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Chapter 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The two most important influences on Enlightenment thought were ____________. A. Galileo and Copernicus B. Newton and Copernicus C. Locke and Newton D. Galileo and Locke Answer: C 2. An expanding, literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials created a new and increasingly influential social force called ____________. A. public opinion B. social premise C. societal drive D. communal view Answer: A 3. Written by Voltaire in English and later translated to French, _____________ praised the virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty, and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society. A. Second Treatise on Government B. Essay on Customs C. Letters on the English D. Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Answer: C 4. ____________, an eighteenth-century philosopher, was known as the “Jewish Socrates.” A. Thomas Hobbes B. Baruch Spinoza C. René Descartes D. Moses Mendelssohn Answer: D 5. Who wrote The Persian Letters? A. Charles de Montesquieu B. Blaise Pascal C. René de Chateaubriand D. Moses Mendelssohn Answer: A 6. ____________ published On Crimes and Punishments, in which he applied critical analysis to the problem of making punishments both effective and just. A. John Toland B. Denis Diderot C. Jean Le Rond d’Alembert D. Marquis Cesare Beccaria Answer: D 7. The most important political thought of the Enlightenment occurred in ____________. A. France B. Holland C. England D. Scotland Answer: A 8. ____________ contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature. A. Adam Smith B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau C. René Descartes D. Charles de Montesquieu Answer: B 9. Herder is famous for his early views concerning ____________. A. intellectual realism B. cultural relativism C. social democracy D. relative absolutism Answer: B 10. ____________ maintained that women were not naturally inferior to men and that women should have a wider role in society. A. Adam Smith B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau C. René Descartes D. Charles de Montesquieu Answer: D 11. Which of the following styles of art utilizes lavish, often lighthearted decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light? A. Baroque B. Rococo C. Impressionism D. Neoclassicism Answer: B 12. Which of the following styles of art embodies a return to figurative and architectural modes drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world? A. Rococo B. Abstract C. Impressionism D. Neoclassicism Answer: D 13. ____________, who embodied enlightened absolutism more than any other monarch, forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the Junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, and a growing bureaucracy. A. Joseph II B. Maria Theresa C. Frederick the Great D. Catherine II Answer: C 14. As part of her territorial aspirations, Catherine the Great painlessly annexed the newly independent state of ____________ in 1783. A. Estonia B. Crimea C. Livonia D. Romania Answer: B 15. How did Voltaire come to admire English culture? A. He read the works of English philosophes. B. He visited England on holiday. C. He was the French ambassador to England. D. He lived in exile in England. Answer: D 16. The issue most relevant to physiocrats was ____________. A. legal reform B. women’s social status C. legislative reform D. property rights Answer: D 17. The subject matter of Rococo-style paintings, with scenes of leisure, romance, and seduction, led to a feeling of hostility toward the ____________. A. political and social elites of the Old Regime B. nobles at court C. monarchy D. peasantry Answer: A 18. Who believed that the intent of punishment should be to deter further crime, not to impose the will of God? A. Voltaire B. Rousseau C. Wollstonecraft D. Beccaria Answer: D 19. What did Baruch Spinoza and Moses Mendelssohn have in common? A. They were both Jewish. B. They were both Muslim. C. They were both Protestants. D. They were both clergymen. Answer: A 20. From where did the first imports of coffee come to supply the European coffeehouses? A. Brazil B. the Caribbean C. Africa D. the Ottoman Empire Answer: D 21. Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert are best known for their great work: ____________. A. Treatise on Toleration B. the Encyclopedia C. Philosophical Dictionary D. Letters on the English Answer: B 22. Which of the following philosophes argued against the abuses of imperialism? A. Moses Mendelssohn B. Immanuel Kant C. Adam Smith D. Cesare Beccaria Answer: B 23. Baruch Spinoza inspired which of these works? A. Candide B. Jerusalem, or, On Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism C. Ethics D. Nathan the Wise Answer: D 24. Which philosophe is credited with a profound effect on the constitutional form of liberal democracies for more than two centuries? A. Charles de Montesquieu B. Voltaire C. Baruch Spinoza D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Answer: A 25. Smith’s theory about how human society moves from barbarism to civilization is called his _____________ theory. A. laissez-faire B. deist C. four-stage D. empirical Answer: C 26. When Immanuel Kant called his age “an age of Enlightenment,” he stressed the Enlightenment as ____________. A. the highest stage of human achievement B. Adam Smith’s fourth stage C. part of the past D. a work in progress Answer: D 27. The philosophe who popularized