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Chapter 12 The Age of Religious Wars MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which writer advised people to look within themselves for religious truth and no longer to churches and creeds? A. William Shakespeare B. John Calvin C. Valentin Weigel D. Martin Luther Answer: C 2. The Peace of Augsburg recognized that ____________. A. the religion of the land was determined by the Holy Roman Emperor B. the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land C. Calvinists were to be tolerated throughout Europe D. Protestants everywhere must restore Catholic beliefs and practices Answer: B 3. The most successful politique was ____________. A. Oliver Cromwell B. Philip II of Spain C. Elizabeth I of England D. Mary I of England Answer: C 4. Who did John Knox target in his work First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women? A. Mary I of England B. Elizabeth I of England C. Catherine de Médicis D. Mary Stewart Answer: A 5. What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France? A. Protestants plastering Paris and other cities with anti-Catholic placards B. the capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia C. the passing of the Edict of Fontainebleau D. the passing of the Edict of Chateaubriand under Henry II Answer: B 6. Who were the three powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of king Henry II? A. the Bourbons, Racheals, and Orleans B. the Bourbons, Montmorency-Chatillons, and Guises C. the Burgundians, Ostrogoths, and Guises D. the Bourbons, Lombards, and Franks Answer: B 7. Huguenots made up about ____________ of the French population, but ____________ of the aristocracy. A. two-thirds; one-twelfth B. one-half; one-quarter C. one-fifteenth; two-fifths D. one-quarter; three quarters Answer: C 8. The Edict of Nantes was criticized for ____________. A. revoking the rights of the Huguenots B. creating a state within a state C. turning a long cold war into a long hot war D. removing Catholicism as the official religion of France Answer: C 9. The ruler of Spain for most of the later 1500s was ____________. A. Philip II B. Ferdinand I C. Charles V D. Carlos I Answer: A 10. What is William of Orange known for? A. He led the movement for the independence of the Netherlands from Spain. B. He led the Turks against Spain. C. He was the captain of the Spanish Armada. D. Along with the Duke of Alba, he suppressed the Protestant revolt. Answer: A 11. Hostilities between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when ____________. A. Henry III was assassinated B. Henry IV was assassinated C. the Edict of Nantes was signed D. the Spanish Armada was sent to invade England Answer: D 12. Which of the following adjectives most accurately describes Philip II? A. withdrawn B. spontaneous C. unschooled D. naïve Answer: A 13. During the first half of his reign, Philip II focused on ____________. A. events in Germany B. the Netherlands C. the Mediterranean and the Turkish threat D. the growth of English power Answer: C 14. What was the reaction from Europe when the Turks invaded Austria? A. The Spanish under Philip II allied with Venice, Genoa, and the Pope to defend Europe against the Turks. B. Europeans largely ignored the invasion and allowed Austria to be taken over. C. The Greeks stepped up to defend Austria and defeat the Turks. D. The Huguenots came to the aid of Austria in hopes of gaining momentum for their resistance movement. Answer: A 15. Who was deposed after only a few days on the throne as Edward VI’s chosen successor in England? A. Lady Jane Grey B. Mary Tudor C. Elizabeth D. Mary Queen of Scots Answer: A 16. Passed by Queen Elizabeth I, which of the following was a revision of Thomas Cranmer’s works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England? A. Act of Uniformity B. Thirty-Nine Articles C. Treaty of Joinville D. Union of Utrecht Answer: B 17. Queen Elizabeth I was cautious and firm with groups such as the ____________ ensuring that nothing lessened the hierarchical unity of the Church of England. A. Catholics B. Puritans C. Congregationalists D. Jews Answer: B 18. Bavaria was a major center of ____________. A. Calvinist power B. Lutheran power C. Catholic power D. Anabaptist agitation Answer: D 19. The term “ecclesiastical reservation” refers to the ____________. A. attempt to maintain the status quo concerning lands held by Protestants and Catholics B. right of Catholics to worship in Lutheran lands C. right of Lutherans to worship in Catholic lands D. attempt to outlaw all Protestant sects with the exception of the Lutheran church Answer: A 20. The Thirty Years’ War began as a ____________. A. peasant uprising in Germany B. trade war between Bohemia and Saxony C. revolt of Bohemian Protestant nobility against an unpopular king D. border dispute between Bavaria and Austria Answer: C 21. One of the first actions Ferdinand took as king of Bohemia was to ____________. A. declare the Lutheran religion as the only legal religion in Bohemia B. warn the Jesuits to leave or be exiled or sentenced to death C. ban the practice of Catholicism in Protestant Bohemia D. revoke the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants Answer: D 22. By 1600, the population of the Holy Roman Empire was ____________. A. about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants B. about 30 percent Catholic C. about 70 percent Catholic D. about 40 percent Protestant Answer: A 23. The battle at Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years’ War. Who won that battle? A. the Spanish B. the French C. the Dutch D. the Swedish Answer: D 24. Which treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an end? A. Treaty of Loges B. Treaty of Geneva C. Peace of Prague D. Union of Cologne Answer: C 25. The Treaty of Westphalia finally granted Calvinists ____________. A. legal recognition B. the power to fortify their towns C. the authority to gather in public D. the permission to worship within the borders of cities Answer: A 26. What did Mary I of England, Philip II of Spain, and Oliver Cromwell all have in common? A. They were all Protestants. B. They were all considered politiques. C. They all sacrificed their political goals by refusing to compromise on religion. D. They gained their religious goals and successfully restricted religious worship in their own lands. Answer: C 27. What did the provision in the Edict of Nantes that allowed citizens to maintain fortified towns reveal about social conditions? A. Protestants and Catholics did not trust one another. B. Protestants still had to worry about assembling to worship. C. The threat of Spanish invasion remained real. D. Protestants had been restricted from entering public universities. Answer: A 28. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ended the ____________. A. Habsburg-Valois wars B. Thirty Years’ War C. conflict between Spain and the Netherlands D. Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Answer: A 29. Catherine de Médicis convinced the king to execute the Protestant leaders in the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre because she claimed that ____________. A. the Guise family had plotted to kill him and take the throne for themselves B. a Protestant coup was afoot, and that he must save the crown from an attack on Paris C. she had been plotting an assassination of Coligny D. the Huguenots had already massacred thousands of peasants Answer: B 30. The Huguenots were staunch foes of the French monarchy until ____________. A. the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye B. the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre C. Henry of Navarre came to power D. Elizabeth I provided financial and military support for their cause Answer: C 31. What event elevated the conflict between Huguenots and the French monarchy into an international issue? A. the death of Coligny, the leader of the French resistance B. the famous work First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women by John Knox C. the elevation of Henry of Navarre to the throne D. the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Answer: D 32. What event starkly marked the beginning of the French wars of religion? A. the death of Francis II B. the issuing of the January Edict C. the leak, to the Catholics, of a kidnapping plot to take Francis II from his Guise advisors D. the duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers Answer: D 33. King Henry IV stunned France, Spain, and the pope by ____________. A. publicly abandoning the Protestant faith and embracing Catholicism B. publicly abandoning the Catholic faith and embracing Protestantism C. declaring France Protestant, but hoping it would remain politically weak D. declaring France Catholic, but hoping it would remain politically weak Answer: A 34. What did the following major works of the 1570s have in common: the Franco-Gallia of Francois Hotman, On the Right of Magistrates over Their Subjects by Theodore Beza, and Defense of Liberty against Tyrants by Philippe du Plessis Mornay? A. They were all written in praise of the king. B. They included instructions on religious doctrine. C. They included instructions for resistance against German lords. D. They all included classical Protestant theories of resistance. Answer: D 35. What were the original goals of Cardinal Granvelle when he led the special council of state in the Netherlands? A. establish local autonomy for the seventeen Netherlands provinces B. decentralize the government and put it in the hands of a Dutch ruler C. destroy any threats to Margaret of Parma and to establish her as the ruler of the Netherlands D. break down local autonomy and build a central royal government directed from Madrid Answer: D 36. What event caused the Protestants and Catholics of the Netherlands to unite against a common enemy, the Spaniards? A. the Spanish Fury B. the exile of William of Orange C. the signing of the Perpetual Edict D. the issuing of the Edict of Nantes Answer: A 37. How did Philip make an example of the Protestant rebels after the Calvinist riots in the Netherlands? A. He sent the Duke of Alba to suppress the revolt, which ended in the execution of thousands of suspected heretics. B. He sent his armies back to Spain to gather munitions and build his forces. C. He published vicious attacks on the rebels in pamphlets and public announcements. D. He sent religious leaders to preach publicly and condemn the rebels. Answer: A 38. What agreement did the Dutch Catholics and Protestants come to after the atrocity of the Spanish Fury? A. the Union of Utrecht B. the Union of Arras C. the Perpetual Edict D. the Pacification of Ghent Answer: D 39. How did Spain come to control Portugal’s overseas empire in Africa, Brazil, and India? A. Spain took over the trading network when the Portuguese faced steep inflation in their homeland. B. Portuguese merchants began using Spanish ports and paid heavy taxes to Spain. C. Philip II inherited the throne of Portugal. D. Philip II attacked