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Chapter 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of ____________. A. spiritual harmonies B. the motion of atoms C. their relation to celestial vibrations D. mathematical relationships Answer: D 2. The scientific fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by ____________. A. Newton B. Galileo C. Brahe D. Kepler Answer: D 3. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the discoveries that most captured the public imagination were made in ____________. A. medicine B. natural history C. chemistry D. astronomy Answer: D 4. Who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and rejected the notion of an earth-centered universe? A. Tycho Brahe B. Nicolaus Copernicus C. Galileo Galilei D. Johannes Kepler Answer: B 5. Who addressed the issue of planetary motion and established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries? A. Nicolaus Copernicus B. Isaac Newton C. Johannes Kepler D. Galileo Galilei Answer: B 6. Who is known as the father of empiricism? A. Isaac Newton B. Francis Bacon C. Johannes Kepler D. Galileo Galilei Answer: B 7. Although he invented analytic geometry, whose most important contribution was to develop a scientific method that relied more on deduction? A. René Descartes B. Francis Bacon C. Isaac Newton D. Johannes Kepler Answer: A 8. Descartes divided existing things into two categories: body and ____________. A. modality B. God C. metaphor D. mind Answer: D 9. Hobbes saw human beings as ____________. A. naturally docile B. basically good C. basically just D. self-centered, power-hungry creatures Answer: D 10. Maria Winkelmann made her contributions in the field of ____________. A. natural history B. medicine C. astronomy D. biology Answer: C 11. How many people were sentenced to death for witchcraft or harmful magic between 1400 and 1700? A. 1.5 to 2 million B. 2,000 to 3,000 C. 500,000 to 600,000 D. 70,000 to 100,000 Answer: D 12. What percentage of people accused of witchcraft in the early modern period were women? A. 80 percent B. 100 percent C. 50 percent D. 10 percent Answer: A 13. In the sixteenth century, midwifery was a trade often pursued by ____________. A. noble women B. merchant’s wives C. elderly or widowed women D. male barbers Answer: C 14. Baroque art first emerged in ____________. A. Paris, France B. papal Rome C. Florence, Italy D. Buckingham Palace, London, England Answer: B 15. Galileo named the moons of Jupiter after the Medicis because ____________. A. he wanted to flatter his patrons B. looking for famous names, he could only think of the Medicis C. he was in love with a Medici noblewoman D. it was the custom to name heavenly bodies after living people Answer: A 16. Nicolaus Copernicus’s breakthrough was to show how ____________. A. the earth moved around the sun B. the sun moved around the earth C. the sun was dotted with sun spots D. the earth was accompanied by other planets in our solar system Answer: A 17. The experiences of the English Civil War led Thomas Hobbes to summarize his views about strong central government in his book ____________. A. Second Treatise of Government B. Leviathan C. Discourse on Method D. Gulliver’s Travels Answer: B 18. Baroque art became associated with ____________. A. the Renaissance B. English nobility C. Roman Catholicism D. popular Protestantism Answer: C 19. Jonathan Swift’s satire of the new sciences was ____________. A. Leviathan B. Gulliver’s Travels C. First Treatise of Government D. Letter Concerning Toleration Answer: B 20. Brahe’s assistant was ____________. A. Francis Bacon B. Rene Descartes C. Johannes Kepler D. John Locke Answer: C 21. The scientist most known for his work on the laws of gravitation was ____________. A. Tycho Brahe B. Isaac Newton C. Francis Bacon D. John Locke Answer: B 22. The most famous institution dedicated to the new sciences was the ____________. A. Berlin Academy of Science B. Royal Society of London C. University of Paris D. French Academy of Science Answer: B 23. The woman who brought René Descartes to advise on the new science academy was ____________. A. Queen Christina of Sweden B. Maria Cunitz C. Elisabetha Hevelius D. Maria Winkelmann Answer: A 24. The author of Pensées, published posthumously, was ____________. A. Denis Diderot B. René de Chateaubriand C. René Descartes D. Blaise Pascal Answer: D 25. The clergy ____________ the search for witches. A. condemned B. ignored C. endorsed D. pitied Answer: C 26. Baroque art aligned with the ideas of the scientific revolution because it ____________. A. paralleled the interest in human anatomy and the natural world B. departed from classic religious scenes C. depicted largely mathematical ideas D. was commissioned by the leaders of the new scientific world Answer: A 27. In the early sixteenth century, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined the works of ____________. A. Ptolemy and Aristotle B. Plato and Aristotle C. Aquinas and Bacon D. Socrates and Plato Answer: A 28. Which of the following is Tycho Brahe’s major contribution to science? A. He created a vast body of astronomical data from which his successors could work. B. He did groundbreaking scientific research in which he suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun. C. He proved Copernicus’s research incorrect and published his own geocentric findings. D. He proved that the moon and other planets revolved around the earth. Answer: A 29. Newton was a strong supporter of ____________. A. empiricism B. inspiration C. divine guidance D. rationalism Answer: A 30. Many proponents of mechanism believed ____________. A. machines should do the work of humans B. human beings were machines, slaves to religion C. humans are machines whose purpose is to produce knowledge D. the world can be explained in