the thought of Isaac Newton was ____________. A. Voltaire in his work Letters on the English B. Locke in his work An Essay Concerning Human Understanding C. Rousseau in his work The Social Contract D. Voltaire in his work Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Answer: D 28. Who made up the largest audience for the work of the philosophes? A. monarchs B. the aristocracy and nobles C. commercial and professional urban classes D. clergymen Answer: C 29. The two major points in the deists’ creed were ____________. A. the belief in an afterlife dependent upon one’s earthly actions and the existence of a rational God B. the belief in the existence of a rational God and the existence of absolute principles C. the belief in an afterlife dependent upon one’s earthly actions and the existence of absolute principles D. the belief in the existence of absolute principles and the illogical nature of God’s existence Answer: A 30. Montesquieu hoped to counter monarchical oppression with ____________. A. democracy B. independent branches of government C. a legislative body that would head the government D. a theocracy Answer: B 31. What was the purpose of Voltaire’s interest in the execution of Jean Calas? A. Voltaire wished to demonstrate the horror of religious fanaticism and the need for judicial reform. B. Voltaire was related to Jean Calas and wished to clear his name. C. Voltaire was hired by the family of Calas to clear his name after he was executed. D. Voltaire wanted to demonstrate that religious goals would find the truth in the end. Answer: A 32. The Encyclopedia ____________. A. secularized learning and spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe B. sold about 1,200 copies C. received official support D. was written by Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert Answer: A 33. Adam Smith advocated ____________. A. a large role for government in the economy B. ending England’s mercantile system C. the elimination of England’s navy and army D. that government take no part in the economy Answer: B 34. His idea that governments should pay for schools shows that Smith ____________. A. supported laissez-faire policies B. was a physiocrat C. was a proponent of mercantilism D. was not dogmatic in supporting laissez-faire policies Answer: D 35. According to Smith’s four-stage theory, human societies ____________. A. have no real moral basis B. can be religious, secular, scientific, or superstitious C. move from barbarism to civilization D. can be classified as hunter-gatherer, pastoral, agricultural, or knowledge-worker Answer: C 36. Which connection between work and author is accurate? A. Theologico-Political Treatise: Mendelssohn B. Persian Letters: Montesquieu C. Encyclopedia: Spinoza D. Candide: Diderot Answer: B 37. Most European thinkers associated with the Enlightenment ____________. A. favored the extension of European empires across the world B. were members of the artisan class C. were proponents of democracy D. were atheists Answer: A 38. The philosophes generally ____________. A. advocated fundamental changes in the social condition of women B. believed women to be socially equal but not politically equal to men C. said little about women D. were not avid feminists Answer: D 39. Neoclassical paintings were didactic rather than emotional, and their subject matter usually concerned ____________. A. public life or public morals B. intimate family life C. daily routines D. leisure activities Answer: A 40. Monarchs such as Joseph II and Catherine II made “enlightened” reforms part of their drive to ____________. A. increase revenues and gain political support B. begin the process of moving away from monarchy C. begin the process of moving toward constitutional monarchy D. give commoners more political power Answer: A 41. The monarch that most exemplifies enlightened absolutism was ____________. A. Joseph II B. Maria Theresa C. Frederick the Great D. Catherine II Answer: C 42. Of all the rising states of the eighteenth century, ____________ was the most diverse in its people and problems. A. Austria B. Russia C. Prussia D. France Answer: A 43. Joseph II of Austria ____________. A. sought to improve the productivity and social conditions of the peasantry B. increased the tax burden on the peasantry C. reduced the serfs to slaves D. built many Catholic seminaries and allowed the church total autonomy Answer: A 44. Catherine the Great of Russia ____________. A. replaced the nobles with loyal government bureaucrats B. abandoned the ideals of absolutism C. built a strong alliance with the nobility D. made an alliance with Poland Answer: C 45. Why is it surprising that Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was the voice of tolerance of Islam? A. because most philosophes disdained Islam B. because most Muslims dismissed Christians C. because she was married to an ambassador D. because she was not an educated woman Answer: B 46. Deism reflected Enlightenment intellectual currents in ____________. A. rejecting the notion of a deity B. its rational approach C. having a special role for women in its observations D. its opposition to Islam Answer: B 47. With what opinion would the editors of the Encyclopedia most likely agree? A. Women should be kept to the same sexual standards as men. B. The right to vote for women would be socially useful. C. Motherhood is a woman’s most important occupation. D. It is reasonable to think that women are as capable as men to be strong rulers. Answer: C 48. Which statement best