Portugal and overcame its military forces. Answer: C 40. Following the weakening of Spain, which nation dominated Europe in the early seventeenth century? A. France B. England C. Germany D. Italy Answer: A 41. How did Elizabeth I direct a common method of worship throughout her kingdom? A. She issued the Act of Uniformity, which mandated that every parish in England receive a revised version of the second Book of Common Prayer. B. She issued the Act of Supremacy, which repealed all the anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor. C. She executed Mary, Queen of Scots. D. She passed the Conventicle Act that gave separatists the choice to conform to the practices of the Church of England or face exile. Answer: A 42. What substantial changes occurred when Elizabeth I took the throne following Mary I of England? A. Elizabeth eliminated the tolerance for theater and dramatic creativity supported by Mary I. B. Elizabeth changed the irresponsible financial policies promoted by Mary I. C. Elizabeth reversed Mary’s harsh restrictions against Protestants in favor of religious tolerance. D. Elizabeth more fully enforced strict policies against religious disunity and dealt harshly with heretics. Answer: C 43. How did Elizabeth I treat her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots? A. She treated her with great respect and looked to her for advice. B. Mary, Queen of Scots was a trusted advisor of Elizabeth. C. Elizabeth kept Mary under house arrest for nineteen years and then had her executed for treason. D. Elizabeth largely ignored Mary until she was far advanced in age, when Elizabeth granted her a castle in northern England. Answer: C 44. The Thirty Years’ War broke out first in ____________. A. Saxony B. Bavaria C. Bohemia D. the Swiss Confederation Answer: C 45. Due to its central location, which of the following nations had always been Europe’s highway for merchants and traders going north, south, east and west? A. Switzerland B. Germany C. Austria D. France Answer: B 46. By 1609, Palatine Calvinists headed a Protestant defensive alliance against Spain with assistance from which of the following nations? A. England, France, and Germany B. Belgium, France, and Germany C. Denmark, France, and the Netherlands D. England, France, and the Netherlands Answer: D 47. Which analogy is most accurate? A. Bavaria is to the Catholic as the Palatinate is to Protestantism. B. Belgium is to the Catholic as England is to the Calvinist. C. Italy is to Counter-Reformation as Germany is to Anglican. D. France is to the Catholic as Prussia is to the Calvinist. Answer: A 48. At the end of the third phase of the Thirty Years’ War, Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants ____________. A. in Bohemia B. everywhere C. in Sweden D. in France Answer: B 49. What was the effect of the Edict of Restitution in 1629? A. Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden reacted to the edict by beginning the third phase of the Thirty Years’ War. B. The Edict of Restitution ended the Thirty Years’ War. C. The Edict of Restitution meant that Protestants received many substantial freedoms. D. The Edict of Restitution was the precursor to the Treaty of Westphalia. Answer: A 50. How was the Peace of Augsburg like the Treaty of Westphalia? A. Both agreements restricted the rights of Protestants throughout Europe. B. Both agreements denied the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. C. Both agreements established the right of Protestants to fortify their own towns. D. Both agreements established that the ruler of a land may determine the official religion of that land. Answer: D 51. What did the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye have in common with the January Edict? A. Both restricted the liberties of Catholics in the French territories. B. Both were issued by a convening of German lords to define religious toleration in their lands. C. Both were issued by the French crown in an effort to grant religious freedoms to Protestants. D. Both were issued by Spain in an effort to direct the Protestant restrictions in the Netherlands. Answer: C 52. Henry IV converted to Catholicism, motivated by ____________. A. faith B. expediency C. fear of Catholic power D. a guarantee he had made to the pope Answer: B 53. What did the Perpetual Edict of 1577 do? A. ended hostilities between France and Spain B. joined the northern provinces of the Netherlands against Spain C. provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within twenty days D. secretively allied Philip II with the Guises to send armies under Alexander Farnese into France in 1590 Answer: C 54. The image The Milch Cow symbolizes which of these? A. the Thirty Years’ War B. the long-standing animosity between England and Spain C. religious conflict in the 1500s D. the Netherlands as a political pawn Answer: D 55. Which of the following statements most accurately explains the impact that the fourth period of the Thirty Years’ War—the Swedish-French period—had on Germany? A. During the Swedish-French period of the war, Germans gained great wealth from looting the nations of France, Sweden, and Spain. B. During the fourth period of the war, French, Swedish, and Spanish soldiers looted all of Germany, killing an estimated one-third of its population. C. During the Swedish-French period of the war, the Germans were largely left alone while the battles waged in France and the Netherlands. D. During the fourth period of the war, the Germans lost mostly material wealth from