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Module 2—Psychology and Science
1. What disorder is characterized by the behavioral problems of inattention and excessive
activity and can be treated with Ritalin?
a. conduct disorder
b. learning disability disorder
c. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
d. autism
Answer: C
2. Of the following symptoms, which is not present in attention-deficit hyperactivity
a. hallucinations
b. frequently leaving seat in the classroom
c. making careless mistakes in schoolwork
d. talking excessively
Answer: A
3. Your next door neighbor has a son named James. James, who is seven, has problems with
attention and fidgets excessively. Based upon your interactions with James, you notice that he
talks much of the time and has difficulty following instructions. What is James’s most likely
a. childhood schizophrenia
b. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
c. bipolar disorder
d. autism
Answer: B
4. The diagnosis of ADHD is difficult because:
a. it is based on behavioral symptoms and not medical tests
b. it is based on medical tests and not behavioral symptoms
c. the law states that two mental health professionals must agree on the diagnosis
d. ADHD is so poorly defined
Answer: A

5. Your friend has two children. The youngest of them, a three-year-old boy, was recently
diagnosed with ADHD. You find that odd because:
a. ADHD rarely shows up in males.
b. The symptoms of ADHD typically are first observed around the age of ten.
c. In general, the youngest child in a family does not show ADHD.
d. A diagnosis of ADHD before the age of 4 does not follow the guidelines of the American
Academy of Pediatrics.
Answer: D
6. Ritalin is to ____ as aspirin is to ____.
a. stimulant; depressant
b. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; headache
c. depression; headache
d. analgesic; amphetamine
Answer: B
7. Stimulants like Ritalin and Adderall affect children by:
a. increasing activity but only in nonhyperactive children
b. increasing activity
c. decreasing activity
d. decreasing activity but only in hyperactive children
Answer: C
8. You’re listening to a talk show on the radio. The guest happens to be an expert on
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. One question asked of the guest concerns treatment.
The expert says, “Ritalin is used to control this disorder. It is a depressant and has side
effects.” What was wrong with the expert‘s comments?
a. Ritalin is a stimulant, not a depressant.
b. Ritalin doesn‘t control the disorder; it cures it.
c. Ritalin is never prescribed for ADHD.
d. Ritalin has been shown to cause no side effects.
Answer: A
9. Your 10-year-old cousin is currently taking Ritalin. Based on your knowledge of Ritalin’s
side effects, you should not be surprised to hear that he is having problems in:
a. gaining too much weight

b. sleeping
c. feeling depressed
d. maintaining attention
Answer: B
10. A newspaper reporter wants to do a story on the controversy surrounding attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder. She wants to focus on the biggest controversy. Based upon your
reading of this Module, what should be the focus in her story?
a. the side effects of treating it with changes in diet
b. the diagnosis of the disorder
c. the unwillingness of insurance companies to pay for treatment
d. the use of stimulants like Ritalin or Adderall
Answer: D
11. The process of answering questions about human behavior and mental processes through
information observation and speculation is called ________ psychology.
a. pseudo
b. armchair
c. dialectic
d. descriptive
Answer: B
12. What is the approach that attempts to gather information and to answer questions in a way
that errors and bias are minimized?
a. debriefing
b. random selection
c. scientific method
d. manipulation of variables
Answer: C
13. The scientific method attempts to:
a. propose theoretical ideas to answer questions
b. minimize errors and bias in gathering information and answering questions
c. promote common sense understanding
d. dispute common sense by forcing scientists to do experiments
Answer: B

14. Dr. Stokes has decided to conduct a study of the relationship between one’s glucose
intake and his or her likelihood of developing ADHD. If she is going to use the scientific
method properly, Dr. Stokes’s second step will be to:
a. formulate an hypothesis
b. review the literature
c. select a research design
d. collect data
Answer: A
15. Which of the following is an important strength of the scientific method?
a. It is very imprecise.
b. It makes use of an empirical process that enhances biases and errors.
c. It is very cheap to employ
d. It can be used for any of the four goals of psychology.
Answer: D
16. Which of the following is not a commonly used method for answering questions?
a. survey
b. case study
c. introspection
d. naturalistic observation
Answer: C
17. The discussion of hand washing in the textbook illustrates what important point about
a. The results may be accurate if you carefully define the words used in the survey.
b. Self-fulfilling prophecy introduces errors into survey results.
c. Surveys show cause and effect.
d. Sometimes people do not answer truthfully.
Answer: D
18. Based on telephone surveys, about ____ of school-age children are diagnosed with
a. .5%
b. 1%
c. 5%