summarizes Rousseau’s writings about the role of women in society? A. Rousseau’s views had little impact on the ideas of his contemporaries. B. Rousseau’s ideas were novel and surprising for most of his readers. C. Rousseau was considered progressive and liberal in his ideas of women. D. Rousseau’s traditional ideas deeply influenced many leaders on the subject of gender roles. Answer: D 49. What was the effect of the Prussian Civil Service Commission? A. It subordinated the nobility and aristocracy to the state under Frederick the Great. B. It placed the junkers to the nobles in Prussia under Maria Theresa. C. It led to a rise in the prosperity of the middle class. D. It caused a decrease in property rights for the nobility. Answer: A 50. How did print culture contribute to the Enlightenment and the call for reform throughout Europe? A. Increasing literacy and the volume of books printed encouraged the discussion of ideas about reform. B. The greater number of print shops employed a large number of people and raised the standard of life for the middle class. C. Governments were able to distribute their ideas in writing to a wider number of people. D. Reference books such as the Encyclopedia were available to most universities. Answer: A 51. After 1688, which of these remained forbidden in Britain? A. Lutherans and Unitarians B. Lutherans and Jews C. Jews and Roman Catholics D. Unitarians and Roman Catholics Answer: D 52. Philosophes were most direct in their attacks on Christian ____________. A. clergy B. beliefs C. institutions D. schools Answer: C 53. Smith’s four-stage theory placed European culture ____________. A. in the third stage B. at the summit of human achievement C. in the Enlightenment stage of development D. in a stage beyond the fourth stage Answer: B 54. Frederick the Great’s religious toleration can be seen as ____________. A. based on practical politics B. an outgrowth of his own atheism C. an attempt to undermine the Ottoman Empire D. a weapon he used against Russia Answer: A 55. Catherine the Great’s reforms were ultimately dampened by which of these considerations? A. the vastness of Russia B. the expense of war with Austria C. a number of religious uprisings D. the need to placate the nobility Answer: D SHORT ANSWER 56. According to Newton and others, nature is ____________. Answer: rational 57. The Enlightenment flourished in a ____________, that is, a culture in which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets had achieved a status of their own. Answer: print culture 58. The writers and critics who flourished in the expanding print culture and who took the lead in forging the new attitudes favorable to change, championing reform, and advancing toleration were known as the ____________. Answer: philosophes 59. Voltaire’s most famous satire, ____________, attacked war, religious persecution, and what he considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition. Answer: Candide 60. The ____________ of France believed that mercantilist legislation and the regulation of labor by governments and guilds actually hampered the expansion of trade, manufacture, and agriculture. Answer: physiocrats 61. Adam Smith is usually regarded as the founder of ____________ economic thought and policy, which favors a limited role for the government in economic life. Answer: laissez-faire 62. One of Montesquieu’s most far-reaching ideas was the division of ____________ in government. Answer: power 63. Rousseau blamed much of the evil in the world on unequal distribution of ____________. Answer: property 64. Radical reformer ____________ envisioned a society in which each person could maintain personal freedom while behaving as a loyal member of the larger community. Answer: Rousseau 65. ____________ architecture and decoration originated in early eighteenth-century France, but was adapted to many public buildings and churches across Europe. Answer: Rococo 66. The phrase “enlightened absolutist” indicates a ____________ government dedicated to the rational strengthening of the central absolutist administration at the cost of lesser centers of political power. Answer: monarchical 67. In the first partition, Poland lost one-third of its territory to Russia, ____________, and Austria. Answer: Prussia 68. Emilie du Châtelet was influential in popularizing the ideas of ____________. Answer: John Locke 69. The centers for discussing ideas and printed material were ____________. Answer: coffeehouses 70. The theology embraced by the philosophes was ____________, a rational religion without fanaticism and intolerance. Answer: deism ESSAY 71. Refer to the excerpt “Encountering the Past: Coffeehouses and Enlightenment.” How did coffeehouses help spread the ideas of the Enlightenment? Were such places of informal exchange typical or atypical in the Enlightenment? Answer: Coffeehouses played a significant role in spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment by providing spaces for intellectual exchange, discussion, and debate. They served as informal gathering places where individuals from diverse backgrounds could come together to share ideas, engage in philosophical discourse, and challenge traditional beliefs. Coffeehouses attracted writers, philosophers, scientists, and politicians, fostering a culture of intellectual curiosity and open inquiry. Such places of informal exchange were typical in the Enlightenment, reflecting the broader emphasis on reason, skepticism, and intellectual freedom that characterized the period. Coffeehouses provided an alternative to traditional centers of learning such as universities and academies, offering a more accessible and inclusive environment for intellectual engagement. While not exclusive to the Enlightenment, coffeehouses became particularly prominent during this period as hubs of intellectual activity and social interaction. 