Preview (7 of 23 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 2 The Rise of Greek Civilization MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The earliest Bronze Age settlements were ____________. A. at the mainland site of Mycenae B. at the coastal site of Miletus C. on the islands of the Aegean Sea D. on the island of Crete Answer: D 2. Some scholars have argued that because the civilizations of Crete reflected the importance of women, they were more ____________ than others. A. tranquil B. aggressive C. artistic D. philosophical Answer: A 3. Some scholars have suggested that a group of pirates known as ____________ destroyed Pylos. A. Miletus B. Cnossus C. Dorians D. tholos Answer: C 4. Although Homer’s Mycenaean heroic characters worshipped gods in temples, in real life it would not have occurred because Mycenaeans ____________. A. were monotheistic and worshipped only one God B. only made sacrifices C. only worshipped outside D. had no temples Answer: D 5. Which of the following correctly identifies the four classes in Homeric society? A. Mycenaeans, Minoans, slaves, and nobles B. nobles, shepherds, thetes, and indentured servants C. knights, landless laborers, thetes, and shepherds D. nobles, thetes, landless laborers, and slaves Answer: D 6. The Acropolis in Athens is an example of a(n) ____________. A. tholos B. agora C. public bathhouse D. citadel Answer: D 7. Until defeated by the Roman legion, the dominant military force in the eastern Mediterranean was the ____________. A. agora B. citadel C. hoplite phalanx D. battalion Answer: C 8. Colonization encouraged trade, industry, and the manufacturing of items such as ____________. A. weapons, pottery, silks, and leather products B. pottery, silks, weapons, and fine artistic metalwork C. fine artistic metalwork, tools, pottery, and silks D. tools, weapons, pottery, and fine artistic metalwork Answer: D 9. Greek colonies, established for the good of the colonists, were sponsored by ____________. A. the colonists themselves B. the mother city C. rich merchants D. nobility Answer: B 10. A tyrant was a ____________ who gained power in an unorthodox way. A. colonist B. pirate C. fisherman D. monarch Answer: D 11. By the time the last tyrants left, they were universally hated for their ____________. A. illegal dealings with land B. cruelty and repression C. dogmatic religious views D. unfair laws for colonists Answer: B 12. The Spartan constitution contained which element(s) of government? A. monarchy B. democracy C. tyranny D. monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy Answer: D 13. Who ruled Spartan government? A. the clergy B. a king C. two kings D. an elected male citizen Answer: C 14. The Spartan assembly consisted of ____________. A. all males over twenty B. nobles aged forty and older C. all males over thirty D. all land-owning males Answer: C 15. Which of the following poleis is located in Attica? A. Athens B. Sparta C. Corinth D. Thebes Answer: A 16. A magistrate named ____________ was elected as an archon in 594 B.C.E. and reformed the economics, politics, and constitution of Athens. A. Pisistratus B. Solon C. Hippias D. Cleisthenes Answer: B 17. Who was fairly called the “father of Athenian democracy”? A. Solon B. Pisistratus C. Hippias D. Cleisthenes Answer: D 18. Hesiod’s Works and Days gives insight into the life of a(an) ____________. A. religious leader B. farmer C. wealthy aristocrat D. prince Answer: B 19. Which of the following was always awarded to winners of the Olympics? A. free land B. cash prizes C. admittance to the polis leadership D. wreaths Answer: D 20. The Greeks’ period of freedom ended in the sixth century B.C.E. when the Greek colonial cities of Asia Minor came under the control of Persian ____________ of Lydia. A. King Leonidas B. King Croesus C. King Xerxes D. General Mardonius Answer: B 21. The Persians controlled both sides of the ____________, the route to the grain fields beyond the Black Sea. A. Euphrates River B. Persian Canal C. Pagasaean Gulf D. Hellespont Answer: D 22. In 498 B.C.E., Athenian Greeks made a surprise attack and burned down ____________, the old capital of Lydia. A. Lesbos B. Sardis C. Mysia D. Caria Answer: B 23. Miltiades, who had fled from Persian service, led the Greeks to a vital victory over the Persians at ____________. A. Tempe B. Thebes C. Corinth D. Marathon Answer: D 24. The Athenians came across a rich vein of ____________ in the state mines. A. coal B. diamonds C. copper D. silver Answer: D 25. Of the hundreds of Greek states in 480 B.C.E, only ____________ were willing to fight the Persians. A. ten B. thirty-one C. seventy-six D. one hundred and eleven Answer: B 26. The new civilization on Crete was a cultural bridge from ____________. A. Roman culture B. the Stone Age C. the Bronze Age D. older civilizations of Greece, Egypt, and Asia Answer: D 27. Which of the following people was most likely to be buried in a tholos tomb? A. an ordinary citizen B. a Mycenaean slave C. a king D. a convicted criminal Answer: C 28. Although Mycenaean palaces were destroyed and its towns abandoned by 1100 B.C.E., following a massive volcanic explosion around 1200 B.C.E., this natural disaster does not explain the end of this civilization because ____________. A. the palaces were attacked by neighboring enemies B. some towns