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Chapter 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The seven provinces that became the United Provinces of the Netherlands emerged as a nation in 1572 after revolting against ____________. A. France B. Spain C. England D. Germany Answer: B 2. After the economy declined and shipbuilding was taken over by England, the Dutch remained strong in ____________. A. naval supremacy B. political prowess C. fishing industries D. financial institutions Answer: D 3. What model of government was able to foster a strong monarchy with a secure financial base that was not dependent on noble estates, diets, or assemblies? A. political absolutism embodied in France B. political absolutism embodied in England C. parliamentary monarchy embodied in the Netherlands D. parliamentary monarchy embodied in England Answer: A 4. The Militia Ordinance gave the English Parliament the power to ____________. A. raise its own army B. raise or lower taxes C. dissolve the monarchy D. house soldiers in the homes of citizens Answer: A 5. Who were the supporters of Charles I and Parliament in England’s 1642–1646 civil war? A. the Roundheads and the Cavaliers, respectively B. the Cavaliers and the Roundheads, respectively C. the Puritans and Anglicans, respectively D. the Reds and the Whites, respectively Answer: B 6. During the reign of James I, the British Parliament met ____________. A. annually B. continuously C. only when convened by the monarch D. twice a year Answer: C 7. Under the Treaty of Dover, Charles II allied with the ____________ against the ____________. A. French; Spanish B. German Empire; Dutch C. French; Dutch D. English; French Answer: C 8. Charles I might have ruled indefinitely without Parliament had his religious policies not provoked war with ____________. A. France B. Ireland C. Spain D. Scotland Answer: D 9. After Cromwell’s death, the English were soon ready to restore ____________. A. the monarchy and the Anglican Church B. the Presbyterian Church and diplomatic relations with Spain C. the monarchy and diplomatic relations with Spain D. diplomatic relations with Spain and Parliament Answer: A 10. Which of the following kings issued the first Declaration of Indulgence in 1672? A. Charles I B. Charles II C. James I D. George I Answer: B 11. According to advocates of the “divine right of kings,” kings could be judged only by ____________. A. God B. the nobility C. the people D. fellow kings Answer: A 12. King Louis XIV made life difficult for ____________. A. royal officials B. Huguenots C. military leaders D. Catholics Answer: B 13. Which of the following originated in resistance to the military aggression of Louis XIV? A. Treaty of Nijmwegen B. Peace of Ryswick C. League of Augsburg D. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Answer: C 14. John Locke argues against absolute monarchy in his ____________. A. Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture B. Second Treatise of Civil Government C. Table of Ranks D. A Counterblast to Tobacco Answer: B 15. Which these were the major components of the Habsburg lands in the 1700s? A. Bohemia, Austria, Hungary B. Hungary, Poland, Austria C. Spain, Austria, Poland D. Brandenburg, Hungary, Bohemia Answer: A 16. Who was known as the Great Elector? A. Frederick William B. John III Sobieski C. Michael Romanov D. Theodore II Answer: A 17. The document authorizing succession of the Habsburg crown through the female heir, Maria Theresa, was the ____________. A. Pragmatic Sanction B. Treaty of Nijmwegen C. Peace of Ryswick D. Crown of Saint Stephen Answer: A 18. The reign of Ivan IV was immediately followed by the ____________. A. reign of the five good tsars B. reign of Peter the Great C. purging of the boyars D. “Time of Troubles” Answer: D 19. Under the rule of Peter the Great, Russia’s boyars ____________. A. gained power B. became the primary agents of modernization C. lost much of their power D. were exiled to Siberia Answer: C 20. Under the Peace of Nystad in 1721, Russia gained control of ____________. A. Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland B. Livonia, Latvia, and Finland C. Estonia, Latvia, and part of Finland D. Livonia, Sweden, and part of Finland Answer: A 21. St. Petersburg ____________. A. was built on the Gulf of Sweden B. exemplified Russia’s new orientation to the West C. was completed in 1709 but not inhabited until Russia defeated Sweden D. was given that name by Lenin after the 1917 Russian Revolution Answer: B 22. Michael Romanov was the ____________. A. heir to the throne after the death of Peter the Great B. founder of St. Petersburg C. son of Ivan the Terrible D. first of the Romanov dynasty to rule Russia Answer: D 23. Peter I came to power in Russia with the assistance of the ____________. A. streltsy B. boyars C. cossacks D. Orthodox Church Answer: A 24. The Great Northern War involved what two nations? A. Prussia and Russia B. Sweden and Norway