d. 25%
Answer: C
19. According to the textbook, which of the following groups has the highest incidence of
a. Asian-American girls
b. Hispanic-American boys
c. Native-American boys
d. African-American boys
Answer: D
20. According to the textbook, which group has the lowest incidence of ADHD?
a. Asian-Americans girls
b. Hispanic-Americans boys
c. Anglo-Americans boys
d. African-Americans boys
Answer: A
21. Which research method involves questioning a group of people?
a. experimental method
b. naturalistic observation
c. survey method
d. laboratory observation
Answer: C
22. As part of a group project, you are required to write a survey. Which of the following
research questions would be best answered using the survey method?
a. How do chimps establish dominance hierarchies in the wild?
b. Among the elderly, does caffeine help their problem-solving ability?
c. How many past Presidents were Democrats?
d. Is the President doing an overall good job?
Answer: D
23. Marcus wants to accurately assess students’ attitudes toward the cafeteria food on his
college campus for his psychology research project. What research method should he use to
collect this information?
a. survey method

b. laboratory observation
c. case study
d. experimental method
Answer: A
24. Which of the following is a disadvantage of surveys, as presented in your textbook?
a. Surveys collect much information.
b. Answers from different groups cannot be compared.
c. Surveys cannot identify problems of treatment programs for ADHD.
d. The ethnicity of the questioner can affect subjects’ responses.
Answer: D
25. You are conducting a survey on racism. You have a group of well-trained assistants, about
half white, half African American. Should you keep track of which subjects are questioned by
white assistants and which by African-Americans assistants?
a. Yes—the ethnicity of the assistant may affect subjects’ answers
b. Yes—the ethnicity of the assistant may affect their ability to accurately record subjects’
c. No—you might offend your assistants
d. No—ethnicity has no effect one way or the other
Answer: A
26. During a recent trip to the shopping mall, someone working for the mall asked you to fill
out a survey on shopping habits. As a student of psychology, what concerns might you have
about this survey?
a. wording of the questions
b. confounded causes
c. placebo effect
d. correlation versus cause-and-effect relationships
Answer: A
27. If a researcher wants to study a behavior in a controlled environment, the researcher
should utilize a(n):
a. laboratory experiment
b. testimonial
c. naturalistic study

d. case study
Answer: A
28. Kristy is interested in conducting research on the table manners of children while eating.
She concludes that a laboratory setting would be most appropriate for the research. Kristy’s
research supervisor at her college disagrees and suggests she rethink her research setting.
What piece of advice would you give to Kristy?
a. get another research supervisor
b. conduct the research using naturalistic observation
c. use case-study techniques
d. consider using the animal model, focusing on baby chimps
Answer: B
29. If you are conducting an experiment in a naturalistic setting, which of the following will
you avoid?
a. trying to observe the organisms’ behavior
b. watching the organisms in their own environment
c. attempting to change or control the situation
d. using a large city as the experimental setting
Answer: C
30. A disadvantage of naturalistic observation is that:
a. the behavior is controlled
b. the situation is too artificial
c. the manipulation of the independent variable may be insufficient
d. the psychologists’ own beliefs and values might affect their observation
Answer: D
31. What research method can be described as an in-depth analysis of a single person?
a. case study
b. correlation
c. survey method
d. experimental method
Answer: A
32. You recently read a book about a celebrity who battled alcoholism throughout her adult
life. This book best illustrates:

a. the experimental method
b. naturalistic observation
c. the survey method
d. a case study
Answer: D
33. When you give your ____, you are presenting a statement that supports a viewpoint based
upon ____.
a. testimonial; personal experience
b. testimonial; confounded causes
c. correlation; placebos
d. testimonial; introspection
Answer: A
34. “When I start feeling a little tired and run-down, I just take a couple of Vitamin C tablets
and I feel better.” This is an example of a(n):
a. experiment
b. survey
c. testimonial
d. correlation coefficient
Answer: C
35. A testimonial is defined as:
a. a type of objective evidence gathered in experiments
b. a statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on personal experience
c. a correlation that takes place in more than one context
d. a correlation between two variables that exist independently of each other
Answer: B
36. Johannah is studying ADHD and has asked the mothers of ADHD children how diet has
affected their children’s symptoms. According to the textbook, what response is Johannah
most likely to get from the mothers?
a. when children were given diets with high levels of sodium their hyperactivity worsened
b. the children’s symptoms increased when they consumed an artificial sweetener
c. the symptoms decreased when the diet is low in protein
d. low-calorie diets decrease the symptoms of the disorder