were still intact after the volcanic explosion C. most people had left the area when the volcano erupted D. most people moved out of the towns to do farming Answer: B 29. The fall of the advanced Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, virtually ending trade with the old civilizations of the Near East, caused the Greeks to ____________. A. bond together with other communities in order to survive B. form a new government C. turn inward, with each community left to its own devices D. open up trade with other neighbors, such as Attica Answer: C 30. Although some characters in Homer’s poems were depicted to be cremated in the Mycenaean Age, this could not have really happened because ____________. A. Mycenaeans buried their dead in temples B. Mycenaeans buried their dead in tholos tombs C. Mycenaeans buried their seafaring people at sea D. cremation was considered an act of the devil Answer: B 31. Aristotle argued that humans can be either the best of animals or the most dangerous of animals depending on whether or not they have ____________. A. food and housing B. educated leaders C. caring parents D. law and justice Answer: D 32. About 750 B.C.E., coinciding with the development of the polis, the Greeks ____________. A. created the first True alphabet B. built up their army considerably C. developed paper and spread a new writing system D. created a compass Answer: A 33. Which of the following describes the typical Greek colony–mother city relationship? A. hostile B. friendly C. submissive D. domineering Answer: B 34. The ruling aristocrats barred ____________ from political power, religious privileges, and social acceptance, creating a crisis in many states. A. women B. slaves C. peasants D. the new rich Answer: D 35. A tyrant usually ____________. A. gained power in an unorthodox, but not necessarily wicked, way B. rose to power because of his military ability C. expelled his aristocratic opponents, dividing their land among supporters D. All of these are correct. Answer: D 36. Which of the following is a long-lasting contribution that tyranny made to the development of Greek civilization? A. increased communication with the rest of the Mediterranean world B. cultivated arts and literature C. broke the grip of the aristocracy and gave power to talented citizens D. All of these are correct. Answer: D 37. About 725 B.C.E., the pressure of population and hunger led ____________, located on the Peloponnesus, to launch a war of conquest against its western neighbor: A. Messenia B. Sparta C. Athens D. Troy Answer: B 38. Which of the following was a result of the First Messenian War? A. Messenians were reduced to the status of serfs. B. Spartans were reduced to the status of serfs. C. Messenians did not need to work the land that supported them. D. Spartans lost land to the Messenians. Answer: A 39. Which of the following would describe a typical male Spartan after the new system emerged in the late sixth century B.C.E.? A. controlled and regimented B. carefree and extravagant C. literary and cultured D. predestined but light hearted Answer: A 40. When Spartans defeated Tegea, instead of taking away land and subjugating them, they let them keep their land and their freedom in exchange for ____________. A. paying an annual fee in grains and oil B. following the Spartan lead in foreign affairs and supplying soldiers on demand C. converting to the Spartan religious and cultural traditions D. educating their children with Spartan customs and swearing Spartan allegiance Answer: B 41. Solon changed the constitution of Athens so that citizenship, currently the privilege of males whose fathers were citizens, was extended to include ____________. A. females whose fathers were citizens B. all males, even if their fathers were not citizens C. immigrants who were tradesmen and merchants D. whoever lived there at the time the constitution was changed Answer: C 42. After the withdrawal of the Spartans from Athens, Clisthenes, who had lost his political power to nobility, took the unprecedented action of ____________. A. turning to the people for political support B. challenging the nobility to a debate C. asking King Cleomenes I to intervene on his behalf D. marrying the daughter of one of the nobles Answer: A 43. The poetry of Hesiod around 700 B.C.E., which detailed the daily life of a farmer, became important in ancient Greek history because ____________. A. it showed how well-versed the Greeks were B. Hesiod was the only writer at that time C. there were few recorded thoughts from ordinary people D. Hesiod was really an aristocrat, not a farmer Answer: C 44. Although the twelve Olympian Gods were superhuman, all behaved like mortals except for their leader, Zeus, who ____________. A. showed mercy to the poor B. cared about the old C. helped the ill recover D. was a source of human justice Answer: D 45. Which of the following ended the calm rule of Ionia by Greece, stirring the Ionian Rebellion? A. the Athenian victory at Marathon B. the suicide of Cambyses C. the death of the Persian king Cyrus the Great D. the private troubles of the ambitious tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras Answer: D 46. Which of the following is True of the tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras? A. He urged a Persian expedition against the