mechanical metaphors Answer: D 31. Francis Bacon believed that ____________. A. the study of nature began with the articulation of general principles B. knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition C. knowledge of nature was primarily useful for what it told us about the divine D. the best era of human history lay in antiquity Answer: B 32. According to Hobbes, human beings escape the terrible state of nature by ____________. A. becoming selfless and obeying others B. taking part in a tacit contract C. naturally being sociable D. embracing Christianity Answer: B 33. In Locke’s view, the relationship between rulers and the governed has its foundation in ____________. A. military power B. divine will C. trust D. economic inequality Answer: C 34. According to Pascal’s famous wager, ____________. A. it is best to believe God exists and stake everything to gain the lot; if God should prove not to exist, comparatively little will have been lost B. it is best to live life to the fullest, regardless of your religious beliefs, and if God does exist, seek forgiveness near the end of your life C. it is best to believe that God does not exist so that if he does exist, you will be joyful rather than disappointed D. only one person in a hundred would be saved Answer: A 35. Based upon your knowledge of the text, which of the following is the most plausible cause of the witch hunts? A. The droughts causing famine, especially in Ireland, led to the death of many, and because the witches claimed to control the weather, they were to blame. B. Witches were primarily women, and because women bore children that were causing an economic and scientific panic, they were to blame. C. The corrupt government needed a distraction from the bad publicity, and because the same women that were suspected of being witches were spreading the news of corruption, politicians saw witch hunts as an answer to both of their problems. D. Religious divisions and warfare threatened the security of society, and the witches were the scapegoats of a social panic. Answer: D 36. The witch hunts ended because, among other things, ____________. A. they threatened the social order B. Protestants were more preoccupied with the devil C. the power of words seemed greater after Gutenberg D. no judges were left Answer: A 37. Charles I’s employment of Rubens illustrated to the people of England that ____________. A. baroque art demonstrated religious truths B. Charles opposed a monarchial government C. Galileo was incorrect and should be condemned D. Charles I had Roman Catholic sympathies Answer: D 38. The most elaborative baroque monument to political absolutism was ____________. A. Pope Urban VIII’s tabernacle in Rome B. Charles I’s palace in London C. Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles D. Franz Joseph’s palace in Vienna Answer: C 39. The heliocentric universe was introduced by ____________. A. Nicolaus Copernicus B. Isaac Newton C. Johannes Kepler D. Galileo Galilei Answer: A 40. As Brahe’s assistant, Kepler ____________. A. stayed closely aligned to the theories of Brahe long after Brahe’s death B. grew jealous of Brahe’s fame and worked to discount the research they had completed together C. was considered inferior to Brahe as a scientist D. helped collect the scientific data and then interpreted it in his own way after Brahe’s death Answer: A 41. Prior to 1600, the scientific world viewed Copernicus’s understanding of the universe with ____________. A. full acceptance and approval B. complete rejection C. caution and interest D. religious outrage and condemnation Answer: C 42. How did the telescope change the understanding of the universe for scientists? A. It increased the accuracy of physical observations. B. It required a new level of mathematical accuracy. C. It improved navigation. D. It required increased attention to scientific subjects. Answer: A 43. In his Discourse on Method, Descartes attacked ____________. A. Locke’s method B. the use of reason alone C. the church D. received truths Answer: D 44. The idea that humans were, by nature, creatures of reason and basic goodwill is an idea embraced by ____________. A. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Descartes B. Hobbes, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke C. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes D. Bacon, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke Answer: C 45. How did scientists interact with universities during the scientific revolution? A. Universities were often criticized by scientists. B. Universities were generally praised by scientists. C. Scientists were eager to be hired by universities. D. Universities wanted to take credit for the discoveries of scientists. Answer: A 46. The learned societies that emerged in the 1600s are best described as ____________. A. forums for intellectual exchange B. political clubs C. social gatherings D. closely linked to universities Answer: A 47. The Enlightenment was the ____________. A. eighteenth-century movement that held that change and reform were both desirable through the application of reason and science B. twentieth-century movement that brought scientists and philosophers together to reconcile their differences on the state of the natural world C. eighteenth-century movement that attempted to interpret the events of scripture based on scientific observations of the natural world D. nineteenth-century movement that saw the growth of industry and the increase of manufacturing Answer: A 48. The Berlin Academy of Science denied Maria Winkelmann’s application to continue her husband’s study because ____________. A. she was a woman B. her husband had died C. her work was considered inferior to the work of other scientists D. she had angered the upper level hierarchy of the Academy Answer: A 