C. Russia and Sweden D. the German Empire and Sweden Answer: C 25. Peter the Great’s inspiration for rebuilding his court in St. Petersburg was ____________. A. Versailles B. Berlin C. Aix-la-Chapelle D. the Pantheon Answer: A 26. Changes in military structure and technologies ____________. A. favored absolute monarchies B. weakened monarchies across Europe C. cut the costs of war D. made finance a key element in political maneuvering Answer: D 27. Which of the following is True of the Netherlands? A. The nation refused to allow Roman Catholics or Jews to live within its borders. B. The Calvinist Reformed Church was the established church and the only legitimate form of organized religion. C. Toleration marked the Dutch religious life where peoples of differing religious faiths lived together peacefully. D. All and only Protestants were allowed within the Netherlands; Roman Catholics were forced to convert within six months of their residency in the Netherlands. Answer: C 28. The economy of the Netherlands in the seventeenth century can be described as ____________. A. strong and diverse B. weak and in decline C. strictly agrarian D. limited to manufacturing industries Answer: A 29. What were the two most important models of European political development in the early modern period? A. military despotism and democratic socialism B. democratic socialism and parliamentary monarchy C. monarchy and socialism D. parliamentary monarchy and political absolutism Answer: D 30. What policies did Sir Robert Walpole promote as chief minister in England? A. He maintained peace abroad and promoted religious and political liberty at home. B. He advanced aggressive military initiatives abroad and imposed no new domestic policies. C. He strictly limited free speech and increased taxes on the nobility. D. He shut down newspapers and restricted religious liberties. Answer: A 31. The Petition of Right can be characterized as ____________. A. Charles I’s attempt to placate Parliament B. the long-term result of the English Civil War C. the document that triggered the English Civil War D. Parliament’s demands on the king, presented in exchange for voting new taxes Answer: D 32. Under Oliver Cromwell, England was officially ____________. A. a Puritan republic B. a Catholic monarchy C. an Anglican republic D. a Quaker republic Answer: A 33. In the Treaty of Dover, Charles II and Louis XIV’s secret agreement called for Charles II to ____________. A. dismiss the Parliament of Lords and Commons, and in exchange Louis XIV would revoke the Edict of Nantes B. announce his conversion to Catholicism, and in exchange Louis XIV promised to pay Charles a substantial subsidy C. revoke the Clarendon Code, and in exchange Louis XIV promised to pay Charles a substantial subsidy D. revoke the Test Act, and in exchange Louis XIV would revoke the Edict of Nantes Answer: B 34. Which of the following events completed the Glorious Revolution? A. Charles I was executed. B. William and Mary were proclaimed English monarchs. C. George II became king of Great Britain. D. The Secret Treaty of Dover was signed between England and France. Answer: B 35. John Law believed that ____________. A. halting gold payments in France was absolutely necessary B. France should abandon its overseas colonies C. France should dramatically increase its level of taxation D. an increase in the paper-money supply would stimulate France’s economic recovery Answer: D 36. The chief feature of eighteenth-century French political life was ____________. A. Louis XIV’s lack of leadership B. the failure of the nobility to dominate the Parliament C. the protest by the peasantry to gain more influence and representation in Parliament D. the attempt of the nobility to use its authority to limit the power of the monarchy Answer: D 37. Which of the following dynasties is correctly identified with the region it ruled? A. Hohenzollern dynasty in Prussia B. Habsburg dynasty in Russia C. Romanov dynasty in Austria D. Sejm dynasty in Poland Answer: A 38. What did Peter the Great learn about his son Aleksei that presented a problem for the monarchy? A. Aleksei was too weak to take over the throne. B. Aleksei did not want to become king. C. Aleksei might become a focus for rebellion. D. His son had entered into a plot to overthrow Peter. Answer: C 39. The goal of the Table of Ranks was to ____________. A. draw the nobility into state service B. eliminate the need for nobles to serve the central state C. force nobles into military service D. restrict religious leaders from controlling parts of the central state Answer: A 40. Russian victory in the Great Northern War led to ____________. A. the decline of Poland B. a permanent Russian influence on European affairs C. an alliance with England D. an alliance with Finland Answer: B 41. Peter the Great’s creation of the procurator general illustrates his attempt to ____________. A. bring the church under secular control B. introduce