looters, but few people were killed. Answer: B SHORT ANSWER 56. During the first half of the sixteenth century, religious conflict had been confined to central Europe and was primarily a struggle between Lutherans and ____________ to secure rights and freedoms for themselves. Answer: Zwinglians 57. The ____________ sponsored a centralized episcopal church system hierarchically arranged from pope to parish priest and stressing unquestioning obedience to the person at the top. Answer: Counter-Reformation 58. Rulers who tended to subordinate theological doctrine to political unity, urging tolerance, moderation, and compromise—even indifference—in religious matters were known as ____________. Answer: politiques 59. French Protestants were known as ____________ and were under surveillance in France in the early 1520s. Answer: Huguenots 60. Many French aristocrats found ____________ religious convictions useful to their political goals. Answer: Calvinist 61. Catherine de Médicis aligned herself with the ____________ family for political advantage. Answer: Guise 62. The new ____________ wealth brought dramatic social change to the peoples of Europe during the second half of the sixteenth century. Answer: American 63. The national covenant, led by Louis of Nassau, called the ____________, is a solemn pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition. Answer: Compromise 64. The port city of Brill was captured by an international group of anti-Spanish exiles and criminals known as the ____________. Answer: Sea Beggars 65. These more extreme English Puritans, known as ____________, wanted every congregation to be autonomous, a law unto itself, with neither Episcopal nor Presbyterian control. Answer: Congregationalists 66. After the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, ____________ was the only protector of Protestants in France and the Netherlands. Answer: Elizabeth I 67. In the second half of the sixteenth century, Germany was an almost ungovernable land of about 360 ____________ political entities. Answer: autonomous 68. During the course of the Thirty Years’ War, the war went through ____________ distinguishable periods. Answer: four 69. By 1622, ____________ had not only subdued and re-Catholicized Bohemia, but conquered the Palatinate as well. Answer: Ferdinand 70. The Thirty Years’ War killed an estimated ____________ of the German population and has been called the worst European catastrophe since the Black Death. Answer: one-third ESSAY 71. How did religious conflict in Europe evolve over the course of the second half of the sixteenth century? Answer: Religious conflict in Europe evolved significantly over the course of the second half of the sixteenth century, shaped by a complex interplay of religious, political, and social factors. At the beginning of the period, the Protestant Reformation had already sparked widespread religious dissent and division across Europe, leading to conflicts such as the German Peasants' War and the Schmalkaldic War. These conflicts were fueled by theological disputes, political ambitions, and socio-economic grievances, resulting in violence and instability in various regions. As the century progressed, religious conflict intensified with the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598), a series of bitter and protracted conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in France. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed, exemplified the brutal nature of religious warfare during this period. Additionally, the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) engulfed much of Europe in a devastating conflict fueled by religious and political rivalries, resulting in widespread destruction, famine, and loss of life. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the war, marked a turning point in European history by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (whose realm, his religion), granting rulers the right to determine the religious affiliation of their territories. Overall, religious conflict in Europe during the second half of the sixteenth century was characterized by escalating violence, deepening divisions, and widespread suffering, leaving a profound impact on the continent for generations to come. 72. Compare and contrast the images of the Catholic baroque church and the open Bible and raised pulpit at the Protestant church. What explains the differences in the décor? What is the rationale behind each? Would these differences sway or alter your opinions of each establishment? Why? Answer: The images of the Catholic baroque church and the open Bible and raised pulpit at the Protestant church represent distinct theological and aesthetic traditions, reflecting the theological emphases and religious practices of each tradition. The Catholic baroque church is often characterized by ornate decoration, elaborate architecture, and rich symbolism aimed at inspiring awe and reverence among worshippers. The emphasis on grandeur and splendor in Catholic churches reflects the belief in the sacramental nature of religious rituals and the importance of sensory experience in worship. The ornate décor, including statues, paintings, and stained glass windows, serves to elevate the spiritual atmosphere and facilitate devotion to God and the saints. In contrast, the Protestant church typically emphasizes simplicity, functionality, and the centrality of scripture in worship. The open Bible and raised pulpit symbolize the Protestant commitment to sola scriptura (scripture