign of Terror and the growing power of the sans-culottes after the deaths of Robespierre and Danton D. the white terror and the establishment of the Directory Answer: C 47. Which of the following best summarizes the comparison of freedoms exercised by women before and after the period from 1789 to 1795? A. Women had less freedom before 1789. B. Women had more freedom after 1795. C. Women lost many freedoms after 1795. D. The degree of freedom exercised was comparable. Answer: C 48. From where did the Thermidorians get their name? A. The name came from the events of July 27, or 9 Thermidor on the revolutionary calendar, when members of the Convention shouted down Robespierre. B. The name came from Robert Thermidor, who planned the toppling of Robespierre on the floor of the Convention. C. The name came from the room in which members of the Convention issued the order to have Robespierre executed. D. The name came from the group of organizers who stood in opposition to the leadership of Robespierre on the Committee of Public Safety. Answer: A 49. How did the Girondists fare after the Thermidorian Reaction? A. They were routed out of hiding and executed. B. They were removed from public life. C. They were outlawed. D. Many returned to their places in the government. Answer: D 50. Which of these events occurred as a result of the Thermidorian Reaction? A. the Reign of Terror B. the execution of the royal family C. the Great Fear D. the white terror Answer: D 51. What generalization could be made about the Civil Constitution of the Clergy? A. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy did more than any other action to make an enemy of the Roman Catholic Church for France. B. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy made reasoned and necessary rules to limit the control of the Roman Catholic Church over the people. C. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy created an unpopular move to dissolve religious orders and restructure the role of the Roman Catholic Church in government. D. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was an ineffective tool for changing the power of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Answer: A 52. The Jacobins, like those who carried out the September Massacres, were motivated by ____________. A. fear of counterrevolution B. the bread riots C. the white terror D. fear of the Catholic Church Answer: A 53. Which of the following best summarizes Edmund Burke’s view of the French Revolution? A. He wholeheartedly supported the uprising. B. He believed it was shortsighted and politically ignorant. C. He believed it was the inevitable extension of Enlightenment ideals. D. He was rather ambivalent toward the revolutionary events. Answer: B 54. William Pitt’s domestic policies are best seen in the light of ____________. A. ideological opposition to liberal reform B. his atheism C. the moderate phase of the French Revolution D. fear of the French Revolution Answer: D 55. Which of the following best explains the actions of Maximilien de Robespierre? A. wholehearted support of the republican government B. opposition to the radical revolution C. fear of the sans-culottes D. support for the physiocrats Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. On June 1, 1789, the Third Estate invited the clergy and the nobles to join them in organizing a new legislative body, which was later named the ____________. Answer: National Assembly 57. The fall of the ____________ marked the first time the populace of Paris redirected the course of the revolution. Answer: Bastille 58. The French term ____________ refers to the days on which the populace of Paris redirected the course of the revolution. Answer: journées 59. In 1791, ____________, a butcher’s daughter from Montauban in northwest France who became a major revolutionary radical in Paris, composed a Declaration of the Rights of Woman. Answer: Olympe de Gouges 60. The National Constituent Assembly abolished the ancient French provinces and established in their place eighty-three administrative units called ____________. Answer: departments 61. Known as ____________, over 16,000 French aristocrats settled in countries near the French border, where they sought to foment counterrevolution. Answer: émigrés 62. In 1792, the Paris Commune compelled the Legislative Assembly to call for the election of a new assembly, called the ____________, to write a democratic constitution. Answer: Convention 63. On November 4, in the single bloodiest day of combat in the decade, ____________ troops killed well over 10,000 Poles outside Warsaw. Answer: Russian 64. The immediate need to protect the revolution from enemies, real or imagined, from across the spectrum of French political and social life manifested itself in what became known as the ____________. Answer: Reign of Terror 65. As part of a policy of de-Christianization, the Convention, in November of 1793, decreed the Cathedral of ____________ a “Temple of Reason.” Answer: Notre Dame 66. In May 1794, at the height of his power, Robespierre, considering the worship of “Reason” too abstract for most citizens, replaced it with the ____________. Answer: Cult of the Supreme Being 67. The tempering of the revolution was known as the ____________ Reaction. Answer: Thermidorian 68. Called the ____________, throughout the country, people who had been involved in the Reign of Terror were attacked and often murdered. Answer: white terror 69. “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” claimed that natural rights included “liberty, property, security, and resistance to ____________.” Answer: oppression 70. The Assembly intended to simplify commercial transactions by imposing a standard of measurement called ____________. Answer: the metric system ESSAY 71. What was significant about the night of August 4? How did the events of this night help shape the political and socioeconomic future of the country? Do you believe these events would have occurred if not for the “Great Fear” that swept the countryside? Explain. Answer: The night of August 4, 1789, marked a significant turning point in the French Revolution. During a session of the National Constituent Assembly, members of the nobility and clergy voluntarily renounced their feudal privileges, including exemptions from taxation and feudal dues. This act of collective renunciation symbolized the end of the Old Regime's social hierarchy and marked the beginning of a more egalitarian society. The events of this night helped shape the political and socioeconomic future of France by laying the groundwork for the abolition of feudalism and the establishment of a more democratic and meritocratic society. By relinquishing their privileges, the nobility and clergy signaled their support for the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity espoused by the revolutionaries. This gesture helped to legitimize the revolution and consolidate popular support for the new regime. It is likely that these events would not have occurred if not for the "Great Fear" that swept the countryside in the summer of 1789. The "Great Fear" was a period of widespread panic and unrest among the peasantry, fueled by rumors of aristocratic plots, grain hoarding, and conspiracies against the revolution. The fear of counter-revolutionary reprisals and the desire for social justice and equality motivated members of the nobility and clergy to renounce their privileges in order to appease the revolutionary fervor and prevent further violence. 