49. The book on astronomy by Maria Cunitz was ____________. A. initially rejected by the scientific world B. recognized as her own work only after her husband added a preface C. considered an important accomplishment for a woman of her day D. widely read and distributed in universities Answer: B 50. According to Francis Bacon, the Bible and nature ____________. A. should be explained by scientists B. must be compatible since they shared the same author C. are directly opposed on countless points and must be reconciled D. are inadequately explained by the Roman Catholic Church Answer: B 51. The scope of witchcraft persecutions showed that ____________. A. the Catholic Church was losing its power B. the Protestant Reformation had run its course C. the wars of religion were over D. belief in witchcraft was common Answer: D 52. Which of the following is True of the scientific revolution? A. It was not rapid. B. It involved a large collective of people that numbered in the thousands. C. It was a unified movement. D. Everything associated with the revolution was new and groundbreaking. Answer: A 53. The greatest example of empiricism is shown by the work of ____________. A. Blaise Pascal B. Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler C. Thomas Hobbes D. Ptolemy Answer: C 54. Opposing ____________, it was natural that the scientific revolution would also often find itself in opposition to ________________________. A. reason; the church B. received truths; political authority C. the deductive method; empiricism D. scholasticism; universities Answer: D 55. Pascal’s attitude toward reason was that it was ____________. A. un-Christian B. of little use C. insufficient for grasping religious concepts D. superior to faith in understanding the world Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. During the era of the scientific revolution, ____________ knowledge was only in the process of becoming science as we know it today. Answer: natural 57. Newton relied on the ____________ of Francis Bacon and rejected the rationalism of Descartes. Answer: empiricism 58. Most Ptolemaic writers assumed the earth was the center of the universe, an outlook known as ____________. Answer: geocentrism 59. The assumption that the earth moved about the sun in a circle is known as the _____________ model. Answer: heliocentric 60. ____________ popularized the Copernican system, but also articulated the concept of a universe subject to mathematical laws. Answer: Galileo 61. ____________ was one of the first major European writers to champion innovation and change. Answer: Francis Bacon 62. The method by which scientists draw generalizations derived from, and test hypotheses against, empirical observations is known as ____________. Answer: scientific induction 63. The method of investigation that relies on evidence, experimentation, and observations derived from sensory experiences to construct scientific theory is the ____________ method. Answer: empirical 64. People who supported new science, applied knowledge, religious toleration, mutual forbearance, and political unity formed the basis for the eighteenth-century movement known as the ____________. Answer: Enlightenment 65. With few exceptions, women were barred from science and medicine until the late _____________ century, and not until the twentieth century did they enter these fields in significant numbers. Answer: nineteenth 66. The condemnation of ____________ by Roman Catholic authorities in 1633 is the single most famous incident of conflict between modern science and religious institutions. Answer: Galileo 67. Francis Bacon argued that there were two books of divine revelation, the Bible and nature, and that the two books must be compatible because both shared the same ____________. Answer: author 68. Traditional beliefs and superstitions remained solidly in place in the culture and led to the eruption of panics and ____________ in almost every Western land. Answer: witch hunts 69. Bernini was hired by Urban VIII to decorate ____________. Answer: St. Peter’s 70. Baroque painters depicted their subjects in a thoroughly ____________, rather than an idealized, manner. Answer: naturalistic ESSAY 71. Explain in detail the rationale and founders of the Ptolemaic system. What scientists contributed to or critiqued this explanation of the universe? What was each scientist’s criticism or contribution to this method? What other system was established to challenge the Ptolemaic system? Answer: The Ptolemaic system, also known as the geocentric model, was developed by the ancient Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE. It proposed that the Earth was the stationary center of the universe, with the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars orbiting around it in concentric spheres. The rationale behind the Ptolemaic system was largely based on observations of the apparent motion of celestial bodies from the perspective of Earth. Ptolemy's system was based on the principles of uniform circular motion and deferents and epicycles, which were geometric devices used to explain the irregularities in the observed movements of planets. While the Ptolemaic system accurately predicted the positions of celestial bodies for centuries, it became increasingly cumbersome as observations became more precise, and inconsistencies in planetary motion became apparent. Several scientists contributed to or critiqued the Ptolemaic system. Notable among them was the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, who proposed the heliocentric model in the 16th century. Copernicus argued that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the universe, and that the planets, including Earth, orbited around it. His heliocentric model challenged the geocentric view of the Ptolemaic system and laid the groundwork for modern astronomy. Another significant critic of the Ptolemaic system was the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, who made precise observations of the positions of planets and stars and developed a hybrid model that combined elements of the geocentric and heliocentric systems. Brahe's observations provided valuable data for later astronomers, including Johannes Kepler, who used them to formulate his laws of planetary motion, which ultimately replaced the Ptolemaic system. 