island of Naxos. B. He turned to the mainland states for help. C. He organized the Ionian rebellion of 499 B.C.E. D. All of these are correct. Answer: D 47. Which of the following is True of the Athenians? A. They refused to attack Sardis. B. They were related to the Ionians and shared close ties of religion and tradition with them. C. The thought of leaving their homeland undefended against the Spartans alarmed them. D. Before the Ionian rebellion they controlled both sides of the Hellespont. Answer: B 48. Athenian freedom would have been destroyed and future achievements in Greek culture may have never occurred without ____________ in 490 B.C.E. A. the victory over the Persians at Marathon B. an intervention by Egypt C. the Ionian Greeks inclusion of democracy D. the general prosperity taking place Answer: A 49. During the Great Invasion, one advantage for the Greeks was ____________. A. a desire to avenge their loss at Marathon B. a strong Athenian navy C. fighting on land instead of at sea D. their great leader, Xerxes, and his army of at least 150,000 men Answer: B 50. Although Greek ships were fewer and slower than Persian ships, the Greeks won a decisive sea battle by ____________. A. staying out of sight and making sudden surprise attacks B. placing combat soldiers, instead of supplies, on their ships C. employing Archimedes-style weapons that reached great distances D. strategizing to follow then attack the Persians from behind Answer: B 51. The striking creations of the palaces uncovered at such sites as Phaestus, Haghia Triada, and Cnossus detail much unique character and beauty. Based on the description of the palaces, what can we deduce about the daily lifestyle and living structures of the people living within the palaces? A. Defense and battle techniques were essential to their survival. B. Children were revered and blessed with oils and grains. C. Culture, education, and innovation were valued within the society. D. Taxes were high and often a burden to the common citizen. Answer: C 52. The principal reason the agora—a marketplace and civic center—became the heart of Greek social life was because ____________. A. popular games were played there B. conversation and argument were carried on in the open air C. musicians played music there D. dances and concerts were held there each night Answer: B 53. Which of the following is NOT a program of public works achieved by tyrants? A. They broadened education and programs for adult literacy. B. They cared for the water supply. C. They erected temples and strengthened city walls. D. They sponsored the arts and supported poets and artisans. Answer: A 54. An effect of Draco’s special authority to codify and publish laws for the first time was the ____________. A. granting of rights of habeas corpus B. granting of the right of the accused to face their accuser C. publication of set laws that applied to all of the lower classes D. publication of laws strengthening the hand of the state against powerful nobles Answer: D 55. Which of the following is one of the indirect causes of the growth in the numbers of enslaved Athenians in the seventh century B.C.E.? A. the rotation of crops B. the lack of fertilizer C. never borrowing money D. the low price of wheat Answer: B SHORT ANSWER 56. Crete was the site of the earliest Bronze Age settlement, and modern scholars have called the civilization that arose there ____________ after the legendary king of Crete. Answer: Minoan 57. ____________ was the writer of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. Answer: Homer 58. The highest virtue in Homeric society was ____________. Answer: arete 59. The Greek polis was thought of as a community of ____________. Answer: relatives 60. The marketplace and civic center of the polis was called an ____________. Answer: agora 61. By confronting the Greeks with the differences between themselves and the new people they met, colonization gave them a sense of cultural identity and fostered a ____________ spirit. Answer: Panhellenic 62. In some cities, the crisis produced by new economic and social conditions led to the establishment of a ____________. Answer: tyranny 63. In the seventh century B.C.E., Athens was a typical ____________ polis. Answer: aristocratic 64. Archons served for only a year and were checked by their colleagues, as they looked forward to a lifetime as a member of the ____________, the True master of the Athens state. Answer: Areopagus 65. A ____________ was a carefully organized occasion, the center of aristocratic social life. Answer: symposium 66. Like most ancient peoples, the Greeks were ____________, and religion played an important part in their lives. Answer: polytheists 67. The first record of the Olympics dates back to 776 B.C.E. and was held at Olympia in honor of ____________. Answer: Zeus 68. The priests of ____________ preached moderation, including two famous sayings: “Know thyself” and “Nothing in excess.” Answer: Apollo 69. A Greek traitor showed the Persians where a hidden ____________ was located, so they could attack the Greeks from behind. Answer: mountain trail 70. At Plataea, in the summer of 479 B.C.E., the ____________ suffered a decisive defeat. Answer: Persians ESSAY 71. How did the location of Crete influence its cultural interaction and fortification system? What geographic