72. How did the Constitution of 1791 address the grievances that the Third Estate had with the Old Regime? What aspects of the constitution were revolutionary? What aspects ran counter to the spirit of the revolution? Explain. Answer: The Constitution of 1791 addressed the grievances of the Third Estate by establishing a constitutional monarchy and enshrining the principles of popular sovereignty, equality before the law, and civil liberties. It abolished feudal privileges, reformed taxation, and granted voting rights to property-owning males. The revolutionary aspects of the constitution included the establishment of a representative government, the separation of powers, and the recognition of individual rights and freedoms. It represented a break from the absolutist monarchy of the Old Regime and laid the foundation for a more democratic and participatory political system. However, certain aspects of the constitution ran counter to the spirit of the revolution, particularly its failure to extend voting rights to all citizens and its limitations on political participation. The constitution restricted suffrage to property-owning males, excluding women, the poor, and non-property owners from political representation. It also maintained certain privileges for the clergy and nobility, undermining the principle of equality before the law. 73. With reference to “Encountering the Past: The Metric System,” explain how the introduction of the metric system reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment. Relate this to other measures undertaken by the government of France during the Revolution. Answer: The introduction of the metric system reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment by promoting rationalism, uniformity, and scientific progress. Inspired by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Condorcet, who advocated for the use of reason and empirical evidence in all aspects of human life, the metric system sought to standardize weights and measures based on universal principles of measurement. The metric system was part of a broader effort by the government of France during the Revolution to modernize and rationalize society. Other measures undertaken included the adoption of decimal time, the reorganization of the calendar, and the abolition of feudal privileges. These reforms aimed to break with the arbitrary and irrational practices of the Old Regime and establish a more rational and equitable social order based on reason and science. By promoting standardization and uniformity, the metric system facilitated trade, commerce, and communication, contributing to economic growth and social cohesion. It also symbolized the triumph of Enlightenment ideals over traditional authority and superstition, demonstrating the power of reason and progress to transform society for the better. 74. With reference to Map 18-1 on page 562, discuss the move from the provinces to the departments. In what ways is this administrative structure more beneficial? In what ways would it be deficient? Explain. Answer: The transition from provinces to departments, as depicted in Map 18-1, represented a significant administrative restructuring during the French Revolution. This change aimed to create a more centralized and uniform system of governance, replacing the traditional patchwork of provincial jurisdictions with a standardized framework of departments. One benefit of this administrative structure was its promotion of greater administrative efficiency and uniformity. By dividing France into smaller, more manageable units, each with its own administrative apparatus, the government could more effectively coordinate public services, taxation, and law enforcement across the country. Additionally, the creation of departments helped to dismantle the feudal remnants of the Old Regime and establish a more egalitarian and meritocratic system of governance. However, this administrative structure also had its deficiencies. The division of France into departments could sometimes exacerbate regional disparities and inequalities, particularly in terms of economic development and access to resources. Additionally, the centralization of power in Paris and the dominance of the capital over the rest of the country could lead to feelings of alienation and disenfranchisement among provincial populations. 75. What political and social factors led to the outbreak of the second period of revolution? How could this revolution have been avoided? Explain. Answer: The outbreak of the second period of revolution in France was precipitated by a combination of political, social, and economic factors. Politically, the radicalization of the Revolution, the increasing influence of radical Jacobin factions such as the Montagnards, and the failure of constitutional monarchy under Louis XVI created a climate of instability and uncertainty. Socially, widespread discontent among the lower classes, exacerbated by food shortages, economic hardship, and perceived injustices, fueled popular unrest and revolutionary fervor. Economic factors, including inflation, unemployment, and the burdens of war, further contributed to social tensions and grievances against the ruling elite. This revolution could potentially have been avoided through a more conciliatory approach by the monarchy and the political establishment. If Louis XVI had been willing to compromise and implement meaningful reforms, such as addressing economic inequalities, promoting social justice, and granting greater political participation to the masses, the revolutionary fervor may have been quelled, and the course of history could have been altered. 