Answer: B
37. Which of the following would be most likely presented in the form of a testimonial?
a. a UFO sighting
b. medical evidence of the effectiveness of a new cold medication
c. the results of an intelligence test
d. the results of a television-viewing survey
Answer: A
38. A person claims in a newspaper article that he has improved his memory by taking
megavitamins. Psychologists would be skeptical of this finding because:
a. the data were presented in the form of a testimonial
b. megavitamins have been proven to have no effect on memory
c. a great deal of what is printed in the newspaper is not true
d. memory cannot be improved
Answer: A
39. Jocelyn wants to study in great depth the personality development, behaviors, and
feelings of a young child. Jocelyn should utilize:
a. a case study
b. an animal model
c. a laboratory setting
d. standardized testing
Answer: A
40. Recently Willie broke up with his girlfriend and attributes the breakup to her. Jared, his
best friend, thinks differently. Jared says of Willie, “I wish he would just consider that he is
the real problem! But he has made up his mind.” This situation is most closely related to:
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy
b. a confounded experience
c. personal beliefs biasing perceptions
d. correlation
Answer: C
41. A(n) ____ is a strong belief about future behavior that can affect the behavior so that the
belief appears to have predicted it.
a. self-fulfilling prophecy

b. confounded experience
c. introspection
d. testimonial
Answer: A
42. Molly strongly believes that she will hurt herself while playing basketball. A few weeks
later, she actually does hurt herself during a basketball game. Her injury may have been the
result of:
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy
b. a confounded experience
c. a subliminal message
d. ESP
Answer: A
43. A person suffering from anxiety predicts that he will make a fool of himself at a social
gathering and, in fact, he does. A psychologist predicts that students in his morning class
invariably outperform those in his afternoon class and, in fact, they do. What do the anxious
person and the psychologist share in common?
a. they are both anxious
b. they both fell prey to a self-fulfilling prophecy
c. they both created bias in those who observe them
d. both are very good at predicting behavior
Answer: B
44. A psychologist is concerned that a colleague’s research is yielding a certain type of
finding because the colleague expects that finding. The psychologist suspects the effect of:
a. need bias
b. self-fulfilling prophecy
c. predictive invalidity
d. achievement bias
Answer: B
45. Ollie is having a bad day. He’s not feeling very good about himself. He also notices that
people are treating him differently. Friends who are usually very considerate are acting rude
and impatient toward Ollie. Is his low self-esteem affecting how he interacts with people? Or
are his friends influencing how Ollie feels about himself? These questions are a classic
example of:
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy

b. a confound
c. a fundamental attribution error
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: A
46. When the focus of research is on a single individual, the most appropriate method is a(n):
a. case study
b. experiment
c. survey
d. correlation
Answer: A
47. A treatment that resembles medical treatment, but has no real effect is termed a:
a. pseudo
b. debrief
c. confound
d. placebo
Answer: D
48. Which subject group is most likely receiving a placebo?
a. Group 1—receive an antibiotic
b. Group 2—receive Tylenol to relieve migraine headaches
c. Group 3—receive sugar pill
d. Group 4—receive Ritalin
Answer: C
49. Your grandmother’s cure for your upset stomach is to rub vinegar on your ear lobes. It
works much of the time, but has no real medical effect. Psychologists would probably say
that this is an example of a:
a. double-blind effect
b. biased effect
c. placebo effect
d. confounding effect
Answer: C
50. A study of pain cited in Module Two found that subjects who received a placebo:

a. reported greater pain than those who received painkillers
b. experienced the release of natural painkillers
c. reported greater pain than subjects who were given a substance made from centipedes
d. felt more of a dull ache pain rather than a sharp pain
Answer: B
51. Juan has been smoking for years and really wants to quit. He decided to buy a specially
formulated vitamin that he saw advertised on TV. Since he has taken the vitamin, his urge to
smoke has disappeared. Juan is most likely to have experienced a(n):
a. placebo effect
b. double-blind effect
c. experimenter effect
d. dependent effect
Answer: A
52. Some placebo effects occur because of:
a. mistrust of science
b. mistrust of medicine
c. powerful correlations
d. natural painkillers released by the brain
Answer: D
53. Your grandmother’s cure for an upset stomach is to rub vinegar on your ear lobes.
According to your relatives, the treatment works much of the time, but has no real medical
effect. Placebos are often widely accepted because ____ is (are) very influential.
a. the double-blind effect
b. testimonials
c. correlational effects
d. confounding effects
Answer: B
54. Late one night you are watching TV as an ad promoting magnetic pads to relieve pain
comes on. You count more than 15 past customers appearing in the commercial claiming the
product’s effectiveness in relieving pain from injuries and arthritis. One customer is a former
professional football star. You realize that the commercial is cleverly using:
a. debriefing
b. a placebo