features could facilitate or hinder the development and security of the Minoan and Mycenaean societies? Answer: The location of Crete played a significant role in shaping its cultural interaction and fortification system. Situated in the eastern Mediterranean, Crete served as a crossroads between Europe, Asia, and Africa, facilitating cultural exchanges and trade with neighboring civilizations. Its central location allowed for maritime trade routes to Egypt, the Near East, and mainland Greece, contributing to the island's prosperity and cultural richness. Additionally, Crete's geographic features, including its natural harbors and fertile plains, supported agriculture and maritime commerce, further enhancing its role as a cultural hub. The geographic features of Crete also influenced the development of its fortification system. The island's mountainous terrain provided natural defenses against invasion, making it challenging for potential adversaries to launch successful military campaigns. Strategic coastal locations allowed for the construction of fortified settlements and palace complexes, such as those found at Knossos and Phaistos, which served to protect against external threats and control access to key resources. The Minoans and Mycenaeans utilized these natural advantages to build strong defensive structures, including walls, watchtowers, and gated entrances, enhancing the security of their societies. However, while Crete's geography provided advantages for cultural interaction and defense, it also presented challenges. The island's rugged landscape could hinder communication and travel between different regions, potentially limiting the extent of cultural exchange within Crete itself. Additionally, Crete's vulnerability to maritime attacks necessitated the establishment of robust naval defenses to protect against seaborne incursions. Despite these challenges, the Minoans and Mycenaeans effectively utilized their geographic surroundings to foster cultural exchange and ensure the security of their societies. 72. How does the Iliad reveal the powers of the king, the noblemen, and the common soldiers in government during the Greek Middle Ages? Answer: The Iliad provides insight into the distribution of power among different segments of society during the Greek Middle Ages. Kings, represented by figures like Agamemnon and Priam, wield significant political and military authority. They make crucial decisions that shape the course of the Trojan War, command armies, and negotiate treaties. Their power stems from their royal lineage, wealth, and divine favor, as well as their ability to inspire loyalty and lead their people in times of conflict. Noblemen, such as Achilles and Hector, occupy positions of honor and prestige within society. They are renowned warriors and leaders of men, respected for their courage, strength, and martial prowess. Despite their noble status, they are subject to the authority of kings and must navigate complex social dynamics and obligations, including loyalty to their comrades and responsibilities to their families. Common soldiers, depicted as foot soldiers and lesser warriors in the Iliad, play crucial roles in battle but possess limited agency and influence compared to kings and noblemen. They follow orders from their superiors, fight bravely on the battlefield, and contribute to the overall war effort, but their individual voices and actions are often overshadowed by those of their leaders. The Iliad thus portrays a hierarchical society in which power and authority are concentrated among the ruling elite, with common soldiers serving as the backbone of the military force. 73. Describe Homer’s view of women. Was his view of women largely positive, largely negative, or a combination of both? Answer: Homer's view of women in the Iliad is multifaceted, encompassing both positive and negative portrayals. While some female characters are depicted as virtuous, wise, and compassionate, others are shown in a less favorable light, exhibiting traits such as manipulation, deceit, and vindictiveness. Positive portrayals of women include figures such as Andromache, Hector's wife, who demonstrates loyalty, courage, and maternal love in her interactions with her husband and son. Similarly, characters like Hecuba, Priam's wife, and Penelope, Odysseus's wife in the Odyssey, exhibit strength, resilience, and devotion in the face of adversity. However, Homer also presents negative depictions of women, particularly in the context of their relationships with men. Female characters such as Helen and Clytemnestra are criticized for their roles in causing conflict and betrayal, with their actions leading to tragic consequences for themselves and others. Additionally, women in the Iliad are often objectified and treated as prizes to be won or possessions to be controlled by men, reflecting patriarchal attitudes prevalent in ancient Greek society. Overall, Homer's portrayal of women reflects the complexities of gender dynamics in ancient Greece, encompassing both admiration for female virtues and recognition of the limitations and challenges faced by women in a male-dominated society. 