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Chapter 10 Renaissance and Discovery MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following cities played a key role in the trade between Europe and the Near East? A. Bologna B. Venice C. Florence D. Milan Answer: B 2. Medieval Europe was a feudal society that had a(n) ____________. A. growing lay and secular control of thought and culture B. agricultural economy and was dominated by the church C. growing national consciousness and political centralization D. urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism Answer: B 3. Which of the following cities had uninterrupted trade with the Near East throughout the Middle Ages? A. Lyon B. Pisa C. Paris D. Naples Answer: B 4. Which of the following comprised Florence’s popolo grosso in the Renaissance? A. the old merchant classes B. the lower urban classes C. guild masters D. capitalists and bankers Answer: D 5. What occurred in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of society and the disruption caused by the Black Death? A. the Jacquerie B. Ciompi Revolt C. French Revolution D. signing of the Treaty of Lodi Answer: B 6. Cosimo de’ Medici brought stability to which city after his rise to power in 1434? A. Florence B. Rome C. Milan D. Venice Answer: A 7. The first humanists were ____________. A. orators and poets B. politicians and their secretaries C. farmers and blacksmiths D. historians and musicians Answer: A 8. Who was known as the “father of humanism”? A. Giovanni Boccaccio B. Dante Alighieri C. Francesco Petrarch D. Guarino da Verona Answer: C 9. Which of the following was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance? A. Spartan military strategies B. Roman law C. Roman studies D. Greek studies Answer: D 10. The great masters of the High Renaissance were ____________. A. Titian, Donatello, and Giotto B. Titian, Vincent van Gogh, and Masaccio C. Vincent van Gogh, Donatello, and Giotto D. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo Answer: D 11. Who is considered the “father of Renaissance painting”? A. Donatello B. Raphael C. Michelangelo D. Giotto Answer: D 12. Whose most famous painting is the Mona Lisa? A. Donatello B. Michelangelo C. Raphael D. Leonardo da Vinci Answer: D 13. In 1500, the title “duke of Romagna” was given to ____________. A. French King Charles VIII B. Ferdinand of Aragon C. French King Louis XII D. Cesare Borgia Answer: D 14. The term “Machiavellian” has become synonymous with ____________. A. tools made by machinists B. ruthless political expediency C. welfare policies D. slow decision-making Answer: B 15. The Habsburg-Valois wars were fought between France and ____________. A. Austria B. Spain C. the Holy Roman Empire D. Russia Answer: B 16. A new alliance between monarchs and ____________ helped break the bonds of feudal society. A. nobles B. clergy C. peasants D. townspeople Answer: D 17. King Louis XI shared conquered Burgundian lands with ____________. A. Habsburg emperor Maximilian I B. Isabella of Castile C. Ferdinand of Aragon D. Charles the Bold Answer: A 18. Who sponsored Genoese adventurer Christopher Columbus? A. Catherine of Aragon B. King Henry VIII C. Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain D. Archduke Phillip Answer: C 19. One way in which the northern humanist Desiderius Erasmus gained fame as a religious reformer was by ____________. A. elaborating Scholastic theology B. editing the works of the Church Fathers C. issuing a new edition of Abelard’s works D. pleasing church authorities Answer: B 20. Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in which of the following countries? A. England, France, and Spain B. France, England, and Denmark C. Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain D. England, France, and Germany Answer: D 21. What English humanist wrote a famous book called Utopia? A. Roger Bacon B. Thomas More C. William of Ockham D. Johann Reuchlin Answer: B 22. Columbus thought his first landfall was ____________. A. India B. China C. Indonesia D. Japan Answer: D 23. By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of ____________. A. eastern Peru B. present-day California C. Central Mexico D. Cuba Answer: C 24. ____________ was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors. A. Michel de Montaigne B. Francisco Pizarro C. Bartolomé de Las Casas D. Hernán Cortés Answer: C 25. The ____________ of the West Indies and Brazil became the major center for black slavery in the mid-sixteenth century. A. cotton plantations B. sugar plantations C. gold mines D. sweet-potato fields Answer: B 26. Endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor ____________. A. was a boon for the landed nobility B. had all but ended by the year 1000 C. assisted the growth of Italian city-states D. had little effect on Italy Answer: C 27. Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most evolved into ____________. A. despotisms B. feudal states C. oligarchies D. democracies Answer: A 28. The ____________ greatly helped reduce the need to go to war and allowed increased control over the enemy. A. use of despotism B. art of diplomacy C. hiring of mercenaries D. purchase of enemy territory Answer: B 29. Along with his rigorous teachings of ancient languages, humanist Vittorino da Feltre included ____________ as part of his daily educational instructions. A. discussions after each subject B. physical exercise and games C. the art of agriculture D. playing a musical instrument Answer: B 30. How did Valla become a hero to Protestant reformers? A. his defense of free will against the advocates of predestination B. his defense of predestination against the advocates of free will