Protestantism to Russia C. weaken the streltsy D. turn Russia to the West Answer: A 42. Prussia is unique in early modern history because the Hohenzollerns ____________. A. had been rulers of Poland B. were Catholic rulers of a Protestant state C. forged an alliance with Russia D. created a major new state Answer: D 43. Poland is an example of a state that was weak because of ____________. A. its small territory B. the ascendancy of its nobility C. religious division D. larger neighbors Answer: B 44. The Habsburg Empire can be described as ____________. A. small but cohesive B. large but divided C. strongly centralized D. disappearing by 1700 Answer: B 45. What was the effect in France of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and the ensuing religious repression? A. Culture in France was at its peak. B. Universities opened, drawing thinkers from all over the world. C. A new era of religious conflict opened. D. Religious toleration brought many to reside in France. Answer: D 46. In what way did the Sejm fail Poland? A. The Sejm failed to advance successful military operations. B. The Sejm was ruined by royal intrigue that took away power from the governing body. C. The Sejm was made up of foreigners who did not know the issues of Poland. D. The Sejm required unanimity for any legislative action, which blocked effective government. Answer: D 47. What problem did the Pragmatic Sanction attempt to address? A. the problem of a weak military power B. the problem of religious intolerance within Germany C. the problem of the lack of an Austrian Habsburg male heir D. the problem of religious restrictions on Protestants Answer: C 48. How did Frederick William I differ from Frederick the Great in use of military power? A. Frederick William I was interested in a strong military while Frederick the Great disliked military strength. B. Frederick the Great was interested in a strong military while Frederick William I disliked military strength. C. Frederick William I avoided putting his powerful army into places of conflict while Frederick the Great advanced destructive invasions. D. Frederick William I was reckless with his military strength while Frederick the Great rarely went to war. Answer: C 49. The Table of Ranks and the Holy Synod were both implemented by Peter the Great to ____________. A. expand central secular authority B. eliminate the threat of a noble uprising C. defeat Sweden in the Great Northern War D. eliminate the power of the streltsy Answer: A 50. Peter the Great attempted to emulate which political model? A. French absolutism B. English representative government C. Poland’s Sejm D. the Dutch Republic Answer: A 51. When James I and Charles I attempted to rule as strong monarchs, they were blocked primarily by ____________. A. Parliament B. the Anglican Church C. Spain D. the Puritans Answer: A 52. The Militia Ordinance effectively did which of these? A. abolished Parliament B. ended the English monarchy C. made Parliament an independent power in Britain D. brought France and England into an alliance Answer: C 53. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes is best seen in the context of Louis XIV’s policy of ____________. A. religious persecution B. unifying France under an absolute monarchy C. alliance with the Catholic church D. making war on Catholics Answer: B 54. Poland can be seen as an extreme example of the political model represented by ____________. A. England B. France C. Russia D. Spain Answer: C 55. The idea of the divine right of kings was attractive to monarchs because it effectively ____________. A. gave them free license over their people B. ended the influence of the church in secular matters C. made them free of noble rule D. created an alliance between the nobles and commoners Answer: C SHORT ANSWER 56. In contrast to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century French monarchies or English parliamentary system, the Netherlands was formally a ____________. Answer: republic 57. In the Netherlands, more people lived in ____________ than in any other area of Europe. Answer: cities 58. The absolutist model is best represented by ____________. Answer: France 59. When James II became king, he immediately demanded the repeal of the ____________. Answer: Test Act 60. King Louis XIV won the support of the French ____________ by supporting their local influence and social status. Answer: nobility 61. The palace at ____________ is a perfect example of how Louis XIV used the physical setting of his court to exert political control. Answer: Versailles 62. Louis XIV’s power and central position in French society were reflected in the unofficial title “The ____________.” Answer: Sun King 63. A Roman Catholic religious movement known as ____________ arose in the 1630s in opposition to the theology and political influence of the Jesuits and adhered to the teachings of St. Augustine. Answer: Jansenism 64. The ____________ was meant to ensure that