c. testimonials
d. experimentation
Answer: C
55. You are writing a paper on the effects of cough medicine. Based on the research cited in
the textbook, which of the following should be the conclusion of your paper?
a. Using cough medicine is an effective method to control coughing.
b. Cough medicine helps to reduce but not eliminate coughing.
c. Cough medicines have no scientifically demonstrated effect on coughing.
d. Certain types of coughs are most likely to be reduced with cough medicine.
Answer: C
56. Based on Module Two, if cough medicine helps you to control a cough, it is because of:
a. your beliefs and thoughts of what caused the cough
b. your beliefs and expectations regarding the medicine’s effectiveness
c. the chemical effects of the medicine on the brainstem
d. your beliefs and thoughts regarding the severity of the cough
Answer: B
57. A correlation is used to:
a. explain how one variable causes another variable
b. show the effect that one variable has on another variable
c. describe a relationship between two or more variables
d. prove theories
Answer: C
58. What technique is a measure of the relationship between two or more events?
a. correlation
b. survey
c. testimonial
d. observation
Answer: A
59. If Christa wants to study the relationship between income and years of education, she
ought to use the ____ method.
a. observation

b. experimental
c. naturalistic
d. correlation
Answer: D
60. A number that describes the strength of a relationship between events is called a(n) ____;
it can range between ____.
a. mean coefficient; 0.00 and +1.00
b. average correlation; 0.00 and +10.00
c. average; .00 and +1.00
d. correlation coefficient; -1.00 and +1.00
Answer: D
61. A newspaper article reports that crime increases each month when the moon is full. This
relationship is a(n):
a. testimonial
b. experiment
c. survey
d. correlation
Answer: D
62. A study reports a positive correlation between acts of aggression and the amount of
television a child watches. The best interpretation of this statement would be:
a. television viewing causes children to act aggressively
b. children who watch a great deal of television tend to be more aggressive than children who
watch less television
c. there is no relationship between the amount of television watched and aggressive behavior
d. being an aggressive child causes that child to watch more television.
Answer: B
63. “The more you study, the fewer errors you will make on the next exam,” is a statement
reflecting a ____ correlation.
a. positive
b. negative
c. perfect
d. zero

Answer: B
64. Tennis players who have a high percentage of successful first serves have a greater
chance of winning tennis matches than players who are not as successful on their first serve.
This is an example of a ____ correlation.
a. positive
b. negative
c. perfect
d. zero
Answer: A
65. What does a correlation tell us?
a. the order in which variables occur
b. which variables influence other variables
c. what causes change in a variable
d. the relationship and strength of relationship between two or more variables
Answer: D
66. If we find that intelligent parents tend to have intelligent children, then we would be
correct in describing the relationship as a ____ correlation.
a. positive
b. negative
c. perfect
d. zero
Answer: A
67. As the price of gas increases, we tend to drive less. This is an example of a ____
a. positive
b. negative
c. perfect
d. zero
Answer: B
68. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the highest degree of
association between two variables?
a. +.70

b. +.30
c. -.20
d. -.90
Answer: D
69. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the lowest degree of
association between two variables?
a. +.40
b. +.15
c. -.50
d. -.75
Answer: B
70. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents a situation in which an increase
in one variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable?
a. +.90
b. +.30
c. .00
d. -.70
Answer: D
71. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents a situation in which an increase
in one variable is associated with an increase in the other variable?
a. -.45
b. -.61
c. .00
d. +.45
Answer: D
72. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents a situation in which there is no
relationship between variables?
a. -1.00
b. .99
c. 10.00
d. .00
Answer: D

73. Andy measured the size of each of his friends’ heads and also asked them for their SAT
scores, in order to determine whether a relationship existed between head size and
intelligence. His computed correlation coefficient was .00. What should Andy conclude?
a. As head size increases, intelligence increases.
b. As head size increases, intelligence decreases.
c. There is no relationship between head size and intelligence.
d. A small head causes a lowered level of intelligence.
Answer: C
74. Select one of the following statements about research methods that is incorrect.
a. A survey gives us information about a large number of people.
b. A case study provides information about one person.
c. The experiment suggests cause-and-effect relationships.
d. A correlation shows us cause-and-effect relationships.
Answer: D
75. Correlations are not appropriate to ____ but are useful to ____.
a. predict behavior; make cause-and-effect statements
b. make cause-and-effect statements; pinpoint confounding effects
c. evaluate testimonials; evaluate surveys
d. make cause-and-effect statements; make predictions about behavior
Answer: D
76. Abdul was listening to a radio talk show and heard the announcer talk about “a high
correlation between crime and poverty.” The announcer then proceeded to say since there was
a high correlation, poverty causes crime. Abdul is taking psychology, and is skeptical of what
he just heard. He knows that:
a. correlation does not indicate cause-and-effect relationships
b. to properly evaluate the statement, he needs to know the magnitude of the correlation
c. poverty is difficult to measure
d. the research indicates that crime causes poverty, not vice versa
Answer: A
77. The correlation between smoking and lung cancer shows that:
a. correlations may, in fact, give clues to real causes
b. there is no way of determining whether smoking causes lung cancer