72. The philosophes were successful in persuading the emerging public sphere of the importance of rationalism and scientific inquiry. What were the formats through which such ideas were disseminated? What do you believe would have been the most successful means to propagate these ideas? Consider the role of the government and the nature of French society in particular. Answer: The ideas of the philosophes were disseminated through various formats, including books, pamphlets, newspapers, journals, and public lectures. Philosophical works such as essays, treatises, and dialogues were published and circulated widely, reaching educated elites and literate audiences across Europe. Philosophes also used literary forms such as satire, fiction, and poetry to convey their ideas in more accessible and engaging ways. In the context of French society, the most successful means to propagate these ideas would have been through the patronage and support of the government. While the French government initially censored and suppressed dissenting voices, it later embraced the ideals of the Enlightenment as a means of promoting social progress, cultural advancement, and political legitimacy. Government-sponsored institutions such as the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Encyclopédie played a crucial role in disseminating Enlightenment ideas and promoting scientific inquiry. Additionally, the nature of French society, with its vibrant literary culture, salon gatherings, and coffeehouse discussions, provided fertile ground for the spread of Enlightenment ideas. The French Enlightenment was characterized by a flourishing public sphere where intellectuals, writers, and artists engaged in lively debates and exchanges of ideas. The dissemination of Enlightenment ideals was further facilitated by the expansion of print culture, the growth of literacy rates, and the emergence of new forms of media and communication. 73. What was the impact of works such as Diderot’s Encyclopedia? To what extent did it democratize education? Answer: Diderot's Encyclopedia, or Encyclopédie, had a profound impact on Enlightenment thought and education. Published between 1751 and 1772, the Encyclopedia was a monumental collaborative effort to compile and disseminate knowledge across a wide range of subjects, including science, philosophy, religion, politics, and the arts. It aimed to promote reason, critical thinking, and intellectual progress by making knowledge accessible to a broad audience. The Encyclopedia democratized education by providing an affordable and comprehensive resource for self-improvement and learning. It helped to democratize access to knowledge by making information previously confined to elites and scholars available to a wider audience of readers, including artisans, merchants, and the middle class. The Encyclopedia challenged traditional sources of authority and promoted the idea of universal education as a means of social empowerment and enlightenment. By compiling and organizing knowledge from diverse fields, the Encyclopedia encouraged interdisciplinary inquiry and stimulated intellectual curiosity. It fostered a culture of skepticism, inquiry, and critical thinking, laying the groundwork for future advances in science, philosophy, and political thought. The Encyclopedia played a key role in spreading Enlightenment ideals of reason, tolerance, and human progress, contributing to the intellectual and cultural transformation of Europe during the eighteenth century. 74. How did Adam Smith perceive the relationship between humanity, nature, and the production of goods and services? Answer: Adam Smith perceived the relationship between humanity, nature, and the production of goods and services through the lens of his theory of political economy, as outlined in his seminal work, "The Wealth of Nations" (1776). Smith argued that human labor, guided by self-interest and operating within a system of free markets and competition, could lead to the efficient production and distribution of goods and services. He emphasized the role of division of labor, specialization, and the pursuit of profit in driving economic growth and prosperity. Smith viewed nature as providing the raw materials and resources necessary for production, but he also recognized the importance of human ingenuity, creativity, and labor in transforming those resources into valuable goods and services. He believed that individuals, acting in their own self-interest but within a framework of voluntary exchange and cooperation, could harness the productive powers of nature to satisfy their needs and desires. Overall, Smith's conception of the relationship between humanity, nature, and the production of goods and services emphasized the role of individual initiative, market forces, and economic incentives in promoting prosperity and social progress. He argued that a laissez-faire approach to economic policy, characterized by minimal government intervention and maximum individual freedom, would lead to the most efficient allocation of resources and the greatest overall wealth and well-being for society. 