Maria Theresa could inherit the Habsburg crown. Answer: Pragmatic Sanction 65. Under Hohenzollern rule, ____________ were allowed almost complete control over the serfs on their estates. Answer: Junkers 66. The ____________ dynasty ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917. Answer: Romanov 67. The dangers and turmoil of Peter the Great’s youth convinced him that the power of the tsar must be made secure from the jealousy of the ____________. Answer: boyars 68. Peter the Great replaced the position of patriarch with the ____________. Answer: Holy Synod 69. The Hohenzollern capital was at ____________. Answer: Berlin 70. The Glorious Revolution placed ____________ on the English throne. Answer: William and Mary ESSAY 71. Describe in detail the political, economic, and religious aspects of Dutch society. What do you consider the key differences between the Netherlands and other European countries in this period? Answer: In the 17th century, Dutch society was characterized by its unique political, economic, and religious landscape. Politically, the Netherlands experienced a period of relative stability and prosperity under the Dutch Republic, a decentralized federal state with a system of provincial autonomy and a strong emphasis on republican values. This political structure allowed for a high degree of religious tolerance and cultural diversity within Dutch society. Economically, the Netherlands emerged as a major maritime and commercial power, with Amsterdam serving as a leading center of global trade. The Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company played pivotal roles in expanding Dutch influence overseas and establishing lucrative trading networks. The Dutch economy was also characterized by a thriving middle class, innovative banking and financial systems, and a culture of entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Religiously, the Netherlands was known for its religious tolerance and pluralism, especially in comparison to other European countries plagued by religious conflict. While Calvinism was the dominant Protestant denomination, the Dutch Republic granted freedom of worship to various religious minorities, including Catholics, Jews, and dissenting Protestant sects. This religious tolerance contributed to the intellectual and cultural flourishing of Dutch society during the Golden Age. Key differences between the Netherlands and other European countries in this period include the decentralized political structure of the Dutch Republic, the economic dominance of Dutch mercantile capitalism, and the religious pluralism and tolerance that characterized Dutch society. These factors contributed to the Netherlands' reputation as a beacon of liberalism, tolerance, and commercial success during the early modern period. 72. Refer to the passage “Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking.” What were James’s specific objections to tobacco? Do you think he was ahead of his time in his stance on tobacco? In present-day society “sin taxes” still thrive. Identify at least three industries in which the government imposes sin taxes today. Do you agree or disagree with this type of legislation? Explain. Answer: James I of England had several objections to tobacco, primarily based on moral, health, and economic concerns. He condemned smoking as a filthy habit, detrimental to one's health, and wasteful of resources. James also viewed tobacco as a threat to the social order, believing that it encouraged idleness and distracted people from their duties. Furthermore, he criticized the economic impact of tobacco consumption, arguing that it drained wealth from the nation by fueling demand for imported luxury goods. In many ways, James I was ahead of his time in his stance on tobacco. He recognized the health risks associated with smoking long before the scientific evidence on the subject was fully understood. Additionally, his concerns about the economic consequences of tobacco consumption foreshadowed later debates over the regulation of addictive substances and the externalities associated with their use. In present-day society, "sin taxes" are still imposed by governments on industries associated with activities deemed harmful or morally questionable. Three industries commonly targeted by sin taxes include alcohol, tobacco, and gambling. Governments justify these taxes as a means of discouraging harmful behaviors, mitigating the social costs associated with them, and generating revenue for public services. Whether one agrees or disagrees with sin taxes depends on individual perspectives on taxation, personal freedom, and the role of government in regulating behavior. Some argue that sin taxes are an effective tool for promoting public health and social welfare by reducing consumption of harmful substances and funding essential services. Others contend that sin taxes disproportionately affect low-income individuals and infringe upon personal autonomy and individual liberties. Ultimately, the debate over sin taxes reflects broader questions about the balance between public health objectives, economic considerations, and individual rights in a democratic society. 