alone) and the primacy of preaching in the worship service. The emphasis on the Word of God and the direct communication of biblical truth to the congregation reflects Protestant convictions about the priesthood of all believers and the accessibility of scripture to ordinary people. The differences in décor between Catholic and Protestant churches are rooted in theological convictions and historical contexts. Catholic churches prioritize visual and sensory elements to evoke a sense of transcendence and mystery, while Protestant churches emphasize the centrality of scripture and preaching in fostering spiritual growth and understanding. Whether these differences sway or alter one's opinions of each establishment would depend on individual beliefs, preferences, and cultural backgrounds. Some may find the grandeur and beauty of Catholic churches spiritually uplifting and awe-inspiring, while others may prefer the simplicity and clarity of Protestant worship. Ultimately, the choice of worship environment is a deeply personal matter influenced by theological convictions, aesthetic preferences, and cultural heritage. 73. Examine in detail the balancing act the French monarchy performed between the French Catholics and the Huguenots. What position did each monarch take? Why? What can you conclude as you examine the link between politics and religion? How did these events lead to the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? Could this incident have been avoided? Explain. Answer: Throughout much of the 16th century, the French monarchy navigated a delicate balance between the Catholic majority and the Protestant Huguenots. Monarchs like Francis I and his successors recognized the potential threat posed by the Protestant Reformation and sought to maintain stability in their realm by appeasing both religious factions. Initially, Francis I adopted a policy of relative tolerance toward the Huguenots, as he viewed them as a useful counterbalance to the power of the Catholic Church. However, his successors oscillated between periods of repression and accommodation depending on the political climate and their personal beliefs. For instance, Catherine de' Medici, during the regency of her sons, Charles IX and Henry III, attempted to maintain peace by granting limited religious freedoms to the Huguenots through the Edict of Saint-Germain (1562) and the Edict of Beaulieu (1576). However, this delicate balance was shattered by the events leading up to the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572. The marriage of Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot) to Marguerite de Valois (a Catholic) was meant to symbolize reconciliation between the two religious factions. But the assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a prominent Huguenot leader, triggered widespread violence against Huguenots in Paris and beyond. This massacre, sanctioned by Catherine de' Medici and possibly even by her son, King Charles IX, resulted in thousands of Huguenot deaths and marked a turning point in French religious conflict. The massacre demonstrates the dangerous intersection of politics and religion in Renaissance Europe. The monarchy's attempts to balance competing religious interests ultimately failed, leading to a catastrophic eruption of violence. While some argue that the massacre was inevitable given the deep-seated religious tensions of the time, others believe that better leadership and diplomacy could have prevented such bloodshed. 74. Discuss the impact of the Edict of Nantes. Was it a definitive peace or merely a truce? What do you think were the motives of Henry IV in issuing the Edict of Nantes? Do you think the Edict of Nantes was beneficial to France as a whole? Why or why not? Answer: The Edict of Nantes, issued by King Henry IV in 1598, marked a significant milestone in French history and religious tolerance. It granted substantial rights to the Huguenots, including freedom of worship in specified locations, access to public office, and the right to fortify their cities. The Edict of Nantes can be seen as more than just a truce; it was a pragmatic solution to a deeply entrenched religious conflict. While it did not fully end religious strife in France, it provided a framework for coexistence between Catholics and Protestants, allowing for a period of relative peace known as the "Pax Gallica." Henry IV's motives in issuing the edict were likely multifaceted. As a former Huguenot who converted to Catholicism to secure his throne, Henry IV understood the importance of religious tolerance for maintaining political stability. By granting concessions to the Huguenots, he aimed to unify his fractured kingdom and stimulate economic growth by encouraging the return of skilled Protestant craftsmen and merchants. Overall, the Edict of Nantes can be viewed as beneficial to France as a whole. It helped stabilize the country after decades of religious conflict, promoted religious diversity, and fostered a spirit of tolerance that contributed to France's cultural and intellectual flourishing during the 17th century. However, it was not without its limitations, and tensions between Catholics and Protestants persisted despite the edict's provisions. 