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Module 13—Intelligence
1. The cases of John Grisham, Halle Berry, Mark Zuckerberg, Alia Sabur, and Jeremy Lin
bring up the question of:
a. racial prejudice
b. intelligence
c. delinquency and getting into trouble
d. poor academic performance
Answer: B
2. The examples presented in the introduction of the module illustrate the issue of:
a. genetics in determining psychological abilities
b. the definition of intelligence
c. environmental factors in psychological abilities
d. social support within the family
Answer: B
3. If each person described in the introduction to the module is considered to be intelligent,
what does that say about the concept of intelligence?
a. There is more than one way to be intelligent.
b. Intelligence is most closely related to academic accomplishments.
c. Intelligence is primarily determined by genetics.
d. Intelligence is primarily determined by the environment.
Answer: A
4. Why might someone consider Jeremy Lin to be intelligent?
a. his musical compositions
b. his language ability
c. his athletic accomplishments
d. his inventions
Answer: C
5. ____ focuses on the development of psychological tests.
a. Forensic psychology
b. School psychology

c. Personality psychology
d. Psychometrics
Answer: D
6. If your cousin told you she was in psychometrics, what would she be most likely doing in
her career?
a. developing psychological tests measuring abilities, skills, beliefs ,and personality traits
b. studying the causes of schizophrenia
c. providing counseling to displaced factory workers
d. designing better instrumentation panels for aircrafts
Answer: A
7. At a career fair, you stop by Dr. Ibanez’s booth to talk about her career. Her professional
interests include how to best assess people’s abilities, skills, beliefs, and personality traits.
You guess that Dr. Ibanez specializes in:
a. physiological psychology
b. psychometrics
c. counseling psychology
d. developmental psychology
Answer: B
8. Which of the following is not a major question for psychologists as they measure
a. how to define intelligence
b. how to explain intelligence test scores to the general public
c. how to construct a test to measure intelligence
d. how to explain intelligence
Answer: B
9. If you ask college students to estimate their parents’ IQ, who would have the lowest
a. their mothers
b. their fathers
c. it depends—only male students would estimate their fathers’ IQ as the lowest
d. it depends—only female students would estimate their fathers’ IQ as the lowest
Answer: A

10. Who consistently overestimates their IQs?
a. professors
b. college students
c. females
d. males
Answer: D
11. As the class ends, your psych professor says, “Next time, we will discuss an approach to
intelligence that measures the cognitive factors that make up intelligence.” Since you have
already read the assigned reading, you know that she is talking about the ____ approach to
a. triarchic theory
b. multiple-intelligence
c. psychometric
d. Terman
Answer: C
12. A focus on measuring the cognitive factors or abilities that make up intellectual
performance is characteristic of the ____ approach to intelligence.
a. psychometric
b. information processing
c. triarchic theory
d. Binet-Simon
Answer: A
13. What historical figure is most closely associated to the g-factor theory of intelligence?
a. Clarence Thomas
b. Charles Spearman
c. Alfred Binet
d. Lewis Terman
Answer: B
14. Using the general intelligence theory, which of the following individuals, whose cases
were introduced in the module, would be considered the most intelligent?
a. Halle Berry
b. Jay Greenberg

c. Alia Sabur
d. there’s no clear winner
Answer: C
15. Most psychologists believe that ____ is what current intelligence tests measure.
a. “g”
b. “s”
c. “x”
d. verbal skill
Answer: A
16. General intelligence, or g, correlates positively with:
a. math skills
b. athletic success
c. social skills
d. academic performance
Answer: D
17. Dr. Peterson is a strong proponent of the general intelligence theory proposed by
Spearman. As an advantage, she offers that the theory can:
a. produce a single score for intelligence
b. examine many separate and distinct mental abilities
c. focus on the components of cognitive processes
d. divide intelligence into three ways of gathering information
Answer: A
18. Dr. Clark is a noted authority on the theory of intelligence first proposed by Charles
Spearman. When asked what the best predictor of performance in school and academic
settings is, Dr. Clark correctly responds:
a. “x”
b. IQ score
c. “g”
d. “s”
Answer: C
19. Which of the following is a disadvantage to the general intelligence theory of Charles

a. The single intelligence score is not predictive of anything.
b. It does not take into account other abilities that may indicate intelligence.
c. People get credit for being intelligent in several different domains.
d. The intelligence quotient (IQ score) is based on a general intelligence factor.
Answer: B
20. A criticism of “g” is that it:
a. may not apply to many Asian and African cultures
b. is a poor predictor of academic performance
c. cannot be transformed into an objective score
d. does not focus on cognitive abilities
Answer: A
21. Jake, an extraordinarily gifted athlete, is asked to take an intelligence test that measures
“g.” Will his athletic ability come through on this intelligence test?
a. yes—intelligence tests do measure “g”
b. yes—intelligence tests do measure “s”
c. no—intelligence tests do not measure “g”
d. no—intelligence tests do not measure non “cognitive” skills
Answer: D
22. Imagine this: You are a public relations manager and are writing an advertising campaign
for Howard Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory. What would be the best “slogan” for the
a. “Intelligence—don’t leave home without it.”
b. “Intelligence—the one and the only.”
c. “Intelligence—analytical, creative, and practical skills.”
d. “Intelligence – different strokes for different folks”
Answer: D
23. Howard Gardner defines intelligence as composed of:
a. an overall mental ability
b. a few dependent mental abilities
c. many separate mental abilities
d. analytical and logical thinking

