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Module 3—Brain’s Building Blocks
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What progressive neurological disorder is characterized by memory loss, personality
deterioration, and emotional outbursts?
a. Parkinson’s disease
b. Multiple sclerosis
c. Autism
d. Alzheimer’s disease
Answer: D
2. Charles is introduced in Module Three as having Alzheimer’s disease. What can Charles
and his family expect in the coming years?
a. His condition will worsen.
b. Charles’ cognitive function will deteriorate, but his personality should not dramatically
change.
c. Charles will have good days and he will have bad days.
d. The course of Alzheimer’s is difficult to describe.
Answer: A
3. Grandpa Frank is often confused and doesn’t know where he is much of the time. You visit
him, but he doesn’t seem to recognize you. He has gotten much worse over the past few
years. The doctor says that there is no cure and that a protein which is destroying brain cells
is the suspected cause. Grandpa Frank has been diagnosed with:
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. Parkinson’s disease
c. Stroke
d. Fragile X syndrome
Answer: A
4. If you drew a graph to accurately represent the number of Alzheimer’s patients projected in
the future, the graph would:
a. have a level line
b. be difficult to draw since researchers are unsure of its future
c. have a rising slope
d. have a decreasing slope
Answer: C

5. One factor causing Alzheimer’s disease results from:
a. normal aging
b. previously damaged neurons
c. drug abuse
d. the multiplication of naturally occurring proteins and peptides
Answer: D
6. Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed in a person by identifying:
a. environmental factors that are related to it
b. behavioral, neurological, physical, and psychological symptoms
c. memory problems
d. family members who have the disease
Answer: B
7. One risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease is:
a. having Parkinson’s disease
b. having a stroke before the age of 40
c. brain injury in childhood
d. inheriting one of ten different genes
Answer: D
8. If you randomly select 100 individuals who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, how many of
them would have experienced the onset of symptoms before the age of 65 years?
a. about 90%
b. about 75%
c. about 50%
d. about 10%
Answer: D
9. What is the most reliable test to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease?
a. PET or MRI scan
b. behavioral observation by trained specialist
c. blood and spinal fluid tests
d. administering a questionnaire to the patient
Answer: C

10. ____ are chains of chemicals arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder.
a. Genes
b. Neurons
c. Opsins
d. Neurotransmitters
Answer: A
11. What is the suspected cause of the excess formation of a glue-like substance in the brains
of Alzheimer’s patients?
a. allergies
b. death of brain cells
c. faulty genetic instructions
d. uncontrolled growth of glial cells
Answer: C
12. To help the general public better understand the human brain, a famous neurologist is
fond of correctly saying that there are ____ of glial cells in the human brain.
a. “hundreds and hundreds”
b. “millions and millions”
c. “billions and billions”
d. “trillions and trillions”
Answer: C
13. Consider this: A tired, listless brain walks into a restaurant and looks on the menu for
something that could provide fuel for it. What “entree” does the brain order?
a. Hormone deluxe
b. Glucose platter
c. Calorie soup
d. Neurotransmitter buffet
Answer: B
14. The two groups of cells in your brain are:
a. glial cells and astrocytes
b. neurons and axons
c. genes and peripheral cells

d. neurons and glial cells
Answer: D
15. You’re directing actors in a movie on the human brain. The actor portraying the role of
glial cell is giving you a hard time. What can you say to the actor to improve his
performance?
a. “You are a glial cell. You need to be more supportive of the actors playing neurons, so
think support!”
b. “Do you remember your lines? Do you remember how glial cells help to connect the two
hemispheres together to allow information back and forth? Pay more attention to the script!”
c. “Acting? You call that acting? A glial cell transmits electrical messages!”
d. “Look, there are many other actors who could do your job. Keep in mind that you, as a
glial cell, cross the synapse. Listen for your cue!”
Answer: A
16. A new discovery has found that, in addition to neurons, glial cells might also:
a. be involved in Alzheimer’s disease
b. provide support to blood vessels to guide their growth in the central nervous system
c. transmit electrical messages
d. release a chemical to influence the growth of dendrites
Answer: C
17. Which brain cells are responsible for providing insulation around the neuron?
a. GABA cells
b. curare cells
c. axon cells
d. glial cells
Answer: D
18. Glial cells are to ____ as neurons are to ____.
a. support; transmit
b. transmit; insulate
c. support; insulate
d. Alzheimer’s disease; ADHD
Answer: A
19. The functions of neurons include:

a. transmitting and receiving electrical messages
b. providing support for glial cells
c. insulating axons
d. opening sodium gates in glial cells
Answer: A
20. Which cells specialize in receiving electrical signals and transmitting electrical signals?
a. glial cells
b. neurons
c. dendrites
d. astrocytes
Answer: B
21. What do the two main extensions of a neuron do?
a. receive and transmit electrical signals
b. wrap around glial cells
c. support mature glial cells
d. provide the mechanisms by which glial cells repair themselves
Answer: A
22. Electrical messages can be transmitted in the neuron up to:
a. 2.68 miles per hour
b. 268 miles per hour
c. 2,680 miles per hour
d. 26,800 miles per hour
Answer: B
23. Each autumn, the male canary must relearn the “breeding” song. This process of
relearning the song results in:
a. the formation of new neurons in the canary’s brain
b. a decrease in the size of the canary’s brain
c. the loss of other brain functions
d. the canary being able to learn the “breeding” songs of other birds
Answer: A

24. Research shows that as a mature male canary relearns a breeding song, there is at least a
____ in the areas of the brain that control singing.
a. 5% increase
b. 25% increase
c. 50% increase
d. 50% decrease
Answer: C
25. Which of the following areas is most likely to be able to grow new neurons in the adult
brain?
a. Broca’s area
b. hippocampus
c. hypothalamus
d. medulla
Answer: B
26. According to Module Three, in what way can the human brain repair itself?
a. A damaged neuron can grow several new axons.
b. The action potential can seek out new undamaged neurons.
c. A damaged neuron can grow new dendrites.
d. The brain can grow, replace, rewire, or repair damaged neurons.
Answer: D
27. Sarah is a medical student. She is examining the brain of a patient who had Alzheimer’s.
What would she notice about the brain as she examines it?
a. The brain is larger since it grows many tumors.
b. The size of the brain is normal.
c. The “creases” in the brain have gotten shallower.
d. The brain is smaller because it has shrunk due to cell loss.
Answer: D
28. What causes the destruction of neurons in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients?
a. the buildup of excessive myelin sheath
b. the buildup of a gluelike substance
c. an excess of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

d. an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine
Answer: B
29. The ____ keeps the neuron in working order and has specialized extensions that arise
from it.
a. axon
b. myelin sheath
c. cell body
d. synapse
Answer: C
30. Consider this scenario: The neuron is dying. All of the structures except the cell body are
healthy and undamaged. Why might damage to the cell body be the reason for the neuron’s
impending death?
a. the cell body is responsible for insulating the neuron
b. the nucleus may be damaged
c. the cell body receives nourishment from the glial cells
d. the cell body maintains the entire neuron in working order
Answer: D
31. If the axon is the “output” structure of the neuron, the input structure is the:
a. end bulb
b. dendrite
c. myelin
d. lobe
Answer: B
32. If a neuron lacked dendrites, theoretically it could ____, but not ____.
a. send messages; receive messages
b. process messages; send messages
c. grow new extensions; have myelin sheaths
d. open sodium channels; produce negative-charged ions
Answer: A
33. As we mature, one structure of the neuron is responsible for much of the gains in brain
size. What structure is it?
a. cell body

b. dendrite
c. axon
d. synapse
Answer: B
34. Dendrite is to ____ as axon is to ____.
a. PNS; receive
b. CNS; transmit
c. fast; slow
d. receive; transmit
Answer: D
35. Which part of a neuron carries signals away from the cell body?
a. axon
b. cell body
c. end bulb
d. dendrites
Answer: A
36. Alyssa is writing a paper on the function of the myelin sheath. Which of the following is
the best title for her paper?
a. “Myelin Sheath: Storing Neurotransmitters”
b. “Myelin Sheath: Receiving Signals”
c. “Myelin Sheath: Insulating the Axon”
d. “Myelin Sheath: Releasing Neurotransmitters into the Synapse”
Answer: C
37. The color of gray is to ____ as the color of white is to ____.
a. myelin sheath; cell bodies
b. cell bodies; myelin sheath
c. synapse; end bulbs
d. dendrites; cell bodies
Answer: B