74. Explain how the traditional translation of the word polis is misleading. Answer: The traditional translation of the word "polis" as "city-state" is misleading because it fails to capture the full complexity and significance of the concept in ancient Greek society. While "city-state" accurately describes the political organization aspect of the polis, it overlooks its cultural, social, and economic dimensions. The polis was not merely a political entity but also a community where citizens participated in various aspects of life, including governance, religious ceremonies, cultural events, and economic activities. Therefore, translating "polis" solely as "city-state" neglects its holistic nature and its role as the fundamental unit of Greek society. 75. Explain why Greek colonies were established. What were some of the benefits of colonies? Whom did the colonies benefit? Answer: Greek colonies were established primarily for economic reasons, such as expanding trade networks, accessing new resources, and alleviating population pressures in the homeland. Colonization provided several benefits, including the opportunity for Greeks to establish new agricultural settlements, exploit natural resources such as metals and timber, and establish lucrative trade routes. Additionally, colonies served as strategic outposts for military and political expansion, enhancing the power and influence of the mother city-state. The colonies benefited both the colonists, who gained economic opportunities and political influence, and the mother city-state, which profited from increased trade and strategic advantages in the region. 76. Explain how the Greek territory expanded. What distinguishing features determined the settlement of Greek colonization? What could account for the gaps and disconnected colonization within the Greek world? Answer: The expansion of Greek territory occurred primarily through colonization, which involved the establishment of new settlements by Greek city-states in various regions around the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Distinguishing features that determined the settlement of Greek colonization included factors such as proximity to the sea for trade and communication, fertile land for agriculture, access to natural resources like metals and timber, and strategic locations for defense and control of trade routes. Greek colonies were often founded in areas that offered these favorable conditions, allowing settlers to establish thriving communities and exploit economic opportunities. Several factors could account for the gaps and disconnected colonization within the Greek world. One factor was geographical barriers such as mountain ranges and rugged terrain, which hindered communication and travel between different regions. Additionally, competition and conflicts among Greek city-states sometimes led to the establishment of colonies in separate areas, resulting in disconnected colonization patterns. Furthermore, external threats from neighboring civilizations or environmental factors could have deterred Greek colonization efforts in certain regions, leading to gaps in the expansion of Greek territory. Overall, a combination of geographical, political, and environmental factors contributed to the uneven and fragmented nature of Greek colonization. 77. Evaluate both the benefits and drawbacks to tyrannical rule as demonstrated in Greek society. What other options could have achieved the same, or further, success without the negative outcomes? Justify your answer with examples from the text. Answer: Tyrannical rule in Greek society demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. On the positive side, tyrants could bring stability, economic prosperity, and infrastructure development to their city-states. They often implemented reforms to address social inequality and improve the lives of common people. For example, Peisistratus in Athens is known for his policies that supported the lower classes and promoted the arts and literature. However, the drawbacks of tyrannical rule included the erosion of democratic principles, suppression of political dissent, and the concentration of power in the hands of a single ruler. Tyrants could also be ruthless and oppressive, leading to unrest and instability within the city-state. For instance, the tyrant Hippias in Athens faced opposition from citizens who eventually overthrew him to restore democracy. Alternative options to achieve success without the negative outcomes of tyranny could include democratic governance with strong institutions for checks and balances, meritocratic systems that promote leadership based on competence rather than birthright, and constitutional monarchies that limit the power of rulers. These systems offer mechanisms for citizen participation, accountability, and the protection of individual rights, reducing the risk of authoritarianism and abuse of power. 