Answer: C
24. Spearman is to Gardner as ____ is to ____.
a. multiple; single
b. single; multiple
c. triarchic; multiple
d. multiple; triarchic
Answer: B
25. Gardner argues that standard IQ tests measure:
a. spatial intelligence and verbal intelligence
b. verbal intelligence and body-movement intelligence
c. intelligence to understand oneself and others
d. verbal intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence
Answer: D
26. Using multiple-intelligence theory, which of the following individuals, whose cases were
introduced in the module, would be considered the most intelligent?
a. Bill Gates
b. Jeremy Lin
c. Jay Greenberg
d. This theory suggests that because different types of intelligence exist, one cannot be
assessed as being “more” intelligent than another.
Answer: D
27. If you wanted to develop a school based on Gardner’s theory of intelligence, you would
provide students with training in:
a. physical education, which improves mental functioning
b. verbal and math skills, which promote general intelligence
c. analytical and logical thinking, which promote better practical thinking skills
d. a variety of areas, which are not traditionally associated with IQ tests
Answer: D
28. A graduate student wanted to test the multiple-intelligence theory developed by Gardner
by giving subjects a standard intelligence test. What would Gardner say to this student’s
a. “Multiple intelligences cannot be measured by the standard intelligence test.”

b. “There is a strong, positive correlation between g and IQ score.”
c. “The multiple-intelligence theory is best tested by analyzing how people solve problems.”
d. “Good idea!”
Answer: A
29. Roman, an extraordinarily gifted athlete, is asked to take an intelligence test that is based
on Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory. Will his athletic ability come through on this
intelligence test?
a. yes—this type of intelligence test measures body-movement intelligence, along with other
b. yes—this type of intelligence test measures “g”
c. no—this type of intelligence test does not measure body-movement intelligence
d. no—this type of intelligence test does not measure “g”
Answer: A
30. An advantage of the multiple-intelligence approach is that it:
a. can reduce intelligence to a single score
b. uses standard measuring techniques to assess the different types of intelligence
c. identified all possible types of intelligence
d. recognizes people with different types of intelligence
Answer: D
31. Which of the following is a problem with the multiple-intelligence approach?
a. emphasizing who is more intelligent
b. giving people credit for several areas of intelligence
c. not knowing how many intelligences there are
d. not allowing for independence among the mental abilities
Answer: C
32. For Sternberg, intelligence is measured by:
a. analyzing the reasoning that people take in solving problems
b. asking people to define various types of words
c. how well they do in academic settings
d. the activation of neural assemblies in the cerebral cortex
Answer: A

33. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory focuses on three:
a. types of IQ testing procedures
b. types of reasoning processes
c. forms of emotional expression
d. parts of the brain used for memory
Answer: B
34. The triarchic theory focuses on the three aspects of intelligence. Which of the following is
not among the three as presented in the textbook?
a. analytical
b. practical
c. affective
d. creative
Answer: C
35. The triarchic theory approach to intelligence emphasizes the:
a. machine-like efficiency with which our computer minds crunch numbers and sort data
b. cognitive processes that people use to solve problems
c. biological changes in the brain and nervous system that result from information input
d. single-core ability on which all related intellectual skills are based
Answer: B
36. You take part in a study in which you are asked to talk out loud as you solve a series of
difficult problems. The researcher takes notes on your strategies in order to study the mental
processes you use to solve various problems. This researcher is using the ____ approach to
the study of intelligence.
a. behavioral
b. humanistic
c. psychometric
d. triarchic
Answer: D
37. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory has the advantage of:
a. giving credit to people for abilities that are not normally measured by standard tests of
b. explaining differences in intelligence between people

c. stressing affective factors
d. identifying parts of the brain that are involved in critical thinking
Answer: A
38. Which of the following is a disadvantage to the triarchic approach?
a. it does not give people credit for being intelligent in multiple ways
b. it ignores the influence that problem-solving skills have on overall intelligence
c. it does not have adequate support based on existing intelligence tests
d. there is no consideration of analytical thinking
Answer: C
39. Gardner is to multiple intelligence as Sternberg is to ____.
a. psychometric
b. specific factors
c. general factor
d. information processing
Answer: D
40. Why has the concept of “g” remained so popular among psychologists?
a. The concept of “g” takes into account musical, athletic, and creative forms of intelligence.
b. The research clearly shows that the idea of multiple intelligences is not valid.
c. Most of the research on intelligence is based on the psychometric approach.
d. The multiple-intelligence theory is widely accepted.
Answer: C
41. Francis Galton believed that intelligence was:
a. acquired or learned
b. inherited or biological
c. correlated with brain size
d. due to both nature and nurture
Answer: B
42. Based upon observations, Galton concluded that intelligence could be measured by
a. head size
b. reactions to a puzzle box

c. responses to inkblots
d. reading comprehension
Answer: A
43. According to recent research, the correlation between head size and intelligence is:
a. .05
b. .15
c. -.68
d. 1.91
Answer: B
44. You are reading a paper written in the late 1800s by Paul Broca on intelligence. Of the
following, what are you most likely to read?
a. “Triarchic theory of intelligence is so burdened with shortcomings as to be useless.”
b. “Gardner’s work on the two-factor theory is well-supported by the evidence.”
c. “I believe that there is a relationship between the size of one’s brain and one’s
d. “The evidence suggests a poor relationship between a student’s grade point average and
her intelligence.”
Answer: C
45. What would a positive correlation between brain size and intelligence mean as revealed
by MRI scans?
a. brain size alone determines intelligence
b. there is a relationship between brain size and intelligence
c. greater use of the brain makes it grow in size
d. mentally retarded individuals have the smallest brains
Answer: B
46. The correlation between brain size and intelligence is about:
a. weak and negative
b. strong and positive
c. weak and positive
d. strong and negative
Answer: C