38. “This is a bad television set. We’re getting lots of interference from other electrical
appliances in our apartment.” You remember the structures of the neuron and say, “Wish we
had a television set covered with a(n) ...”
a. myelin sheath
b. axon
c. dendrite
d. neurotransmitter
Answer: A
39. If the dendrite is the “input” structure of the neuron, the output structure is the:
a. soma
b. axon
c. myelin
d. lobe
Answer: B
40. Tiny sacs or vesicles that are filled with neurotransmitters are located in the:
a. end bulbs
b. axon
c. dendrites
d. synapse
Answer: A
41. If neurotransmitters could talk, what would they say about where they are stored?
a. “Branch-like extensions from the cell body give us a storage place.”
b. “Home sweet home is right next to the nucleus.”
c. “We are all stored in tiny containers located in the end bulb.”
d. “This synapse is just too small—we’re packed in here very tightly.”
Answer: C
42. A synapse is the:
a. part of the dendrite that receives incoming signals
b. small space between the end bulb and its neighboring organ, muscle, or cell body
c. chemical that transmits signals from one neuron to another
d. signal that travels from one neuron to another

Answer: B
43. End bulbs release neurotransmitters into the:
a. cell body
b. synapse
c. myelin sheath
d. axon
Answer: B
44. The nerves that make up the body, except the brain and spinal cord, comprise the:
a. peripheral nervous system
b. central nervous system
c. primary nervous system
d. secondary nervous system
Answer: A
45. Sylvester severed a toe in an accident with his lawn mower. If the toe is not too damaged,
what is the chance that the toe can be reattached to his foot?
a. Poor—nerves in the peripheral nervous system cannot regenerate
b. Poor—nerves in the central nervous system cannot regenerate
c. Good—nerves in the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate
d. Good—nerves in the autonomic system have the capacity to regenerate
Answer: C
46. As you’re waiting to visit a friend in the hospital, you overhear a physician talking to a
patient’s parents. You don’t hear the entire conversation, but only bits and pieces. There is
something about an accident and a question regarding nerves reattaching. The physician
replied that the nerves do have the ability to regrow. From your education in psychology, you
guess that the nerves were probably part of the:
a. spinal cord
b. central nervous system
c. peripheral nervous system
d. limbic system
Answer: C
47. According to your textbook, new research on the regeneration of neurons includes:
a. mild electrical currents passed through the damaged neurons

b. drugs that suppress the immune system
c. megadoses of Vitamin A
d. the use of fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells into damaged areas of the central nervous
system.
Answer: D
48. The fact that John Thompson can use his arms but Montel Williams is unlikely to be
cured of MS illustrates the difference between:
a. nerves vs. muscles
b. the peripheral nervous system vs. the central nervous system
c. receiving medical attention immediately vs. not for several hours
d. neurons vs. fetal tissue
Answer: B
49. Why does MS disrupt the messages between the body and brain?
a. MS attacks the cell bodies of neurons.
b. MS causes the death of neurons that use dopamine.
c. MS causes an overabundance of dopamine which damages dendrites.
d. MS attacks the myelin sheath that surrounds the brain cells in the CNS.
Answer: D
50. There is new research that involves replacing damaged neurons with:
a. transplanted fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells
b. tiny computers that can process information very quickly
c. computerized sodium pumps
d. transplanted tubes from monkeys
Answer: A
51. The membrane of the axon has the unique ability to:
a. ionize itself
b. change its size
c. open and close its chemical gates
d. negatively charge the dendrites
Answer: C
52. Opposite-charged ions ____ and like-charged ions ____.

