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Chapter 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In the fifth century B.C.E., ____________ were the leading naval power in Greece. A. Thessalians B. Spartans C. Peloponnesians D. Athenians Answer: D 2. The Athenian response to the 465 B.C.E. rebellion on the island of ____________ proved to be the first significant step in the Delian League’s evolution into the Athenian Empire. A. Crete B. Rhodes C. Cythera D. Thasos Answer: D 3. What is the name given to the protracted struggle between Athens and Sparta? A. the Thirty Years’ War B. the Peloponnesian Wars C. the Aegean Wars D. the Punic Wars Answer: B 4. Pericles proposed a law introducing compensation pay for ____________, opening that important duty to the poor. A. jury members B. teachers C. sailors D. soldiers Answer: A 5. In the Athenian democracy, the people had to approve ____________. A. some decisions about trade B. most decisions about land ownership C. most decisions about compensation for representatives D. all decisions of the state Answer: D 6. Evidence leads historians to believe that the prime responsibility of a respectable Athenian woman was to ____________. A. hold public office B. take part in political assemblies C. produce male heirs for the oikos, or household, of her husband D. take an active part in public life Answer: C 7. After divorcing his first wife, Pericles entered into a liaison with a female companion from Miletus named ____________. A. Khloe B. Demeter C. Ourania D. Aspasia Answer: D 8. The Great Peloponnesian War was ignited by a civil war in the Corcyraean colony at ____________. A. Epidamnus B. Laconia C. Apollonia D. Hydrantum Answer: A 9. In 422 B.C.E., Cleon, the leader of Athens, and Brasidas, the leader of Sparta, both died in battle, leading the way to the ____________. A. Peloponnesian War B. Corinthian War C. Theban War D. Peace of Nicias Answer: D 10. The ____________ brought an end to Sparta’s expansion in Asia and caused the eventual destruction of its maritime empire. A. Peloponnesian War B. Corinthian War C. Theban War D. Punic War Answer: B 11. Considered “the father of history,” ____________ was the first to attempt to explain human actions in history and to draw instruction from them. A. Thucydides B. Croesus C. Anaxagoras D. Herodotus Answer: D 12. A literary genre called ____________ presented a comic-realistic depiction of daily life, turning the attention away from the weakened structure of the polis. A. Middle Comedy B. Old Comedy C. epic poetry D. lyric poetry Answer: A 13. In 399 B.C.E., an Athenian jury condemned ____________ to death on the charges of bringing new gods into the city and of corrupting the youth. A. Euripides B. Plato C. Socrates D. Aristotle Answer: C 14. ____________ felt that moral and political reform was the solution to internal stress, class struggle, and to repairing the factional division of the polis. A. Euripides B. Plato C. Socrates D. Aristotle Answer: B 15. ____________ studied marine biology, which played a large part in his thinking. A. Euripides B. Plato C. Socrates D. Aristotle Answer: D 16. Aristotle considered the middle class to be the most stable because it possessed the quality of ____________, which gave power to neither the rich nor the poor. A. compassion B. moderate wealth C. competition D. industry Answer: B 17. King Philip II of Macedon took advantage of his appointment as regent to become king by ____________. A. overthrowing his infant nephew B. making promises of future power to the nobility C. receiving support from the surrounding aristocracy D. making deals with the city managers to pressure the throne Answer: A 18. The acquisition of the Greek state of ____________ by Philip of Macedon gave him control of gold and silver mines and allowed him to undermine Athenian control of the northern Aegean. A. Amphipolis B. Thasos C. Lemnos D. Lesbos Answer: A 19. In 338 B.C.E., Philip of Macedon called a meeting of the Greek states to form the ____________. A. League of Delphi B. Delian League C. League of Corinth D. Macedonian League Answer: C 20. When Alexander the Great conquered ____________ in 333 B.C.E., he was greeted there as a liberator. A. Egypt B. Syria C. Tyre D. Sidon Answer: A 21. By the spring of 324 B.C.E., Alexander’s army was back at the Persian Gulf and celebrated in the Macedonian style, with ____________. A. competitive athletic games B. chariot races C. making sacrifices in thanks to the gods D. a wild spree of drinking Answer: D 22. Unlike earlier times, when independent men owned and worked relatively small and equal lots of the polis, the ____________ were reduced to subordinate, dependent peasant status. A. urban Greeks B. Macedonians C. statesmen D. Hellenistic farmers Answer: D 23. Epicureans believed that falling ____________ swerved in unpredictable ways to produce the things seen in the world. A. atoms B. rocks C. gravel D. meteors Answer: A 24. What new city in Egypt was the center of literary production in the third and second centuries B.C.E.? A. Athens B. Piraeus C. Babylon D. Alexandria Answer: D 25. A Hellenistic scientist named ____________ was able to calculate the