47. Your cousin says that males are more intelligent because their brains are larger. What is
your reasoned response?
a. It is just the opposite; females are more intelligent because their brains are larger.
b. Actually, females have large brains, but there is no gender difference in intelligence.
c. The difference in brain size does account for increased intelligence in males.
d. There is no significant gender difference in intelligence.
Answer: D
48. Alfred Binet differed from many of his predecessors, in that he:
a. believed that intelligence could not be measured by standardized tests
b. saw intelligence in purely physiological terms
c. believed that tests to measure intelligence were not potentially discriminatory
d. did not believe that intelligence could be measured by assessing head or brain size
Answer: D
49. Binet believed that intelligence was ____ and that it could be measured by ____.
a. a general ability; putting the individual into novel situations
b. a collection of mental abilities; assessing a person’s ability to perform cognitive tasks
c. a collection of mental abilities; reaction time
d. genetic; assessing a person’s skull size
Answer: B
50. What provided the motivation behind Alfred Binet developing the first standardized
intelligence test?
a. With World War I, the army had to determine who was fit for service.
b. His own child was mentally retarded.
c. He was appointed to a commission to develop a method to identify children who needed
special help.
d. He conducted research as part of his graduate studies.
Answer: C
51. Who developed the world’s first standardized intelligence test?
a. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
b. Francis Galton and B. F. Skinner
c. Howard Gardner

d. Charles Spearman
Answer: A
52. The world’s first standardized intelligence test was introduced by Binet and Simon in:
a. 1879
b. 1905
c. 1923
d. 1942
Answer: B
53. ____ gives an indication of a child’s intelligence by comparing her score on an
intelligence test to the scores of average children her same age.
a. Intellectual age
b. Cognitive age
c. Mental age
d. Formula age
Answer: C
54. Bethany has a mental age of 5. This means that she must:
a. be 5 years of age
b. have answered test items that could be answered by an average five-year-old
c. have answered at least half of the items considered appropriate for the average six-year-old
d. have an intelligence level that matches her chronological age
Answer: B
55. Name the individual who revised Binet’s test and developed the formula for the
intelligence quotient score.
a. Charles Spearman
b. Ulrich Neisser
c. Karl Stanford
d. Lewis Terman
Answer: D
56. The intelligence quotient (IQ) score is computed by dividing a child’s ____ by the child’s
____ and multiplying by 100.
a. number of correct answers; number of incorrect answers

b. number of correct answers; total number of questions asked
c. mental age; chronological age
d. chronological age; mental age
Answer: C
57. On an intelligence test, a five-year-old child is able to answer the questions that the
average six-year-old can answer, but is not able to answer the seven-year-old questions. The
child’s IQ would be:
a. 100
b. 125
c. 120
d. 95
Answer: C
58. On an intelligence test, a five-year-old child is able to answer the questions that the
average four-year-old can answer, but is not able to answer the five-year-old questions. The
child’s IQ would be:
a. 220
b. 100
c. 90
d. 80
Answer: D
59. The average 14-year-old will have a ratio IQ score of:
a. 80
b. 100
c. 120
d. 140
Answer: B
60. If you were to take a modern intelligence test, your IQ score would actually be called:
a. interval IQ
b. nominal IQ
c. ratio IQ
d. deviation IQ
Answer: D

61. Harrison is going on a blind date with Nancy. He knows a limited amount about her,
including her IQ. She has an IQ of 100. What does that tell Harrison about Nancy?
a. She is a very creative person.
b. Nancy has average cognitive abilities.
c. Nancy can be a very compassionate person, and she is sensitive to the needs of others.
d. She is a strong-willed, but emotional person.
Answer: B
62. According to your textbook, who has the highest IQ?
a. Model Laura Shields
b. Film director Quentin Tarantino
c. President John F. Kennedy
d. Athlete Barry Bonds
Answer: A
63. Of the following, which test is the most widely used IQ test today?
a. Multiple Intelligence Test
b. Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
c. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
d. Stanford-Binet test
Answer: C
64. Your friend took an intelligence test. Knowing something about intelligence, you ask her
to describe the experience. She says, “There were about 15 other people taking the test at the
same time. I think it was called the Wechsler Test.” Was she correct?
a. Yes
b. No—the Wechsler tests are only given in small groups of less than five people.
c. No—the Wechsler tests are no longer given and have been replaced by the Binet-Simon
d. No—the Wechsler tests are given on a one-to-one basis, not in a group.
Answer: D
65. The current version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale consists of items which
a. verbal and performance skills
b. general intelligence and specific abilities

c. analytical and logical thinking skills
d. practical thinking and problem-solving abilities
Answer: A
66. Which of the following is not true about the Wechsler intelligence scales?
a. There is a scale for children called the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
b. People 16 years and older take the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
c. All the Wechsler scales give only a single IQ score
d. A trained examiner administers the scales
Answer: C
67. Which of the following IQ tests for children has a similar test for adults?
a. the Binet-Simon test
b. the Stanford-Binet test
c. the Wechsler test
d. the Tolman test
Answer: C
68. The Wechsler scales of intelligence are administered:
a. in large groups
b. one-on-one
c. in groups no larger than five
d. in groups no larger than three
Answer: B
69. A psychologist administers an intelligence test consisting of subtests, such as arranging
blocks to match a picture and identifying the missing component of different pictures. The
psychologist is administering which test?
a. one of the Wechsler scales
b. the Stanford-Binet
c. the K-ABC
d. the MMPI-2
Answer: A
70. Dr. Andree, a psychologist, is giving an intelligence test to a subject. The subject takes a
number of subtests, including information, comprehension, arithmetic, and digit span. These
subtests are for:

a. the verbal scale of the Wechsler
b. the performance scale of the Wechsler
c. the cognitive scale of the Wechsler
d. the general knowledge scale of the Stanford-Binet
Answer: A
71. As Gwen reviews her performance on the WAIS, she asks the psychologist who
administered the test what subtests make up the performance scale. What are some examples
of subtests on the performance scale?
a. comprehension, vocabulary
b. digit-symbol coding, block design
c. arithmetic, digit span
d. similarities, digit span
Answer: B
72. With what part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale would a person for whom
English is a second language have the most difficulty?
a. vocabulary
b. digit symbol
c. picture arrangement
d. object assembly
Answer: A
73. Of the following, which was added to the Wechsler tests of intelligence to rule out
cultural or education problems that might hinder a person’s score?
a. emotional scale
b. digit span scale
c. similarities scale
d. performance scale
Answer: D
74. Jerry has problems with concentration and is a poor test taker. With which part of the
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale will he have the most difficulty?
a. similarities
b. information
c. performance scale

d. verbal scale
Answer: C
75. You have recently had your handwriting analyzed to measure your intelligence. Much to
your surprise, handwriting analysis is usually:
a. as good as the Wechsler intelligence scales
b. no better than a good guess
c. as good as the Simon-Binet scale
d. a reliable and valid measure of intelligence
Answer: B
76. Psychological tests must have two characteristics, and they are:
a. standardization and validity
b. correlation and standardization
c. reliability and validity
d. standardization and reliability
Answer: C
77. If a test measures what it is supposed to be measuring, then we can say that the test is:
a. reliable
b. consistent
c. valid
d. organic
Answer: C
78. This question measures your understanding of an important concept in an intelligence test
because it is designed to. This refers to the question’s:
a. validity
b. reliability
c. practical nature
d. clarity
Answer: A
79. The oil dip stick in your car actually measures how much oil there is in the car’s engine.
Therefore, the dip stick is a ____ measure.
a. psychometric

b. distributed
c. correlational
d. valid
Answer: D
80. If a calculator actually subtracted numbers when you pushed the addition button, you
would question the ____ of the addition button because it doesn’t do what it is supposed to
a. deviation score
b. correlation
c. validity
d. reliability
Answer: C
81. A math teacher, wishing to include a practical question on a test, asks students to calculate
how many games out of first place a baseball team is, given its won/lost record and that of the
first-place team. After the test, a student complains that the question tested knowledge of
baseball, not math. The student is criticizing the ____ of the question.
a. validity
b. reliability
c. practical nature
d. clarity
Answer: A
82. How could a test’s validity be checked?
a. Let subjects take the test several times within one month.
b. Correlate subjects’ scores with their scores from a test with proven validity.
c. Some subjects take the first half of the test while others take the second half, and then the
scores are compared.
d. Develop two versions of the same test and examine the correlation between the two scores.
Answer: B
83. A psychologist says that a verbal aptitude test that he developed is quite valid. His
statement is true only if his test:
a. generates the same score each time the test is given
b. provides consistent results
c. generates an overall IQ score

d. correlates with another measure of verbal aptitude that is valid
Answer: D
84. According to Ed Zigler, who developed the Head Start program, academic performance
depends upon three factors. What are they?
a. family background, age, motivation
b. cognitive abilities, family background, IQ
c. reading ability, motivation, health
d. cognitive abilities, achievement, motivation
Answer: D
85. A test is said to be reliable if it:
a. measures what it is supposed to measure
b. gives consistent results for any given person
c. tests many different abilities
d. does not show racial and ethnic differences in scores
Answer: B
86. Handwriting analysis to measure intelligence may have ____, but definitely lacks ____.
a. reliability; validity
b. correlation; heritability
c. validity; heritability
d. reliability; correlation
Answer: A
87. Based on the definition presented in your text, reliability means the same thing as:
a. a correlation
b. standardization
c. consistency
d. validity
Answer: C
88. Eric is a good friend of yours, but you really don’t know why. Sometimes you can count
on him for support or to do something, and other times he forgets or comes up with some
excuse. If your friend was a psychological test, he would lack:
a. correlation

b. reliability
c. norming
d. ecology
Answer: B
89. Allison scores a 29 the first time she takes her driver’s test, and she scores a 28 the second
time she takes the test. In this case, the driver’s test can be said to have:
a. reliability
b. validity
c. a normal distribution
d. an ecological approach
Answer: A
90. “Each time I enter this command on my computer, it does different things.” This person
ought to toss this computer because it has low:
a. heritability
b. validity
c. reliability
d. distribution
Answer: C
91. A psychologist tries out a new intelligence test on a child. One month later, she
administers the same test to the same child and finds little correlation between the two
administrations of the test. In testing terminology, it would be said that the test is:
a. context-dependent
b. sensitive
c. unreliable
d. invalid
Answer: C
92. Scores on the verbal scale of the WAIS-I V are stable from the age of 20 to 74. This
suggests that the scale has:
a. a normal distribution
b. high validity
c. high distribution
d. high reliability

Answer: D
93. Why is there an overall decrease in performance on IQ scores from the age of 20 to 74?
a. changes in psychological and physiological functioning
b. poor reliability
c. poor validity
d. changes in the test itself over the years
Answer: A
94. A normal distribution is one in which:
a. the majority of scores are high
b. the majority of scores are low
c. the majority of scores fall in the middle
d. all scores fall in the middle range
Answer: C
95. If you were to describe a normal distribution as a shape, you would say that it resembles:
a. a bell
b. two evenly elevated hills
c. a rectangle
d. a line slowly moving upward
Answer: A
96. The average IQ score in a normal distribution is:
a. 85
b. 100
c. 115
d. 120
Answer: B
97. In a normal distribution of IQ scores, what percentage of people have a score between 70
and 130?
a. 54%
b. 68.26%
c. 95.44%
d. 99.9%