a. attract; repel
b. are permeable; are semipermeable
c. have sodium; have protein
d. are positive; are negative
Answer: A
53. When a neuron is in a resting state, the majority of the particles in the fluid surrounding
the neuron are:
a. positive sodium ions
b. sodium ions that have yet to pick up a charge
c. chloride ions
d. chemically inert
Answer: A
54. A psychology instructor is lecturing on the processes and mechanisms of messages in the
nervous system. She has come to the part on the action potential. Which example should she
use to illustrate the idea of a nerve impulse?
a. how a washer cleans clothes
b. “The Wave” at a sports stadium where sections of fans stand up and then sit down
c. a bright flash of light
d. a merry-go-round
Answer: B
55. What accounts for the action potential moving down the axon at a constant speed?
a. all-or-none law
b. paced-resistance principle
c. snowball effect
d. neuronal push rule
Answer: A
56. During a class meeting, a student asks the psychology professor to define a nerve
impulse. Before the professor can open his mouth to answer, you remember the definition,
which is:
a. a surge of electrical activity simultaneously occurring down the entire axon
b. the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse
c. a tiny electrical current

d. a series of individual action potentials that occur segment by segment down the axon
Answer: D
57. If the stimulation is strong enough, the neuron’s chemical gates ____ and ____ will come
into the neuron.
a. open; negative sodium ions
b. open; positive sodium ions
c. close; positive sodium ions
d. close; vesicles
Answer: B
58. If the positive sodium ions rush inside the axon, the axon will:
a. enter the resting state
b. release a neurotransmitter
c. change its threshold
d. experience an action potential
Answer: D
59. During an action potential, the inside of the axon becomes ____ and the outside becomes
____.
a. negative; positive
b. positive; negative
c. positive; positive
d. negative; neutral
Answer: B
60. A tiny electrical current generated in the axon is called a(n)
a. electropotential
b. ion wave
c. action potential
d. resting potential
Answer: C
61. What structure in the neuron helps to speed up the transmission of the action potential?
a. axon
b. dendrites

c. myelin sheath
d. end bulb
Answer: C
62. While speeding down an axon, the impulse reaches an incredible speed by jumping at the
breaks in the:
a. end bulb
b. dendrite
c. myelin sheath
d. synapse
Answer: C
63. ____ is/are (a) chemical messenger(s) that transmit(s) information between nerves and
body organs.
a. Transmitters
b. Ion
c. THC
d. L-dopa
Answer: A
64. What substance is found in the end bulbs?
a. neurotransmitters
b. sodium ions
c. inhibitory sodium
d. L-dopa
Answer: A
65. Neurotransmitters are found in the:
a. myelin sheath
b. sodium ions
c. inhibitory sodium
d. end bulbs
Answer: D
66. If the release of neurotransmitters was being broadcast over CNN, the reporter would say:

a. “The action potential is triggering an explosion, releasing the neurotransmitters into the
synapse.”
b. “The neurotransmitters have entered the axon through sodium channels.”
c. “The resting potential is causing the cell body to release neurotransmitters.”
d. “I have never seen so many neurotransmitters being released into the myelin sheath!”
Answer: A
67. In the neuron, the electrical charge jumps the synapse. Right?
a. Yes, it is like how a spark plug works.
b. Yes, but only in the central nervous system.
c. Yes and no, both an electrical charge and neurotransmitters cross the synapse.
d. No, neurotransmitters cross the synapse.
Answer: D
68. After the release of neurotransmitters in the synapse, neurotransmitters cross the synapse
and:
a. fit into specially designed axons
b. cause the second neuron to open its chemical locks
c. cause the process known as reuptake
d. fit into specially designed receptors located on the second neuron’s dendrites
Answer: D
69. If a neurotransmitter key opens the receptor’s lock, then the neurotransmitter is said to be:
a. at the threshold
b. excitatory
c. positively charged
d. at an action potential
Answer: B
70. If a neurotransmitter key closes the receptor’s lock, then the neurotransmitter is said to
be:
a. at the threshold
b. inhibitory
c. positively charged
d. at an action potential