circumference of the earth within two hundred miles. A. Eratosthenes B. Thucydides C. Hipparchus D. Aristarchus Answer: A 26. The main purpose of the formation of the Delian League was to ____________. A. ensure the protection of southern city-states against Sparta B. form a southern Greek army to fight the encroaching Macedonians C. free the Greeks under Persian rule and protect against a Persian return D. repair the breach with Sparta Answer: C 27. What best describes the relationship Athens had with Sparta under the rule of Cimon? A. hostile B. friendly C. tense D. indifferent Answer: B 28. After Cimon’s ostracism in the spring of 461 B.C.E., Athens made an alliance with the city-state of ____________, Sparta’s traditional enemy. A. Argos B. Macedonia C. Boeotia D. Megara Answer: A 29. After peace was achieved with Persia, why did the Athenians continue collecting funds from the Delian League members? A. It was necessary as a means to secure the northern border. B. The army needed to be rebuilt with an administrative center at Athens. C. It was necessary to prevent an invasion by Persia. D. It was necessary to maintain Athens’s navy and rebuild temples. Answer: D 30. What was most significant about the hoplite class being made eligible for the archonship? A. Noncitizens could finally assume positions of political power. B. The move signaled that the office would be open to all Athenians. C. It created a class-blind society. D. It militarized Athenian society. Answer: B 31. According to the citizenship bill introduced by Pericles, citizenship was limited to those who ____________. A. were willing to serve in the Athenian army B. had at least one citizen parent C. had been born within the empire’s borders and could pass the civic exam D. had two citizen parents Answer: D 32. Greek religion emphasized ____________. A. moral conduct and orthodox belief B. the faithful practice of rituals C. faith above patriotism and good citizenship D. the role of each individual in achieving salvation Answer: B 33. The disastrous Great Peloponnesian War was ignited in 435 B.C.E., ten years after the Thirty Years’ Peace of 445 B.C.E., because of a dispute between ____________. A. Mycale and Corcyra B. Corcyra and Corinth C. Corinth and Sparta D. Sparta and Plataea Answer: B 34. Which of the following best describes the military strategy employed by the Spartans? A. attack Athens by sea at strategic port cities B. use diplomatic means to win over the support of Athenian allies C. use a powerful navy to engage Athens in a major naval battle D. invade, threaten crops, and force the enemy to defend them Answer: D 35. After the collapse of the Athenian Empire, Sparta began to alienate some of its allies, such as Thebes and Corinth, by its ____________. A. refusal to include them in war revenues B. increasingly arrogant policies C. continual disputes about borders D. refusal to send in post-war aid for reconstruction Answer: B 36. Dramatists such as Aeschylus and Sophocles are considered prime examples of what genre of Greek writing? A. drama B. Old Comedy C. tragedy D. New Comedy Answer: C 37. The architecture of Periclean Athens emphasized ____________. A. Athenian glory B. lightness and subtlety C. military and naval power D. function over form Answer: A 38. According to Empedocles, what two primary forces move the four basic elements, fire, water, earth, and air that compose our universe? A. love and strife B. gods and magic C. chaos and order D. humans and gods Answer: A 39. With regard to law, traditional Sophists argued that ____________. A. there is no identifiable conflict between nature and law B. law is in accord with nature and is of divine origin C. law is merely the result of convention D. it is not possible to analyze human beliefs and institutions Answer: B 40. It is apparent that the Greek thinkers of the fourth century B.C.E. knew they lived in a time of troubles by their ____________. A. harboring of family members B. hoarding of huge amounts of money C. demonstrations in public areas D. new artistic trends Answer: D 41. Plato believed that the way to harmony was to destroy the causes of strife. Which of the following would he consider to be a cause of strife? A. one’s family and property B. the polis C. leisure activities D. politics Answer: A 42. By Greek standards, Macedon was considered to be a backward, semibarbaric land because ____________. A. it had no army or navy B. its religious practices resembled those of the Stone Age C. it had no poleis and was ruled loosely by a king D. its residents lived in huts Answer: C 43. One reason the Athens of 350 B.C.E. was not the thriving Athens of Pericles’s time was ____________. A. it no longer had a large fleet B. it had no allies to share the burden of war C. it had weak leadership D. it had just experienced a severe drought Answer: B 44. In 335 B.C.E., Alexander III (Alexander the Great), pursuing his father’s goal, began his plan to conquer ____________. A. Thebes B. Persia C. Chalcis D. Corinth Answer: B 45. When Darius of Persia made a peace offering to Alexander the Great of his entire empire west of the Euphrates River and his daughter to end the invasion, Alexander ____________. A. accepted the offer, ending the invasion B. accepted Darius’s daughter, but continued on with the invasion C. accepted the empire west of the Euphrates, but continued the invasion D. turned down the offer and continued the invasion Answer: D 46. Alexander the Great avenged the earlier Persian invasion of Greece by ____________. A. burning down Persepolis, the capital of Persia B. destroying all Persian ships C. destroying all religious statuary in Persepolis D. refusing to allow the Persian people to live in their native land Answer: A 47. A relative of Darius of Persia named Bessus ____________. A. helped Darius escape to India B. plotted with Persian nobles and killed Darius C. sent extra naval support to help Darius fight Alexander’s forces D. made a new appeal to Alexander to end the fighting Answer: B 48. After the time of Alexander the Great, the Greeks turned to ____________ for solutions to their problems. A. politics B. religion, philosophy, and magic C. humanism, revived from the fifth century B.C.E., D. their belief in human ability to manage forces around them Answer: B 49. Because the Stoics strove for inner harmony of the individual, ____________. A. their aim was a life lived in accordance with divine will B. their attitude was upbeat and filled with optimism C. ____________ their goal was to maintain intense involvement and interest in things going on around them D. they employed wild and resistant methods Answer: A 50. What important contribution did Heraclides of Pontus make to the field of astronomy in the fourth century B.C.E.? A. He made important suggestions leading to the geocentric model of the universe. B. He forwarded the theory of stellar parallax. C. He made important suggestions leading to the heliocentric model of the universe. D. He discovered the Milky Way. Answer: C 51. After Cimon rose to statesman, following the wars with Persia, he ____________. A. pursued a policy of aggressive attacks on Sparta B. dominated Athenian politics for nearly two decades C. failed to put down the rebellion of Thasos D. created an autocracy to ensure absolute power Answer: B 52. Which of the following best describes the policies favored by Pericles following the First Peloponnesian War? A. reckless B. expansionist C. isolationist D. conservative Answer: D 53. Which of the following is NOT a reason that Athens was a formidable and difficult enemy for Sparta to defeat? A. Athens had an enormous navy. B. Athens had an annual income from the empire. C. Athens had a vast reserve fund. D. Athenians outnumbered Spartans two to one. Answer: D 54. Which of the following best describes Greek life, thought, art, and literature in the century and a half prior to Macedonian conquest? A. serenity B. chaos C. tension D. rewarding Answer: C 55. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps Aristotle utilizes when dealing with varying academic subjects? A. the application of reason B. the introduction of metaphysical principles C. the observation of the empirical evidence D. the use of mathematics Answer: D SHORT ANSWER 56. A pact made in 478 B.C.E. by Athenians and other Greeks to continue the war with Persia was called the ____________. Answer: Delian League 57. The annual magistrates responsible for Sparta’s foreign policy were called ____________. Answer: ephors 58. In the fifth century B.C.E., ____________, the commander of the Athenian army, agreed to a peace of thirty years with Sparta. Answer: Pericles 59. The main function and responsibility of a respectable Athenian woman was to produce male heirs for the ____________, or household, of her husband. Answer: oikos 60. Greek religion did not emphasize moral conduct to orthodox belief, but rather the faithful practice of ____________ meant to win the favor of the gods. Answer: rituals 61. In the late fifth century B.C.E., the Spartans, under ____________, obtained the support of the Persians, cut off the Athenian food supply through the Hellespont, and starved the Athenian people into submission. Answer: Lysander 62. When the great Theban general ____________ was killed at the Battle of Mantinea, Theban dominance died with him. Answer: Epaminondas 63. ____________ was the first to argue that reason and reflection showed that reality was fixed and unchanging according to the idea that nothing could be created out of nothingness. Answer: Parmenides 64. According to the ____________ theory, the world consists of innumerable tiny, solid, indivisible, and unchanging particles, or “atoms,” that move about in the void. Answer: atomist 65. In 386 B.C.E., Plato founded the ____________, a center of philosophical investigation and a school for training statesmen and citizens. Answer: Academy 66. The term “ _____________ ” was coined in the nineteenth century to describe the period of three centuries during which Greek culture spread far from its homeland to Egypt and deep into Asia. Answer: Hellenistic 67. ____________ was considered to be the ablest king in Macedonian history. Answer: Philip of Macedon 68. The Macedonian cavalry was made up of nobles and clan leaders called ____________. Answer: Companions 69. The goal of the Epicureans was to attain ____________, the condition of being undisturbed, without pain, trouble, or responsibility. Answer: ataraxia 70. ____________ established the theory of the lever in mechanics and invented hydrostatics. Answer: Archimedes ESSAY 71. In the winter of 478–477 B.C.E., the islanders and the Greeks from the coast of Asia Minor and other Greek cities on the Aegean met with the Athenians on the sacred island of Delos and swore oaths of alliance. They called themselves the Delian League. What were the aims of this new league? Were they successful? If so, how? If not, why not? Answer: The aims of the Delian League, formed in the winter of 478–477 B.C.E., were primarily defensive and aimed at protecting its member states from further Persian aggression. The league sought to unify Greek city-states under Athenian leadership to deter future Persian incursions and maintain Greek autonomy in the Aegean region. Additionally, the league aimed to promote trade, commerce, and cultural exchange among its members, fostering economic prosperity and cooperation. Initially, the Delian League was successful in achieving its goals. The combined naval strength of the league, led by Athens, effectively deterred further Persian attacks and secured the Aegean Sea from Persian domination. Moreover, the league's collective resources and military capabilities allowed it to liberate several Greek city-states from Persian control, strengthening its influence and expanding its membership. However, over time, the Delian League underwent a transformation, with Athens increasingly asserting its dominance and using the league for its own political and economic interests. As Athens grew in power, it began to impose tribute payments on its allies, ostensibly for the maintenance of the league's fleet but often diverted for Athenian purposes. Additionally, Athens intervened militarily in the affairs of its allies, sometimes using force to maintain control and suppress dissent. 72. How did the relationship of Athens to its allies develop under the Delian League? Give specific examples from the text to supplement your answer. Answer: Under the Delian League, the relationship of Athens to its allies evolved from one of cooperation and mutual defense to one of dominance and exploitation. Initially, Athens acted as a leader and protector of the league, coordinating military campaigns against the Persians and liberating Greek city-states from Persian rule. For example, Athens led the successful siege of the island of Naxos, demonstrating its commitment to the defense of its allies. However, as Athens grew in power and influence, its relationship with its allies became increasingly unequal. Athens began to assert its dominance over the league, using its military and economic leverage to compel tribute payments and obedience from its allies. For instance, Athens imposed tribute quotas on member states, demanding annual payments of silver or ships for the maintenance of the league's fleet. Failure to comply with these demands often resulted in punitive measures or military intervention by Athens. Furthermore, Athens exploited its position within the league to advance its own interests, using the league's resources to strengthen its own navy and finance ambitious building projects such as the construction of the Parthenon. The transformation of the Delian League into an Athenian empire reflected Athens' growing hegemony in the Aegean region and marked a significant shift in the balance of power within the Greek world. 73. Under the leadership of Pericles, legislation was passed that made the hoplite class eligible for the archonship. Why was this provision such an important step in the establishment of a democratic state? How do you believe the noble members of Athenian society would have responded? Answer: The legislation passed under the leadership of Pericles, allowing the hoplite class to be eligible for the archonship, was a crucial step in the establishment of a democratic state in Athens. By opening up the highest political offices to the hoplite class, Pericles expanded political participation beyond the aristocracy, thus promoting social mobility and inclusivity in Athenian politics. This move helped to break down the monopoly of power held by the nobility and fostered a more representative government that reflected the broader interests of Athenian society. It also contributed to the development of Athenian democracy by empowering a wider segment of the population to engage in the political process. Noble members of Athenian society would likely have responded with resistance or opposition to this provision. The aristocracy had long enjoyed privileged status and controlled political power, and they would have viewed the inclusion of the hoplite class in the archonship as a threat to their own influence and authority. They may have feared losing their exclusive hold on political offices and sought to preserve their privileged position by resisting efforts to democratize the government. Their response could have ranged from vocal opposition to attempts to undermine or subvert the implementation of the legislation. 74. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the Athenian system of justice? Compared to the current justice system in America, how do they match up? If you could select between the two‚ which one would you choose? Explain. Answer: The Athenian system of justice had several advantages and disadvantages. One advantage was its emphasis on direct citizen participation in legal proceedings, with juries selected by lot from the citizen body to decide cases. This democratic approach promoted fairness and impartiality in the administration of justice, as decisions were made collectively by a cross-section of the population. Additionally, public trials and open debates ensured transparency and accountability in the legal process. However, the Athenian system also had its drawbacks. One disadvantage was the potential for populism and demagoguery to influence legal outcomes, as charismatic individuals could sway public opinion and manipulate juries for their own interests. Moreover, the lack of professional judges or legal experts meant that legal proceedings could be susceptible to bias or incompetence, leading to unjust verdicts. Additionally, the system of ostracism, where citizens could be banished by popular vote, could be abused for political or personal vendettas. Compared to the current justice system in America, the Athenian system differs significantly in terms of complexity, institutionalization, and legal protections. While both systems prioritize citizen participation and democratic principles, the American justice system is more formalized and structured, with professional judges, legal professionals, and established legal procedures. Furthermore, the American system incorporates safeguards such as due process, the presumption of innocence, and the right to legal representation, which are essential for ensuring fair and impartial justice. If given the choice between the two systems, I would choose the current justice system in America due to its greater emphasis on legal expertise, procedural fairness, and protection of individual rights. While the Athenian system had its merits, it lacked the institutional safeguards and legal protections that are essential for upholding justice and ensuring the rights of all citizens. 75. What were the underlying causes of the Great Peloponnesian War? In what respect could this conflict have been avoided? Was conflict between Athens and Sparta essentially inevitable? Discuss the strategies employed by both states and the relative success of each. Answer: The underlying causes of the Great Peloponnesian War stemmed from a combination of factors, including competition for power and influence between Athens and Sparta, conflicting interests among Greek city-states, and the breakdown of diplomatic relations. Athens' growing dominance in the Aegean region, fueled by its imperialistic ambitions and the wealth accumulated from the Delian League, threatened the traditional hegemony of Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnese. Additionally, Athens' aggressive foreign policy and interventions in the affairs of other city-states, as well as its imposition of tribute and control over member states, generated resentment and opposition among its rivals. The conflict could have potentially been avoided through diplomatic negotiations and compromise between Athens and Sparta, as well as through the mediation of neutral parties to address grievances and resolve disputes. However, the deep-seated rivalry and mistrust between the two city-states, exacerbated by their competing interests and ambitions, made conflict increasingly likely. While certain events or decisions may have accelerated the outbreak of war, such as Athens' intervention in the conflicts between Corinth and Corcyra, or the Megarian Decree, which imposed economic sanctions on Megara, the underlying tensions and power dynamics between Athens and Sparta made conflict appear almost inevitable. During the Great Peloponnesian War, both Athens and Sparta employed various strategies in an attempt to gain the upper hand. Athens, with its formidable navy and imperial resources, adopted a strategy of maritime dominance and fortification of its city walls, relying on its strong navy to control sea trade and prevent invasion. Sparta, on the other hand, focused on its superior land forces and sought to disrupt Athens' grain supply by ravaging its farmland through periodic invasions of Attica. Sparta also formed alliances with other Greek city-states, such as Corinth and Thebes, to challenge Athens' hegemony and isolate it diplomatically. Ultimately, neither Athens nor Sparta achieved decisive success in the conflict. Athens suffered from a devastating plague and financial strain due to the prolonged war, while Sparta faced internal dissent and logistical challenges in maintaining its military campaigns. The war ended inconclusively with the signing of the Peace of Nicias in 421 B.C.E., but hostilities resumed shortly afterward, leading to further conflict and ultimately Athens' defeat in 404 B.C.E. 76. Discuss the vacuum of power created by the collapse of the Athenian Empire. Who were the main competitors in the struggle for power? How did Sparta’s military and foreign