c. smoking does not cause lung cancer
d. even strong correlations can be misleading
Answer: A
78. Recent research shows that the relationship between smoking and lung cancer may be
caused by:
a. the paper in which cigarettes are wrapped
b. smokers not getting enough exercise
c. a chemical in cigarette smoke that turns off a gene that normally suppresses tumors
d. excessive drinking that occurs while the smoker smokes cigarettes
Answer: C
79. If the correlation between the number of siblings one has and their college GPA is .86,
then we could:
a. explain why students who are the only child do so poorly in college
b. explain why students who are the only child do so well in college
c. predict that students who have several siblings will have higher GPAs
d. predict that students who have no siblings will have higher GPAs
Answer: C
80. Assume there is a correlation of .00 between shoe size and number of siblings. If you
know someone’s shoe size:
a. your prediction of the number of siblings will be very accurate
b. it would be very difficult to accurately predict the person’s number of siblings
c. your prediction of the number of siblings will depend upon the strength of the relationship
d. then you could explain why the person has the number of siblings she does
Answer: B
81. Grade school students are often given IQ tests because IQ tests:
a. predict mental health
b. are correlated with academic performance
c. cause students to improve their study skills
d. are negatively correlated with cognitive abilities
Answer: B
82. Dr. Allkins is conducting a case study of an individual with ADHD. Dr. Allkins should
keep in mind that:

a. correlation will help to reveal cause-and-effect relationships
b. the independent variable must be carefully controlled
c. random assignment will prevent errors from being introduced into the study
d. what is true of this one individual may not be true of other individuals
Answer: D
83. Of the following, which is not among the seven rules of conducting an experiment
according to your textbook?
a. identify
b. choose
c. manipulate
d. observe
Answer: D
84. To determine cause-and-effect relationships, you are best advised to conduct a(n):
a. correlation
b. experiment
c. case study
d. interview
Answer: B
85. If an experiment could “talk” what would it say about itself?
a. “If you want to know how variables correlate with each other, I’m your research method.”
b. “Don’t worry about random selection or independent variables with me ... they’re a waste
of time.”
c. “Suggesting cause and effect is my specialty.”
d. “I specialize in revealing in-depth information about a person.”
Answer: C
86. What words are most illustrative of experiments?
a. cause, effect
b. individual, unique
c. relationship, test
d. predicting, correlation
Answer: A

87. “I’m interested in whether playing classical music while studying has a positive effect on
test scores.” The most appropriate way to find out is to:
a. do introspection
b. ask a person who gets good grades how they study
c. do a survey
d. conduct an experiment
Answer: D
88. In her research, Professor Marrs is following a set of rules and guidelines to determine
cause-and-effect relationships. What is Professor Marrs doing?
a. she’s conducting an experiment
b. Professor Marrs is calculating a correlation coefficient
c. she’s using a standardized test
d. conducting research in a naturalistic setting
Answer: A
89. If Wanda makes an educated, precisely worded guess about the behavior of her friends in
a specific situation, she is making a:
a. theory
b. hypothesis
c. principle
d. manipulation of variables
Answer: B
90. When we make a hypothesis, we are:
a. identifying
b. choosing
c. guessing
d. assigning
Answer: C
91. Among the following, which is the best example of a hypothesis?
a. Often times, people will go out of their way to help others.
b. Children who watch a lot of television will be more aggressive.
c. Students who review their notes each night for one hour will score significantly higher on
the next day’s quiz than students who do not review their notes.