Answer: B
71. An evil dictator is plotting to overthrow the world’s governments by making the nervous
systems of world leaders “slow down” and mellow out. Assuming it is possible, what drug
should be put into their water supply?
a. Drug A—increases the release of excitatory transmitters
b. Drug B—prevents reuptake
c. Drug C—completely inhibits the release of transmitters
d. Drug D—increases the release of inhibitory transmitters
Answer: D
72. Eriq, a three-year old boy, has just spilled apple juice on his mother’s new laptop
computer, and she is very upset! If you could go inside his mother’s nervous system at this
point, you would find an abundance of:
a. anandamide
b. serotonin
c. inhibitory transmitters
d. excitatory transmitters
Answer: D
73. Could neurotransmitter A fit into the receptors for neuron B?
a. yes—all neurotransmitters fit into all receptors
b. maybe—if both neurotransmitters are excitatory
c. no—each neurotransmitter has its own unique receptor
d. maybe—if both neurotransmitters are inhibitory
Answer: C
74. Of the following, the only example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter is
a. acetylcholine
b. dopamine
c. glutamate
d. serotonin
Answer: D
75. Mauricio has an illness that causes a depletion of a neurotransmitter that controls learning
and memory. Which of the following is most likely affected by his malady?
a. GABA

b. serotonin
c. glutamate
d. endorphins
Answer: C
76. What do the neurotransmitters glutamate, acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine all
have in common?
a. they are all excitatory neurotransmitters
b. they are all inhibitory neurotransmitters
c. they all induce hallucinations and delusions when they are present in excessive amounts in
the brain
d. they all work on lower parts of the brain (the brainstem)
Answer: A
77. Alcohol is classified as a(n):
a. stimulant
b. depressant
c. serotonin
d. anandamide
Answer: B
78. Alcohol molecules closely resemble:
a. GABA
b. dopamine
c. THC
d. anandamide
Answer: A
79. Jack has had a few beers and he is feeling pretty good and is more sociable. If we could
look inside his brain, we would find that alcohol has:
a. increased endorphin production
b. decreased endorphin production
c. inhibited GABA neurons
d. excited GABA neurons
Answer: D

80. Excited GABA neurons lead to:
a. inhibitory effects
b. excitatory effects
c. increased self-control
d. increased neural activity
Answer: A
81. Rose drinks too much and claims that alcohol is a stimulant. Is she right?
a. yes—alcohol is a stimulant and it excites GABA neurons
b. yes—alcohol is a stimulant and it inhibits GABA neurons
c. no—alcohol is a depressant and it excites GABA neurons
d. no—alcohol is a depressant and it inhibits GABA neurons
Answer: C
82. The effect of exciting GABA neurons is:
a. decreased neural activity
b. damaged neurons
c. increased neural activity
d. blocking the transmission of electrical messages
Answer: A
83. Endorphins are secreted when we are:
a. falling asleep
b. under great stress
c. depressed
d. studying
Answer: B
84. As a preview to the next lecture, Dr. Cooper said that your brain has its own drug factory.
What did your professor mean by that remark?
a. like a regular factory, a certain percentage of the manufactured product is defective
b. dopamine is a powerful pain killer
c. your brain produces its own pain killer called endorphin
d. illegal drugs can affect the brain
Answer: C

85. A child puts her hand on a hot stove. She quickly removes it. This is an example of a(n)
____, and it involves ____.
a. learned response; reflexes
b. activating stimulus; voluntary reaction
c. reflex; involuntary reaction
d. excitatory signal; efferent neurons
Answer: C
86. Neurons that carry information from the senses to the spinal cord are called ____ neurons.
a. spinal
b. motor
c. afferent
d. efferent
Answer: C
87. If all the efferent neurons were removed from your nervous system, you would be unable
to:
a. process language
b. move your body
c. solve complex problems
d. control your emotions
Answer: B
88. Efferent neurons carry information away from the:
a. axon
b. muscles
c. synapse
d. spinal cord
Answer: D
89. Afferent is to efferent as ____ is to ____.
a. sensory; motor
b. motor; sensory
c. sensory; spinal
d. spinal; neuron