73. How did the duke of Orléans weaken France after the death of Louis XIV? Which of his initiatives became symbolic of French decline? How? Answer: After the death of Louis XIV, the Duke of Orléans, who served as regent for the young Louis XV, implemented policies that weakened France politically, economically, and socially. One of his most significant initiatives was the implementation of a system of financial mismanagement and corruption that exacerbated France's fiscal problems. The Duke of Orléans's reliance on John Law's speculative financial schemes, such as the Mississippi Company, led to economic instability and contributed to the collapse of the French economy. The Mississippi Bubble, as it came to be known, became symbolic of French decline because it exposed the vulnerabilities of the French financial system and the reckless fiscal policies of the regency government. The rapid rise and subsequent crash of the Mississippi Company's stock prices resulted in widespread financial ruin for investors and undermined confidence in the French government's ability to manage its affairs. The debacle tarnished France's reputation abroad and highlighted the need for comprehensive reform to address the country's deep-rooted economic problems. 74. What were the chief foreign threats to the Austrian Habsburgs during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? How did the Habsburg rulers seek to contain those threats? Answer: During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Austrian Habsburgs faced several chief foreign threats, including the expansionist ambitions of the Ottoman Empire in southeastern Europe and the territorial ambitions of France in the west. The Ottoman Empire posed a significant military threat to the Habsburgs, particularly in Hungary and the Balkans, where Ottoman forces clashed repeatedly with Habsburg armies in a series of wars and conflicts. To contain the Ottoman threat, the Habsburg rulers pursued a policy of military defense and fortification along their eastern borders, constructing a network of fortified towns and defensive fortifications to protect their territories from Ottoman incursions. Additionally, the Habsburgs sought to form alliances with other European powers, such as Poland and Venice, to counter the Ottoman threat and maintain a balance of power in the region. In the west, the Habsburgs faced the expansionist ambitions of France, particularly under Louis XIV, who sought to expand French territory at the expense of the Habsburg domains in the Spanish Netherlands and Italy. To counter French aggression, the Habsburg rulers pursued a policy of diplomatic maneuvering and military resistance, forming alliances with other European powers, such as England and the Dutch Republic, to contain French expansionism and defend their territorial interests in western Europe. Despite these efforts, the Habsburgs continued to face persistent threats from both the Ottoman Empire and France throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, shaping the course of European history during this period. 75. Describe the rise of Prussia in the 1600s and 1700s. How did Prussia’s emergence as a European power shape its state and culture? Answer: The rise of Prussia in the 17th and 18th centuries was characterized by strategic leadership, military innovation, and territorial expansion. Under the rule of Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector," Prussia transformed from a fragmented state into a powerful military monarchy. Frederick William implemented administrative reforms, centralized authority, and built a professional standing army, known as the "Iron Army," which laid the foundation for Prussia's future military prowess. Prussia's rise to prominence was solidified during the reign of Frederick the Great (Frederick II), who ascended to the throne in 1740. Frederick's military campaigns, particularly the Silesian Wars, expanded Prussia's territory and influence in central Europe. His enlightened reforms, including religious tolerance, administrative efficiency, and support for education and the arts, shaped Prussian state and culture. Prussia's emergence as a European power significantly influenced its state and culture. Militarism became deeply ingrained in Prussian society, with the military playing a central role in politics, economy, and social structure. Prussian culture emphasized discipline, duty, and obedience to authority, reflecting the values of the military aristocracy known as the Junkers. Additionally, Prussia's geopolitical position between the great powers of Austria, Russia, and France shaped its foreign policy and diplomatic alliances, particularly during the era of the Seven Years' War. 76. Explain the