76. How did the Convention come into being? How was the Convention affected by events on the battlefield? What were the implications of the first official act of the Convention? Explain. Answer: The Convention emerged as a result of the radicalization of the French Revolution and the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly. Following the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic, the National Convention was convened in September 1792 to draft a new constitution and govern the country. The Convention was deeply affected by events on the battlefield, particularly the escalating conflict with foreign powers and the rise of internal dissent and counter-revolutionary forces. The outbreak of war with European monarchies, motivated by fears of revolutionary contagion and the desire to restore the French monarchy, intensified political divisions within France and posed significant challenges to the stability of the new republic. The first official act of the Convention was the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Republic, signaling a decisive break with the past and a reaffirmation of revolutionary principles. This act had profound implications for the future course of the Revolution, consolidating the power of radical Jacobin factions and paving the way for more radical measures, such as the Reign of Terror. 77. Explain how the Estates General became the National Assembly. Which parties were satisfied by this change? Which parties were dissatisfied? How did the change forecast future events? Answer: The transformation of the Estates General into the National Assembly occurred in June 1789 during the early stages of the French Revolution. Faced with the refusal of the First and Second Estates to join them in common deliberation, the representatives of the Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly, claiming to represent the entire French nation. This change was welcomed by members of the Third Estate and supporters of reform and revolution, who saw it as a significant step towards greater political representation and participation. However, it was met with resistance and opposition from the nobility and clergy, who viewed it as a threat to their privileged status and prerogatives. The transformation of the Estates General into the National Assembly foreshadowed future events by highlighting the growing conflict between different social classes and political factions in France. It signaled the emergence of popular sovereignty as a central principle of the Revolution and laid the groundwork for further revolutionary upheaval and radicalization in the years to come. 78. One of the first disagreements in the Estates General was over organization and voting. Identify the specific proposals that incited anger, then explain why the proposals were so objectionable to the Third Estate. Answer: One of the key proposals that incited anger in the Estates General was the question of voting by order or by head. The First and Second Estates, comprised of the clergy and nobility respectively, advocated for voting by order, which would give each estate one vote. This system favored the privileged classes, allowing them to maintain their dominance and prevent meaningful reform. In contrast, the Third Estate, representing the common people, demanded voting by head, where each deputy would have an equal vote regardless of estate. This proposal was vehemently opposed by the First and Second Estates because it threatened their privileged position and would have given the Third Estate a voice proportional to its size, potentially leading to reforms that challenged the status quo. The objectionability of these proposals to the Third Estate lay in their inherent injustice and inequality. The insistence on voting by order perpetuated the dominance of the aristocracy and clergy, denying the Third Estate its rightful representation and perpetuating the grievances and injustices that had fueled the Revolution. 79. What role did the sans-culottes play in the Revolution? What were their goals and why did they end up out of power after the Revolution ended? Answer: The sans-culottes were a radical faction of the French Revolution, comprised mainly of urban workers, artisans, and small shopkeepers. They played a significant role in mobilizing popular support for revolutionary change, participating in street protests, demonstrations, and acts of political violence. The goals of the sans-culottes were primarily social and economic in nature. They advocated for greater political rights and economic equality, demanding measures such as price controls, food subsidies, and the redistribution of wealth. They also called for the abolition of monarchy and the establishment of a republic based on popular sovereignty. However, despite their initial influence during the Revolution, the sans-culottes ultimately ended up out of power after the Revolution ended. This was due to several factors, including internal divisions within the revolutionary movement, the rise of more radical factions such as the Jacobins, and the consolidation of power by more moderate elements within the revolutionary government. Additionally, the sans-culottes' radicalism and propensity for violence alienated them from other factions and made them vulnerable to repression and backlash. As the Revolution entered its later stages, the sans-culottes were marginalized and sidelined by more moderate and conservative forces, leading to their eventual decline in influence and power. 80. Consider the events of the Reign of Terror. In a brief essay, explain the causes that led to the revolutionary tribunals and the events that led to their demise. Discuss the reasons that the terror led to the government sanction of thousands of executions. Answer: The Reign of Terror was a period of extreme violence and repression during the French Revolution, characterized by mass executions, political purges, and the suspension of civil liberties. It was driven by a combination of internal and external threats to the revolution, as well as the radicalization of revolutionary politics. The revolutionary tribunals were established as a means of prosecuting and punishing perceived enemies of the revolution, including counter-revolutionaries, traitors, and political dissenters. These tribunals operated outside the normal judicial process, often relying on arbitrary and summary methods of justice. The events that led to the demise of the revolutionary tribunals were fueled by several factors, including escalating violence and extremism, internal power struggles within the revolutionary government, and growing public discontent with the excesses of the Terror. As the violence of the Terror intensified and its targets expanded to include former revolutionaries and innocent civilians, opposition to the radical regime grew. Ultimately, the Terror led to the government sanction of thousands of executions due to the perceived need to protect the revolution from internal and external threats. The revolutionary leaders justified the mass executions as necessary for the preservation of the republic and the defense of revolutionary ideals. However, the indiscriminate violence and brutality of the Terror ultimately undermined its legitimacy and contributed to its downfall. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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