Answer: A
90. A patient suffers damage to the nervous system. He can move his hands, but he does not
feel anything with them. Which explanation is the neurologist most likely to offer?
a. efferent neurons are damaged
b. the reflex arc is damaged
c. afferent neurons have been damaged
d. Alzheimer’s disease
Answer: C
91. Which of the following is most closely related to phantom limb?
a. reattached limb
b. amputated limb
c. Alzheimer’s disease
d. mescaline use
Answer: B
92. An individual who has had a limb amputated, but continues to experience sensation and
feelings that appear to be from that limb, experiences:
a. ghost pain
b. nonregenerated pain perception
c. phantom limb
d. limb plasticity
Answer: C
93. According to Sgt. Bagge, who is described in Module Three, the toughest part of
adjusting to a double amputation is:
a. phantom limb
b. limb plasticity
c. loss of smooth movements
d. tremors and shakes
Answer: A
94. The most common report after removal of a limb is:
a. severe pain
b. sensations of pins and needles

c. sensations of numbness
d. a burning sensation
Answer: B
95. Which is not an accepted explanation for phantom limb?
a. brain pieces together sensations to form an image
b. brain “remembers” the body part
c. sensations from the spinal cord
d. sensations from the brain
Answer: C
96. It appears that the source of the pain experienced in phantom limb is the:
a. brain
b. amputated stump
c. spinal cord
d. damaged nerves of the remaining part of the limb
Answer: A
97. In explaining phantom limb, Melzack argued that:
a. the pain originates in the stump
b. an image of the amputated limb exists in the spinal cord
c. there is a body image in the brain that can generate sensations as coming from any body
part
d. the pain originates in the spinal cord
Answer: C
98. You are reading a newspaper article on phantom limb. Which of the following is the most
appropriate title for the article?
a. “Phantom Limb: An Excuse for Sympathy”
b. “Cut Nerves in Limb Cause Pain in Phantom Limb”
c. “Damaged Neurons in Spinal Cord Cause Damage”
d. “Sensations Come from Brain’s Image of Limb”
Answer: D
99. Why is phantom limb pain most severe at first and then later lessens?
a. The brain corrects its image of the body to accommodate for the lost limb.

b. It takes some time for the correct dose of painkiller to be identified.
c. The brain simply habituates to the pain.
d. Usually psychotherapy takes some time to have an effect on the pain.
Answer: A
100. Using mirrors to treat phantom limb helps the patient to:
a. release endorphins
b. release nitric oxide
c. recreate a complete body image
d. rewire the remaining nerves in the stump
Answer: C
101. What new treatment for phantom limb supports the view that the brain holds an image of
the body?
a. mirror box
b. biofeedback
c. behavior therapy
d. placebo
Answer: A
102. Reuptake is a process that:
a. causes the neurotransmitter to continue its effects
b. prevents neurotransmitters from entering the receptor
c. removes the neurotransmitter from the synapse and is returned to the vesicles of the end
bulb
d. causes neural plasticity
Answer: C
103. Reuptake is disrupted by:
a. cocaine
b. curare
c. mescaline
d. ADHD
Answer: A
104. If reuptake is prevented:

a. the neurotransmitter will be transported back to the end bulbs
b. the neurotransmitter will remain in the synapse
c. phantom limb occurs
d. the neuron will die
Answer: B
105. Cocaine causes its effects of physiological arousal and feelings of euphoria by:
a. preventing reuptake from occurring
b. blocking receptors, thereby preventing neurotransmitters from affecting the neuron
c. having a similar chemical makeup to norepinephrine
d. increasing the amount of dopamine released into the synapse
Answer: A
106. You are reading an anthropologist’s experiences with South American Indians. You are
struck at the description of Indians chewing coca leaves because it reminds you of something
you learned in psychology. What was it?
a. Coca leaves contain THC.
b. Coca leaves contain mescaline.
c. Cocaine comes from coca leaves and blocks reuptake of dopamine.
d. Curare comes from coca leaves and mimics the effects of acetylcholine.
Answer: C
107. A monkey is shot with a blow dart by a South American Indian. The blow dart is covered
with curare. The monkey’s muscles are paralyzed. What does curare do to the nervous system
of the monkey (and to humans)?
a. prevents reuptake from occurring
b. blocks receptors, thereby preventing acetylcholine from affecting the neuron
c. mimics the effects of norepinephrine because of its similar chemical makeup
d. increases the amount of dopamine released into the synapse
Answer: B
108. Which neurotransmitter does curare block?
a. anandamide
b. norepinephrine
c. dopamine
d. acetylcholine