72. Explain Newton’s view that planets move due to gravity. How did Newton prove this viewpoint? Did this movement create order or disorder in the heavens? What did Newton have to say about the nature of gravity itself? Answer: Isaac Newton's view that planets move due to gravity is based on his law of universal gravitation, which states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton's theory of gravity revolutionized our understanding of celestial mechanics and provided a comprehensive explanation for the motion of planets and other celestial bodies. Newton proved his viewpoint through mathematical analysis and empirical observation. He demonstrated that the same force that causes objects to fall to the ground on Earth also governs the motion of celestial bodies in space. By applying his laws of motion and gravitation, Newton was able to accurately predict the orbits of the planets and explain phenomena such as tides, comets, and the precession of the equinoxes. Far from creating disorder, Newton's theory of gravity brought order and coherence to the heavens. By providing a unified explanation for the motion of celestial bodies, Newton's theory laid the foundation for modern astronomy and cosmology. It enabled scientists to make precise predictions about the positions and movements of planets, stars, and galaxies, and helped to establish the fundamental principles of physics and astronomy. Newton characterized gravity as a universal force that acts instantaneously across vast distances, exerting its influence on all objects with mass. He famously described gravity as a "force of attraction" that operates according to mathematical laws and governs the structure and behavior of the universe. Newton's theory of gravity remains one of the cornerstones of modern physics and continues to shape our understanding of the cosmos. 73. Explain the beliefs of Francis Bacon. Why did he want to be compared to Columbus? Is that an accurate comparison? Why did Bacon disagree with most people in his day when they recalled antiquity as the best era of human history? Do you agree or disagree with his views? Why? Answer: Francis Bacon, an English philosopher and statesman, is often regarded as one of the founders of the scientific method and the advocate for empirical inquiry. Bacon believed in the importance of observation, experimentation, and induction in the pursuit of knowledge. He argued that scientific progress could be achieved through systematic observation of nature and the accumulation of empirical evidence. Bacon desired to be compared to Columbus because he saw himself as a pioneer and explorer in the realm of knowledge. Like Columbus, who ventured into the unknown to discover new lands, Bacon sought to explore the uncharted territories of scientific inquiry and uncover the secrets of nature. While the comparison may seem grandiose, Bacon's ambition to revolutionize the pursuit of knowledge was indeed groundbreaking, akin to Columbus's exploration of the New World. Bacon disagreed with the prevailing view of his day that antiquity was the best era of human history because he believed that the knowledge and wisdom of the ancients were limited and incomplete. He criticized the scholasticism and reliance on authority that characterized medieval thought, arguing that true progress could only be achieved through the systematic investigation of nature. Bacon advocated for a forward-looking approach to knowledge, emphasizing the importance of innovation, experimentation, and the application of reason. Whether one agrees or disagrees with Bacon's views depends on individual perspectives on the nature of knowledge and progress. Some may argue that Bacon's emphasis on empirical inquiry and scientific method has contributed to significant advancements in human understanding and technology. Others may criticize Bacon for his rejection of tradition and his disregard for the wisdom of the past, suggesting that there is value in preserving and building upon the knowledge of previous generations. 74. Refer to the excerpt “Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise.” How do Descartes and Swift differ in their views on the value of science? What are the main points of difference? Answer: Descartes and Swift differ in their views on the value of science in several key aspects. Descartes, a philosopher and mathematician, extols the virtues of science as a means of uncovering universal truths and understanding the natural world. He views science as a noble pursuit that enriches human knowledge and leads to technological advancements that benefit society. Descartes emphasizes the importance of reason and rational inquiry in the pursuit of scientific knowledge, advocating for a methodical approach to understanding the world. In contrast, Swift, a satirist and social commentator, criticizes the excesses and follies of the scientific enterprise. He portrays scientists as arrogant and misguided individuals who pursue knowledge for its own sake, often to the detriment of humanity. Swift satirizes the absurdity of scientific experiments and inventions, highlighting their impracticality and potential for harm. He suggests that the pursuit of knowledge should be tempered by moral and ethical considerations, warning against the dangers of unchecked scientific ambition. The main points of difference between Descartes and Swift revolve around their attitudes towards the value and purpose of science, the role of reason and rationality, and the potential consequences of scientific progress. Descartes advocates for the importance of science in uncovering truth and improving human understanding, while Swift critiques the excesses and hubris of scientific inquiry, cautioning against the dangers of unchecked experimentation and technological advancement. 