difference between parliamentary monarchy and political absolutism. Give examples of each and identify the strengths and weaknesses inherent in each model. Answer: Parliamentary monarchy and political absolutism represent two different models of government with distinct features and characteristics. Parliamentary monarchy is a system of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution or laws, and political authority is shared with a representative parliament. The monarch serves as the head of state, while the parliament exercises legislative authority and checks the power of the monarch. Examples of parliamentary monarchy include the United Kingdom, where the monarch's powers are largely ceremonial, and Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, where the monarch's authority is exercised through a governor-general or governor. Strengths of parliamentary monarchy include the distribution of power among multiple branches of government, which promotes checks and balances and prevents the concentration of power in the hands of a single individual or institution. Additionally, parliamentary monarchy allows for greater political stability and flexibility, as decisions are made through consensus and compromise among elected representatives. Political absolutism, on the other hand, is a system of government in which the ruler holds absolute power and authority, without any limitations imposed by law or constitution. The ruler exercises total control over the state and its institutions, with no accountability to a representative body or parliament. Examples of political absolutism include historical monarchies such as Louis XIV's France and the Habsburg Empire under Maria Theresa. Weaknesses of political absolutism include the potential for abuse of power and tyranny, as the ruler's authority is unchecked by any constitutional restraints or mechanisms for accountability. Absolutist regimes are also more prone to instability and resistance from dissenting factions or oppressed groups, as they lack mechanisms for peaceful resolution of grievances or avenues for political participation and representation. 77. Describe the rule of Oliver Cromwell. How was he like or unlike English royal rulers? Explain his successes and failures and tell what accounts for those successes and failures. Answer: Oliver Cromwell's rule marked a significant departure from traditional English royal rulership. As Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Cromwell governed as a de facto military dictator, having dissolved the monarchy and the House of Lords following the English Civil War. Unlike English royal rulers, Cromwell rose to power through revolutionary means and ruled without a hereditary claim to the throne. Cromwell's rule was characterized by both successes and failures. His successes include consolidating power, restoring order, and implementing administrative and legal reforms aimed at promoting religious tolerance and national unity. Cromwell's military campaigns, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, further strengthened his authority and expanded English influence. However, Cromwell's rule also faced challenges and criticisms. His establishment of a military dictatorship and suppression of dissent led to accusations of authoritarianism and oppression. Cromwell's attempts to impose Puritan morality and religious uniformity were met with resistance and alienated many segments of society. Additionally, his failure to establish a stable political succession and his eventual dissolution of the Protectorate contributed to political instability and paved the way for the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Overall, Cromwell's successes can be attributed to his strong leadership, military prowess, and pragmatic approach to governance. His failures, on the other hand, stemmed from his inability to reconcile competing interests and his reluctance to share power with representative institutions. Cromwell's rule reflects the complexities and challenges of revolutionary leadership and the tensions between authority and liberty in times of political upheaval. 78. Explain Peter the Great’s motivation for westernizing his empire. What actions did he take militarily and socially to make his citizens and administration more receptive to Western ideas and customs. Answer: Peter the Great's motivation for westernizing his empire stemmed from his desire to modernize Russia and strengthen its position as a European power. Inspired by his travels to Western Europe, Peter recognized the technological, military, and cultural advancements of the West and sought to emulate them in Russia. Militarily, Peter implemented sweeping reforms to modernize the Russian army and navy. He established a standing army based on Western models, introduced conscription, and reorganized military administration and training. Peter also invested in shipbuilding and maritime technology, founding