Answer: D
109. You and some friends are watching a television show about an emergency room in a
hospital. One of the scenes shows a doctor inserting a breathing tube down the throat of a
patient. You suddenly remember that in real life ____ is used to induce muscle paralysis to
allow the tube to be inserted.
a. cocaine
b. curare
c. nitric oxide
d. GABA
Answer: B
110. The filtering system that prevents most substances from reaching the brain is called the:
a. glial-brain barrier
b. blood sheathing system
c. blood-brain barrier
d. mescaline-brain filter
Answer: C
111. A purified form of ____ is used to induce muscle paralysis in humans to allow a
breathing tube to be inserted down a patient’s throat.
a. curare
b. cocaine
c. dopamine
d. mescaline
Answer: A
112. Salvia is a drug that causes uncontrollable laughter and vivid hallucinations. Its effects
are due to its chemical similarity to
a. endorphins
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. epinephrine
Answer: A
113. The examples of cocaine, curare, and salvia presented in your text suggest that:
a. illegal drugs are used legally by other cultures

b. drugs and other substances affect behavior by affecting the processes of the neuron
c. each culture has a drug problem
d. all cultural groups have experienced drugs
Answer: B
114. A disease that is caused by an insufficient supply of dopamine and characterized by
difficulties with movement is called:
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. Parkinson’s disease
c. Sensory dementia
d. a stroke
Answer: B
115. To function properly, the basal ganglia need a sufficient supply of:
a. mescaline
b. anandamide
c. dopamine
d. acetylcholine
Answer: C
116. Your elderly neighbor has rigidity and tremors in his arms. It did not surprise you that he
was recently diagnosed with:
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. Parkinson’s disease
c. Presenile dementia
d. food poisoning from eating a Puffer fish
Answer: B
117. Connie has difficulty with behaviors that require voluntary movement. The cause of her
problem involves a deficiency of dopamine in part of her brain. Connie suffers from:
a. schizophrenia
b. Parkinson’s disease
c. Huntington’s disease
d. Alzheimer’s disease
Answer: B

118. How does L-dopa control the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?
a. it increases the levels of dopamine in the brain
b. it cures the symptoms
c. it relaxes the muscles
d. it reduces the number of “on-periods”
Answer: A
119. The problem in using L-dopa to treat Parkinson’s disease is that:
a. it can lead to symptoms that resemble Alzheimer’s disease
b. with ever-increasing dosages, it causes involuntary jerky movements
c. it increases the risk for stroke
d. it leads to reuptake
Answer: B
120. A patient with Parkinson’s disease was recently prescribed L-dopa. In how long is it
likely that he will start showing unwanted jerky movement?
a. 6 months
b. 2 to 3 years
c. 5 to 10 years
d. 15 years
Answer: C
121. In treating Parkinson’s disease, fetal brain tissue:
a. can take the place of myelin
b. can produce acetylcholine
c. can make new connections in the patient’s brain
d. has little effect
Answer: C
122. A potential treatment for Parkinson’s patients involves:
a. embryonic stem cell transplants
b. nerve regeneration
c. drugs that repair damaged neurons
d. preventing electrical signals from reaching the spinal cord
Answer: A

123. In treating Parkinson’s disease, stem cells are believed to:
a. create L-dopa
b. block dopamine receptors
c. develop into dopamine
d. develop into neurons
Answer: D
124. Which of the following has been seen as an option to the use of embryonic stem cells
that eliminates the ethical issues related to the use of stem cells?
a. Using fetal tissues
b. In-vitro fertilization
c. Human chorionic gonadotropin transplants
d. Induced pluripotent stem cells
Answer: D
125. In treating Parkinson’s disease, the area of the brain that fetal brain tissue or stem cells is
transplanted into is the:
a. basal ganglia
b. hippocampus
c. cerebellum
d. occipital lobe
Answer: A
126. The procedure that is used to transplant fetal or stem cells into a precise location in
either animal or human brains is called the ____ procedure.
a. ganglia
b. Parkinson’s
c. stereotaxic
d. Lindvall
Answer: C
127. Stereotaxic procedures:
a. cause a great deal of brain damage
b. are used for brain tissue transplants
c. have been shown to be ineffective in treating Parkinson’s disease