75. What is meant by the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century belief that “genuinely new knowledge” about nature and humankind could be discovered? How did this differ from earlier assumptions? Answer: In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, there was a growing belief that genuinely new knowledge about nature and humankind could be discovered through systematic observation, experimentation, and reason. This belief marked a departure from earlier assumptions, particularly those of the Middle Ages, which relied heavily on authority, tradition, and religious doctrine to explain the natural world. During the scientific revolution, scholars such as Francis Bacon and René Descartes advocated for a new approach to knowledge based on empirical inquiry and the application of reason. They argued that through careful observation and experimentation, humans could uncover previously unknown truths about the universe and human existence. This shift in thinking laid the foundation for modern science and led to significant advancements in various fields, including astronomy, physics, biology, and medicine. 76. Explain the role of the institutions of science created in the scientific revolution, including the Royal Society of London and the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Why were these institutions important and how did they relate to contemporary authorities? Answer: The institutions of science created during the scientific revolution, such as the Royal Society of London and the Berlin Academy of Sciences, played crucial roles in fostering scientific inquiry, collaboration, and dissemination of knowledge. These institutions provided a forum for scientists to exchange ideas, conduct experiments, and publish their findings, thereby promoting the advancement of knowledge and the development of scientific methodologies. The Royal Society of London, founded in 1660, was one of the earliest scientific societies established during the scientific revolution. It brought together leading scientists and scholars from various disciplines to discuss and investigate natural phenomena. The Royal Society played a central role in promoting the principles of empirical inquiry, peer review, and scientific publication, which are still fundamental to modern science. Similarly, the Berlin Academy of Sciences, founded in 1700, served as a center for scientific research and scholarship in Germany. It supported the work of prominent scientists such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Johann Bernoulli, who made significant contributions to mathematics, physics, and philosophy. The Berlin Academy played a key role in advancing scientific knowledge and disseminating new ideas throughout Europe. These institutions were important because they provided support, resources, and recognition to scientists, fostering a culture of scientific inquiry and innovation. They also helped to legitimize science as a distinct and respected field of study, independent of religious or political authorities. While they were sometimes sponsored or patronized by contemporary authorities, such as monarchs or governments, they generally operated autonomously and upheld the principles of academic freedom and intellectual independence. 77. Discuss the contributions of women to the scientific revolution. What is the merit of examining their contributions, considering they were so marginal? Answer: Although women were marginalized in the scientific revolution, they still made significant contributions to scientific knowledge and inquiry. Women such as Maria Sibylla Merian, Margaret Cavendish, and Maria Winkelmann played important roles in fields such as botany, natural history, and astronomy, despite facing numerous barriers and discrimination based on their gender. Examining the contributions of women to the scientific revolution is important for several reasons. First, it helps to challenge and correct the traditional narrative of the scientific revolution, which has often marginalized or overlooked the contributions of women and other underrepresented groups. By highlighting the achievements of women scientists, we can gain a more accurate and inclusive understanding of the history of science and the diverse individuals who have shaped it. Second, studying the contributions of women to the scientific revolution can inspire future generations of scientists and scholars, particularly women and girls who may be discouraged or excluded from pursuing careers in STEM fields. By recognizing the achievements of women scientists, we can celebrate their accomplishments and encourage greater diversity and representation in science. Finally, examining the contributions of women to the scientific revolution allows us to appreciate the breadth and depth of scientific inquiry and discovery during this period. Women scientists made important contributions to a wide range of fields, from astronomy and mathematics to botany and medicine, and their work enriched our understanding of the natural world and human existence. By acknowledging and honoring their contributions, we can gain a more nuanced and comprehensive appreciation of the scientific revolution and its impact on society. 