d. Taking an aspirin a day helps keep the doctor away.
Answer: C
92. If you are studying the effects of various drugs on ADHD, the independent variable is:
a. the drugs
c. the subjects getting the drugs
d. the subjects getting the placebo
Answer: A
93. The treatment which is controlled by the researcher is called the:
a. dependent variable
b. confounding variable
c. independent variable
d. control variable
Answer: C
94. A psychologist wants to know if eating a large breakfast improves IQ test scores in a
sample of thirty 10-year-olds. The psychologist divides the subjects into three groups of ten
and has one group eat a small breakfast, one group eat a medium-sized breakfast, and one
group eat a large breakfast. In this study, the independent variable is:
a. the IQ test
b. the scores on the IQ test
c. the size of the breakfast
d. the number of subjects in each group
Answer: C
95. Denise conducts a study to find out which of three subway routes gets her to work in the
shortest amount of time. In Denise‘s experiment, the independent variable is the ____, and
the dependent variable is the ____.
a. speed of the subway car; route she took
b. route she took; amount of time to get to work
c. amount of time to get to work; number of routes she tried
d. fastest route; shortest route
Answer: B

96. Alfredo is conducting an experiment on the effects of exercise on concentration. The
independent variable is ____ and the dependent variable is ____.
a. subjects; control group
b. experimental group; concentration
c. exercise; concentration
d. concentration; exercise
Answer: C
97. Behavior that is measured in an experiment is called the:
a. independent variable
b. experimental variable
c. random variable
d. dependent variable
Answer: D
98. Independent variable is to ____ as dependent variable is to ____.
a. cause; confound
b. effect; treatment
c. measure; outcome
d. cause; effect
Answer: D
99. The dependent variable depends upon:
a. the independent variable
b. subjects
c. selective assignment
d. the control group
Answer: A
100. Manipulated is to measured as ____ is to ____.
a. dependent variable; independent variable
b. independent variable; dependent variable
c. effect; cause
d. case study; placebo
Answer: B

101. If each subject in a sample population has an equal chance of being selected, it is called:
a. a control group
b. random selection
c. an experimental group
d. measurement error
Answer: B
102. Shyla conducted an experiment. She went to the student union and asked people if they
would like to be subjects in her study. She decided to ask only those people who smiled at
her. Is this an appropriate way to select subjects?
a. Yes—since these individuals smiled and are likely to be cooperative
b. Yes—the student union has a diverse group of people
c. No—it is not random selection
d. No—Shyla failed to assign her subjects to groups first
Answer: C
103. To get subjects who are representative of the population, experimenters use:
a. random selection
b. random assignment
c. naturalistic selection
d. double-blind procedure
Answer: A
104. What does randomly assigning subjects to different groups ultimately do?
a. it makes the selection of subjects less time consuming
b. it prevents subjects from knowing what group they are in
c. it controls any factors that might influence the results of the study
d. it ensures that there is an equal number of males and females in each group
Answer: C
105. An advantage of randomly assigning subjects to groups is:
a. to make the groups equal in number
b. that it reduces the chance that other variables will bias the results
c. to ensure that the sample is representative of the population
d. to make the groups as different as possible from each other

Answer: B
106. Fawzi wants to see if nicotine causes cancer in rats. Half of his rats are given nicotine,
and the other half are not. In this experiment, the rats that receive nicotine are the ____, and
the rats that do not are the ____.
a. independent variable; dependent variable
b. dependent variable; independent variable
c. control group; experimental group
d. experimental group; control group
Answer: D
107. Experimental group is to treatment as control group is to:
a. subject
b. random selection
c. manipulate
d. placebo
Answer: D
108. Tina is assigned to a group where she receives some special treatment. Beth is in the
group that does not receive the treatment. Identify the correct groups these two subjects are
a. Tina is in the independent group; Beth is in the dependent group
b. Tina is in the dependent group; Beth is in the independent group
c. Tina is in the control group; Beth is in the experimental group
d. Tina is in the experimental group; Beth is in the control group
Answer: D
109. What is the procedure where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows which
group is receiving which treatment?
a. double-blind procedure
b. single-blind procedure
c. random selection
d. random assignment
Answer: A
110. A psychologist uses the double-blind technique in her research design. She is trying to

a. experimenters’ and subjects’ expectations from affecting the study
b. self-reinforcement
c. a biased sample
d. self-selection bias
Answer: A
111. What is the most likely thing that a subject in a double-blind procedure would say?
a. “It is a great honor to have been selected for the experimental group.”
b. “Being in the control group is boring.”
c. “I have no idea if I am in the experimental or control group and the researcher doesn’t
know either!”
d. “I wonder what group I am in? I suppose I could ask the researcher and she would know.”
Answer: C
112. Which of the following does the double-blind procedure control for?
a. wording effects
b. self-fulfilling prophecy
c. counterbalancing
d. random selection
Answer: B
113. In order to determine if differences between experimental and control groups are due to
the treatment or to error or chance occurrence, a researcher employs:
a. introspection
b. statistical procedures
c. common sense judgment
d. an animal model
Answer: B
114. The difference between the behaviors of the subjects in the experimental group and the
subjects in the control group is likely due to any of these EXCEPT:
a. the independent variable
b. error
c. chance occurrence
d. the dependent variable