75. Do you think the philosophes’ attitude toward politics and government is widespread today? Why or why not? Give examples. Answer: The attitudes of the philosophes toward politics and government, characterized by a belief in rationalism, individual rights, and limited government, have had a lasting impact on modern political thought and practice. While not universally adopted, elements of Enlightenment political philosophy can be seen in various political movements and ideologies today. For example, the principles of democracy, rule of law, and constitutional government, championed by Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Montesquieu, have become foundational principles of modern liberal democracies around the world. The idea of natural rights, including the rights to life, liberty, and property, continues to inform debates over civil liberties, human rights, and social justice. However, the philosophes' attitudes toward politics and government are not necessarily widespread in all societies or political systems. Authoritarian regimes, for example, may reject the principles of individual freedom and democratic governance in favor of state control and centralized authority. Additionally, cultural, historical, and economic factors can shape attitudes toward politics and government, leading to diverse political beliefs and ideologies. Overall, while Enlightenment ideas have had a significant impact on modern political thought, their influence may vary depending on the context and circumstances of different societies and political systems. 76. Compare and contrast in detail the Rococo and neoclassical styles in eighteenth-century art. Be certain to address the history of the styles, political associations, and famous artists that emerged from both methods. Answer: The Rococo and neoclassical styles were prominent artistic movements that emerged in eighteenth-century Europe, each with distinct characteristics and influences. The Rococo style, which flourished in the early to mid-eighteenth century, was characterized by its emphasis on ornamentation, frivolity, and decorative excess. It was closely associated with the aristocracy and the courtly culture of the Ancien Régime in France. Rococo artists sought to evoke a sense of pleasure, sensuality, and luxury through their works, often depicting themes of love, romance, and fantasy. Famous artists associated with the Rococo style include Jean-Antoine Watteau, François Boucher, and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Their paintings often featured delicate brushwork, pastel colors, and whimsical subject matter, such as elegant aristocrats, pastoral landscapes, and mythological scenes. In contrast, the neoclassical style emerged in the late eighteenth century as a reaction against the perceived decadence and frivolity of the Rococo. Neoclassical artists looked to the art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration, seeking to revive the classical ideals of order, reason, and simplicity. The neoclassical style was closely associated with the Enlightenment and the ideals of rationalism, humanism, and civic virtue. Famous artists associated with the neoclassical style include Jacques-Louis David, Angelica Kauffman, and Antonio Canova. Their works often featured heroic figures, historical subjects, and allegorical themes, executed with a sense of clarity, symmetry, and precision. Overall, while both the Rococo and neoclassical styles were influential in eighteenth-century art, they represented contrasting aesthetic and philosophical ideals. The Rococo celebrated the pleasures of aristocratic life and the pursuit of sensual delight, while the neoclassical exalted the virtues of reason, morality, and civic duty. 77. Compare and contrast the efforts of Joseph II and Catherine II to implement enlightened reforms. Which monarch was more successful? Why? Answer: Joseph II of Austria and Catherine II of Russia were both monarchs who sought to implement enlightened reforms in their respective countries during the eighteenth century. While they shared similar goals of modernization and social improvement, their approaches to reform differed in significant ways. Joseph II, ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1780 to 1790, pursued a wide-ranging program of reform aimed at centralizing state power, promoting religious tolerance, and modernizing administration and governance. He introduced measures to abolish serfdom, promote education, and improve the living conditions of the peasantry. However, Joseph's reforms were often met with resistance from conservative nobles, clergy, and peasants, limiting their effectiveness and sustainability. Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great, ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 and implemented a series of reforms aimed at modernizing the Russian state and society. She expanded the Russian Empire through military conquest and diplomatic maneuvering, consolidating Russian control over vast territories in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Catherine also promoted education, culture, and the arts, establishing schools, libraries, and theaters across Russia. However, her reign was marked by authoritarianism, censorship, and repression, and her reforms failed to address the fundamental problems of serfdom, inequality, and social injustice. In terms of success, it is difficult to compare the efforts of Joseph II and Catherine II directly, as they faced different challenges and operated within different political and social contexts. Joseph's reforms were more ambitious and far-reaching in scope, but they faced significant opposition and resistance from entrenched interests within the Habsburg Empire. Catherine's reforms, while less extensive, were implemented more effectively and were supported by a stronger autocratic state apparatus. Overall, while both Joseph II and Catherine II made important contributions to the process of modernization and reform in their respective countries, neither monarch was entirely successful in achieving their goals. Their efforts to implement enlightened reforms were constrained by the limitations of absolute monarchy, the resistance of conservative elites, and the complexities of social and economic change. 