Answer: C
98. In a normal distribution of IQ scores, what percentage of people have a score between 85
and 115?
a. 54%
b. 68.26%
c. 95.44%
d. 99.9%
Answer: B
99. An IQ of 130 or higher suggests a person is gifted. A score of below 70 suggests
intellectual disability. One use of IQ tests is to provide:
a. categories of mental abilities
b. guidelines for psychotherapy
c. evidence of probable success in life
d. labels for people
Answer: A
100. Judith has an IQ of 65 and has problems and limitations in communication and self-care.
Judith might be considered:
a. to have savant syndrome
b. to be autistic
c. to have an intellectual disability
d. to have an IQ that is slightly below average
Answer: C
101. Dewayne has a subaverage IQ and average adaptive skills. Given his IQ, does Dewayne
have an intellectual disability?
a. Yes—Dewayne fits the definition of a person with an intellectual disability
b. No—IQ tests are no longer used to define an intellectual disability
c. No—the IQ score must be significantly subaverage
d. No—Dewayne does not have limitations in adaptive skills
Answer: D
102. Laura has an IQ of 87 and has problems with self-care, social skills, and safety. Is Laura
considered intellectually disabled?
a. No—her IQ is not subaverage

b. No—she needs limitations in four areas, she has problems in three areas
c. No—she does not have limitations in language
d. Yes—she fits the definition of a person with an intellectual disability
Answer: A
103. Aaron has an IQ of 59, but does not have any problems in the 11 areas of adaptive skills.
Is Aaron considered intellectually disabled?
a. No—his IQ is not subaverage
b. No—he needs limitations in four areas of adaptive skills
c. No—he does not have deficits in adaptive skills
d. Yes—he fits the definition of mental retardation
Answer: C
104. In addition to intelligence, the definition of an intellectual disability now includes the
notion of:
a. temperament
b. creative abilities
c. literacy
d. adaptive skills
Answer: D
105. Ofelia has a mild intellectual disability. She would be most likely to have an intelligence
quotient of ____.
a. 27
b. 41
c. 65
d. 103
Answer: C
106. Alan suffers from a mild intellectual disability. What can we expect with regard to
Alan’s functioning in the future?
a. Alan will become partially independent, but must still rely upon others for support
b. Alan will learn to read and write and become self-supporting
c. Alan will need custodial care in some kind of institution
d. He will require much supervision
Answer: B

107. Every day, Bart travels from home to his work. At work he stuffs envelopes and is taught
basic living skills. At the end of the day, he goes back home. He has become a self-supporting
member of society. He has an intellectual disability of the ____ level.
a. severe
b. profound
c. moderate
d. mild
Answer: D
108. To be classified as having a severe/profoundly intellectual disability, one of the
requirements is an IQ of:
a. 75 to 105
b. 50 to 75
c. 35 to 50
d. 20 to 40
Answer: D
109. The term “mental retardation” has generally been abandoned in favor of the term
a. intellectual disability
b. cognitive impairment
c. mental impairment
d. organic impairment
Answer: A
110. Terry, after reading about the correlation between job performance and IQ scores, says to
Randy, “There is a positive correlation in the .30 to .50 range between job performance and
IQ. Since you’re intelligent, you’ll be successful in your career.” What should Randy’s
educated response be?
a. “There is no research studying those two variables.”
b. “The correlation is more like .50 to .60.”
c. “There is no positive correlation between job performance and IQ!”
d. “You can’t predict my specific personal job performance from my specific IQ.”
Answer: D
111. One of the characters in a movie you recently watched was a gifted male. The movie
portrayed him as very socially awkward and unpopular among his peers. Does the movie
depiction match reality?

a. there is no valid research examining this issue
b. no, most gifted people are socially well adjusted
c. no, only gifted females tend to be socially awkward
d. yes, gifted males tend to be socially awkward
Answer: B
112. If you know Ricardo’s IQ score, how easily could you predict his specific academic
a. very easily—there is strong correlation between IQ and academic performance
b. very easily—there is moderate correlation between IQ and academic performance
c. it would be tricky—there is no correlation
d. difficult—there is moderate correlation between IQ and academic performance
Answer: D
113. Which of the following individuals would be classified as “gifted”?
a. Larry, with an IQ score of 100
b. Tanner, with an IQ score of 110
c. Delaney, with an IQ score of 65
d. Katie, with an IQ of 145
Answer: D
114. Terman’s longitudinal study followed:
a. children with average IQ scores
b. gifted children with IQ scores from 135 to 200
c. moderately mentally retarded children
d. severely mentally retarded children
Answer: B
115. Terman’s longitudinal studies of gifted individuals indicated that, compared to the
general population, gifted individuals:
a. suffer more ill health
b. have more emotional problems and hospitalizations
c. tend to be better adjusted
d. show no significant differences
Answer: C

116. Which gifted child is most likely to have social and emotional problems?
a. Shawn, whose parents are supportive and encourage him
b. Lydia, whose parents push her to take risks with her creativity
c. Joe, whose parents are critical whenever he fails or makes mistakes
d. Sarah, whose parents think that she is bright but not gifted
Answer: C
117. What parental characteristic is most related to a gifted child having social and emotional
a. strictness
b. permissiveness
c. unsupportive
d. being critical
Answer: D
118. What was Binet’s original goal in developing an intelligence test?
a. to identify children who were mentally retarded and needed special help and education
b. to identify children who were gifted
c. to identify children who were predisposed to become scientists and engineers
d. to start tracking students with average intelligence over their lifetime
Answer: A
119. Which of the following was not among Binet’s warnings about intelligence tests?
a. Intelligence tests do not measure innate abilities.
b. Intelligence tests do not measure natural intelligence.
c. Intelligence tests should not be correlated with grades or job performance.
d. Intelligence tests by themselves should not be used to label people.
Answer: C
120. A lawsuit brought against the San Francisco school system on behalf of all black school
children in the district was based on the finding that a disproportionately:
a. low percentage of black children were receiving educational testing
b. low percentage of black children were being placed in classes for the learning disabled
c. high percentage of black children were enrolled in classes for the mentally retarded