C. his teaching to depict humans as the only creatures in the world who possess the freedom to be whatever they choose D. his work, Oration on the Dignity of Man Answer: B 31. Which of the following ideas was held to be True in both Renaissance Italy and in Reformation Europe? A. The interests of laity are no longer subordinate to clergy. B. Medieval Christian values are important teachings. C. The philosophies of Plato and Aristotle are counter to truth. D. Art must be abstract and formulaic. Answer: A 32. Medieval art tended to be abstract and formulaic, whereas Renaissance art showed ____________. A. the natural world and human emotions B. religious figures without faces C. sacred images painted on wood D. small scenes in the margins of text Answer: A 33. A new style of art called “mannerism” allowed the artist to include ____________ in his or her work. A. perfectly refined images B. outdoor scenes C. people dining together D. the strange and the abnormal Answer: D 34. The political alliance known as the Treaty of Lodi did which of the following? A. brought Milan and Naples into an alliance with Florence B. brought the Papal States into an alliance with Florence C. brought Venice and Naples into an alliance with Florence D. brought Milan and Naples into an alliance with Venice Answer: A 35. How did the Dominican preacher Girolamo Savonarola convince the Florentines to allow King Charles VIII of France to enter Florence without resistance? A. He told them that the king’s arrival was divine vengeance on their immorality. B. He promised to ask the king to leave all the land to the Florentines. C. He explained that Charles VIII had only the best intentions for the Florentines. D. He delivered a heartfelt speech on the merits of good international relations. Answer: A 36. What caused the Florentines to finally execute Savonarola in 1498? A. They felt he did not do enough to recover Pisa. B. They felt that Florence was losing power under his rule. C. They tired of his puritanical tyranny. D. They discovered that he had lied to them. Answer: C 37. What did Pope Alexander VI hope to gain by securing a friendship with the French king? A. control over regions in Italy B. protection by the French military in times of war C. his own piece of private land in France D. a piece of land in France where his son Cesare Borgia could live Answer: A 38. Which of the following expresses a viewpoint held by Machiavelli? A. Roman rulers and citizens of ancient Rome did a poor job of defending their homeland. B. Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means. C. Ancient Roman patriotism and self-sacrifice were ineffective. D. Republican ideals were outdated. Answer: B 39. The primary reason monarchs sought out new sources of income in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was due to the ____________. A. growing cost of warfare B. growing cost of farming equipment C. food and clothing needs of the peasants D. need to build new public offices Answer: A 40. The monarchy of Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain was an example of the emergence of _____________ in the 1400s. A. absolute monarchy B. sovereign states C. despotism D. enlightened absolutism Answer: C 41. What caused the secure government of France created by Louis XI to become a defeated nation under his successors? A. bad foreign policy B. the collapse of the English empire C. the dissolution of Burgundy D. newly acquired Burgundian lands Answer: A 42. The Inquisition was a key national agency established in 1479 for the purpose of ____________. A. monitoring the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain B. increasing the size of the empire of Spain C. converting Christians to join Jewish and Muslim religions D. merging the Anglican church and the English Reformation Answer: A 43. During an assembly in Worms in 1495, Emperor Maximilian allowed the members to create ____________. A. a permanent representative body B. the Golden Bull agreement C. a seven-member electoral college D. a Supreme Court of Justice Answer: D 44. The Brothers of the Common Life, an influential lay religious movement, eliminated what requirements from the religious life of men and women? A. abstinence from food and drink before holy communion B. sleeping on wooden floors and benches C. eight hours of prayer and meditation each day D. vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience Answer: D 45. Who was a close friend of Erasmus? A. Thomas More B. John Cabot C. Christopher Columbus D. Johann Gutenberg Answer: A 46. Why did German humanists rush to Reuchlin’s defense when Pfefferkorn attacked Reuchlin for being a Jew? A. to promote pro-Jewish sentiment B. to promote academic freedom and good scholarship C. to promote Luther’s ninety-five theses against indulgences D. to support the Dominican order in Cologne Answer: B 47. The Portuguese exploration of the African coast started out as a search for gold and slaves, but by century’s end it had established ____________. A. an organization promoting freedom of religion B. friendly relations with Muslims and pagans C. an organization promoting the freedom of slaves D. a sea route around Africa to Asia’s spice markets Answer: D 48. What was the primary reason Spanish explorers sailed the Atlantic Ocean? A. to measure the actual size of the Atlantic Ocean B. to bring more slaves back to Spain C. to find more gold on the other side of the Atlantic D. to find a shorter route to the East Indies Answer: D 49. European voyages of discovery and conquest provided several profound biological impacts on Native Americans, including the ____________. A. spread of measles and smallpox B. spread of a virulent