the Russian Navy and constructing the city of St. Petersburg as a "window to the West." Socially, Peter implemented policies aimed at Westernizing Russian society and culture. He encouraged Western-style education, established schools and academies, and promoted the study of science, mathematics, and technology. Peter also introduced Western-style dress codes, manners, and customs, and sought to break down traditional social hierarchies and norms. Peter's efforts to westernize Russia faced resistance from traditionalists and conservatives, who viewed Westernization as a threat to Russian identity and tradition. However, Peter's determination and authoritarian rule allowed him to push through reforms and transform Russia into a more modern and Western-oriented state. His legacy as a reformer and modernizer continues to shape Russia's identity and trajectory to this day. 79. Compare two noble groups in Europe in the early modern period—such as the boyars and junkers—and examine their agendas, their political power, and how they shaped both domestic and foreign policy. Answer: In the early modern period, the boyars of Russia and the junkers of Prussia were two prominent noble groups that played influential roles in shaping domestic and foreign policy. The boyars were the noble class of Russia, holding significant political and economic power under the tsars. They served as advisors to the tsar, held positions of authority in the government and military, and controlled vast estates and serf labor. The boyars' agenda was to maintain their privileged status and influence over the Russian state, often through intrigue, court politics, and alliances with competing factions. Similarly, the junkers were the landed aristocracy of Prussia, wielding considerable political and military influence under the Hohenzollern rulers. The junkers dominated the Prussian army and bureaucracy, holding key positions in the military and administration. Their agenda was to preserve their feudal privileges and uphold the authority of the monarchy, serving as loyal supporters of the Hohenzollern dynasty and guardians of Prussian conservatism. Both the boyars and junkers shaped domestic policy through their control of land, resources, and labor, exerting influence over economic, social, and legal affairs. They also played significant roles in foreign policy, advocating for expansionism, territorial acquisition, and military aggression to enhance the power and prestige of their respective states. However, while the boyars remained a powerful and influential class in Russia throughout the early modern period, the junkers of Prussia rose to prominence and consolidated their power during the reign of Frederick William I and Frederick II. Under the leadership of the Hohenzollern rulers, the junkers became the backbone of the Prussian state and played a crucial role in transforming Prussia into a formidable military power in Europe. 80. What factors contributed to the Glorious Revolution in England? Explain the events, the leaders, and the political situation that led up to it. Answer: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England was a pivotal event that resulted in the overthrow of King James II and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy under William III and Mary II. Several factors contributed to the Glorious Revolution, including religious tensions, the struggle for political supremacy, and concerns over the Catholic succession. King James II's Catholicism and his efforts to centralize power and promote Catholic interests alienated many Protestant nobles, clergy, and political leaders. His attempts to bypass Parliament and rule by decree further fueled opposition and resentment among his subjects. The birth of a Catholic heir, James Francis Edward Stuart, raised fears of a Catholic succession and prompted concerns about the future of Protestantism and parliamentary government in England. In response to these concerns, a group of English nobles and political leaders, known as the "Immortal Seven," invited William of Orange, the Protestant stadtholder of the Netherlands and husband of James II's Protestant daughter Mary, to invade England and overthrow James II. William's invasion, known as the Glorious Revolution, culminated in the bloodless deposition of James II and the flight of the king to France. The Glorious Revolution resulted in the adoption of the Bill of Rights in 1689, which established constitutional principles and limited the power of the monarchy. William and Mary were crowned as joint monarchs, and England transitioned to a constitutional monarchy, with Parliament holding supreme authority over the king. The Glorious Revolution laid the foundations for modern parliamentary democracy in England and served as a model for future revolutions and constitutional reforms across Europe. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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