d. high percentage of black children were dropping out of school because they were not
receiving adequate amounts of instruction
Answer: C
121. What did the judge rule in the class-action suit against the San Francisco school system?
a. IQ tests used to determine mental retardation were valid measures of innate intelligence.
b. IQ tests used to determine mental retardation were valid measures of multiple intelligence.
c. IQ tests used to determine mental retardation were culture-free.
d. IQ tests used to determine mental retardation were biased against people of color.
Answer: D
122. What is the status of IQ testing in schools?
a. IQ tests cannot be the only basis for placement in special education classes.
b. Tests based on multiple intelligences must be used.
c. A trained psychologist must administer and interpret the test.
d. The parents of a child whose IQ is measured must assist in the interpretation of the score.
Answer: A
123. Why are African American students overrepresented in special classes in many states?
a. there is a higher number of African American students in schools
b. because of especially high levels of disability
c. because of racially biased testing procedures
d. IQ tests are more likely to be given to African American students
Answer: C
124. What accounts for the discriminatory placement procedures that result in a
disproportionate number of African American students placed in special education classes?
a. culturally biased IQ tests
b. disproportionately fewer number of African American psychologists
c. lower expectations of success in school
d. a disproportionately high number of White teachers
Answer: A
125. When IQ items test information that is more common in the experience of certain social
groups than other groups, the test is said to be:
a. culture-free

b. culturally biased
c. unreliable
d. valid
Answer: B
126. Assume that you are taking an intelligence test developed by psychologists living in the
Upper Peninsula of Michigan. One question asks you to define “holy wah” and another asks
you how to make the food called “pasties.” You could make the argument that this test has:
a. ecological validity
b. validity
c. questions measuring verbal intelligence
d. cultural bias
Answer: D
127. According to your textbook, why are some IQ tests culturally biased?
a. They tend to be developed in colleges and universities in the Midwest.
b. They measure accumulated knowledge and problem-solving strategies that most people
have learned.
c. They measure knowledge that is more familiar to members of some social groups than
d. They tend to be developed by psychologists of color.
Answer: C
128. You hear someone saying that “intelligence is intelligence, no matter where you go in
the world.” What is the most appropriate reaction, based upon Module 13?
a. Different cultures define intelligence differently.
b. If you are smart in one culture, you are going to be smart in all cultures.
c. The concept of “g” is universal and applies to all cultures.
d. Intelligent behavior in one culture is likely to be intelligent behavior in another culture.
Answer: A
129. Research suggests that the reason why Whites tend to do better on IQ tests than African
Americans is due to:
a. neurotransmitter levels
b. innate brain differences
c. more exposure to information typically found in IQ tests

d. genetic differences
Answer: C
130. With regard to intelligence, the Taiwanese culture emphasizes ____; in Zambia, there is
an emphasis on ____.
a. problem-solving; understanding and relating to others
b. creativity; problem-solving
c. nonintellectual factors; social responsibility
d. understanding and relating to others; social responsibility
Answer: D
131. Shyness, fear of strangers, and cultural expectations are called ____, and can influence
performance on intelligence tests.
a. triarchic factors
b. “s”
c. “g”
d. nonintellectual factors
Answer: D
132. Juan doesn’t do well on tests. His mother believes that nonintellectual factors are the
reasons for Juan’s poor performance. What is not an example of a nonintellectual factor?
a. attitude
b. experience
c. shyness
d. problem-solving skills
Answer: D
133. The lower IQ scores for children with autism are most likely due to:
a. problems the child might have in interacting with the person giving the test
b. the child’s mental retardation
c. lack of motivation
d. an overreliance on nonverbal IQ
Answer: A
134. Which of the following summarizes the debate on the contributions of genetics and
environment on intelligence?
a. heredity-neutral

b. neutral-nurture
c. nature-nurture
d. nature-neutral
Answer: C
135. The nature-nurture question contemplates the contribution of ____ and ____ to the
development of intelligence.
a. cultural factors; family environment
b. genetic factors; environmental factors
c. skull size; brain size
d. wealth; education
Answer: B
136. Which family relationship has the most genes in common?
a. identical twins reared together
b. fraternal twins reared together
c. siblings raised together
d. fraternal twins reared apart
Answer: A
137. If genetic factors contribute to IQ scores, then fraternal twins should have:
a. less similar IQ scores than identical twins
b. more similar IQ scores than identical twins
c. more similar IQ scores than siblings
d. totally different IQ scores
Answer: A
138. The median correlation in IQ scores for identical twins reared together is ____, while for
fraternal twins reared together it is ____.
a. .60; 1.00
b. 1.00; .50
c. .85; .60
d. .50; .50
Answer: C
139. Based on twin studies, evidence regarding the influence on IQ scores indicates that:

a. 85% is due to genetics, and 15% is due to the environment
b. 85% is due to the environment, and 15% is due to genetics
c. 50% is due to genetics, and 50% is due to the environment
d. neither genetics nor the environment is predictive of intelligence
Answer: C
140. ____ is a number that indicates the amount or proportion of some ability that can be
attributed to genetic factors.
a. Heritability
b. Genetic range
c. Reaction range
d. Nature index
Answer: A
141. Of the following attributes, which one has the highest heritability score?
a. spatial ability
b. overall intelligence
c. memory
d. extraversion
Answer: C
142. The concept of a reaction range indicates that:
a. intelligence is fixed at birth, due to genetic factors
b. intelligence may increase or decrease as a result of the environment
c. there is a “critical period” for the development of intelligence
d. heredity establishes a very narrow range for intellectual development
Answer: B
143. Two friends are debating about the nature of IQ. Sam claims that it measures innate
abilities. Joseph says that it is influenced strongly by environmental factors. Which of the
following could Joseph truthfully use to support his arguments?
a. It has been estimated that IQ can vary up to 15 points depending on environment.
b. Identical twins raised together tend to have similar IQs.
c. It is likely that two unrelated people raised in different environments will have different