form of syphilis C. introduction of corn D. introduction of a new species of fish Answer: A 50. What argument about Native Americans caused tension between the mendicant friars and Spanish conquerors? A. the renaming of Native American groups B. the education of Native American children C. the need to conquer Native Americans to convert them D. preserving Native American traditions Answer: C 51. Based on “The Renaissance Garden,” which of the following is most accurate? A. A garden’s main purpose was to romance and seduce potential suitors. B. A garden was a sign of wealth and privilege that only the wealthy could enjoy. C. A garden was a source of food and medicine, and a space of social and religious significance. D. A garden lacked a practical function, but the social dimensions created outweighed the cost to maintain the garden’s beauty. Answer: C 52. Renaissance art was much more likely than medieval art to attempt to represent ____________. A. what we see B. the cosmic order C. an abstract concept of the world D. imaginary worlds Answer: A 53. Ludovico of Milan’s fatal mistake was that he ____________. A. sold the city of Milan to the French without proper authority B. appealed to the French for help C. claimed Naples for himself, as king, and disregarded French dynastic claims to rule D. disregarded the threat posed by Milan and denied French aid or assistance Answer: B 54. The Spanish voyages of discovery can be seen as an outgrowth of ____________. A. the beginning of the Reconquista B. the Inquisition C. the Renaissance D. the unification of Spain Answer: D 55. Examine Map 10–2. According to the map, which of the following statements is True? A. By 1600, Spain controlled most of coastal Central and South America. B. Portugal had the largest claims to land in the New World. C. Spain claimed all of Central and South America. D. Spain held claims in both modern India and the Philippine Islands. Answer: A SHORT ANSWER 56. Most scholars agree that the ____________ (literally “rebirth” in French) was a time of transition from medieval to modern times. Answer: Renaissance 57. By the fifteenth century, the great Italian cities acted as the ____________ for much of Europe. Answer: bankers 58. Because despots could not count on the loyalty of the divided populace, they operated through mercenary armies obtained through military brokers known as ____________. Answer: condottieri 59. ____________ was the scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, both for its own sake and in the hope of reviving respected ancient norms and values. Answer: Humanism 60. Which of these men—living in the 1300s—wrote letters to Cicero, the hero of the end of the Roman Republic? Answer: wisdom 61. The appeal of ____________ lay in its flattering view of human nature, which distinguished between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans actually lived. Answer: Platonism 62. ____________ is a reaction to the simplicity of High Renaissance art and made room for the strange and the abnormal, giving freer reign to the individual perceptions and feelings of the artist, who now felt free to paint, compose, or write in an “affected” way. Answer: Mannerism 63. After the Black Death reduced the supply of laborers everywhere in Western Europe, the demand for ____________ soared. Answer: slaves 64. The Concordat of Bologna helped to keep France Catholic after the breakout of the ____________. Answer: Protestant Reformation 65. Spanish colonials born in Spain were known as ____________, as opposed to the American-born creoles. Answer: peninsulares 66. Between the newly acquired Burgundian lands and his own inheritance, King Louis XI was able to end his reign with a kingdom almost ____________ the size of that he had inherited. Answer: twice 67. An agreement called the ____________, reached in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV and the major German territorial rulers, established a seven-member electoral college to administer the German empire. Answer: Golden Bull 68. In Jiménez’s Complutensian Polyglot Bible, Hebrew, Greek, and ____________ appeared together. Answer: Latin 69. A(n) ____________ is the formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians. Answer: encomienda 70. The ____________ is a device, often harsh, that required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises. Answer: repartimiento ESSAY 71. In detail, explain the formation, rise to power, and control that despots had on Italian society in the fifteenth century. Was the rule subtle or blatant? Who were the main ruling families of this era? As a result of this rule, what other aspects of society were influenced? In what ways? Answer: In the fifteenth century, Italy experienced a period of political fragmentation and instability, leading to the rise of despotic rulers known as "signori" or "tyrants." These despots seized power through various means, including military conquest, manipulation of political institutions, and alliances with other powerful families. The rule of despots in fifteenth-century Italy was characterized by a combination of subtle and blatant tactics. While some despots ruled openly as tyrants, exercising absolute control over their territories and subjects, others employed more subtle strategies, such as patronage, diplomacy, and manipulation of legal and political systems, to consolidate their power. Some of the main ruling families of this era included the Medici in Florence, the Sforza in Milan, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and the Este in Ferrara. These families rose to prominence through a combination of wealth, political maneuvering, and military prowess, establishing themselves as dominant forces in Italian politics. The rule of despots had a significant influence on various aspects of Italian society. Politically, it led to the centralization of power in the hands of a few ruling families and the decline of republican institutions in many city-states. Culturally, the patronage of despots fostered the flourishing of the arts and humanities, as rulers commissioned works of art and literature to enhance their prestige and glorify their reigns. However, the rule of despots also led to increased social inequality, political oppression, and conflict, as rival factions vied for power and influence. 