75. Explain the goals of the engagement of Spanish military in the Netherlands. What events occurred in the conflict that advanced or delayed the achievement of those goals? Finally, explain the outcome of the Spanish efforts and tell whether those goals were met. Answer: The engagement of Spanish military forces in the Netherlands was primarily aimed at suppressing Protestant rebellion and maintaining Spanish control over the region, which was part of the larger Habsburg Empire. Spain, under the rule of Philip II, sought to enforce Catholic orthodoxy and assert royal authority in the face of growing Protestant resistance led by figures such as William of Orange. Several events occurred during the conflict that both advanced and delayed the achievement of Spanish goals. The Spanish forces, under the leadership of the Duke of Alba, initially employed brutal tactics such as the Council of Blood and the sack of Antwerp in 1576, which advanced their immediate objectives of quelling rebellion and asserting control. However, these harsh measures also fueled resentment and resistance among the Dutch population, leading to further unrest and the emergence of effective guerrilla tactics employed by the Dutch rebels, known as the Sea Beggars. The conflict also saw the intervention of other European powers, such as England under Queen Elizabeth I, who provided support to the Dutch rebels. The Spanish Armada's failed invasion of England in 1588 further depleted Spanish resources and diverted attention from the Netherlands, delaying the achievement of Spanish goals in the region. Ultimately, despite considerable efforts and resources expended by Spain, the Spanish military was unable to fully suppress the Dutch rebellion. The conflict dragged on for decades and resulted in the eventual recognition of Dutch independence with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Thus, while the Spanish initially aimed to crush Protestant resistance and maintain control over the Netherlands, their efforts ultimately failed to achieve these goals, leading to the emergence of an independent Dutch Republic. 76. Refer to the piece “Going to the Theater.” What were the basic elements and purpose of the medieval stage, and what was carried over from it to the Elizabethan theater? How did these new theaters change the social habits of their guests? Answer: In the medieval period, the stage was often a simple platform erected in town squares or within the courtyards of inns. Performances were typically outdoors and featured minimal sets and props. The purpose of medieval theater was multifaceted: it served as a form of entertainment, education, and moral instruction for the largely illiterate population. Plays often depicted biblical stories or moral allegories, reinforcing religious beliefs and societal norms. Several elements of medieval theater were carried over to the Elizabethan era. Firstly, the tradition of performing outdoors persisted, although purpose-built theaters began to replace makeshift stages. Additionally, the emphasis on entertaining a broad audience remained, with plays catering to both the educated elite and the common folk. The themes of morality and human nature, prevalent in medieval drama, continued to be explored in Elizabethan plays, albeit with greater depth and complexity. The emergence of purpose-built theaters like the Globe and the Rose in London brought about significant changes in the social habits of theater guests. These theaters provided a more comfortable and controlled environment for performances, attracting a wider range of patrons. The popularity of theater-going as a form of entertainment led to the development of new social rituals and conventions surrounding the theater experience. Attending the theater became a fashionable pastime for the upper classes, who would often be seen in their best attire at performances. Furthermore, the theaters became important meeting places where people from different social backgrounds could come together and interact, fostering a sense of community and shared cultural identity. Overall, the transition from medieval to Elizabethan theater marked a significant evolution in both theatrical practices and social customs, reflecting the changing attitudes and values of Renaissance society. 77. What were Elizabeth I’s reasons for ordering the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots? Do you think Elizabeth I had any other options in the matter? Why or why not? Answer: Elizabeth I ordered the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, primarily due to concerns over Mary's claim to the English throne and her involvement in various Catholic plots against Elizabeth's reign. Mary's Catholicism and her status as a legitimate heir to the English throne posed a significant political threat to Elizabeth, who faced constant challenges to her authority from Catholic factions both at home and abroad. Moreover, Mary's implication in the Babington Plot, a Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary on the English throne, provided Elizabeth with justification for taking decisive action against her rival. Elizabeth I likely felt that she had limited options in dealing with Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary's presence in England posed a constant source of instability and potential rebellion, and Elizabeth feared that allowing her to remain alive would only embolden her enemies. While some may argue that Elizabeth could have shown mercy and spared Mary's life, doing so would have risked her own security and the stability of her realm. Ultimately, Elizabeth viewed Mary's execution as a necessary measure to safeguard her throne and maintain Protestant dominance in England. 