policies change from the collapse of the Athenian Empire to its own collapse? What accounts for its downfall? Answer: The collapse of the Athenian Empire created a power vacuum in the Greek world, with various city-states vying for dominance and influence in the aftermath. The main competitors in this struggle for power included Sparta, which sought to assert its hegemony in the Peloponnese and beyond, as well as former members of the Delian League who sought to assert their independence and autonomy. Sparta's military and foreign policies underwent significant changes following the collapse of the Athenian Empire. Initially, Sparta emerged as the dominant power in Greece, forming the Peloponnesian League and imposing its authority over its allies and neighboring city-states. However, Sparta's heavy-handed tactics and oppressive rule alienated many of its former allies, leading to resentment and opposition. Additionally, Sparta faced internal challenges, including a helot revolt and social unrest, which weakened its military strength and undermined its ability to maintain control. The downfall of Sparta can be attributed to a combination of internal and external factors. Internally, Sparta's rigid social structure and conservative policies stifled innovation and economic growth, leading to stagnation and decline. Externally, Sparta's aggressive expansionism and inability to effectively manage its empire resulted in diplomatic isolation and resistance from other Greek city-states. The decisive defeat of Sparta by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 B.C.E. marked the end of Spartan hegemony and the beginning of its decline as a major power in Greece. 77. Both the Academy and Lyceum were centers of knowledge in the Greek world. However, the academic and ideological thrust of each institution differed. If you were to have attended each institution in fourth century B.C.E. Athens, what would you have observed at each institution? What was the manner of discourse? What would you have studied? Pick a specific topic or give a general first-person overview of what you would have observed. Answer: If I were to attend the Academy and Lyceum in fourth-century B.C.E. Athens, I would observe distinct academic and ideological differences between the two institutions. At the Academy, founded by Plato, the manner of discourse would likely be characterized by philosophical inquiry and dialectical debate. Philosophers and students would engage in Socratic dialogue, questioning assumptions, exploring metaphysical concepts, and seeking to uncover universal truths. Topics of study would include metaphysics, ethics, politics, epistemology, and aesthetics. For example, I might observe discussions on the nature of justice, the forms of knowledge, the ideal state, and the role of the philosopher in society. In contrast, at the Lyceum, founded by Aristotle, the manner of discourse would be more empirical and systematic. Aristotle's approach to philosophy emphasized observation, classification, and analysis of natural phenomena. Students would engage in scientific inquiry, studying subjects such as biology, physics, logic, ethics, and rhetoric. I might witness lectures on topics such as the classification of living organisms, the principles of logic, the nature of virtue, and the art of persuasion. Overall, while both the Academy and Lyceum were centers of knowledge and learning in ancient Athens, they differed in their academic focus and methodological approach. The Academy emphasized abstract philosophical inquiry and dialectical reasoning, while the Lyceum emphasized empirical observation and systematic analysis. Depending on my personal interests and philosophical orientation, I might be drawn to one institution over the other, or I might appreciate the complementary insights offered by both. 78. Why and how did Philip conquer Greece between 359 and 338 B.C.E.? How was he able to turn his region into a world power? Why was Demosthenes unable to defend Athens? Where does more of the credit for Philip’s success lie: in Macedon’s strength or in Athens’s weakness? Answer: Philip of Macedon conquered Greece between 359 and 338 B.C.E. through a combination of military prowess, political cunning, and diplomatic skill. He capitalized on the internal divisions and rivalries among Greek city-states, exploiting their weaknesses and playing them off against each other. Philip employed innovative military tactics, such as the use of combined arms and phalanx formations, to defeat his adversaries on the battlefield. He also employed diplomacy and bribery to secure alliances and neutralize potential threats, gradually expanding his influence and control over the Greek mainland. Philip was able to turn Macedon into a world power by modernizing its military, centralizing its government, and promoting economic development and infrastructure projects. He reorganized the Macedonian army into a professional standing force, equipped with advanced weaponry and disciplined training. He also implemented administrative reforms, establishing a system of regional governors and appointing loyal supporters to key positions of authority. Furthermore, Philip