72. “It is better to will the good than to know the truth.” These words from Petrarch’s teaching became the motto of many later humanists. In your own words, explain the context of this quote. How did it influence later humanists? What is dangerous about knowing the truth? How is ignorance also its own danger? Which would be your preference? Explain. Answer: This quote from Petrarch reflects a shift in emphasis from the pursuit of knowledge to the cultivation of moral virtue and ethical behavior. Petrarch and later humanists believed that intellectual knowledge alone was insufficient for leading a virtuous life and that true wisdom lay in the will to do good and act morally. The influence of this motto on later humanists was profound, shaping their approach to education, ethics, and social reform. Humanists emphasized the importance of moral and civic education in addition to the acquisition of knowledge, advocating for the cultivation of virtue and character as essential components of a well-rounded education. While knowledge of the truth is valuable, Petrarch and later humanists recognized that it could also be dangerous if not accompanied by moral guidance and ethical principles. The pursuit of knowledge without a moral compass could lead to arrogance, hubris, and moral corruption, as individuals sought power and prestige at the expense of others. However, ignorance also poses its own dangers, as it can lead to prejudice, superstition, and oppression. Without access to knowledge and critical thinking skills, individuals are vulnerable to manipulation and exploitation by those in positions of power. In considering which is preferable, I would argue that a balance between knowledge and virtue is essential. While knowledge provides us with the tools to understand the world and make informed decisions, it is our moral character and ethical principles that guide us in using that knowledge for the greater good. Ultimately, it is not enough to simply know the truth; we must also have the will to act in accordance with it, striving to make the world a better place through our words and deeds. 73. Examine the excerpt from Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man. How significant is the choice outlined in this excerpt? Are the basic opinions limited? Do they differ from what the church thought life’s limits and options were? Is the concept of freedom in this passage a modern one? What do you believe is Mirandola’s definition of “free will”? Explain. Answer: Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man is significant for its assertion of human freedom and potential. The choice outlined in the excerpt emphasizes the unique position of humanity in the cosmos, with the freedom to shape its own destiny. This notion contrasts with the traditional Christian belief in predestination and the limitations imposed by divine decree. The basic opinions expressed in Mirandola's Oration are not limited; rather, they are expansive, celebrating the boundless possibilities inherent in human existence. These opinions diverge from the medieval Church's view, which often emphasized human sinfulness and subservience to God's will. The concept of freedom in this passage reflects a departure from medieval thought but may not align entirely with modern notions. While Mirandola champions human agency and autonomy, his worldview still operates within a framework that acknowledges divine providence. Mirandola's definition of "free will" likely encompasses the idea that humans have the capacity to choose their actions and determine their own paths, independent of external constraints. It implies a responsibility to exercise this freedom wisely and virtuously, in accordance with one's innate dignity as a rational being. 74. Explain in detail the rationale and methods used in the French invasion of Italy. Were the French successful? What effect did the French invasion have on different Italian states? Answer: The French invasion of Italy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries was motivated by a combination of political, territorial, and strategic ambitions. France sought to expand its influence in Italy, a region fragmented into various city-states and territories, and to assert its dominance over the Italian peninsula. The methods employed by the French included military campaigns led by skilled commanders such as King Charles VIII, Louis XII, and later, Francis I. These campaigns often relied on the use of professional armies equipped with artillery, as well as alliances with local Italian powers who were discontent with their current rulers. The French were initially successful in their invasion, capturing key cities such as Milan, Naples, and Florence, and establishing control over large swathes of territory in Italy. However, their success was not without challenges, as they faced resistance from rival European powers, including Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as from Italian coalitions. The French invasion had a profound effect on different