78. Why was the Thirty Years’ War fought? To what extent did politics determine the outcome of the war? Discuss the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Could matters have been resolved without war? Answer: The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily over religious and political issues in the Holy Roman Empire. It began as a conflict between Catholic and Protestant states, sparked by the Defenestration of Prague in 1618, but quickly escalated into a broader power struggle involving various European powers. The war saw the intervention of foreign powers such as France, Spain, and Sweden, each pursuing their own political and territorial interests within the empire. While religion served as the initial catalyst for the war, politics played a significant role in determining its outcome. The conflict evolved into a struggle for supremacy between rival dynasties and states within Europe, with each seeking to expand their influence and control over the empire. The Treaty of Westphalia, signed in 1648, marked the end of the war and established a new framework for European diplomacy. The treaty recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic and Switzerland and granted substantial autonomy to individual German states. Moreover, it reaffirmed the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, allowing each prince to determine the religion of their territory. In hindsight, it is possible that matters could have been resolved without resorting to war if greater efforts had been made to negotiate a peaceful settlement early on. However, the complex religious and political dynamics of the time made compromise difficult, and the ambitions of European powers ultimately fueled the flames of conflict. The Thirty Years' War serves as a stark reminder of the destructive consequences of religious intolerance and political rivalry, highlighting the importance of diplomacy and cooperation in preventing future conflicts. 79. Compare and contrast Map 11-3 (Ch. 11, p. 342) and Map 12-3 on page 375. Describe the changes in the religions of Europe from the years 1560 to 1600. Identify the trends in minorities in each region. Was Protestantism on the decline? In what regions was religion shifting most? What factors could explain these changes? Explain. Answer: Map 11-3 and Map 12-3 both depict the religious landscape of Europe during different time periods. From 1560 to 1600, several notable changes occurred in the religious composition of Europe. In Map 11-3 (1560), Protestantism was largely confined to northern Europe, particularly in regions such as England, Scotland, Scandinavia, and parts of Germany and Switzerland. Catholicism dominated much of central and southern Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and parts of Germany. By contrast, in Map 12-3 (1600), Protestantism had made significant inroads into central and eastern Europe. Protestant territories expanded in Germany, and regions such as Bohemia and Moravia became predominantly Protestant. Additionally, Protestantism gained ground in Hungary and Transylvania. However, Catholicism remained the dominant religion in most of Europe, particularly in Spain, Italy, and France. Minorities in each region varied depending on the dominant religion. In predominantly Catholic regions, Protestant minorities existed, particularly in areas with a history of religious dissent or reformist movements. Conversely, in Protestant territories, Catholic minorities were present, often concentrated in urban centers or regions with strong ties to Catholic monarchies. Overall, Protestantism was not on the decline during this period. Instead, it experienced significant growth and expansion, particularly in central and eastern Europe. However, Catholicism remained the dominant religion in many parts of Europe, and the Catholic Church actively sought to counter the spread of Protestantism through measures such as the Counter-Reformation. Religion was shifting most prominently in central and eastern Europe, where Protestantism made significant gains. Factors contributing to these changes included religious reform movements, political conflicts, and the influence of powerful monarchs and rulers who sought to impose their religious preferences on their subjects. 80. Examine Map 12-5 on page 381 and its caption. Examine land possession and control at the end of the Thirty Years’ War. What modern-day nations gained their independence as a result of the Thirty Years’ War? What nations on this map have changed little since 1648? Answer: Map 12-5 depicts land possession and control at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Several modern-day nations gained their independence as a result of the war, including the Netherlands and Switzerland. The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the war, recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic (Netherlands) and acknowledged the neutrality and independence of Switzerland. Nations on this map that have changed little since 1648 include France, Spain, and Sweden. France retained its territorial integrity and continued to be a major European power after the war. Spain, although it experienced a decline in power and influence, maintained control over its territories in the Iberian Peninsula and the Spanish Netherlands. Sweden, which emerged as a significant player in European politics during the war, retained control over its Scandinavian territories and continued to expand its influence in the Baltic region. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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