78. Compare and contrast Blaise Pascal’s and Francis Bacon’s approaches to the relationship between religion and science. On what would they agree? On what would they disagree? Answer: Blaise Pascal and Francis Bacon approached the relationship between religion and science from different perspectives, although they shared some common ground. Both Pascal and Bacon recognized the importance of both religion and science in understanding the world, but they differed in their emphasis and approach. Pascal, a French mathematician, physicist, and theologian, believed in the harmony between faith and reason. He argued that while science could provide valuable insights into the natural world, it was ultimately limited in its ability to address questions of ultimate meaning and purpose. Pascal famously wrote about the "wager" of believing in God, suggesting that reason alone could not definitively prove or disprove the existence of a divine being. On the other hand, Bacon, an English philosopher and statesman, championed the empirical method and the pursuit of knowledge through observation and experimentation. He believed that science could uncover universal truths about nature and improve human understanding and well-being. Bacon advocated for the separation of science and religion, arguing that religious dogma should not interfere with scientific inquiry. While Pascal and Bacon agreed on the importance of seeking truth and knowledge, they disagreed on the role of religion in relation to science. Pascal emphasized the limitations of human reason and the importance of faith in grappling with existential questions, while Bacon prioritized empirical observation and the pursuit of scientific progress. 79. How were the witch hunts a sign of their times? What role did religion play in the witch hunts? What do you think caused the witch hunts to come to a close? Answer: The witch hunts of the early modern period were a reflection of the social, religious, and political upheavals of the time. The witch hunts were fueled by widespread fear, superstition, and religious fervor, as well as by social and economic tensions. In a time of great uncertainty and instability, individuals accused of witchcraft became scapegoats for perceived threats to the established order. Religion played a central role in the witch hunts, as accusations of witchcraft were often framed in religious terms. The Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation intensified religious divisions and heightened anxieties about demonic influences and supernatural threats. Both Protestant and Catholic authorities sanctioned and participated in the persecution of alleged witches, viewing witchcraft as a form of heresy and a threat to religious orthodoxy. The witch hunts eventually came to a close for several reasons. As the Enlightenment brought about a shift towards rationalism and skepticism, belief in witchcraft and the supernatural began to wane. Legal reforms and judicial skepticism also played a role in curbing the excesses of the witch hunts, as authorities became increasingly wary of false accusations and miscarriages of justice. Additionally, the decline of religious authority and the rise of secular governance contributed to a more skeptical and rational approach to criminal justice. Overall, the witch hunts were a product of their times, reflecting the social, religious, and cultural dynamics of early modern Europe. While they caused immense suffering and tragedy, they also served as a cautionary tale about the dangers of superstition, prejudice, and intolerance. 80. What ends, religious or secular, did baroque art meet? How does the artwork of the time coincide with the natural sciences and changes in culture that existed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Explain. Answer: Baroque art served multiple ends, both religious and secular, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the religious sphere, baroque art was used by the Catholic Church as a tool for propagating the Counter-Reformation and reaffirming Catholic doctrine in response to Protestant challenges. Baroque artists created dramatic and emotionally charged works that aimed to inspire devotion and awe in viewers, using theatrical techniques such as chiaroscuro, foreshortening, and dynamic compositions to create powerful visual experiences. In the secular realm, baroque art was commissioned by wealthy patrons, aristocrats, and monarchs to glorify themselves and their achievements. Baroque palaces, churches, and public buildings were adorned with elaborate decorations and grandiose artworks that conveyed a sense of opulence and power. Baroque artists explored themes of human emotion, drama, and movement, capturing the dynamism and complexity of the human experience. The artwork of the baroque period coincided with advancements in the natural sciences and changes in culture that characterized the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Baroque artists drew inspiration from scientific discoveries, such as the exploration of perspective and optics, which influenced their techniques and compositions. The baroque emphasis on dramatic lighting and illusionistic effects reflected a growing fascination with the natural world and the exploration of new ways of seeing and understanding reality. Additionally, baroque art responded to the cultural and social changes of the time, including the rise of absolutist monarchies, the expansion of global trade and exploration, and the religious and political conflicts of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Baroque artists engaged with these themes through their choice of subjects, styles, and techniques, creating artworks that reflected the complexities and contradictions of the early modern world. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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