Italian states. It destabilized the balance of power in Italy, leading to shifting alliances and conflicts between Italian city-states and foreign powers. It also contributed to the emergence of centralized monarchies in Italy, as rulers sought protection from external threats by aligning themselves with foreign powers. Overall, while the French invasion initially achieved significant territorial gains, it ultimately failed to establish lasting French dominance in Italy. Instead, it left a legacy of political instability and conflict that would shape Italian history for centuries to come. 75. Why was Pope Julius II called the “warrior pope”? What happened at the Battle of Novara in 1513? What were the terms of the Concordat of Bologna? Answer: Pope Julius II earned the nickname "warrior pope" due to his aggressive and militaristic approach to papal politics. He actively engaged in warfare and military campaigns to expand the temporal power and influence of the Papal States. His most notable military endeavors included leading armies into battle personally, such as during the War of the League of Cambrai. The Battle of Novara in 1513 was a significant conflict in which the French, under the command of Louis XII, faced off against the Swiss Confederation. Julius II, seeking to expel the French from Italy, aligned with the Swiss and contributed troops to their cause. The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Swiss and their allies, leading to the expulsion of the French from Milan and other territories in northern Italy. The Concordat of Bologna, signed in 1516 between Pope Leo X and King Francis I of France, was a diplomatic agreement that regulated the relationship between the Papacy and the French monarchy. Its terms granted the French king significant influence over the appointment of bishops and other church officials in France, effectively giving him control over the Gallican Church. In return, the French crown agreed to recognize the supremacy of the Pope and provide financial support to the Papacy. 76. What did Machiavelli believe is the most important trait for a ruler? Did Machiavelli see the potential for this trait in any of his contemporaries? Do you agree with Machiavelli’s ideas on governing? Explain. Answer: Machiavelli believed that the most important trait for a ruler is pragmatism, or the ability to adapt one's actions to the circumstances at hand in order to maintain power and stability. He argued that effective rulers should be willing to use any means necessary, including deceit and manipulation, to achieve their goals and secure their rule. Machiavelli admired the potential for this trait in certain historical figures, such as Cesare Borgia, whom he saw as a shrewd and ruthless ruler capable of consolidating power through calculated and decisive actions. However, he also recognized the challenges of applying such tactics in practice, given the unpredictable nature of politics and the limitations imposed by moral considerations. Whether one agrees with Machiavelli's ideas on governing depends on one's ethical and philosophical perspective. While some may find his pragmatic approach to politics necessary in a world marked by power struggles and uncertainty, others may criticize his endorsement of manipulation and immorality as incompatible with principles of justice and virtue. Ultimately, the debate over Machiavelli's ideas reflects broader questions about the nature of power and the responsibilities of those who wield it. 77. In what way did the humanist movement lead to the Reformation? What influence did academic freedom have on the laity? Did good scholarship change the views of the people? Explain. Answer: The humanist movement played a significant role in laying the intellectual groundwork for the Protestant Reformation. Humanists advocated for the study of classical texts and the promotion of critical thinking, which led to a renewed focus on the original sources of Christianity, such as the Bible in its original languages. This emphasis on individual interpretation of religious texts challenged the authority of the Catholic Church and contributed to the questioning of traditional doctrines and practices. Academic freedom, promoted by humanist scholars, empowered the laity by encouraging them to engage with intellectual and theological debates. As more people gained access to education and literacy increased, individuals were able to form their own opinions about religious matters, independent of ecclesiastical authority. This democratization of knowledge encouraged religious dissent and paved the way for movements like the Reformation, where ordinary people began to question and challenge established religious norms. Good scholarship, particularly in the form of critical analysis of religious texts and theological arguments, undoubtedly influenced the views of the people during the Reformation. Humanist scholars such as Erasmus and Martin Luther offered new interpretations of scripture and theological doctrines that resonated with many individuals disillusioned with the corruption and abuses of the Catholic Church. By presenting reasoned arguments based on careful study and analysis, these scholars were able to persuade people to adopt alternative beliefs and participate in religious reform movements. 