d. Adopted children have IQs that are similar to those of children who have stayed with their
natural lower-class parents.
Answer: A
144. You have set up a website describing the contributions of nature and nurture to
intelligence. To accurately describe the contributions, you select the most appropriate website
address. What is it?
Answer: D
145. The results of adoption studies have suggested that:
a. the environment has no effect on intelligence
b. lower-class children adopted by higher-class families were more likely to drop out of
c. genetic factors, rather than environmental factors, contribute more to intelligence
d. intelligence can be improved by improving environmental factors
Answer: D
146. Because she did not want to raise her child in poverty, Alice put her baby up for
adoption. If Alice’s baby is raised by a middle-income family that provides a good home,
what effect could this have on the child’s IQ?
a. It will probably be lower than IQs of children who stay with their biological parents.
b. It will not be significantly different from IQs of children who stay in a disadvantaged
c. It will be higher than IQs of children who stay in the disadvantaged setting only if the
adoptive parents have above-average IQs.
d. It may be as much as 10 points higher than IQs of children who stay in the disadvantaged
Answer: D
147. A study of Romanian children who had been abandoned at birth and placed in state-run
institutions but then later placed in foster homes found that:
a. these children had lower intellectual functioning than children who remained in the
b. the foster home’s socioeconomic status had a significant effect on later IQ scores

c. these children had higher intellectual functioning than children who remained in the
d. placement in foster homes had no impact on intelligence
Answer: C
148. In a study of the neurological bases of intelligence, the ____ is the part of the brain that
was less active in children from poorer homes than in children from more well-off families.
a. basal ganglia
b. prefrontal cortex
c. putamen
d. insula
Answer: B
149. Herrnstein and Murray argued that the ____-point difference in average IQ scores
between Caucasian-Americans and African-Americans was due primarily to ____.
a. 15; inherited or genetic factors
b. 5; environmental factors
c. 20; environmental factors
d. 25; inherited or genetic factors
Answer: A
150. An “environmental factor” explanation for the racial differences in IQ scores would
focus on:
a. hormonal differences
b. genetic differences
c. poverty
d. biological factors
Answer: C
151. A task force of the American Psychological Association said that the development of an
individual’s intelligence is significantly influenced by:
a. discrimination
b. genetic factors
c. poverty
d. educational opportunities
Answer: B

152. The American Psychological Association Task Force on the racial differences in
intelligence found:
a. no convincing evidence that genetic factors play a primary role in IQ differences among
b. evidence that genetic factors play a small role in IQ differences among races
c. that intelligence tests do not discriminate against minorities
d. educational opportunities do not influence intelligence
Answer: A
153. One shortcoming of the book The Bell Curve was its assumption that
a. skin color is a good way to identify different races
b. intelligence is primarily what is called “g”
c. intelligence cannot be measured
d. intelligence is multifaceted
Answer: A
154. Why has the difference in IQ between African Americans and White Americans
narrowed in recent years?
a. revision of IQ test to reduce cultural bias
b. an increase in the number of African American psychologists
c. changes in environmental factors
d. changes in genetic factors
Answer: C
155. Lewis Terman recommended that IQ scores be used to:
a. weed out potential teachers with low IQ’s
b. prevent retarded people from marrying
c. place people in various occupational classes
d. regulate immigration
Answer: C
156. Laws to regulate immigration, such as the Immigration Law of 1924, were often based
a. culture-free intelligence tests
b. Yerkes’ intelligence ranking of European races
c. the finding that immigrants from northern Europe had the lowest IQ’s

d. the superior IQ of racial groups from eastern Europe
Answer: B
157. Yerkes concluded that the average mental age of White American adults was:
a. 22 years
b. 19 years
c. 13 years
d. 10 years
Answer: C
158. Robert Yerkes conducted IQ tests with army recruits for World War I. His study found
a. the IQ test was biased towards ethnic minorities
b. immigrants could be ranked by IQ scores according to their country of origin
c. the average mental age of White American adults was 25 years, indicative of superior
d. the use of minimal intelligence scores for occupations was inappropriate
Answer: B
159. In comparison to a normal brain, Albert’s Einstein’s brain:
a. weighs more
b. had a larger inferior parietal lobe
c. thicker corpus callosum
d. had a larger occipital lobe
Answer: B
160. Recent research examined the long-term relationship of intelligence and brain
development in children. In the brains of highly intelligent children, it was found that the
____ was thicker than in the brains of children with average intelligence.
a. corpus callosum
b. cortex
c. thalamus
d. hypothalamus
Answer: B
161. Which of the following best describes what occurs in the brain of highly intelligent
children as they become young adults?