exploited the region's natural resources, such as timber and precious metals, to fund his military campaigns and consolidate his rule. Demosthenes, the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, was unable to defend Athens against Philip's advances due to a combination of factors. Despite his efforts to rally Greek city-states against Macedonian expansionism through his fiery speeches and diplomatic initiatives, Demosthenes faced opposition and apathy from his fellow Athenians, as well as resistance from pro-Macedonian factions within Athens itself. Furthermore, Athens was weakened by internal strife, financial instability, and a decline in military strength, making it vulnerable to external threats. The credit for Philip's success lies primarily in Macedon's strength, as well as in Philip's own leadership and strategic acumen. Macedon's military superiority, political unity, and economic resources provided the foundation for Philip's conquests, enabling him to overcome resistance and assert Macedonian hegemony over Greece. While Athens's weakness and internal divisions certainly facilitated Philip's ambitions, it was ultimately Philip's vision and determination that transformed Macedon into a dominant power in the ancient world. 79. Examine the tactical strategies employed by Alexander the Great in the expansion of his empire. Do you believe it would have been possible to maintain an empire of such an immense size? What possible administrative problems do you believe Alexander would have faced? Do you believe he began the necessary measures to remedy these potential problems? Explain. Answer: Alexander the Great employed a variety of tactical strategies in the expansion of his empire, including swift and decisive military campaigns, innovative use of combined arms and siege warfare, and strategic diplomacy and cultural assimilation. He leveraged his superior cavalry forces, known as the Companion Cavalry, to achieve rapid mobility and surprise attacks, while also integrating infantry and siege engines to capture fortified cities and territories. Additionally, Alexander utilized psychological warfare tactics, such as propaganda and the strategic use of fear and intimidation, to subdue resistance and secure loyalty from conquered peoples. Maintaining an empire of such immense size would have posed significant challenges for Alexander. Administrative problems that he would have faced included managing a diverse and multicultural population, maintaining control over distant provinces and regions, and addressing issues of governance, taxation, and infrastructure. Additionally, succession planning and the establishment of a stable political system to ensure the continuity of his empire after his death would have been crucial considerations. While Alexander began to implement measures to address some of these potential problems, such as the promotion of cultural assimilation and the adoption of Persian administrative practices, his sudden death in 323 B.C.E. prevented him from fully realizing his vision for the long-term stability and governance of his empire. The division of his empire among his generals, known as the Diadochi, and the subsequent period of internecine warfare and fragmentation underscored the inherent difficulties of maintaining such a vast and diverse empire. 80. Do you find Stoicism or Epicureanism more convincing? Why? What would society be like if everyone believed in the philosophy you chose? What would society be like if everyone believed in the other philosophy? Answer: Whether Stoicism or Epicureanism is more convincing depends on individual philosophical perspectives and personal values. Stoicism emphasizes self-discipline, virtue, and resilience in the face of adversity, advocating acceptance of fate and detachment from external circumstances. Epicureanism, on the other hand, promotes pleasure, tranquility, and the pursuit of simple pleasures, advocating for the avoidance of pain and the cultivation of inner peace. Personally, I find Stoicism more convincing due to its emphasis on inner strength and moral integrity, as well as its practical approach to navigating life's challenges. If society as a whole embraced Stoicism, it might become more resilient, self-reliant, and focused on ethical living, leading to greater personal fulfillment and social harmony. However, there might also be a risk of emotional suppression or detachment from genuine human experiences. Alternatively, if society embraced Epicureanism, it might prioritize individual happiness and contentment, fostering a culture of pleasure-seeking and hedonism. While this could lead to a greater emphasis on personal enjoyment and leisure, it might also result in a lack of discipline, moral relativism, and societal decadence. Ultimately, both Stoicism and Epicureanism offer valuable insights into the human condition and different paths to leading a fulfilling life. The choice between the two philosophies depends on individual preferences and priorities, as well as the cultural and social context in which they are applied. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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