Answer: D
115. According to your textbook, statistical procedures are used to:
a. determine if the control group was randomly assigned to the dependent variable
b. determine if the experimental group was randomly assigned to the dependent variable
c. determine if the observed differences in the dependent variables are due to the independent
variable or to something else
d. determine if the observed differences in the independent variables are due to the dependent
variable or to something else
Answer: C
116. A(n) ________ variable is any factor other than the independent variable that can affect
the movement of the dependent variable in an experiment.
a. confounding
b. extraneous
c. correlational
d. analytic
Answer: B
117. The primary advantage of using an experimental research method is:
a. it allows you to draw cause-and-effect conclusions
b. it allows you to make observations about how things occur in their natural environments
c. it is the only kind of research that allows for statistical analysis
d. it is the only kind of research that satisfies all of the ethical requirements of the American
Psychological Association
Answer: A
118. Professor Chapin is conducting research on the relationship between headache
medication and the amount of pain reduction that is experienced by his participants. He
expects that the medication will be very effective, and lo and behold he finds that it is a
highly effective drug! Which of the following might have been a problem for Professor
Chapin’s experiment?
a. random assignment
b. demand characteristics
c. the self-fulfilling prophecy
d. experimenter bias
Answer: D

119. Experimenter _______ refers to the expectations of a researcher that his/her participants
will behave or respond in a particular way.
a. dependence
b. prophecy
c. bias
d. placebo
Answer: C
120. An accurate diagnosis of ADHD is:
a. based on blood tests
b. based on CAT scans
c. difficult
d. most likely when the child is from an upper-class family
Answer: C
121. Diagnosis of ADHD is based on:
a. blood tests
b. behavior
c. MRI scans
d. CAT scans
Answer: B
122. Based upon the textbook, what is an advantage of using a stimulant such as Ritalin to
treat ADHD?
a. social skills improve dramatically
b. it improves sleeping habits
c. it decreases hyperactivity and improves concentration
d. athletic ability improves
Answer: C
123. Timmy’s mom thinks that once he is on Ritalin, he will show much improvement. What
is one area that Timmy is not likely to improve?
a. concentration
b. relationships with his peers
c. getting out of his seat in school

d. hyperactivity
Answer: B
124. To improve the outcome of treating severe ADHD:
a. Ritalin should be given before the age of 5
b. the child’s diet should be modified to avoid Nutrasweet
c. Ritalin should be given only after the age of 2
d. both Ritalin and behavioral treatment should be used
Answer: D
125. Since Ritalin does not cure ADHD, what should parents be most concerned about in
managing their child’s disorder?
a. consistency in taking Ritalin even when the child seems to be doing better
b. developing behavioral programs such as setting goals and establishing rules
c. giving the same opportunities for intellectual growth as they would to a child who does not
have ADHD
d. providing psychoanalysis to the child on weekly basis
Answer: B
126. Who would most likely be recommended for a combined drug and behavioral treatment
program for ADHD?
a. Joe who is in the 12th grade
b. Leo who is in preschool
c. Kevin who possesses average social skills
d. Kenny who has severe ADHD
Answer: D
127. Which organization has published a code of ethics of conduct for psychologists to follow
when conducting research?
a. American Psychological Association
b. American Psychiatric Institute
c. Big Ten Conference
d. National Education Association
Answer: A
128. Gail conducts an experiment that may produce harmful effects. To protect her subjects,
she thoroughly explains the purpose of the experiment, and helps subjects deal with possible

doubts or guilt arising from their behaviors in the experiment. Gail is going through the
process of:
a. random selection
b. statistical procedures
c. introspection
d. debriefing
Answer: D
129. Dr. Rose conducts a study to determine if caffeine can aid memory. Her three groups of
subjects receive a high dose, a low dose, or no caffeine. They all receive identical-looking
pills so that they are unaware of how much caffeine they take. In addition, when the
researcher tests the memory of each subject, she is not aware of what group each subject is in.
This research design utilizes which of the following?
a. random assignment
b. single-blind technique
c. double-blind technique
d. self-selection bias
Answer: C
130. With regard to a subject‘s answers or behavior in an experiment, psychologists take
seriously the subject’s right to:
a. free speech
b. question the validity of the experiment
c. explain their answers and behavior
d. privacy and confidentiality
Answer: D
131. A psychologist has finally decided to use deception in her research on cigarette smoking.
a. If deception is not used, subjects might not be willing to participate.
b. Prior research in this area has always used deception.
c. She realizes that she is more likely to get financial support for her project.
d. There are no other reasonable methods to conduct her research.
Answer: D
132. Professor Aguayo is recruiting subjects for a study. She is advised not to give potential
subjects the exact title of the study, which is “The negative effects of mild anxiety on eyehand coordination.” Why not share the title with potential subjects?