78. In detail, describe the impact of the printing press. What economic, social, religious, and political movements did this invention stir? Some would argue that the invention of the printing press had as intense an impact in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as the invention of the Internet in the late twentieth century. In your opinion, which had a more sweeping effect on all aspects of society? Explain. Answer: The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century revolutionized communication and had profound effects on various aspects of society. Economically, the printing press facilitated the mass production of books and other printed materials, leading to a significant reduction in their cost. This increased accessibility to knowledge and information, contributing to the growth of literacy rates and the spread of ideas. Socially, the printing press helped to disseminate new philosophical, scientific, and religious ideas, leading to greater intellectual exchange and cultural diffusion. It also played a role in the rise of literacy and education among the general population, empowering individuals with knowledge and facilitating social mobility. Religiously, the printing press played a crucial role in the Protestant Reformation by enabling the rapid dissemination of Martin Luther's writings and other reformist literature. This facilitated the spread of religious dissent and contributed to the fragmentation of Christianity in Europe. Politically, the printing press played a role in fostering the development of national identity and political consciousness. Printed materials such as pamphlets and newspapers became important tools for political propaganda and mobilization, influencing public opinion and shaping political discourse. Comparing the impact of the printing press to the invention of the Internet is a complex task, as both technologies have had profound effects on society in their respective historical contexts. While the printing press revolutionized communication and contributed to significant social, cultural, and political transformations in the early modern period, the Internet has had a similarly transformative effect on the late 20th and early 21st centuries, revolutionizing communication, commerce, education, and social interaction on a global scale. Ultimately, the impact of each technology depends on the specific historical context and the ways in which it has been integrated into society. 79. What were the principal effects of the European voyages of “discovery”? Do you think these effects were, on the whole, positive or negative? Answer: The European voyages of discovery had several principal effects, including the establishment of global trade networks, the spread of European culture and ideas, the colonization and exploitation of non-European territories, and the exchange of goods, crops, and diseases between the Old World and the New World. These effects had both positive and negative consequences. Positively, the voyages of discovery led to increased global interconnectedness, facilitated the exchange of knowledge and technology, and contributed to the growth of European economies. They also enabled the diffusion of European culture and ideas, albeit often at the expense of indigenous cultures. However, the voyages of discovery also had profoundly negative consequences. They resulted in the exploitation and colonization of indigenous peoples, the destruction of local cultures and societies, and the imposition of European political and economic dominance over non-European territories. Additionally, the introduction of diseases such as smallpox to the Americas caused devastating epidemics that decimated indigenous populations. Overall, the effects of the European voyages of discovery were complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative outcomes. While they contributed to global interconnectedness and the exchange of ideas, they also had significant repercussions for indigenous peoples and their societies. 80. How did the Spanish conquerors create a Spanish world empire? Cortés took over the Aztecs in Mexico. Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru. How were they able to take over these powerful people in such a short amount of time? Explain. Answer: The Spanish conquerors were able to create a Spanish world empire through a combination of military superiority, strategic alliances with indigenous groups, exploitation of internal divisions among native populations, and the spread of European diseases. In the case of Cortés and the conquest of the Aztecs, the Spanish exploited existing rivalries and grievances among indigenous peoples, forming alliances with groups opposed to Aztec rule. They also capitalized on the superior technology of European weaponry, including firearms and steel weapons, as well as the psychological impact of horses and armor, which were unfamiliar to the Aztecs. Additionally, the introduction of diseases such as smallpox, to which the indigenous populations had no immunity, caused devastating epidemics that weakened the Aztec empire. Similarly, Pizarro and his conquistadors were able to conquer the Incas in Peru through a combination of military prowess, strategic alliances, and the exploitation of internal divisions within the Inca empire. They took advantage of the Inca civil war between Atahualpa and Huáscar, which had weakened the empire and left it vulnerable to Spanish conquest. Pizarro also benefited from the superior technology and weaponry of the Spanish, as well as the devastating impact of diseases such as smallpox on the Inca population. In both cases, the Spanish conquerors were able to overcome powerful indigenous empires through a combination of military, political, and technological advantages, as well as the unwitting assistance of European diseases. Their conquests laid the foundation for the creation of a vast Spanish world empire in the Americas. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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