d. have only been performed on animals
Answer: B
128. Steven has undergone a thalamotomy. His spouse believes that this will cure him of
Parkinson’s disease. Is his spouse correct?
a. No, the procedure will only stop severe tremors.
b. No, the procedure will only slightly improve his memory and concentration.
c. Yes, if Steven continues to take his medication.
d. Yes. Thalamotomy cures Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: A
129. John was recently diagnosed with a mild case of Parkinson’s disease. He tells his doctor
that he wants a thalamotomy. Is this a reasonable request?
a. No. Removing the thalamus will cause his symptoms to worsen.
b. No. Recent research shows that the thalamus is not involved in the symptoms of
Parkinson’s disease.
c. No. The procedure is used only in severe cases and is appropriate only after other
treatments have been used.
d. Yes. A thalamotomy is a common treatment for mild Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: C
130. In treating Parkinson’s disease with deep brain stimulation, the patient:
a. undergoes painful shock treatment while under general anesthesia
b. often develops uncontrollable seizures
c. develops unwanted jerky movement
d. controls the amount of stimulation
Answer: D
131. In what brain area are electrodes placed during deep brain stimulation to treat
Parkinson’s disease?
a. thalamus
b. hypothalamus
c. hippocampus
d. cerebellum
Answer: A
132. What is the promise of deep brain stimulation in treating Parkinson’s disease?

a. complete cure
b. controlling tremors for about 5 years
c. improving memory for about 1 year
d. reducing phantom limb pain
Answer: B
133. You are watching a video of a young man skateboarding and he suddenly trips and lands
hard on the ground. You cringe at the sight of him hitting the pavement. Your ________
allowed you to experience empathy with his experience.
a. thalamus
b. glial cells
c. mirror neurons
d. GABA neurons
Answer: C
134. What part of the brain might help us to understand other people’s intentions and goals?
a. mirror neurons
b. GABA neurons
c. basal ganglia
d. stem cells
Answer: A
135. You are writing a title for an article in a magazine on mirror neurons. What would be the
most appropriate title?
a. Mirror Neurons: A Possible Cure for Parkinson’s Disease
b. Mirror Neurons: Walking in Somebody’s Shoes
c. The Role of Mirror Neurons in Phantom Limb
d. Removing Mirror Neurons in Thalamotomy
Answer: B
TRUE/FALSE
1. The risk of developing Alzheimer’s is not affected when a parent or sibling has the
disorder.
Answer: False
2. Glial cells are the most numerous brain cells.
Answer: True

3. The hippocampus and olfactory bulb may be able to grow new neurons.
Answer: True
4. The input portion of the neuron is the dendrites.
Answer: True
5. The brain is not able to grow new neurons.
Answer: False
6. The space between neurons is called the synapse.
Answer: True
7. In Alzheimer’s disease, gluelike substances in the brain help to fight the disease.
Answer: False
8. As the action potential is traveling down the axon, it can increase or decrease in speed.
Answer: False
9. The nerve impulse is called an action potential.
Answer: True
10. The action potential occurs when negative sodium ions rush inside the axon.
Answer: False
11. The action potential triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the dendrites.
Answer: False
12. Inhibitory neurotransmitters close the chemical locks in the neurons that come after the
synapse.
Answer: True
13. The relationship between a neurotransmitter and receptor is like a key and lock.
Answer: True
14. Long-term use of L-dopa to treat Parkinson’s disease can cause involuntary movement.
Answer: True
15. When GABA neurons are excited, there is an increase in neural activity.
Answer: False
16. One explanation of phantom limb pain is that the brain “remembers” the missing body
part.
Answer: True
17. Cocaine blocks the release of neurotransmitters from the end bulbs.

Answer: False
18. Reuptake is a process where neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse and
absorbed back to the end bulbs.
Answer: True
19. Curare mimics the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Answer: False
20. Salvia causes uncontrolled laughter.
Answer: True
21. Parkinson’s disease involves the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Answer: True
22. Stem cells can change into and become different types of cells.
Answer: True
23. The area of the brain affected by Parkinson’s disease is the hypothalamus.
Answer: False
24. Stem cell transplantation cures Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: False
25. Removing the thalamus is only done in severe cases of Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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