a. Professor Aguayo may change the hypothesis after the data are collected and analyzed.
b. The title may create specific expectations that could bias the subjects.
c. It’s really none of the subjects’ business, since Professor Aguayo is the researcher.
d. She’s not really sure if mild anxiety will affect eye-hand coordination.
Answer: B
133. An animal rights group claims that there are no regulations or agencies that monitor the
care and treatment of animals in research. As an educated psychology student, what is your
a. “True, but there is no need for regulatory agencies.”
b. “There are specific regulations regarding the ethical treatment of animals as research
c. “Only the government sets standards for the care and treatment of animals.”
d. “Animal rights groups have a point and something must be done.”
Answer: B
134. The Animal Research Act provides:
a. a balance between the rights of animals and the need for understanding health problems
b. that the rights of animals surpass the rights of scientists
c. a governmental commission to review all experiments involving animals
d. an ultimatum to colleges and universities to stop all animal experimentation until further
Answer: A
135. Which of the following is true about research involving animals?
a. most animals are mistreated by researchers
b. nobody watches over the care and treatment of animals
c. animal research has led to important medical advances such as medical treatments
d. the rights of animals are not considered important
Answer: C
136. If animals had not been used in research, what would we probably lack today?
a. special interest groups for animal rights
b. better understanding of many psychological and physical disorders
c. a cure for cancer
d. ethical guidelines for psychologists

Answer: B
137. A basic issue in the use of animals in research is:
a. which special interest groups have the greatest lobbying clout
b. documenting the major medical advances from their use
c. developing computer models to take the place of animals
d. striking a balance between the rights of animals and our need to find answers to important
research questions
Answer: D
138. Chronic binge drinkers are ____ more likely to be overweight than nonbinge drinkers.
a. 2 times
b. 4 times
c. 10 times
d. 20 times
Answer: B
139. According to the study on binge drinking in Module Two, what might account for the
relationship between binge drinking and poor health?
a. drinking suppresses the immune system
b. people who binge drink are initially more unhealthy than nondrinkers
c. binge drinking makes the person more susceptible to viruses
d. those who binge drink may have a lifestyle that contributes to poor health
Answer: D
140. According to the study on binge drinking in Module Two, there is a relationship between
binge drinking and health in young adults. What research technique does this relationship
a. correlation
b. experimentation
c. naturalistic observation
d. case study
Answer: A
1. Ritalin, which is commonly used for ADHD, is a depressant.
Answer: False

2. The ethnicity of the person asking survey questions may affect the answer received.
Answer: True
3. Testimonials are based on careful objective observations.
Answer: False
4. A case study is a close-up view of a large group of people.
Answer: False
5. The effects of cough medicine illustrate the placebo effect.
Answer: True
6. The placebo effect works because of a person’s beliefs and thoughts.
Answer: True
7. Correlation indicates cause and effect.
Answer: False
8. A negative correlation indicates a harmful relationship between two variables.
Answer: False
9. If a researcher wanted to identify cause-and-effect relationships, an experiment would be
the most appropriate method.
Answer: True
10. The dependent variable is the treatment that the researcher is manipulating.
Answer: False
11. Random selection refers to how subjects are assigned to experimental or control groups.
Answer: False
12. An educated guess about a phenomenon is called a hypothesis.
Answer: True
13. The dependent variable is dependent upon the control group.
Answer: False
14. The experimental group consists of those individuals who receive the treatment.
Answer: True
15. The independent variable is the condition being manipulated in an experiment.
Answer: True
16. Ritalin helps children with ADHD improve relationships with their friends.
Answer: F

17. Researchers decide for themselves what ethical guidelines to follow.
Answer: False
18. In debriefing, a researcher asks a participant her feelings about being in the experiment.
Answer: True
19. Researchers must always tell the participants in an experiment the real purpose of the
study before the study is conducted.
Answer: False
20. The double-blind procedure can help eliminate bias in research participants.
Answer: True
21. According to research described in Module Two, adolescent binge drinking causes later
health problems.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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