78. Examine the sacrifices made by Spartan men and women in their powerful commitment to the polis. What did Sparta, as a whole, gain from these sacrifices? Based on your examination of Sparta, how effective was this policy? Answer: Spartan men and women made significant sacrifices in their commitment to the polis, exemplified by their rigorous military training and adherence to a strict societal hierarchy. Men underwent intense military training from a young age, dedicating their lives to serving the state as soldiers. Women, meanwhile, bore the responsibility of producing healthy offspring to strengthen the Spartan military and maintaining the household while their husbands were away at war. Sparta, as a whole, gained a formidable military reputation and a highly disciplined citizenry from these sacrifices. The Spartan military was renowned for its effectiveness and discipline, allowing Sparta to maintain hegemony over the surrounding region and fend off external threats. Additionally, the emphasis on military strength and civic duty instilled a sense of unity and loyalty among Spartan citizens, contributing to the stability and cohesion of the polis. However, the effectiveness of this policy is debatable. While Sparta achieved military success and political stability, its rigid social structure and emphasis on militarism stifled individual freedom and creativity. The Spartan economy suffered from a lack of innovation and productivity due to the focus on military training at the expense of other pursuits. Furthermore, the harsh treatment of the helots, enslaved agricultural laborers, led to resentment and periodic revolts, undermining the long-term sustainability of Spartan society. Thus, while Sparta's sacrifices contributed to its short-term success, they also ultimately contributed to its decline as a dominant power in Greece. 79. What sports or contests made up the Greek athletics? What were the intrinsic and tangible incentives for Greek athletes? Answer: Greek athletics encompassed a variety of sports and contests, including running, wrestling, boxing, chariot racing, discus throwing, javelin throwing, and the pentathlon, which combined running, jumping, discus throwing, javelin throwing, and wrestling. These athletic competitions were an integral part of Greek culture, with events held at religious festivals such as the Olympic Games, Pythian Games, Isthmian Games, and Nemean Games. Greek athletes were motivated by both intrinsic and tangible incentives. Intrinsic incentives included personal honor, glory, and the opportunity to showcase one's physical prowess and skill in front of fellow citizens and deities. Winning an athletic competition brought prestige and recognition to the athlete and their city-state, enhancing their social status and reputation. Tangible incentives for Greek athletes included material rewards such as prize money, valuable goods, and olive wreaths, which were awarded to victors in some competitions. Additionally, successful athletes often received patronage and support from wealthy individuals or city-states, which could provide financial assistance, land grants, or other privileges as a reward for their athletic achievements. Overall, Greek athletes were driven by a combination of personal pride, social recognition, and material rewards, making athletics a highly competitive and prestigious pursuit in ancient Greek society. 80. In 480 B.C.E., Athens had well over 200 ships and hundreds of Greek states. Only thirty-one of the states were willing to fight the Persians. What strategy did Themistocles use? What happened to King Leonidas of Sparta at Thermopylae? What did the Persian army do after they forced the Greek navy to withdraw? Discuss how Greece ultimately defeated the Persians. Answer: In 480 B.C.E., facing the imminent threat of invasion by the Persian Empire, Themistocles, an Athenian statesman and general, devised a strategy to confront the Persians at sea. Recognizing Athens' naval strength, he urged the city-state to focus on building a formidable navy, leveraging its naval superiority against the Persian fleet. Themistocles convinced the Athenians to evacuate the city and seek refuge on the nearby island of Salamis, luring the Persians into a naval engagement in the narrow straits of Salamis. At the Battle of Thermopylae, King Leonidas of Sparta led a small Greek force, including 300 Spartan warriors, to defend the narrow mountain pass against the Persian army under King Xerxes I. Despite their bravery and determination, Leonidas and his men were ultimately overwhelmed by the sheer size of the Persian forces. Leonidas himself was killed in the battle, but his sacrifice bought valuable time for the rest of the Greek forces to prepare for further resistance. After forcing the Greek navy to withdraw from the Battle of Artemisium, the Persian army proceeded to advance southward, capturing and burning the city of Athens. However, the Greek naval victory at the Battle of Salamis dealt a severe blow to the Persian fleet, forcing them to retreat and regroup. Subsequently, the combined Greek forces, led by the Spartan general Pausanias and the Athenian general Themistocles, achieved a decisive land victory over the Persians at the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.E. The Persian army suffered heavy losses, and their fleet was further weakened by subsequent naval engagements, leading to their eventual withdrawal from Greek territory. Greece ultimately defeated the Persians through a combination of strategic planning, naval superiority, and determined resistance on land. Themistocles' foresight in prioritizing naval power, combined with the bravery and sacrifice of Greek warriors like King Leonidas and his Spartans, played a crucial role in repelling the Persian invasion and preserving Greek independence. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right