78. What approach did the philosophes take to organized religion? Explain their rationale. Finally, discuss how the ideas of deism resolved some of their religious objections. Answer: The philosophes generally took a critical approach to organized religion, viewing it as a source of superstition, intolerance, and social control. They argued for the separation of church and state, advocating for religious tolerance, freedom of conscience, and the primacy of reason over dogma. The philosophes believed that religious institutions had historically stifled intellectual inquiry, suppressed dissent, and impeded social progress. Their rationale for challenging organized religion stemmed from their commitment to Enlightenment values of rationalism, empiricism, and skepticism. They rejected supernatural explanations of natural phenomena, preferring scientific inquiry and empirical evidence. They also critiqued religious authority and hierarchy, advocating for a more egalitarian and democratic approach to spirituality. The ideas of deism offered a resolution to some of the religious objections raised by the philosophes. Deism posited the existence of a rational, benevolent God who created the universe and established natural laws but did not intervene in human affairs. Deists rejected traditional religious doctrines such as miracles, revelation, and divine providence, instead emphasizing the importance of reason, morality, and virtue. For the philosophes, deism provided a rational alternative to orthodox Christianity, offering a framework for understanding the natural world and human existence without recourse to supernatural beliefs or religious dogma. Deism allowed individuals to reconcile their spiritual beliefs with their commitment to reason and rationality, providing a foundation for a more enlightened and tolerant approach to religion. 79. What were Mary Wollstonecraft’s objections to Rousseau’s ideas on women? If Rousseau were writing today, what response would you give to his ideas about the role of women? Use the empirical arguments and appeal to rational thought that he would have expected of the writers in his day. Answer: Mary Wollstonecraft objected to Rousseau's ideas on women, particularly his portrayal of women as inherently inferior to men and his advocacy for their subordination to male authority. Wollstonecraft argued that Rousseau's depiction of women as passive, emotional, and dependent perpetuated harmful stereotypes and denied women their full humanity and agency. If Rousseau were writing today, I would respond to his ideas about the role of women by emphasizing the empirical evidence and rational arguments that support gender equality and women's rights. I would point out the social and economic advances that have occurred since Rousseau's time, demonstrating the capabilities and achievements of women in all areas of life. I would also challenge Rousseau's assumptions about the innate differences between men and women, highlighting research in psychology, biology, and sociology that shows the similarities between the sexes and the role of socialization in shaping gender roles and expectations. I would argue that gender equality is not only morally right but also essential for the advancement of society and the fulfillment of human potential. 80. Explain the philosophes’ interpretation of the imperial movements, including the discussion of slavery in America. How do you think their ideas would have been received by their contemporaries? Answer: The philosophes generally opposed imperial movements and colonial exploitation, viewing them as manifestations of tyranny, greed, and injustice. They criticized European colonial powers for their exploitation of indigenous peoples, their plundering of natural resources, and their establishment of oppressive colonial regimes. Regarding slavery in America, the philosophes condemned the institution as a gross violation of human rights and dignity. They argued that slavery was incompatible with the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity espoused by the Enlightenment. They called for the abolition of slavery and the emancipation of enslaved peoples, advocating for the recognition of their inherent humanity and rights. Their ideas would have been received with mixed reactions by their contemporaries. While some individuals and groups embraced the philosophes' critiques of imperialism and slavery, others defended these practices as necessary for economic growth, national glory, and civilizational progress. The philosophes' ideas challenged entrenched interests and beliefs, sparking debates and controversies that would shape the course of history in the years to come. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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