a. The corpus callosum becomes thicker and then it thins.
b. The thalamus grows more neural connections with the cortex.
c. The cortex, that was once thicker than normal in childhood, thins.
d. The cortex continues to thicken.
Answer: C
162. Why would the cortex of highly intelligent children show a later thinning by the age of
a. The whole brain shrinks in size, not just the cortex, to allow new connections to form.
b. Given that there is limited space within the skull, the thinning allows for growth in other
areas of the brain, such as the medulla.
c. There is less learning at this time of life compared to early childhood, and therefore less
need for neural connections.
d. Those neural connections that are unused may die off to make the cortex more efficient in
its functions.
Answer: D
163. In an attempt to raise the IQs of children in its district, an inner-city school board opens
a number of preschools designed to enrich the environments of these children. Psychologists
would call this an:
a. environmental improvement program
b. early advancement program
c. educational-environmental experiment
d. intervention program
Answer: D
164. The children whose parents undergo training to help them with discipline and
communication scored higher on IQ tests than a control group. What is another advantage of
parental training?
a. the children become more popular with their peers at school
b. the parents reported less stress at home
c. the parents were more likely to help with their children’s homework
d. the children were more likely to be rated by their teachers as helpful
Answer: B
165. According to research, Head Start children, when they became adolescents, were more
likely to:
a. be in their age-appropriate class

b. take advanced mathematics in high school
c. drop out
d. make the Honor Roll
Answer: A
166. Which of the following is an accurate finding of the Head Start program?
a. Children in Head Start did not show any gains in intellectual skills.
b. Children in Head Start did not show any gains in socio-emotional development.
c. Adolescents who had been in Head Start were more likely to hold jobs.
d. Adolescents who had been in Head Start were more likely to repeat a grade later in
Answer: C
167. Alan has been enrolled in the Head Start program. If he is like most children in the
project, his parents can expect Alan to:
a. show an improvement in IQ score, but that effect will fade after Alan leaves the program.
b. enjoy school more, but not do any better than students not in the project
c. respond well to TV instruction, but not as well to teacher instruction
d. progress in terms of IQ at the same rate as children not in the project
Answer: A
168. When Patti was a child she participated in Head Start, and now she is 40 years old. If she
is typical of Head Start participants, what would you expect to see?
a. She is likely to have dropped out of college and work in the service industry.
b. She is likely to have problems with socialization and emotional control.
c. She is likely to be a high school dropout.
d. She is likely to have earned a college degree and owns a home and a car
Answer: D
169. Two conclusions regarding the effects of Head Start can be made, and they are:
a. IQ score increases do not last long, and participation leads to better social and personal
b. Increases in IQ scores are long lasting and participation leads to an increased risk for
delinquency in young adulthood.
c. IQ scores do not increase, but social development improves following participation in
Head Start.

d. Participants are less likely to graduate from high school and more likely to be held back
one grade.
Answer: A
170. The IQ scores of children who participated in intervention programs typically ____ once
they leave the program.
a. increase
b. decline
c. stabilize
d. destabilize
Answer: B
171. What is one reason for the decline in IQ scores once children leave an intervention
a. Children no longer want to learn.
b. Teachers near the end of the intervention program experience burnout.
c. They return to less-stimulating environments.
d. The intervention program is of low quality.
Answer: C
172. Dr. Jones, a psychologist working for the government, is evaluating the effectiveness of
Head Start. Which of these is the best approach to evaluating its effectiveness?
a. use IQ scores of participants compared to a control group
b. assess social competence of participants
c. use IQ scores, but also measures of social, emotional, and psychological benefits
d. measure the change of IQ scores from pre- to post-program participation
Answer: C
173. According to the textbook, are Head Start and other intervention programs a good deal
for the American taxpayer?
a. No—the gains observed in IQ disappear after leaving the program
b. Yes—intervention programs can stop the cycle of poverty
c. No—the two-year Head Start program is ineffective
d. Yes—the self-esteem of Head Start teachers increases
Answer: B

174. The case of Chris Langan illustrates that even though one might have a high IQ,
extraordinary career success most likely requires:
a. innate intelligence
b. being raised in a nurturing environment
c. earning a college degree
d. expertise in computer technology
Answer: B
175. Chris Langan is remarkable. Given his ____, we would expect extraordinary career
success for him.
a. high IQ
b. intelligent siblings
c. rich family
d. multiple doctoral degrees
Answer: A
1. The psychometric approach to intelligence attempts to measure the cognitive abilities of
Answer: True
2. Factor “g” is a poor predictor of academic performance.
Answer: False
3. Gardner proposed that there are several kinds of intelligence.
Answer: True
4. According to Gardner, standard intelligence tests appear to measure verbal and logicalmathematical intelligence.
Answer: True
5. According to Sternberg, intelligence is made up of three different types of reasoning
Answer: True
6. Brain size and intelligence are highly correlated.
Answer: False
7. In the Binet-Simon test, intelligence is measured by cognitive abilities.
Answer: True

8. In the ratio IQ, the score is a ratio between mental age and chronological age.
Answer: True
9. The WAIS-IV yields a verbal and performance score.
Answer: T
10. Validity refers to a test’s ability to measure what it is supposed to measure.
Answer: True
11. The average IQ score is 75.
Answer: False
12. The most common level of intellectual disability is in the moderate-to-severe level.
Answer: F
13. IQ is strongly correlated with job performance.
Answer: False
14. If a gifted child has critical parents, she is more likely to have emotional problems.
Answer: True
15. To determine if a student suffers from an intellectual disability, only IQ scores should be
Answer: False
16. White children are more likely to be placed in special education classes than African
Answer: False
17. Intelligence is not influenced by culture.
Answer: False
18. Genetic factors account for about 50% of our intelligence.
Answer: T
19. According to the idea of reaction range, intelligence can vary about 10 to 15 points,
depending upon environmental factors.
Answer: True
20. Differences in IQ scores between White and African Americans are due to exposure to
information found on IQ tests.
Answer: True
21. Highly intelligent children initially have a thicker cortex, but by age 19, it thins to the
thickness seen in the cortex of children with average intelligence.

Answer: True
22. When children leave Head Start, their IQs typically remain the same.
Answer: False
23. The story of Chris Langan proves that going to college can raise one’s IQ.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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